Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

CHAPTER 7 ACIDS & BASES

A.20 cm 3 B.25 cm 3 C.30 cm 3 D.35 cm 3

1.

Which of the following compounds dissolves

 

in water to form an alkali?

 

13.

Which of the following is true?

 

A

Zinc oxide

B.Sodium oxide

I.All bases are soluble in water

C.Copper(II) oxide

D.Copper(II) hydroxide

II.An alkali is a base that is soluble in water

 

III.A base is a compound that can neutralise

2.

Which of the following elements burns in air

an acid to produce salt and water

to form an oxide and when the oxide dissolves in water, it turn blue litmus to red?

IV.An acid is a compound that produces hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water

 

A

Carbon

B Sodium

A.I ,III B.I,II,III C.II,III,IV D.I,II,III,

C

Hydrogen D Magnesium

 

IV

  • 3. Solution Y has pH value of 5. Which of the

14.

A solution has a pH value of 14. Which

following statements about solution Y is true?

of the following is true about the properties

A.Changes red litmus paper into blue

of the solution?

 

B.Does not react with carbonate metals C.Reacts with copper to release hydrogen gas D.It becomes pink when few drops of phenolphthalein is added to it

A.Does not react with acids B.Turns blue litmus paper into red C.Has a high concentration of hydrogen ion D.React with ammonium chloride to produce ammonia gas

  • 4. The equation below represents the reaction

between sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide.

15.

Which of the following is a property of a

H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH → Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O What is the volume of 0.5 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide that can neutralise 20.0 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid ?

solution of ammonia in propanone? I.Does not conduct electricity II.Has a pH value of less than 7 III.Turns blue litmus paper into red

A.14 cm 3

B.15 cm 3 C.16 cm 3

D.18 cm 3

IV.Does not contain hydrogen ions

 

A.I,IV B.II,III C.III,IV

D.I, II, and III

5.

A pH scale is a simplified way of expressing

 

the concentration of ion Y in acids or alkalis.

16.

Which of the following is true

What is the identity of ion X?

 

concerning sodium hydroxide in propanone?

II.Has a pH value of less than 7

A Sodium ions B. Oxygen ions C Hydrogen ions D.Ammonium ions 6. 4.0 g of sodium
A
Sodium ions
B.
Oxygen ions
C
Hydrogen ions
D.Ammonium ions
6. 4.0 g of sodium carbonate powder is
dissolved in water and made up to 250 cm 3 .
What is the molarity of the sodium carbonate
solution ? [Relative atomic mass : C, 12 ; O,
16 ; Na, 23]
A.0.05 mol dm -3
C.0.15 mol dm -3
B.0.10 mol dm -3
D.0.20 mol dm -3
7.
The diagram shows the apparatus set-up of
an experiment.

I.Has no effect on litmus paper

III.Has no reaction with ammonium

chloride

IV.Dissociates completely to hydroxide ions in water

A.I, III

B.II,IV

C.I, II ,III

D.I, II, III ,IV

17.

Which of the following bases is used to

make gastric pills? A.Ammonia

 

B.Sodium hydroxide C.Calcium hydroxide D.Aluminium hydroxide

18.

Which of the following are neutralisation

reactions?

 

I.Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 II.2NaOH + H 2 SO 4 → Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O

The bulb will light up if

A.the voltage of the battery is increased B.some water is added to glacial ethanoic acid

C.the carbon electrode is changed with

8.

Which of the following are products of a

III.NaOH + CH 3 COOH →CH 3 COONa +

H 2 O

IV.Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 → MgCO 3 + 2NaNO 3

A.I , II

B.II ,III

C.I, II,III

D.II, III , IV

platinum electrode

19.

A few drops of methyl orange is added

D.a solution of ethanoic acid in acetone is used instead of glacial ethanoic acid

separately into sodium hydroxide solution and diluted sulphuric acid. Which of the following colours are the correct match for

both solutions?

neutralisation reaction between an acid and an alkali?

 

Sodium hydroxide

Diluted sulphuric

I.Salt

II.Water

solution

acid

 

III.Hydrogen gas

A.I,II

B.II,III

IV.Carbon dioxide

A

Red

Blue

C.III,IV

D.I, II, III

B

Colourless

Orange

 
 

C

Yellow

Red

9.

Which of the following alkalis turns red

D

Orange

Yellow

litmus paper into blue?

 
 

A

B

Dry ammonia gas

 
  • 20. Ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid with

Zinc hydroxide powder

the same concentration have different pH

C

Barium hydroxide in propanone

values because

 

D

Aqueous calcium hydroxide solution

A.hydrochloric acid is less soluble in water B.ethanoic acid has a higher degree of

10.

Why is hydrogen chloride considered as an

dissociation than hydrochloric acid

acid?

C.the concentration of hydrogen ions is

A.It contains hydrogen ions B.It contains hydrogen molecules C.It ionises in water to produce hydrogen

ions

D.It ionises in water to produce hydrogen molecules

greater in ethanoic acid than in hydrochloric acid

D.hydrochloric acid completely issociates while ethanoic acid partially dissociates in water

  • 21. What is the volume of distilled water

  • 11. Which of the following chemical equations

represents the reaction ammonia in water?

A.NH 3 + H 2 O → NH 2 OH 2 B.NH 3 + H 2 O → NH 3 OH 2

C. NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 +

+

OH -

D.NH 3 + H 2 O → NH 4 - + OH +

12.

Calculate the volume of 2.0 mol dm -3

hydrochloric acid that is required to react completely with 2.65g of sodium carbonate. [Relative atomic mass : C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Na, 23]

required to be added to 60 cm 3 sulphuric acid

of 2.0 mol dm -3 to produce 0.3 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid?

A.260 cm 3 cm 3

B.340 cm 3 C.380 cm 3

D.420

  • 22. Which of the following

sequence of steps is correct

for preparing a standard

solution?

M

Weigh the mass of the solute needed

N

Shake the flask to dissolve the solute

O

Transfer the solute into the volumetric

flask

 

P

Add distilled water until the mark of the

flask

 

A

M

→ N → O → P

 

B

N → P → M →O

C

M

O

N P

D

P

M

→ N → O

20.0

cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide

solution reacts completely with 20.0 cm 3 of

0.05

mol dm -3 solution X. It can be deduced

that X could be A.nitric acid

B.ethanoic acid

D.hydrochloric acid

C.sulphuric acid

21.

Which of the following bases reacts with

hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride and water? A.Zinc oxide B.Sodium hydroxide C.Magnesium bromide D.Aluminium carbonate

22.

Which of the following is true about

chemical properties of acids?

A.Acids react with zinc to produce salt and hydrogen gas B.Acids react with sodium hydroxide to produce salt and hydrogen gas C.Acid reacts with magnesium oxide to produce salt, water and hydrogen gas

D.Acid react with aluminium(III) carbonate

to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide gas

23.

Hydrochloric acid is titrated with sodium

hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as the indicator. Which of the following occurs at the end point? A.The solution becomes colourless B.A white precipitate is produced C.The high concentration of hydrogen ions in solution

D.The hydrogen ions from the acid and the

hydroxide ions from the alkali combine to form water molecules

24.

Which of the following compounds produce

hydrogen ions when dissolved in water?

A.Ammonia gas

B.Nitrogen dioxide

C.Hydrogen chloride D.Potassium hydroxide

  • 25. Which of the following pairs of compounds

will react in neutralisation reaction?

I.Hydrochloric acid and zinc

II.Nitric acid and calcium carbonate

III.Sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide

IV.Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide

A.I,III

B.II,IV C.I, III ,IV

D.I, II, III ,IV

26.

What is the volume of 1.5 mol dm -3

aqueous ammonia required to completely

neutralise 30.0 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid?

A.10 cm 3

B.15 cm 3 C.20 cm 3

D.25 cm 3

27.

Which of the following is not an application

of neutralisation in daily life?

 

A.Removing rust using lemon juice B.Using vinegar to treat a wasp’s sting C.Adding carbonic acid in carbonate drinks

D.Adding slaked lime to reduce the acidity of the soil

28.

Which of the following substances is

acidic?

A.Milk

B.Soap

C.Toothpaste

D.Lemon juice

29.

Which of following acid is truly matched to

its use?

 

Acid

Use

A

Nitric acid

As food preservative

B

Carbonic

To make carbonated

acid

drinks

  • C Sulphuric

The main component of

acid

vinegar

  • D Used in the manufacture of

Methanoic

acid

fertilisers

  • 30. What is the volume of 1.0 mol dm -3

hydrochloric acid that is required to be diluted

with distilled water to produce 100 cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm -3 of hydrochloric acid solution?

A.10 cm 3

B.20 cm 3

C.30 cm 3

D.40 cm 3

  • 31. The ionic equation for neutralisation

between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is

A

H + (aq) +

OH - (aq) H 2 O(l)

B

Cl - (aq) + Na + (aq) → NaOH(aq)

C

Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) → NaCl(aq)

D

Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) → NaOH(aq)

  • 32. Find the volume 0f 2.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric

acid, needed to be diluted to make 200 cm 3 of

  • 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid.

A.100 cm 3

B.200 cm 3 C.300 cm 3 D.400 cm 3

  • 33. In which of the following beakers will the

litmus solution turns blue?

A

A B

B

A B

C

C D

D

C D

concentration of copper(II) sulphate solution

in g dm -3 .

 
 

A.5.0

B.10.0

C.15.0

D.20.0

42.

200 cm 3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 nitric acid is

added to 300 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 nitric acid.

Calculate the molarity of the hydrochloric acid produced.

A.1.0 mol dm -3 C.1.2 mol dm -3

B.1.1 mol dm -3 D.1.3 mol dm -3

43.

Which particles are not present in a

solution containing dilute nitric acid and ethanoic acid?

A.H + ion C.HNO 3 molecules

B.Cl - ion D.CH 3 COOH

molecules

44.

A 250 cm 3 nitric acid contains 0.4 moles.

Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid.

A.1.2 mol dm -3

C.1.6 mol dm -3

B.1.4 mol dm -3

D.1.8 mol dm -3

45.

Which of the following graphs shows the

relationship between the pH value and the

molarity of an acid?

 

A

A B

B

A B

C

C D

D

C D
  • 46. How many moles of hydrogen ions are

34.

Which of the following substances

neutralize an acid to produce salt and water only?

I.Copper oxide

II.Magnesium oxide

III.Sodium hydroxide

IV.Calcium carbonate

A.I ,II

B.II ,IV

C.I, II , III

D.I, II, III ,

IV

35.

Which of the following is weak alkali?

A.Ammonia

B.Barium hydroxide

C.Sodium hydroxide

D.Potassium

hydroxide

36.

Which of the following is a strong acid?

A.Citric acid

B.Nitric acid

C.Tartaric acid

D.Ethanedioic acid

37.

Which of the following is true about weak

acid? I.Most of the organic asid II.Low concentration of hydrogen ions

III.Dissociate partially into hydrogen ions in water IV.pH is lower than of strong acid with the same concentration

A.I ,III

B.II,IV

C.I, II ,III

D.I, II, III ,IV

38.

Sulphuric acid is a strong acid that

A.is not corrosive

 

B.does not conduct electricity C.dissociate partially into hydrogen ions in water

D.produces a high concentration of hydrogen ions

39.

The molarity of an aqueous solution is

defined as the A.number of moles of solute present in 1 dm -3 of water B.number of moles of solute present in 1 dm -3 of the solution C.number of grams of solute present in 1 dm -3 of the solution D.number of molecules of solute present in 1 dm -3 of the solution

40.

What gas is produced when an alkali is

heated with an ammonium salt?

A.Oxygen

B.Hydrogen

C.Ammonia

D.Carbon dioxide

41.

5.00 g of copper(II) sulphate is dissolved in

water to form 500 cm 3 solution. Calculate the

there in 400 cm 3 of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.6 mol dm -3 ?-C A.0.6 x 400 mol B.2 x 0.6 x 400 mol

C. 0.6

X

400

mol

 
 

1000

 

D.

2

X

0.6

X

400

mol

 

1000

 

47.

Which of the following bases reacts with

hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride

and water?

 

A.Copper oxide

 

B.Sodium

 

hydroxide

 

C.Sodium carbonate

 

D.Calcium

 

hydroxide

 

48.

100 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 hydrochloric

acid is prepared from a 2.0 mol dm -3 standard

hydrochloric acid solution. The total volume of 2.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid which should be diluted with water is

A.20 cm 3

B.25 cm 3 C.30 cm 3

D.35 cm 3

49.

The concentration of a solution refers to

A.the amount of water in a given volume

of solution B.the quantity of solute in a given volume of

solution C.the quantity of oxygen ions in a given volume of solution D.the quantity of hydrogen ions in a given volume of solution

50.

Which of the following are bases?

 

I.Sodium oxide

 

II.Lead(II) oxide

III.Copper(II) oxide IV.Potassium oxide

A.I ,III

B.II,IV C.I, II , III

D.I, II, III ,IV

51.

Table below shows the pH

values of solutions R, S, T

and U.

 

Solution

 

pH value

   

R

12

S

7

T

4

U

2

A

R

B.S

C T

D

U

52.

Which of the following solutions has the

lowest number of hydrogen ions?

A

300 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 nitric acid

B

500 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 ethanoic acid

C

300 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid

D

200 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric

acid

53.

Which of the following solutions has the

highest pH value?

A.0.5 mol dm -3 ethanoic acid B.0.5 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid C.0.5 mol dm -3 aqueous solution of ammonia D.0.5 mol dm -3 aqueous solution of sodium

 

hydroxide

54.

Which of the following statements about

strong alkalis is correct? A.Strong alkalis ionise completely when water is added

B.The degree of dissociation of a strong alkali

in water is very low C.Strong alkalis do not react with copper(II) oxide to produce water and salt D.The concentration of hydroxide ions in strong alkalis is lower than that in weak alkalis

55.

Which of the following substances will

produce hydroxide ions in water?

A.Sulphur dioxide

B.Sodium chloride

C.Potassium oxide

D.Copper(II) oxide

56.

What is the mass of sodium carbonate

required to dissolve in water to prepare a 800

cm 3 solution that contains 50 g dm -3 ?

A.20 g

B.30 g

C.40 g

D.50 g

SALTS

1.Which of the following substances can be

crystallised from aqueous solution?

A.BaSO 4

B.PbCl 2

 

C.HgSO 4

D.(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3

2.Which of the following salts reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a white precipitate

which is soluble when heated?

A.Zinc carbonate

B.Barium nitrate

C.Sodium sulphate

D.Lead(II) chloride

3.2.0

g of sodium hydroxide reacts with excess

sulphuric acid. What is the mass of sodium sulphate produced? [Relative atomic mass : H,

1 ; O, 16 ; Na, 23 ; S, 32]

 

A.2.86 g

B.3.32 g C.3.55 g

D.4.12 g

4.Which of the following salts is most likely to be made by the double decomposition method? A.Zinc nitrate

B.Copper(II) sulphate C.Mercury(I) chloride D.Ammonium carbonate

 

5.When substance X is heated, a colourless gas is released. It has a pungent smell and bleaches purple acidified potassium manganate(VII)

solution. The residue obtained after heating is yellow when hot and white when cold. Substance X is probably A.K 2 CO 3 B.ZnCO 3 C.MgCO 3 D.CuCO 3

6.Which of the following salts is found in baking powder? A.Sodium nitrite B.Sodium chloride

C.Sodium benzoate D.Sodium hydrogen carbonate

 

7.25 cm 3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 lead(II) nitrate reacts completely with 50 cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium sulphate solution. Which one of the ionic equations represent the reaction? A.Pb 2+ + SO 4 2- → PbSO 4

B.Na +

+

NO 3 -

NaNO 3

C.Pb 2+ + 2SO 4 2- PbSO 4

 

D.2Pb 2+

+

SO 4 2-

Pb 2 SO 4

8.5.0

cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 potassium

chromate(VI) solution was added to each of the

seven test tubes. Various volume of 0.5 mol dm -

3 lead(II) nitrate solution was added to each test tube 1 cm 3 to 7 cm 3 . The height of precipitates

was recorded. Which of the following graphs represent the variation of the height of

precipitates to the volume of lead(II) nitrate added?-C

A B
A
B

C

D

A.480 cm 3 C.560 cm 3

the equation below :

A.2 mol dm -3 C.4 mol dm -3

I

Zinc oxide

II

Lead(II) oxide

III

Barium hydroxide

IV

Magnesium oxide

B.520 cm 3 D.620 cm 3

precipitates to the volume of lead(II) nitrate added?-C A B C D A. 480 cm C.560
precipitates to the volume of lead(II) nitrate added?-C A B C D A. 480 cm C.560

9.What is the volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at s.t.p. when 2.1 g of magnesium carbonates reacts with excess nitric acid? [Relative atomic mass : C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Mg,

24 ; 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 dm 3 at s.t.p.]

10.5.0 cm 3 of a potassium iodide solution requires 20.0 cm 3 of 0.25 mol dm -3 lead(II) nitrate solution to react completely according to

Pb 2+ (aq) + 2I - (aq) → PbI 2 (s) What is the molarity of the potassium iodide solution?

B.3 mol dm -3 D.5 mol dm -3

11.Which of the following is not a characteristic of sulphur dioxide gas? A.Colourless B.Has irritating smell C.Turns lime water cloudy D.Turns moist blue litmus paper into red

12.Which of the following chemical substances

can be used to differentiate between nitric acid and sulphuric acid?

A.I , II B.II,III C.III,IV D.I,II,III

13.Which of the following statements about the use of salts in daily life is true?

A.Sodium chloride is used to enhance the taste of food

B.Iron(II) sulphate is used to supply iron for anaemia patients

C.Monosodium glutamate is used to preserve processed meat D.Potassium manganate is used as a bleaching agent in laundry

14.Which of the salts is prepared using double decomposition method?

A.Lead(II) nitrate

B.Barium sulphate

C.Iron(II) sulphate

D.Sodium carbonate

15.Which of the following reagents, when added to aqueous solution containing Fe 2+ , will produce a precipitate?

  • I HCl

    • II KMnO 4

      • III NaCl

IV K 4 Fe(CN) 6

A.I,III B.I, IVC.II,IVD.I,II,III

16.Which of the following methods is most suitable for preparing lead(II) sulphate?

A.PbO

+ H 2 SO 4

→ PbSO 4

+ H 2 O

B.Pb(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4

→ PbSO 4

+ 2H 2 O

C.Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 SO 4 → PbSO 4 + 2HNO 3

D.Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 SO 4 PbSO 4 + 2NaNO 3

17.Insoluble salts can be prepared by the process called

A.oxidation

B.hydration

C.precipitation

D.emulsification

18.Which of the following ionic solutions

will produce a precipitate when tested with excess ammonia solution?

  • I Al 3+

    • II Cu 2+

      • III Pb 2+

IV

Zn 2+

A.I,III B.II,IV C.I,II,III D.II, III, IV

19.When sodium carbonate solution is added to solution M, a white precipitate forms. Which cations could be present in solution M?

  • I Al 3+

    • II Zn 2+

precipitates to the volume of lead(II) nitrate added?-C A B C D A. 480 cm C.560

Which of the following anions are contained in solution M?

A.Cl - and CO 3 2-

C.Cl - and

SO 4 2-

B.NO 3 - and CO 3 D.NO 3 - and Cl -

2-

24.Sodium nitrate can be prepared from the reaction between

I.sodium hydroxide and nitric acid

II.sodium carbonate and nitric acid

III Ca 2+ IV Pb 2+ III.sodium chloride and potassium nitrate IV.sodium sulphate and potassium nitrate
III
Ca 2+
IV
Pb 2+
III.sodium chloride and potassium nitrate
IV.sodium sulphate and potassium nitrate
A.I ,II B.I,III C.II,III D.III, IV
A.I,II B.II,IV C.I,III,IV D.I, II, III, IV
20.The technique used by chemists to
determine the types of substances present in
a mixture is known as
A.salt analysis
B.chemical analysis
C.qualitative analysis
D.quantitative analysis
25.The table below shows the
colour of three solutions.
Bottle
Colour of solution
X
Blue
Y
Green
Z
Yellow
21.Which of the following is
used to identify chloride ions
in soluble salt?-C
Which of the following inferences can be made
about the types of ions present in the bottles?
X
Y
Z
A
Cu 2+
Fe 2+
Fe 3+
B
Fe 2+
Cu 2+
Fe 3+
A
C
Fe 3+
Fe 2+
Cu 2+
D
Cu 2+
Fe 3+
Fe 2+
26.Which of the following substances is not a
salt?
A.Copper(II) oxide
B.Lead(II) chloride
C.Calcium carbonate
B
D.Magnesium sulphate
27.Which of the following are obtained when
zinc nitrate is decomposed by heating?
I
Zinc oxide
II
Oxygen gas
III
IV
Carbon dioxide gas
Nitrogen dioxide gas
C D
C
D

22. X has the following physical properties.

Colour of

Colour of residue X

Effect

X

When hot

When cold

on

before

Brown

Yellow

lime

Heating

 

water

X is most probably A.Sodium carbonate B.Lead(II) carbonate

 

C.Copper(II) carbonate

D.Magnesium carbonate

A.I,II B.II,III C.I,II ,IV D.II,III,IV

28.The information below shows about reaction I and reaction II.

Reaction I

S

+ H 2 SO 4 (aq)

→ H 2 (g)

Reaction II

T + HCl(aq)

→ CO 2 (g)

Which of the following S and T are correct?

 

S

T

 

A

Chloride

Aluminium

B

Zinc

Carbonate

C

Sulphate

Iron

D

Nitrate

Magnesium

 

29.Al 3+ can be differentiated from Pb 2+ using the following reagents except

A.sodium sulphate

B.potassium iodide

 

C.sodium hydroxide D.hydrochloric acid

30.The figure

below

shows

the

tests

on

substance X that contains two different salts

with the same cation.

 

23.Solution M contains two anions. A few tests are carried out on solution M as shown in figure below.

What could be the salts present in substances X? A.Lead(II) sulphate and lead(II) nitrate B. Potassium

What could be the salts present in substances X?

A.Lead(II) sulphate and lead(II) nitrate B.Potassium nitrate and potassium sulphate C.Copper(II) sulphate and copper(II) carbonate

31.Which of the following will produce nitrogen dioxide gas when strongly heated?

I

Zinc nitrate

II

Lead(II) nitrate

 

III

Sodium nitrate

IV

Copper(II) nitrate

A.I,III B II,IV C.I,II, IV D.I, II,III,IV

32.Which of the following chemical equations

represent the reaction of heat on lead(II) nitrate?

A

Pb(NO 3 ) 2

Pb(NO 2 ) 2

+

O 2

B

Pb(NO 3 ) 2

Pb + 2NO 2 + O 2

  • C 2Pb(NO 3 ) 2 2PbO + 4NO 2 + O 2

  • D 2Pb(NO 3 ) 2 → 2PbO + 4NO + 3O 2

33.All the following are methods to prepare salts expect A.neutralising a strong acid with a weak alkali

B.neutralising a weak acid with a strong alkali

C.reaction between ethanoic acid and an alcohol D.replacing the hydrogen ions in an acid with metal ions

34.The diagram below shows a test being done to identify the gas produced when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to Y.

What could be the salts present in substances X? A.Lead(II) sulphate and lead(II) nitrate B. Potassium

It is observed that the gas produced explodes with a ‘pop’ sound. Based on the observation, the gas produced is

A.nitrogen

B.hydrogen

C.carbon dioxide

D.nitrogen dioxide

35.Which of the following salts is insoluble in water?

A.BaSO 4 B.MgCl 2

C.ZnCO 3 D.Pb(NO 3 ) 2

36.Which of the following salts is best prepared

by titration method of an acid to an alkali? A.Sodium nitrate B.Lead(II) sulphate C.Copper(II) sulphate D.Magnesium sulphate

37.The steps in carrying out recrystallisation to purify impure soluble salts are given below.

R

- Cooling

 

S

- Filtration

T

- Dissolving

U

-

Evaporation

The correct sequence of the steps is

A.R → S → T → U C.U → R→ → T → S

B.S → U → R → T D.T S U R

38.The salts formed during preparation of soluble salts contain impurities. These salts can be purified by a process known as

A

evaporation

B

recrystallisation

C

fractional distillation

 

D

reheating and cooling

39.Sodium hypochloride, NaOCl, is used as a

Afood flavouring

Bbleaching agent

C.synthetic fertiliser D.Inorganic pesticides

40.Which of the following gases turns moist red litmus paper into blue?

A.Ammonia

B.Sulphur dioxide

C.Nitrogen dioxide

D.Hydrogen chloride

PAPER 2 ASIDS& BASES

1.Figure below shows the apparatus used to prepare hydrogen chloride gas

in the laboratory which can be dissolved in water andmethylbenzene.

What could be the salts present in substances X? A.Lead(II) sulphate and lead(II) nitrate B. Potassium

Hydrogen chloride is prepared by putting a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid into a flask, which contains sodium chloride.

(a)Hydrogen chloride gas is dried before being dissolved in methylbenzene. Name a suitable drying agent to be used to dry the hydrogen chloride gas.

Concentrated sulphuric acid

 

[1 mark]

(b)Write an equation for the reaction that occurs in figure above. NaCl + H 2 SO 4 → HCl + NaHSO 4

 

[1 mark]

(c)State a method used to dissolve hydrogen chloride gas in water to ensure that the water is not drawn back into the apparatus.

Connect a filtration funnel to the channel which removes hydrogen chlorides gas. Turn the filtration funnel up side down at the bottom of the water surface in the beaker.

[2 marks]

(d)Both the hydrogen chloride solutions are tested with pH paper and a piece of lime stone. The results of the test are shown in table below.

Test

pH

Limestone

HCl aqueous solution

1

CO 2 gas is released

HCl solution in methybenzene

7

No CO 2 gas is released

(i) Explain the difference in pH between the hydrogen chloride aqueous

solution and the hydrogen chloride solution in methylbenzene. In water, hydrogen chloride ionise completely. Many H + ions are produced and the value of pH becomes 1. In methylbenzene solvent, hydrogen chloride remain as molecules and do not ionise. Because the hydrogen chloride solution in methylbenzene does not have H + ions, the value of pH is 7.

[2 marks]

(ii) Why does hydrogen chloride in an aqueous solution react with limestone to produce carbon dioxide while hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene does not?

Hydrogen chloride aqueous solution has H + ions and shows acidic property. Thus, it reacts with limestone. The hydrogen chloride solution in methylbenzene does not have H + ions and it’s not an acid. Thus hydrogen chloride does not react with limestone in methylbenzene.

[2 marks]

2.Ahmad is required to prepare a standard solution of calcium hydroxide and then titrate the calcium hydroxide solution against hydrochloric acid to determine its concentration.

He weighed some calcium hydroxide powder and then transfer it into a standard 250 ml volumetric flask containing some distilled water. The standard flask was shaken to dissolve the solid and more distilled was added until it is 250 ml.

Mass of empty beaker = 25.46 g Mass of beaker + calcium hydroxide powder = 27.68 g

(a)Calculate the number of moles of calcium hydroxide used.[Relative

atomic mass : Ca, 40; O, 16; H, 1]

(a) Mass of calcium hydroxide used = 27.68 – 25.43 = 2.25 g Number of moles of calcium hydroxide = 2.25/74 = 0.0304 mole

[2 marks]

(b)State one precaution that must be taken by the student to ensure that all the solute is transferred into the volumetric flask.

The container of solid calcium hydroxide must be rinsed with distilled water and the solution is poured into the volumetric flask.

[2 marks] (c)Calculate the molarity of the prepared calcium hydroxide solution. 0.0304 / 0.25 = 0.1216 mol dm -3

[1 mark] (d)The student titrated 0.1 molar hydrochloric acid into 25.0 cm 3 f the

prepared calcium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein indicator. He carried out the

titration three times and the results are shown in

the table below.

Burette Reading

1

2

3

Final reading (cm 3 )

24.90

26.30

26.80

Initial reading (cm 3 )

0.00

1.00

2.00

Volume of acid added (cm 3 )

24.90

25.30

24.80

(i) Calculate the volume of 0.1 molar hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise 25.0 cm 3 calcium hydroxide solution.

24.90 25.30 24.80 = 25 cm 3

3

[1 mark]

(ii) Find the number of moles of hydrochloric acid present in (d)(i). 0 .125 = 0.0025 1 000

[1 mark] (iii) Write the equation for the reaction between calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ca(OH) 2 + 2HCl → CaCl 2 + 2H 2 O [1 mark] 3.The pH of several solutions with a concentration of 0.05 mol dm -3 is

compared in table below.

Solution

P

Q

R

S

T

pH

1

3

7

10

14

(a)Which of the solution has the highest concentration of

(i) H + ions :

P

(ii) OH

ions : T

[2 marks]

(b)Name one indicators used to measure the pH of the solutions in table above.

Universal indicator

 

[1 mark]

(c)Which solution in table above could possibly be:

(i) a weak acid : Q

(ii) a weak alkaline : ___S______

(iii) potassium hydroxide : __P____ (iv) ammonia solution in methylbenzene : ___R____

[4 marks] (d)Solution P is sulphuric acid. When a small piece of limestone is put into the solution, gas bubbles are observed but these stop after a while.

(i)

Name the gas released.

Carbon dioxide

(ii) Why does the release of gas stop?

[1 mark]

Calcium sulphate which is not soluble settles on the surface of the limestone and the reaction is stopped.

[1 mark]

(e)State the colour you would expect to see when the following indicators are added to solution T.

  • (i) Methyl orange : _ Yellow _(ii) Phenolphthalein : Pink [2 marks]

(f)State the colour you would expect to see when the following indicators are added to solution P.

  • (i) Methyl orange : _ Red _(ii) Phenolphthalein : Colourless

[2 marks]

4.Table below shows a list of substances, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.

Substances

Chemicals

U

Dilute hydrogen chloride

V

Magnesium hydroxide solution

W

Anhydrous ethanoic acid

X

Ammonia in tetrachloromethane

Y

Concentrated nitric acid

Z

Anhydrous calcium hydroxide

(a)State the substances which turn the colour of Universal indicator to red. U, Y

[1 mark]

(b)State the substance which turns red litmus paper to blue.

V

[1 mark] (c)Explain why electricity is allowed to flow through V but not through Z.

Freely moving ions, Mg 2+ ions and OH - ions are present in solution V. This enables it to conduct electricity. Z consists of covalent molecules. This makes Z a poor electric conductor.

(d)Explain why Y is a monoprotic acid.

[2 marks]

A monoprotic acid can produce only one hydrogen ion per molecule.

[1 mark]

(e)(i) Give three properties for substance V.

  • - Have a bitter taste and feel soapy to the touch

  • - pH greater than 7

  • - Solution of alkalis neutralise acids to form a salt and water

(ii) Give three properties for substance Y.

  • - Have a sour taste

  • - pH less than 7

[3 marks]

- Reacts with bases to form a salt and water

[3 marks]

(f)Besides Z, name other substances which do not conduct electricity.

X

5.The arrangement of apparatus is shown in the diagram below.

Solution P Q R S T pH 1 3 7 10 14 (a) Which of the

This experiment is used to prepare a hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene

and in water respectively.

(a)Give the purpose of using the filter funners in the diagram above. To prevent sucking back of the solution

[1 mark]

(b)(i) A piece of magnesium ribbon is placed in each beaker X and Y. What can be observed?

No noticeable change in beaker X. Effervescence occurs in beaker Y. [2 marks] (ii) Give the reason for your answer in (b)(i).

Hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene does not have any acidic properties. In beaker Y, hydrogen chloride in water produces H + ions which react with magnesium to produce hydrogen gas.

[2 marks] (c)What is the particles present in (i) beaker X? Hydrogen chloride molecules [1 mark]
[2 marks]
(c)What is the particles present in
(i)
beaker X?
Hydrogen chloride molecules
[1 mark]
(ii) beaker Y?
Hydrogen ions and chloride ions
_[1 mark]
(d)Water is added to the solution in beaker X and the mixture is then
shaken. After sodium carbonate powder is added, effervescence occurs.
(i)
What is the gas and suggest a suitable test to identify the gas?
Carbon dioxide gas. Deliver the gas produced into lime water. Lime
water will turn cloudly.
[1 mark]
(ii) Name the role of water in the reaction that caused the evolution of the
gas.
In the presence of water, hydrogen chloride dissociates to H + ions that
will react with sodium carbonate solution to produce carbon dioxide
gas.
[1 mark]
(iii) Write an ionic equation for the chemical reaction involving the
evolution of the gas.
2H + (aq) + CO 3 2- →CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)
[1 mark]
(iv) Give a conclusion that can be made from the observation.
Hydrogen chloride can only act as an acid in the presence of water.
[1 mark]
6. In an experiment, a student uses universal
indicator paper to test the pH of several aqueous
solutions. The table below shows the results of the
experiment.
Aqueous solutions
A
B
C
D
E
F
pH
14
7
4
8
10
1
(a)Which of the following solution is
(i)
distilled water?-B
[1 mark]
(ii) vinegar?-A
[1 mark]
(iii) sodium hydroxide?-C
[1 mark]
(iv) dilute hydrochloric acid?-F
[1 mark]

(b)C 4 H 4 O 4 , malic acid is a weak acid. It contains in apples. Describe the meaning of weak acid.

A weak acid dissociates partially in an aqueous solution and thus it will have a lower concentration of H + ions that the concentration of the aqueous acid solution itself.

[2 marks]

(c)Given that, pH of 1.0 M malic acid is higher than 1.0 M hydrochloric acid. Explain this statement.

Malic acid is a weak acid but hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. Malic acid shows partial dissociation while hydrochloric acid shows complete dissociation in an aqueous solution. This causes aqueous malic acid to have lower H + ion concentration than aqueous hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the pH of 1.0 M malic acid will be higher than the pH of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution.

[1 mark]

(d)Give one test that can be used to distinguish between strong acid and a weak acid solution. Give the result expected.

A test to compare the electrical conductivity of the aqueous solutions. An aqueous solution of a strong acid has a higher electrical conductivity than a weak acid of equal concentration.

[1 mark]

(e)Find the solutions that will produce a neutral solution when mixed in the right proportions.

C and E , A and F.

[2 marks]

M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2

M final X

(60 + 30) = 0.2X 30

M final = 0.07 mol dm -3

7.(a)Define neutralisation reaction. (a) The reaction between an acid and a base to produce a salt and water.

 

[1 mark]

(b)State two application of in daily life. - Toothpaste , Hair shampoo

 

[2 marks]

(c)Write the chemical equation for the neutralisation between (i) sulphuric acid and ammonia solution H 2 SO 4 + 2NH 4 OH → (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O

 

[1 mark]

(ii) nitric acid and lithium hydroxide solution HNO 3 + LiOH → LiNO 3 + H 2 O

 

[1 mark]

(d)Write the ionic equation for the reaction between an acidic solution with an alkaline solution.

(d) H + + OH - → H 2 O

 
 

[1 mark]

(e)50 cm 3 of sulphuric acid, 0.5 mol dm -3 , reacts completely with 25 cm 3 sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution.

 

=

0.5

X 50

=

1

M 1 V 1 = a M 2 V 2

b

X

25

2

M 2

= 2

M 2 mol dm 3

 
 

[1 mark]

(f)If 25 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid, HCl, 0.05 mol dm -3 , is neutralised completely by calcium hydroxide solution, Ca(OH) 2 , 0.1 mol dm -3 , what is the volume of the calcium hydroxide solution, Ca(OH) 2 , used?

M 1 V 1 = a = 0.05 X 25 = 2

 

M 2 V 2

b

 

0.1

X

V 2

1

V 2

= 6.25 cm 3

 

[2 marks]

[2 marks]

(b)What is the meaning of neutralisation. Give three reactions of neutralisations. Neutralisation is the reaction between acid and a base to produce salt and water only. The examples of the reactions are:

HCl + NaOH →NaCl +H 2 O NH 3 + HCl →NH 4 Cl H 2 SO 4 + CuO →CuSO 4 + H 2 O

[4 marks]

9.A teacher gives you the following information about a substance, as shown in the table below.

Substance: Methylamine Molecule formed : CH 3 NH 2 Melting point : -93.0 o C Boiling point: - 7.5 o C Solubility: Very soluble in water and thetrachlorobenzene Chemical property: Dissociates in water

(a)Solutions of methylamine in water and in tetrachlorobenzene are tested separately with dry litmus paper, (i) state the observation of the above tests.

The solution of methylamine in water turns red litmus paper blue. The

solution of methylamine in tetrachlorobenzene does not change the

colour of red litmus paper.

(ii) explain the observation in (a)(i).

[2 marks]

In an aqueous solution, methylamine reacts with water, produce CH 3 NH 3+ and OH - ions. The presence of hydroxyl ions, OH - in the aqueous solution causes the alkaline property of the solution. However, in thetrachlorobenzene, methylamine exists as neutral of hydroxyl ions, OH - causes the solution of methylamine in thetrachlorobenzene to be non alkaline in property.

[3 marks] (b)The pH value of an aqueous 0.1 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution is higher than aqueous solution of 0.1 mol dm -3 methylamine. State the difference.

  • (g) Complete the table below.

Indicator

Colour in

Colour in alkaline

 

Colour in

acidic solution

solution

neutral

 

solution

Phenolphtalein

Methyl orange

Indicator

Colour in

Colour in

Colour in

 

acidic

alkaline

neutral

solution

solution

solution

Phenolphtalein

Colourless

Pink

Colourless

Methyl orange

Red

Yellow

Orange

[2 marks] 8.Two beakers containing 0.1 mol dm -3 solution Y and solution Z and their pH readings is shown in the diagram below.q00365

[2 marks] M V = M V M final X (60 + 30) = 0.2X 30

(a)(i) Based on the two solutions given, compare and contrast the solutions in terms of their physical and chemical properties. State a suitable example for each of the solutions. Solution Y is an acid but solution Z is an alkali Solution Y is sour in taste. It can react with a base to produce a salt and water. It also can react with a reactive metal to produce salt and hydrogen gas. It can react with a metal carbonate to produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide gas. Solution Z is bitter in taste and it feels soapy. It can react with an acid to produce a salt and water. Ammonia gas is produced when it is heated with ammonium salts. It forms a metal hydroxide when it is added to an aqueous salt solution. Solution Y : hydrochloric acid. Solution Z : hydroxide solution.

[10 marks] (ii) Using suitable ionic equation, explain what will happen when equal volumes of solution Y and Z are mixed together. When solution Y and Z are mixed, neutralisation reaction take place. A salt and water is produced. The solution produced has a pH value of 7. The equation is: H + + OH - → H 2 O

[4 marks] (iii) Find the concentration of the solution that will be produced when 60

cm 3 of water is added to 30 cm 3 of solution Y. (iii)

In aqueous, 0.1 M potassium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide

dissociates completely to produce a high concentration of hydroxyl ions.

KOH(aq)→ K + (aq) + OH - (aq). In aqueous 0.1 M methylamine solution, it reacts with water and dissociates partially to produce hydroxyl ions, OH - of lower concentration thatn the aqueous solution. Therefore, the concentration of OH - ions in aqueous 0.1 M KOH is higher than that of

aqueous methylamine solution of the same concentration. Therefore,

the pH value of 0.1 M KOH is lower than the boiling point of methylamine.

[3 marks]

Describe the physical state of methylamine in the room condition.

Methylamine exists as a gas under room conditions of = 27 o C is higher

that the boiling point of methylamine.

[2 marks]

10. (a)Give the meaning of pH of an aqueous solution and the use. pH is a value to determine the concentration of H + ion in an aqueous

acidic solution. Therefore, pH represents the acidity and alkanity of the

solution. For an aqueous solution, the higher the H + ion concentration,

the stronger the acidity.Thus, the pH value is low. For alkali, the pH value is high. The pH scale is ranging from 0 to 14.Each pH value represents a certain H + ion concentration.

[5 marks] (b)Describe the role of water in causing the acidic properties of an aqueous solution of an acid.

Glacial ethanoic, dry and pure acid does not show any acidic property. Glacial acids exists as molecules. Therefore, H + does not present to show any acidic properties. When it been test to blue litmus paper, the pH do not change to red. Therefore, water is used to produce H + . Added a water to glacial ethanoic to form an acidic properties. CH 3 COOH(aq) + H + (aq)→ CH 3 COO - (aq). This H + will change blue litmus to red. It also can react with reactive metals or bases or carbonates.

[8 marks] (c)Explain how tests can be used to confirm an acidic solution. Explain your answer with suitable equations.

Test with copper(II) oxide A little copper(II) oxide powder is added to about 6 cm 3 of acidic solution in a test tube. After that, the mixture is heated.

When the black copper(II) oxide powder dissolves and a blue solution is formed, the solution in the test tube is acidic. CuO + 2H + →Cu 2+ + H 2 O

Test with sodium carbonate A little sodium carbonate powder is added to 5 cm 3 of acidic solution in test tube. Test the gas involved by passing the gas intol lime water. When the lime water turns milky, indicating the presence of carbon dioxide gas, the solution in the test tube is acidic. CO 3 2- + 2H + →CO 2 + H 2 O

[7 marks] 11. (a) (i) Explain the meaning of neutralization. Use suitable examples in your answer.

(i)

Neutralization is the reaction between an aqueous acid solution and

a base to produce salt and water only. The example is HCl(aq) +NaOH(aq) →NaCl(aq) + H 2 O. In this process, the H + ions, from acid and OH - from alkali combine and neutralise to each other to produce water. Therefore, neutralisation reaction that can be summarized by the ionic equations is H + (aq) + OH - (aq) →H 2 O(I).

 

[3 marks]

(ii) State two examples of the application of neutralization in our daily life. (ii) The two examples are:

Using anti acid compounds such as milk of magnesia to relieve gastric pain. Neutralize soil using the lime

 

[2 marks]

(b)Describe how you would prepare 250 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide, from solid potassium hydroxide.Explain your answer. (Relative atomic mass:H,1; O,16; K,39)

(b)

Calculate the molar mass of KOH = 39 + 16 + 1 = 56

250 cm 3 1.0 mol dm -3 KOH contains1.0 X 250

1000

mol KOH which is 0.25 X56 = 14.0 g of KOH. Weight exactly 14.0 g of KOH accurately in weighing bottle Dissolve 14.0 g of KOH in a little water in a beaker. After that, transfer the content unto a 250 cm 3 voltmetric flask. Rinse the beaker with distilled water transfer all the contents to a volumetric flask. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the calibration mark. The solution produced is 1.0 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide. To prepare a 0.1 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution, 250 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution is trasferred to a 250 cm 3 using pipette. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the calibration mask.

[10 marks] (c)Describe why sodium hydroxide solution and aqueous ammonia of the same concentration have a different pH value.

Sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali that undergoes complete dissociation in aqueous solution. However, ammonia is a weak alkali that undergoes partial dissociation only. The concentration of hydroxide ion in sodium hydroxide ion in sodium hydroxide is thus bigger than that in ammonia. Therefore, the pH value of sodium hydroxide is higher than ammonia.

PAPER 3 ASIDS & BASES

[5 marks]

  • 1. An experiment is carried out to study the relationship between the

concentrations of H + ions and the pH value of sulphuric acid solutions. Record the pH value of six nitric acid solutions with concentrations of 0.08 mol dm -3 , 0.06mol dm -3 , 0.04mol dm -3 , 0.03mol dm -3 , 0.02mol dm -3 , 0.01mol dm -3 using pH meter. The diagram below shows the corresponding pH value and the concentrations of the nitric acid.

(i) Neutralization is the reaction between an aqueous acid solution and a base to produce salt

(a)Give the variables involved in the experiment:

  • (i) Manipulated variable: Concentration of nitric acid solution

 

[1 mark]

(ii) Responding variable: pH values

 
 

[1 mark]

(iii) Fixed variable: Controlled variable: Type of acid used

 
 

[1 mark]

(b)What is the hypothesis for this experiment? The higher the concentration of H + ions, the lower the pH value. [3 marks] (c)Record the results of the experiment. Construct a table in your answer.

Concentration of H + ions (mol dm -3 )

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

pH value

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.3

1.5

1.8

[3 marks] (d)Draw a graph of pH value versus concentration of H + ions on graph paper.

(i) Neutralization is the reaction between an aqueous acid solution and a base to produce salt
(i) Neutralization is the reaction between an aqueous acid solution and a base to produce salt

[3 marks] (e)Based on the graph you have drawn, find the pH value of a 0.05 mol dm -3 nitric acid solution. The pH value of a 0.05 mol dm -3 nitric acid is 1.1

[3 marks]

2.The table below shows the data obtained in a titration experiment.

Titration No.

1

2

3

Initial burette reading(cm 3 )

5.00

5.00

5.00

Final burette reading(cm 3 )

  • 29.96 30.00

29.06

Volume of H 2 SO 4 acid used

  • 24.96 26.00

25.06

In this experiment, 0.25 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide solution is titrated with dilute sulphuric acid using methyl orange as indicator. This experiment is

carried out three times. (a)Draw a labelled diagram to show the set up of the apparatus used in this

experiment.

16) (a)

[3 marks] (b) Give the hypothesis. When the sodium hydroxide solution is completely neutralized by sulphuric

[3 marks]

(b)Give the hypothesis. When the sodium hydroxide solution is completely neutralized by sulphuric acid, the colour of methyl orange indicator will changed from yellow to orange.

[1 mark]

(c)State all the variables in this experiment. Variables:

Manipulated variable: Volume of dilute sulphuric acid Responding variable: Colour of methyl orange indicator Fixed variable: Volume of sodium hydroxide solution.

[3 marks] (d)Explain the initial colour change when sodium hydroxide solution is titrated with sulphuric acid until the end point is reached.

The methyl orange indicator changed colour from yellow to orange when the end point is reached.

[2 marks]

(e)Give the conclusion for this experiment. The conclusion in this experiment is, the colour of methyl orange indicator in NaOH solution will changed to orange when the NaOH solution is completely neutralized by an acid solution.

[1 mark]

3.A student assume that substance Y is magnesium carbonate. In an experiment, to study the cations and anions in Y, several tests are carried out and a report sheet is prepared. You should complete the following report with:

(a)Objective of the experiment Objective of the experiment: To study the presence of magnesium and carbonate ion in magnesium carbonate.

(b)Hypothesis and variables Hypothesis and variables:

Hypothesis: The presence of magnesium and carbonate ions can be confirmed by qualitative analysis using the suitable reagents.

Variable:

Manipulated variable: Types of reagent. Responding variable: Formation of precipitate and evolution of gases Controlled variable: Magnesium and carbonate ions

(c)List of chemicals and apparatus Chemicals and apparatus used: Magnesium carbonate powder, 2 M nitric acid, ammonia solution lime water, and sodium hydroxide, test tube rack, test tube, boiling tube, test tube holder, spatula, dropper, Bunsen burner and delivery tube.

(d)Procedure

  • (d) Procedure:

A qualitative analysis is carried out based on the hypothesis stated to

confirm the presence of magnesium and carbonate ions in magnesium carbonate. There are three meant things in performing the qualitative analysis. There are analytical procedure, precautions and quantity of substances used.

(e)Tabulation of data and your observations during the experiment.

  • (e) Tabulation of data:

No

Experimental procedure

Observation

1.

Solid Y is heated. Test the gas released with the lime water.

The gas released turns the lime water cloudly. The residue is

 

white.

2.

In a boiling tube, 5 cm 3 dilute nitric acid is added to half a spatula of Y.

Effervence accured. The gas released turns lime water cloudly

Test the gas released using lime

The filtrate solution is colourless.

water. The mixture is filtered. The filtrate obtained is used for two test. (i) To 1 cm 3 of the filtrate, sodium hydroxide is added until in excess. (ii) To 1 cm 3 of the filtrate, ammonia hydroxide is added

(i) The white precipitate insoluble in excess NaOH solution is formed. (ii) White precipitate insoluble in excess aqueous ammonia solution

until is excess.

is formed.

Based on the experiment above, Substance Y is a magnesium carbonate. [17 marks]