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Finance (AP, AR, GL and more)

with SAP Business One

Insights from SAP

Michael G Cardi, Solution Expert, SAP

Role of Finance & Accounting

• Reporting
• Analysis
• Control
• Day to day operations
• Accounting for Operations/Entities
– Advanced GL Determination
• Reporting & Analysis
• Controlling the Business
– Budgeting
– Accounts Receivable & Accounts Payable
– Cash flow
– Sales tax
• Day to Day Operations
Accounting for Operations/Entities

Cost Accounting
What is Cost Accounting in SAP Business One?
In addition to their regular bookkeeping, many businesses perform expense and revenue analyses that
measure the profitability of each of their business activities or departments. Cost Accounting is an
ideal approach.

▪ Define company units for each business activity or department. These are the cost centers
which are used to consolidate the expenses and revenues resulting from the ongoing activity of the
specific organizational unit.
▪ A distribution rule is a cost accounting method used to allocate direct and indirect expenses and
revenues to one or more cost centers. It contains information regarding the portion or the fixed
amounts of the expenses or revenues to be allocated to each cost center.
▪ When working with the cost accounting process, costs submitted to the general ledger are
automatically distributed to the cost centers using the defined distribution rules.
▪ The cost accounting function in SAP Business One enables you to define sets of cost
centers and distribution rules. Generating respective reports provides important cost-related
information. The system collects the data posted to accounts and presents it in different ways in
Distribution Rules
Link Between General Ledger and Cost Accounting
Company Car Expenses G/L Account
Direct Costs and Revenues Allocation
When you create a cost center, the system
automatically creates a distribution rule with X Direct Distribution Rule Sales
the same name.

Journal Entry
Journal Entry
Company CarCosts
Heating Cost amount
Distr. Rule area
Distr. Rule 100%

Cost Center 1
Indirect Costs and Revenues Allocation
Electricity Costs G/L Account

X Distribution Rule Area

Journal Entry
Journal Entry
Costs Costs
Amount 2000 1000
Distr. RuleDistr. Rule

Cost Center 1 Cost Center 2 Cost Center 3

Sales Support Development
Costs and Revenues Allocation

▪ You can change the distribution rule set in the

G/L account while issuing a marketing
document or a manual journal entry.
Manual Distribution Rule
Cost Accounting Reports
• Cost center report
– This report provides a summary by Cost Center of Expenses and Revenues allocated.
• Distribution report
– This report provides comprehensive information about total overhead expenses and the
expenses in each cost center, according to distribution rules. Use the report to get a clear
picture of overhead expenses posted by specific transactions and the distributed amounts in
each cost center.
• Cost accounting Summary report
– This report provides a total by GL Account of transactions posted in each Cost Center
• Budget vs. Cost accounting report
– This report provides comprehensive information on budget and cost accounting for budget
relevant G/L accounts. Use the report to get information on G/L accounts for which budget
amounts have been entered in a specific Scenario
Accounting for Operations/Entities

Branch Accounting
Branch Accounting Summary
OEC Computers
▪ The branches may share master data
such as users and business partners.
▪ Master data, such as warehouses and
business partners, can be also assigned to
specific branches.

▪ Work across branches on one company
database and access authorized data.
▪ Assign transactions to a specific branch.
▪ Run accounting and financial reports per

Function: share information and manage business units.

Defining Branches
•Administration  Setup  Financials  Branches
In the Branch - Setup window define a branch for each business

 The following fields are mandatory:

Branch Name, Default Warehouse ID, Default Resource Warehouse ID, Country.

➢ Specifying a default warehouse does not mean the system automatically assigns the warehouse to the branch.
You must go to the corresponding Warehouse - Setup window to assign the branch to the default warehouse.

➢ The default warehouse for resources is taken in production orders if no default warehouse was set at the
resource level or at the user level.
Defining Branches - Default Customer and Vendor

Customer: Vendor:
Local branch Main branch

Local branch Main branch

Goods Receipt PO Delivery

Vendor: Customer:
Main branch Bay Plaza
Assigning Master Data to Branches
•You assign the relevant master data to the respective branches:

OEC Computers

Assign to more
Business Partners than one branch

OEC Computers
Assign to only one branch

G/L accounts
Assign to one particular branch or set them as
Numbering series
available for all branches (recommended)
Creating Marketing Documents for Branches

Default Branch Selection

For the current logon
Creating Manual Journal Entries and Journal Vouchers
For Branches
In manual journal entries and journal vouchers the branch selected in header defaults
to the rows.

 You can post a journal entry to more than one branch as long as it is balanced per branch.


➢ When selecting a different branch in a row it defaults to the next row.

Generating Reports for Branches
Generate the report for selected branches:
Accounting for Operations/Entities

Project Accounting
Input Desired Project in Marketing Documents
Generate Reports for Projects
Accounting for Operations/Entities

Chart of Accounts: Segmented Accounts

Initialize Segmented Accounting
• Select “Use Segmentation
Accounts” in Company details

• Define Account Segments

Chart of Accounts: Segmented Accounts
Account Code Generator can assist in
creating the required segmented GL
Generating Reports by Segment
Advanced GL Account Determination
Perpetual Inventory System - G/L Account Determination
Set G/L Accounts by Item Level
# WH Code WH Name Accounts Types
1 01 General Warehouse
Accounts Entered
2 02 Drop Shipment
3 03 Consignation

Set G/L Accounts by Warehouse

# WH Code WH Name Accounts Types
1 01 General Warehouse
Accounts from
2 02 Drop Shipment Warehouse Definition
3 03 Consignation

Set G/L Accounts by Item Group

# WH Code WH Name Accounts Types
1 01 General Warehouse
Accounts from
2 02 Drop Shipment Item Group Definition
3 03 Consignation
Advantages of Advanced GL Account Determination
–Centralized matrix to determine rules for assigning G/L accounts in journal entries:

Company Level
Inventory account
G/L Account
Determination Revenue account
Expense account

More accounts….

Rule Item Ship-to Inventory Revenue Expense More

Group Countr Account Account Account Accounts
Advanced G/L y …
Account 1 Printers US 1001 1002 1003 …
window 2 Printers Canada 2001 2002 2003 …

3 Printers Brazil 3001 3002 3003 …

How Does It Work in Marketing and Inventory
Do the accounts required
Yes for the document row No
hold any advanced

Go to the Advanced G/L Account

Take the accounts from the company level - G/L
Determination Rules matrix and find the
Account Determination window
relevant accounts

Yes Does the document criteria N

match the advanced rule o

Use the highest priority Take the accounts from the

advanced rule company level
1. Activate Advanced G/L Account Determination

•Activating at:
–Administration  System Initialization 
Company Details  Basic Initialization
–Check the Enable Advanced G/L Account
Determination box:

• New windows and fields will be

available for the user.
• In an existing company, fields will be
changed or removed.
• Note! you need to make decisions
about G/L Account Determination
together with the your/the client’s
2. Item Master Data – Advanced Rule Type Field
3a. Define Determination Criteria

•The Determination
Criteria window
–provides a predefined
(closed) list of criteria:
• The user will be
able to:
– Activate all or some of the
criteria depends on the
business need.

– Define (or change) the

criteria priority using the Up
and Down buttons.
3b. Define Determination Criteria – Sets Prioirity
•The priority (rows order) in the Determination Criteria window sets the priorities in the
Advanced G/L Account Determination Rules window.
•This is reflected in:

• The columns names and order -

the highest priority for each rule.
• The rows order – the highest rule
priority in the table.
Entering a specific value has a
higher priority than the value All.
4. Set the Advanced G/L Account Determination

–In this form you define rules for assigning G/L accounts in journal
• The advanced form deals with item related accounts only.
• The accounts that can be defined in the rules are the same
accounts that you define in the Item Master Data in the traditional
solution (the regular G/L Account Determination, prior to 9.0).
Summary: Best Methods for Accounting for
Multiple Legal Entities

Good Better Best

• Segmented • Branch • Separate

Chart of Accounting Databases
Accounts per Entity

Cost Accounting Is Not Appropriate Since It Works

Best on Revenue & Expense Accounts
Reporting & Analysis

Interactive Analysis & Excel Reporting

Interactive Analysis

▪ Interactive analysis allows you to

do ad hoc analysis on semantic ▪ A MS Excel pivot table is similar to a user-
layers created summary table of your original
▪ The analysis is performed in MS data.
Excel pivot tables ▪ Create the table by defining which
▪ Predefined semantic layers have measures to view and how dimensions are
been provided to be displayed
▪ Can be accessed from the main ▪ Based on your selections, MS Excel
menu or the tools menu in SAP aggregates and organizes the data for based
Business One. interactively for different views of your
▪ Option to connect directly from data.
Excel to the semantic layers
▪ Save the finished report back to
the SAP Business One main
Interactive Analysis
Excel Reports
▪ Excel Reports introduced in version 9.2
▪ It’s based on a unique tool, for report
creation in Excel
▪ Base the report on pre-defined
semantic layers, or open an existing ▪ Use MS Excel to design the report
▪ Reports can be saved back to the SAP ▪ Use unique grouping, time functions and
Business One main menu parameters capacities
▪ Designer be accessed through the ▪ Run the report during design time to
Tools menu in SAP Business One only.
verify your changes.
▪ Save the finished report back to the
SAP Business One main menu
Reporting & Analysis

Dashboard Widgets: Control Through KPI’s

Define Dashboard for Control
Key Financial KPI Widgets
• CCC (Cash Conversion • Operating Income
Cycle) • Operating Margin
• Current ratio • ROE
• Debt Ratio • Quick ratio
• DIO • Working Capital
• Inventory Turnover
• Net Cash Flow
Controlling the Business

Budget Functionality
• Define Budget and report Actual results
against the Budget
• Multiple Scenarios
• By accounts and by cost center dimensions
• Define Budget and prevent entry of Marketing
Documents in excess of Budget Amount by
Month or Year
Initialize Budget
Define Budget by Scenario
Controlling the Business

Accounts Receivable & Accounts

Set Dashboards for Effectiveness
Live Collaboration
Link Customer & Vendor
Make Sure to take Advantage of Discounts
Controlling the Business

Cash Flow
Cash Flow Analysis
Controlling the Business

Sales Tax
Sales Tax Service – US Localization
Day-to-Day Operations
Tip of the Week
Some Tips You May Find Interesting
Finance A/R & A/P
• Regular Postings? Use Templates! • Canceling Docs? Timing is Everything
• Assign Codes to Your Transactions • Posting Date: Past, Present or
• Round by Currency? Check The Options Future?
• Set Once, Post Recurrently • Create Negative Payments by The
• Do You Use Segmentation Accounts?
• Purchase Quotations? Use The
• New Level for Chart of Accounts Wizard!
• Long Term Contract? Blanket
• The Next Step in Reporting Agreement!
• Assign the Sign to Reverse Transactions • New Options in Outgoing Checks
• Enhancing Financial Reports Using • Cancelling Payments Gets Easier
• All Credit Goes to The Customer
More Information – Visit the Learning Hub
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