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Heat and mass transfer in the entrance region of the falling ﬁlm: Absorption,
desorption, condensation and evaporation

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Heat and mass transfer in the entrance region of the falling ﬁlm: Absorption,

desorption, condensation and evaporation

V.E. Nakoryakov, N.I. Grigoryeva, M.V. Bartashevich ⇑

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Acad. Lavrentiev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The investigation of the heat and mass transfer in absorption, desorption, condensation and evaporation

Received 15 June 2011 in the entrance region of the falling axisymmetric semi-inﬁnite ﬁlm surrounded by the pure vapour is

Received in revised form 16 June 2011 presented. The self-similar solutions for temperature and concentration in the ﬁlm have been obtained.

Available online 11 July 2011

The corrections, which take into account a change in the ﬁlm thickness due to the mass inﬂow in absorp-

tion and condensation processes and the mass loss due to desorption and evaporation have been derived.

Keywords: Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heat and mass transfer

Entrance region

Falling ﬁlm

Absorption

Desorption

Condensation

Evaporation

[5,6]. The R12-refrigerant is characterized by a low surface tension

The heat and mass transfer processes take place in various de- at large heat ﬂuxes and has a tendency to form ﬁlms. The aim of the

vices and proceed with a pressure-driven liquid ﬁlm ﬂow through present work is the analysis of the coupled heat and mass transfer

holes or slits and liquid ﬂowing in the form of rivulets, streams, or during absorption, desorption, condensation and evaporation in

ﬁlms with free boundaries of different shapes (ﬂat, conical, etc.). In the entrance region of the falling axisymmetric semi-inﬁnite ﬁlm

the spray-type devices such ﬂows are essential. In other types of surrounded by the pure vapour or gas.

devices, including ﬁlm-like devices, such ﬂows are possible at the

exit of the distributors, as well as free liquid overﬂow from one 2. Heat and mass transfer during non-isothermal absorption

heat transfer surface to another (for example, free ﬁlm ﬂowing be- and desorption

tween two adjacent tubes). The liquid ﬂow with a free boundaries

in the real devices are often accompanied by the various heat and It is assumed that the liquid ﬁlm falls under the action of gravity

mass transfer processes such as condensation, evaporation, with the uniform vertical velocity u0 at the leading edge. The Carte-

absorption, and desorption. sian coordinate system (Fig. 1) is chosen in such a way that x is the

The absorption heat pump is a unique device consisted of the direction of the ﬂow, and y is the direction from the free ﬁlm sur-

desorber, condenser, evaporator and absorber. Over the last face to the axis of symmetry. At the initial condition at x = 0, u = u0

40 years, most absorption researches devoted their attention (or the differential equation of motion u du ¼ g has the solution

dx

work) to the falling ﬁlms over the cooled surfaces. The detailed re- qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

view of the existing publications was presented by Killion and Gar- u ¼ u0 þ 2gx.

imella [1]. The solutions for simple problems of the coupled heat In the absence of mass inﬂow/outﬂow (without condensation,

and mass transfer during absorption at the liquid/gas interfaces absorption, desorption and evaporation) the continuity equation

R dðxÞ

of different geometry types (ﬁlms, jets, drops, sheets) are given d

qudy ¼ 0 leads to an ordinary differential equation for the

dx 0

in [2,3]. Modelling of the non-isothermal absorption of vapour into ﬁlm thickness:

expanding liquid sheets was performed by Acosta-Iborra and co-

workers [4]. The investigation of the falling ﬁlm condensation of dd g

þ d ¼ 0:

pure immovable vapour of R12-refrigerant on horizontal smooth dx u20 þ 2gx

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +7 383 330 70 50; fax: +7 383 330 84 80. The solution of this equation under the condition x = 0, d = d0 is

E-mail address: bartashevichmv@gmail.com (M.V. Bartashevich).

0017-9310/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.06.032

4486 V.E. Nakoryakov et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4485–4490

Nomenclature

C absorbate (desorbate) concentration (mass fraction) Pe Peclet number

Cp speciﬁc heat

D diffusivity Greek symbols

g gravity d ﬁlm half thickness

ma mass ﬂux density of absorbate (desorbate) c dimensionless concentration

P pressure k thermal conductivity

ra absorption heat h dimensionless temperature

T temperature q density

u longitudinal velocity component n self-similar variable

x, y coordinates

Indices

Dimensionless criteria 0 initial value

Fr Froude number i surface

K phase transition criterion e equilibrium

Ka phase transition criterion for absorption

Le Lewis number

1=2

d x At the phase boundary we observe equilibrium of the two-

D0 ¼ ¼ 1 þ 2Fr ; ð1Þ phase vapour-solution system; for the given constant pressure in

d0 d0

the case of the binary solution, it is described by the temperature

dependence of the absorbate concentration C = f(T) (Fig. 2). For

here Fr ¼ gd

u2

0

.

0 small temperature and concentration intervals, this dependence

In the case of falling ﬁlm absorption, when the vapour or gas can be approximated by the linear function Ci = k1k2Ti, in which

phase is stationary, the coupled heat and mass transfer is consid- the coefﬁcients k1 and k2 are determined by the pressure. The heat

ered under the assumptions [2,3], which are used in absorption generation during absorption leads to change in equilibrium tem-

heat pumps and refrigerators. perature at the phase boundary and, consequently, in equilibrium

The solution consists of two components; one of them is ab- concentration according to the relationship. Thus, the point with

sorbed from the gas phase being in contact with the solution, the coordinates (Ci, Ti) displaces along the line of equilibrium. At

whereas the other component is not consumed and is not added each instant of time, including the initial one, the location of the

into the solution. Thus, the phase boundary is impermeable to point is unknown and has to be determined.

the second component of the solution and displaces due to the en- In the coordinate system with the Y axis directed from the inter-

try of the absorbate into the solution. face to the ﬁlm depth, the processes of heat and mass transfer in

The gas or vapour is one-component medium. The vapour pres- the solution ﬁlm are described by the system of heat conduction

sure does not change during absorption. In the range of varying and diffusion equations:

temperature and concentration during the whole absorption pro-

cess, the density of solution as well as thermophysical properties @T @2T

u ¼a 2;

and the transfer coefﬁcients remain constant. The heat conductiv- @x @y

ity of the solution is much higher than that of the vapour. The

absorption heat is released at the interface and is consumed only @C @2C

u ¼D 2;

on heating the liquid phase (the solution). @x @y

with the corresponding conditions at the inlet

x ¼ 0; T ¼ T0; C ¼ C0; d ¼ d0 ;

Fig. 2. A typical diagram of equilibrium with initial data (a) absorption; (b)

Fig. 1. Scheme of the problem of heat and mass transfer in a liquid ﬁlm. desorption.

V.E. Nakoryakov et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4485–4490 4487

and the conjugate conditions at the interphase boundary formulas obtained for ﬁlm absorption at other velocity proﬁles (half

parabolic and uniform) [7–9].

@T

y ¼ 0; C i ¼ k1 k2 T i ; k ¼ r a ma : In the derivation of the equation for ﬁlm thickness the condition

R dðxÞ

@y d

of conservation of mass in the form dx 0

qudy ¼ ma was used and

The last equation corresponds to the assumption that the heat re- the ordinary differential equation with respect to the ﬁlm thick-

leased as the absorbate ﬂow intersected the interface is consumed ness in terms of dimensionless variables was obtained

only on heating the solution.

@d g k @T

Below, as well as in [3], the problem will be solved with the þ d¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ;

@x u20 þ 2gx r a q u0 þ 2gx @y

2

boundary condition, where

qD @C here the right-hand side was determined by solving (6).

ma ¼ :

1 C 0 @y The solution of this equation with initial condition x = 0, d = d0

in the dimensionless form is

As it follows from the solution of problems on the ﬁlm absorption

" 3=4 #

[1,3], for the liquid solution ﬁlm in conditions of the heat pump, d 27=4 Le1=2 Fr1=4 ðC e C 0 Þ x

there is the initial segment, where the main temperature change oc- ¼ D0 1 þ : ð10Þ

d0 3p1=2 Pe1=2 ð1 þ Ka Le1=2 Þð1 C 0 Þ d0

curs only near the interface inside a thermal layer. Outside this

layer within the entrance region the temperature hardly differs This solution implies that the ﬁlm thickness is increasing due to the

from the initial temperature of the solution. In addition, we will inﬂux of the mass in the process of absorption. This addition is de-

consider systems for which the Lewis number Le = D/a is much less ﬁned by criteria Le, Ka, Fr, Pe, the initial concentration of an absor-

than unity and so the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer is bate in solution C0, and the initial value of deviation of the solution

much smaller than that of the thermal layer. Therefore, the asymp- from equilibrium (Ce C0).

totic boundary layer model can be used for calculation of the We should note that the necessary condition of absorption is

absorption heat and mass transfer in the entrance region, and con- that the initial concentration must be lower than the equilibrium

ditions outside the boundary layer (both thermal and diffusion lay- value corresponding to the initial temperature T0 at the given pres-

ers) can be transferred to inﬁnity and the following conditions hold sure, i.e., (Ce C0) > 0 and (Te T0) > 0 (Ce = k1 k2T0, C0 = k1 k2

true y ! 1 : T ¼ T 0 ; C ¼ C 0 . Te) (in Fig. 2a the point (T0, C0) is below the equilibrium curve); for

u2

Executing the substitution variable X ¼ x þ 2g0 we can introduce desorption the following condition must be fulﬁlled: i.e., (Ce

the dimensionless variables C0) < 0 and (Te T0) < 0 (in Fig. 2b the point (T0, C0) is above the

Xa y T T0 C C0 equilibrium curve).

x1 ¼ ; y1 ¼ ; h¼ ; c¼ : Thus, the resulting formula (10) for the ﬁlm thickness is valid

u0 d20 d0 Te T0 Ce C0

for both absorption and desorption supposing an appropriate

Here Ce = k1 k2T0 is the equilibrium concentration corresponding choice of initial values of temperature and concentration. In case

to the given initial temperature of the solution T0, Te – is the equi- of absorption dd0 > D0 (ﬁlm thickness increases due to absorbate in-

librium temperature corresponding to the given initial concentra- ﬂux into the solution), whereas in case of desorption dd0 < D0 (ﬁlm

tion of the solution C0 (C0 = k1 k2Te). thickness decreases).

By using a self-similar variable For the calculations of temperature and concentration ﬁelds

1=4 within the ﬁlm it is conveniently to submit the solutions (7) and

n ¼ y1 x1 ð2Þ (8) as

and dimensionless temperature and concentration variables, the or- T ðT e T 0 Þ C ðC e C 0 Þ

dinary differential equations can be obtained ¼1þh ; ¼1þc ; ð11Þ

T0 T0 C0 C0

2

d h dh It is convenient to transform the self-similar variable (2) as

þ 23=2 Fr1=2 Pe1=2 n ¼ 0; ð3Þ

dn2 dn 1=4

x d y1

n ¼ 21=4 Fr1=4 Pe1=4 2Fr þ 1 ; ð12Þ

2 d0 d0 d0

d c 3=2 1 1=2 1=2 dc

þ2 Le Fr Pe n ¼0 ð4Þ

dn2 dn Here y1 is measured from the axis of symmetry and varies from 0 to

d (y1 = d y).

with the boundary conditions

The formulas for calculating the temperatures and concentra-

dh dc tions ﬁelds are also applicable for both absorption and desorption,

n ¼ 0; hi þ ci ¼ 1; ¼ K a Le ; ð5Þ

dn dn depending on the relevant signs (Te T0) and (Ce C0) in (11).

Fig. 3 shows the temperature and concentration proﬁles during

n ! 1; h ¼ 0; c ¼ 0; ð6Þ absorption in several cross-sections of the ﬁlm in the entrance re-

gion. The parameters for the calculations were chosen close to the

Here, Le ¼ Da ; Ka ¼ Cp ðTreaT 0 Þ C1C

e C 0

; Pe ¼ u0ad0 .

0 characteristic values of the two-phase system: water solution of

The self-similar solutions of Eqs. (3) and (4) with the boundary

lithium bromide – water vapour, under the assumptions corre-

conditions (5) and (6) have the form:

sponding to the conditions of working absorber of a heat pump.

h ¼ hi ð1 erf ð25=4 Fr1=4 Pe1=4 nÞÞ; ð7Þ The temperature and concentration proﬁles were calculated in

the ﬁlm with thickness corresponding to formula (10). Similar re-

sults for desorption are shown in Fig. 4.

c ¼ ci ð1 erf ð25=4 Le1=2 Fr1=4 Pe1=4 nÞÞ; ð8Þ

hi ¼ ; ci ¼ : ð9Þ

KaLe1=2 þ 1 KaLe1=2 þ 1

The assumptions for heat transfer study during evaporation and

Note that the formulas (9) for temperature and concentration in the condensation are the same as for the absorption study. However,

entrance region of the free surface of the ﬁlm hi, ci agree with the unlike the ﬁlm absorption, at the ﬁlm condensation the saturation

4488 V.E. Nakoryakov et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4485–4490

Fig. 3. Relative temperature (a) and concentration (b) in different cross-sections of the ﬁlm (x/d0 = 2, 4, 6, 8) at absorption, Fr = 0.5, Ka = 10, Le = 102, K = 50, Pe = 400. Dash-

line – the dimensionless ﬁlm thickness (d/d0) in proper cross-section.

Fig. 4. Relative temperature (a) and concentration (b) in different cross-sections of the ﬁlm (x/d0 = 2, 4, 6, 8) at desorption, Fr = 0.5, Ka = 10, Le = 102, K = 50, Pe = 400. Dash-

line – the dimensionless ﬁlm thickness (d/d0) in proper cross-section.

" 3=4 #

temperature at the interface is known and constant for a given d 27=4 Fr1=4 x

pressure of steam. ¼ D0 1 þ ;

d0 3p1=2 Pe1=2 K d0

y ¼ 0; T ¼ T i;

y ! 1; T ¼ T 0 : here K ¼ Cp ðT rT 0 Þ.

i

Eq. (3) is saved for the dimensionless temperature and the bound- The obtained solutions for condensation are also valid for the

ary conditions have the form: ﬁlm evaporation.

If (Ti T0) > 0 the ﬁlm thickness increases due to the condensa-

n ¼ 0; h ¼ 1; tion, if (Ti T0) < 0, then ﬁlm evaporates.

Fig. 5 shows the temperature proﬁles at the different cross-sec-

n ! 1; h ¼ 0: tions of the ﬁlm within the initial thermal region during the con-

The solution of Eq. (3) for the dimensionless temperature save the densation and evaporation for the characteristic parameters of

form (7), where hi = 1. two-phase water-steam system.

It is suitable to use formula (12) for self-similar variable in the Fig. 6 shows the dependence of the ﬁlm thickness on the longi-

calculations and ﬁgures, and the temperature ﬁeld inside the ﬁlm tudinal coordinates during absorption, desorption, condensation

in the form and evaporation, and without inﬂow and outﬂow of the mass. Dif-

ferences between the curves in Fig. 6 are not signiﬁcant for the se-

T ðT i T 0 Þ

¼1þh : lected parameters.

T0 T0 Table 1 shows the differences between the calculation results of

The dependence of ﬁlm thickness on the longitudinal coordinate the obtained dependences. The local Nusselt numbers are shown in

can be obtained: Fig. 7 depending on the longitudinal coordinates for different cases

V.E. Nakoryakov et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4485–4490 4489

Fig. 5. Relative temperature in different cross-sections of the liquid ﬁlm (x/d0 = 2, 4, 6, 8) at condensation (a) and evaporation (b), Fr = 0.5, K = 7 (for evaporation K = 10),

Pe = 300. Dash-line – the dimensionless ﬁlm thickness (d/d0) in proper cross-section.

Fig. 7. Nusselt numbers Nu1 (a) and Nu2 (b) along the ﬁlm-ﬂow direction. The solid

black line – absorption, – desorption, dash-line – condensation, – evaporation.

heat ﬂuxes at Ti = 70–85 °C, when the surface tension of R12 refrig-

erant decreases. Fig. 9 shows the calculation of the average tem-

perature of the ﬁlm cross-sections in comparison with the

Fig. 6. The liquid ﬁlm thickness at Fr = 0.5 (set of lines 1) and Fr = 0.25 (set of lines experimental measurements [5,6].

2). The solid black line – absorption, – desorption, dash-line – condensation, dot-

dash – evaporation, + – D0.

4. Conclusion

of mass inﬂow and outﬂow in the ﬁlm (absorption, desorption,

condensation, and evaporation). The initial ﬁlm thickness or that

The following conclusions can be drawn from the above study.

corresponding to the longitudinal coordinate, was chosen as the

The key criteria characterizing heat and mass transfer in

linear size in the deﬁnitions

of Nusselt numbers, i.e.,

absorption and desorption in the entrance thermal region of the

Nu1 ¼ Dd0T @T

@y

; Nu2 ¼ DdT @T

@y

, here DT = Ti T0.

y¼0 y¼0 ﬁlm with free boundaries are complexes Fr, Ka, Pe and Le. Those

The dependences of the average temperature of the ﬁlm cross- for condensation are Fr, K and Pe.

section on the longitudinal coordinates are shown in Fig. 8(a) for The change in ﬁlm thickness over its length is deﬁned mainly by

both absorption and desorption, as well as for condensation and the Froude number which characterizes the thickness of the ﬁlm in

evaporation. Similar plots for average concentrations of the ﬁlm the absence of the mass inﬂows and outﬂows.

cross-section are shown in Fig. 8(b) for absorption and desorption. Absorption, desorption, condensation and evaporation do not

The falling ﬁlm condensation of pure R12-refrigerant immov- change signiﬁcantly the character of dependence of ﬁlm thickness

able vapour on horizontal smooth cylindrical tube was observed on the longitudinal coordinate.

Table 1

Dimensionless ﬁlm thickness d/d0 in the absence of the mass inﬂow/outﬂow (D0) and in the regimes of ﬁlm absorption, desorption, condensation, and evaporation.

x/d0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

D0 0.7071 0.5774 0.5 0.4472 0.4082 0.3780 0.3536 0.3333

Absorption 0.7073 0.5776 0.5003 0.4476 0.4086 0.3783 0.3540 0.3338

Desorption 0.7069 0.5771 0.4997 0.4469 0.4079 0.3776 0.3531 0.3329

Condensation 0.7102 0.5816 0.5050 0.4528 0.4142 0.3843 0.3602 0.3403

Evaporation 0.7049 0.5744 0.4965 0.4433 0.4041 0.3735 0.3489 0.3285

4490 V.E. Nakoryakov et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 4485–4490

avoid the difﬁculties associated with the inconsistency of the

boundary conditions at the point (x = 0, y = 0). Besides, these solu-

tions applicable for the entrance region can be used as initial con-

ditions for solving the problems beyond the entrance region.

Acknowledgments

Russian Federation designed to support scientiﬁc research projects

implemented under the supervision of leading scientists at Russian

institutions of higher education No. 11.G34.31.0035 (Lead Scientist

Fig. 8. Distribution of average relative ﬁlm temperature and average relative – V.E. Zakharov, Novosibirsk State University).

concentration. 1 – absorption, 2 – desorption, 3 – condensation, 4 – evaporation.

References

[1] D. Killion, S. Garimella, A critical review of models of coupled heat and mass

transfer in falling-ﬁlm absorption, Int. J. Refrig. 24 (2001) 755–797.

[2] V.E. Nakoryakov, N.I. Grigoryeva, Non-isothermal Absorption in Thermotrans-

formers, Nauka, Novosibirsk, 2010. p. 114 (in Russian).

[3] V.E. Nakoryakov, N.I. Grigoryeva, Non-isothermal absorption in thermotrans-

formers, J. Eng. Thermophys. 19 (4) (2010) 196–271.

[4] A. Acosta-Iborra, N. Garcia-Hernando, D. Santana, Modelling non-isothermal

absorption of vapour into expanding liquid sheets, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52

(2009) 3042–3054.

[5] I.I. Gogonin, I.A. Shemagin, V.M. Budov, A.R. Dorokhov, Heat Transfer during

Film Condensation and Film Boiling in Elements of Equipment at Nuclear Power

Stations, Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1993. p. 208 (in Russian).

[6] I.I. Gogonin, V.I. Sosunov, S.I. Lasarev, O.A. Kabov, Investigation of heat transfer

at condensation of immobile vapor on the bundles of horizontal tubes with

Fig. 9. Change of the average temperature over the cross section of the falling ﬁlm different diameter, Teploenergetika (3) (1983) 17–19 (in Russian).

of R12-refrigerant on horizontal smooth cylindrical tube. Fr = 0.0462, K = 3.16, [7] V.E. Nakoryakov, N.I. Grigorjeva, Calculation of heat and mass transfer in

Pe = 161, Ti = 85 °C, Tw = 43 °C, T0 = 64 °C. N – measured temperature [5,6]. nonisothermal absorption on the initial portion of downﬂowing ﬁlms, Theor.

Found. Chem. Eng. 14 (1980) 305–309.

[8] V.E. Nakoryakov, N.I. Grigor’eva, Heat and mass transfer in ﬁlm absorption with

It is obvious that the resulting self-similar solutions have lim- varying liquid-phase volume, Theor. Found. Chem. Eng. 29 (3) (1995) 223–228.

ited applicability. Despite these drawbacks, the solutions have cer- [9] G. Grossman, Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in ﬁlm absorption under

tain advantages, particularly in comparison with numerical laminar ﬂow, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26 (3) (1983) 357–371.

solutions. The self-similar solutions are simple, because they in-

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