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QUESTION 1

The Principals response should be based on the Bill of Rights as it protects all learners irrespective of
religion. The Policy on Religion and Education also provides guidelines for how religious diversity should
be managed in the school environment. The Principals knowledge on the education policy, constitution,
and Bill of Rights will help in addressing the aggrieved students, this will make students understand and
see that the Principal does not undermine other religions.

Religious observances may be conducted at school on an equitable basis, and the attendance should be
voluntary. The policy genuinely advances the interests of religion by advocating a broad based range of
religious activities in the school. The Principals reference will be on the Constitutional values, which are:1
Respect for equality, which aims at the development of a national democratic culture with respect for
the value of all of our people’s diverse cultural, religious and linguistic traditions. 2 Tolerance, religion in
education must contribute to the advancement of interreligious toleration and interpersonal respect
among adherence of different religious in a shared civil society. 3 Respect for openness, the school and
the community play a role in cultural formation and transmission , that is , the educational institutions
must promote the spirit of openness so that there can be no attempt to indoctrinate pupils into any
particular belief or religion. 4 Adherent to accountability, religions cultivate moral values and ethical
commitments, which can be recognized as resources for learning and as vital contributions to nation
building.

The guest speakers talk was based on what he believes made him change or mend his ways .His faith in
the Lord helped him to overcome all the hardships he faced and overcome his addiction. He is convinced
that his conversion to Christianity has saved him. This was part of his testimony on what the Lord has
done for him and what the Lord can do to others who are facing the same challenges he did before his
conversion. The Principal together with teachers, need to work hand in hand to make all learners feel
respected, and their religions acknowledged. The students’ knowledge, skills, and values regarding the
protection of citizens against religious coercion and discrimination should be developed. Develop in
learners the understanding of religious freedom from interference by the state or other people. Develop
in learners a profound appreciation of the spiritual values of all citizens.

Religion Education must be taught within a framework of inclusivity.It encompasses all religious beliefs in
South Africa, all cultural groups , all levels of authority in the education system , interdisciplinary
approaches and all school, public and private. Learners should achieve religious literacy to understand
different religions. They need to grow spiritually, both in terms of their own beliefs and ethics and in
terms of their treatment and understanding of others.
QUESTION 2

ISLAM AND HINDUISM

FOUNDERS

Islamic Religion was founded by The prophet Muhammad.

Hinduism has no founder .

BELIEFS

According to Islamic belief , God put all of creation in the care of human beings. God made human
beings in His image and appointed them as His vice-rulers on Earth. Islams believe in one God , who they
refer to Him as Allah , and the last day of judgment .Islams’ believe that ,when a person dies the body
returns to the earth and the soul goes to sleep until the day of resurrection. The resurrection of the body
and uniting of soul is followed by the final destination of judgement before God. They believe in the
basic articles of faith which consist of belief in one God ,and the five pillars of Islam , which incorporate
essential beliefs integrated with mandated practices . Even though Islam follows tradition of monotheism
, Islam rejects the Christian articulation of God in the form of Trinity. They believe it reflects polytheism.
The five pillars in Islam : 1 .Repetition of creed – this is the most common religious act of Muslims , it
ensures the frequent affirmation of faith. 2 Daily prayer – Muslims are expected to pray five times daily.
3 Almsgiving – they are expected to share their possessions with those less fortunate.4 Fasting – fasting
is very important .During the month of Ramadan Muslims are expected to abstain from eating ,drinking,
smoking and engaging in sexual relations during the daylight hours. The fast is kept in remembrance of
the month in which the Prophet Muhammad received his first revelation. 5 Pilgrimage – it takes place
during a special month in the Muslim calendar called Dhu-al-Hijah, they offer a sacrifice of sheep or goat
on the tenth day of Hajj. Then they may also visit Medina , to pay respect to the grave of the Prophet
Muhammad and pray at his mosque.

Hinduism, they believe in Reincarnation and Karma, the belief that the soul does not die with the body
but is reborn in a new body. The new life circumstances depend on the deeds of the old life. Hindus think
of a sacred image as an actual incarnation of the supreme being , a form taken by yhe godhead in order
to receive worship. They may acknowledge many deities but consider only one to be supreme, or they
may consider all gods and goddesses equal but worship one who is their favorite. The divine spirit is
believed to remain in the icon for as long as devotees wish. Hindus also revere heavenly bodies and
propitiate the nine planets in rituals. Many temples incorporate images of the planets.

SCRIPTURES

Sacred scriptures of Islam is called the Qur’an. The word Qur’an literally implies “readings” or “reciting”.
Muslims regard the Qur’an as revelations from God transmitted to Prophet Muhammad through the
angel Gabriel.

Hindus have two categories of scriptures ,Shruti and Smriti. Shruti means “ what is heard” and is the
authority for Hindu beliefs. Smriti means “ what is remembered”Smriti texts are derived from Shruti in
that the knowledge they convey comes from the Shruti texts.

FESTIVALS AND RITUALS

In Islam ,rituals play an important part of the Islamic faith. Rites of passage – Birth, circumcision,
marriage and death. 1. Birth- when a baby is born, the Muslim call for prayer known as that adhan, Allah
is great . 2 Circumcission- circumcision of a male child is usually performed at the age of four or later and
marked by family gatherings. 3 Mrriage – This is encapsulated in a ceremony called nikah .Nikah is a
simple ceremony in which a man and a woman declare their commitment to one another. 5 Death- it
embodies a very specific ritual performance. The burial follows promptly after the recitation of short
prayers . All Muslims are laid to rest on their right side facing Mecca .Males and females are never buried
in the same grave , if it is unavoidable then a partition is raised to separate the corpses. In Hindu ,rituals
and festivals allow for the expression of belief through practice. Hindu ritual practice also functions to
maintain existing gender and class power relations. There is householder rituals, Upanayana, birth,
marriage ,funeral rites divali and Holi. 1 Householder rituals- there are many samskaras including rites
that precede conception, rites for a healthy birth, those that follow the death of someone. 2 Upanayana-
boys respectively undergoes the ritual which enters them into the study of the Veda. It is known as their
second birth into the region of sacred knowledge. 3 Birth , before conception , married couples consult a
priest who through astrological means , will inform them about the most promising time for conception.
Once the child is born the priest then provides an astrological chart for the new born persons life. 4
Divali- is celebrated during September/October , celebrates the triumph of good over evil. 5 Holi is
celebrated in February/March to remember the destruction of the evil demoness Holika.6 Funeral rites –
death in Hinduism is ritualized in the form of the body being cremated. Men wear white clothing at the
funeral and white flowers adorn the ceremony. After the cremation ,the ashes should be scattered into a
river.7 Marriage-is clearly a social practice, providing continuity for society through family structures
established through the union of husband and wife .Since Girls do not undergo Upanayana ritual so for
them the marriage rituals serves the important function of their second birth into spiritual life.

PLACES OF WORSHIP

Islam use the Mosques as their worship places which also serve as schools and libraries .Mecca and
Medina are among the most important centres of learning. In Hinduism worship can take the form of
domestic worship , temple woeship or pilgrimage.Domestic worship does not require a priest to
administer. Most Hindus will have a corner of room or a shelf set aside for performing puja. Temle
worship is understood to be offering worship at the home of the deity. T he deity is housed in the most
sacred place in the temple . Pilgrimage – this form of worship is optional . The Himalayan pilgrimages are
the most arduous and are undertaken by holy men .

BIBLIOGRAPHY – REFERENCES
-Republic of South Africa (RSA), 2002, National Policy on Religion and Education. Pretoria: Government
printers

- Samad, Ulfat Aziz-Us, 1976 ,The great Religions of the world

-Robinson,A Thomas and Rodrigues,P Hillary,2006,Green Press ,United States of America

- Tutorial 102 and 104 ,Univesity of South Africa


DECLARATION

I the undersigned ,hereby declare that this is my own and personal work, except where the work or
publications of others have been acknowledged by means of reference techniques.

Signature PS Tshabalala

Name :Patience Sizakele

Student number :51866781

Date :29 March 2017