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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all we would like to say thanks for our GOD that helps us in all aspects from the
starting to the ending. He was the first adviser of ours during doing our project to give a good
health and willingness for all group members.
Secondly, we would like to express our deep gratitude for our Advisor Mr. A. Venkata dinesh
(MSc), and Gebremeskel (BSc) for their facilitating the Project in Progress in Debretabor
University Faculty of Technology.
Thirdly, we would like to tanks all respective Departments Members of DTUFT, and
construction workers that give their idea for doing this project. We say tanks all Mechanical
Engineering Staffs for their constructive ideas and efforts towards our project work. Lastly
we want to say tank for our parents that they help ours from chilled hood age to adult age for
supporting by idea and finances to reach this position.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

ABSTRACT

This project is Design of sand washing machine. The main target of, this project attempts to
explain the overall design of sand washing machine for construction and concrete purposes.
The project discuss about all design analysis, part and assembly drawing and the safety
operation of the machine. CATIA and AUTO CAD software are used for analysis.
The machine have the capacity of 0.7𝑚3 per mint and it contain mainly two main purposes
includes sieving and washing of sand. The first system used to sieve sands that come from
river banks with required manner and the washing process is performed by means of screw
conveyor mixing sand with water then it removes the silt and dusts from the surface of sand
and get a good sand quality for construction, concrete, and pool doing industries where
sieving process is done applying cam force on the follower which is inserted in to frame
which contains sieve the cam and follower will create vibration force this vibration force
done the sieving activity. But the washing process is performed by screw conveyor to mix
sand with water and then the bucket conveyor will do taking out the sand from the tanker.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1; Traditional sieving system......................................................................................... 3
Figure 2 Scopes for our project .................................................................................................. 4
Figure 3 Pure sand after sieve .................................................................................................... 5
Figure 4 Frame ......................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 5 Screening Net ............................................................................................................ 10
Figure 6 Handle........................................................................................................................ 11
Figure 7 Motor ......................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 8 Shaft ........................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 9 Hopper ....................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 10 Tanker ...................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 11 Gear box .................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 12 Screw conveyor ....................................................................................................... 14
Figure 13 Bucket ...................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 14 Water drain .............................................................................................................. 15
Figure 15 Water inlet ............................................................................................................... 16
Figure 16 Pulley ....................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 17 Geometrical Cross section of V-belt and sheave groove......................................... 20
Figure 18 v- belt Crossection ................................................................................................... 23
Figure 19 Concept design 1 of sand washing machine ............................................................ 25
Figure 20 Concept design 2 of sand washing machine ............................................................ 25
Figure 22 Concept design 4 of sand washing machine ............................................................ 26
Figure 23 Concept design 5 of sand washing machine ............................................................ 27
Figure 24 Motor ....................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 25 Gear box .................................................................................................................. 41
Figure 26 Shaft ......................................................................................................................... 54
Figure 27Vertical load diagrams .............................................................................................. 55
Figure 28 (a) Vertical bending moment diagram ..................................................................... 56
Figure 29(b) Horizontal load diagram ..................................................................................... 56
Figure 30(d) horizontal bending moment diagram .................................................................. 57
Figure 31 Sketch V- belt drive design calculation ................................................................... 65
Figure 32 Pulley ....................................................................................................................... 68
Figure 33 Hopper ..................................................................................................................... 70
Figure 34 Sieve net .................................................................................................................. 75
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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Figure 35 Support of sand sieving bed .................................................................................... 80


Figure 36 Screw conveyor ....................................................................................................... 81
Figure 37 Frame ....................................................................................................................... 82
Figure 38 Water inlet pipe ....................................................................................................... 85
Figure 39 Handle...................................................................................................................... 87
Figure 40 Water tanker ............................................................................................................ 89
Figure 41 Springs ..................................................................................................................... 93
Figure 42 Crank shaft............................................................................................................... 96
Figure 43 Banding moment diagram ....................................................................................... 98
Figure 44 Bending moment diagram ....................................................................................... 99
Figure 45 Bolt ........................................................................................................................ 100
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1Luggested service factors ks for v-belt drives. ............................................................ 21
table 2 Beltrange section specification .................................................................................... 21
table 3 Inside circumferences of standard v belts .................................................................... 22
table 4 Length conversion dimensions ..................................................................................... 22
table 5 Selection criteria of concept design ............................................................................. 28
table 6 Design specification ..................................................................................................... 31
table 7 Motor efficency and temperature testing ..................................................................... 38
table 8 Motor size specification ............................................................................................... 38
table 9 Motor size selection ..................................................................................................... 40
table 10 Gear teeth selection for designing of gear box........................................................... 42
table 11 Values of deformation factor (c). ............................................................................... 45
table 12 Values of flexural endurance limit. ............................................................................ 45
table 13 Standard selection of shaft ......................................................................................... 54
table 14 Material property for key ........................................................................................... 58
table 15 Standard key sizes and corresponding keyways for metric shafts ............................. 59
table 16 Life of bearings for various types of machines .......................................................... 60
table 17 Principal dimensions for radial ball bearings. ............................................................ 61
table 18 Dimensions of standard v-belts according to is: ........................................................ 65
table 19 Standard shape of screening net ................................................................................. 77
table 20 Grades of spring ......................................................................................................... 93
table 21 Design specification of crank shaft ............................................................................ 96
table 22 Result table ............................................................................................................... 102
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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

LIST OF ABRIVATION

z = number of teeth,

d = pitch circle diameter

wt = tangential transmitted load (N)

ZE = elastic coefficient √𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

𝐾𝑜 = overload factor

𝐾𝑣 = dynamic factor

𝐾𝑠 = size factor

𝑃𝑑 = transverse diametrical pitch

b = face width of the narrower member (mm)

KH = load distribution factor

ZR = surface condition factor

ZI = is the geometry factor for pitting resistance

𝐶𝑚𝑒 = uncrowned

𝐶𝑒 = all other condition

𝐶𝑝𝑚 = 1 bearing immediately adjacent

NG = Outside diameter large gear

Np =Outside diameter small gear

T= Output torque,

L=rating life.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

C=basic dynamic load rating.

W=Equivalent dynamic load, and

P= Duty power

P0 = duty power per belt (power transmitted with one belt)

z = Number of belts

KL = length factor

Kφ = contact factor

KT = service factor

Ki = transmission ratio factor

D1= outside diameter of small pulley

Wd = mass flow rate across the discharge end,

B = the screen width

U = the velocity of travel across the screen surface and

Ρb = the bulk density

d = Bed Depth, mm

F = Feed Rate, 𝑚3

ρ= Bulk Density, lb. /mm

V = Travel Rate, m/min.s

W = Net Width of Screen, m

D = Inside diameter of the water inlet,

v = Velocity of fluid flowing per minute, and

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Q = Quantity of fluid carried per minute.

T = torque

Ө = angular displacement

F = force (N)

L = length (m)

𝑁
E = young’s modulus (𝑚2 )

I = second moment of area

f = frequency in cycles per second, Hz

k = force constant, force per inch of deflection

g = acceleration due to gravity, 386.4 in./s2

W = weight in pounds, lb

WAP =applied load in newton

MT=Total mass of vibrating body

d= diameter of spring wire

D=mean diameter of spring

Di =inside diameter of the spring

Do = outside diameter of the spring

N=no. of coils let assume let

G=Modulus of rigidity

d =wire diameter

Nt =total number of coil and

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N=number of active coil

Ls =solid length of spring

g= gap between coil in mm

LF =free length of spring

FR=Restoring force in N

Kr =spring rate or stiffness of spring in N/mm

FR=Restoring force in N

Kr =spring rate or stiffness of spring in N/mm

LF=free length in mm

KB=buckling factor depends up on ratio

d1 = diameter of bolt
D1 = pitch circle diameter of bolt

n = Number of bolts

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Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................ 1

1.1 BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................. 1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ............................................................................... 3

1.3 OBJECTIVE..................................................................................................................... 3

1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE .......................................................................................... 3

1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................ 4

1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT............................................................................................. 4

1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY ................................................................................... 4

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT ................................................................................. 5

CHAPTER TWO ....................................................................................................................... 6

2 LITRATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 6

2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 6

2.1.1 Critical observations from published papers ............................................................. 6

2.2 Working Principle of sand washing machine ................................................................... 7

2.3 TYPES OF SAND WASHING MACHINE .................................................................... 8

2.3.1 Bucket wheel sand washing machine ........................................................................ 8

2.3.2 Screw sand washing machine .................................................................................... 8

2.3.3 Vibrating sand washing machine ............................................................................... 8

2.4 Combining Screening and Washing Process .................................................................... 9

2.4.1 Screening ................................................................................................................... 9

2.4.2 Washing ..................................................................................................................... 9

2.5 Components of Sand Screening and Washing Machine .................................................. 9

2.5.1FRAME ...................................................................................................................... 9

2.5.2 SCREENING NET .................................................................................................. 10

2.5.3 HANDLE ................................................................................................................. 11

2.5.4 MOTOR ................................................................................................................... 11

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2.5.5 SHAFTS .................................................................................................................. 12

2.5.6 HOPPER .................................................................................................................. 12

2.5.7 WATER CONTAINR ............................................................................................. 13

2.5.8 GEAR BOX ............................................................................................................. 13

2.5.9 SCREWS AND BUCKET CONVEYOR ............................................................... 14

2.5.10 WATER DRAIN ................................................................................................... 15

2.5.11 WATER INLET .................................................................................................... 16

2.5.12 PULLEY ................................................................................................................ 16

2.6 INTRODUCTION TO WELGING ................................................................................ 17

2.6.1 Arc Welding ............................................................................................................ 18

2.6.2 Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG) .............................................................................. 18

2.7 Drive selection and procedures ...................................................................................... 18

2.7.1 Drive Selection Procedure ....................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................................. 24

3 METHOD AND MATERIAL SELECTION ....................................................................... 24

3.1 Conceptual Development Method .................................................................................. 24

3.1.1 Identifying customer needs ...................................................................................... 24

3.1.2 Establishing target specifications ............................................................................ 24

3.1.3 Concept generation .................................................................................................. 24

3.1.4 Concept selection ..................................................................................................... 24

3.1.5 Setting final specification ........................................................................................ 24

3.1.6 Criteria for selection of best design concept ........................................................... 27

3.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD................................................................................. 29

3.2.1 Data Source.............................................................................................................. 29

3.3 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD ...................................................................................... 29

3.4 MANUFACTURING METHOD ................................................................................... 29

3.5 DESIGN METHOD ....................................................................................................... 31

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3.6 MATERIAL SELECTION ............................................................................................ 32

3.6.2 Selection of Materials used for shaft ....................................................................... 34

3.6.3 Selection of Material used for water tanker............................................................. 34

3.6.4 Selection of Material used for screening net ........................................................... 34

3.6.5 Selection of material used for frame........................................................................ 35

3.6.6 Selection of Material used for hopper ..................................................................... 35

3.6.7 Material selection for water inlet (pipe) .................................................................. 35

3.6.8 Selection of Material used for screw conveyor ....................................................... 36

3.6.9 Material selection used for crank shaft .................................................................... 36

CHPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................... 37

4 DESIGN ANALSES ............................................................................................................. 37

4.1 MOTOR ......................................................................................................................... 37

4.1.1 Motor selection ........................................................................................................ 37

4.2 Gear box design .............................................................................................................. 41

4.3 Design of Shaft ............................................................................................................... 53

4.4 Design for key ................................................................................................................ 58

By the distortion-energy theory, the shear strength is ...................................................... 58

4.5 Design of Welding ......................................................................................................... 62

4.6 Design of V- belt ............................................................................................................ 63

4.7 DESIGN OF PULLEY ................................................................................................... 68

4.8 Design of Hopper ........................................................................................................... 69

4.9 Design of sand drain ....................................................................................................... 72

4.10 Design of screening net ................................................................................................ 74

4.11 Design of support ......................................................................................................... 79

4.12 Screw Conveyor ........................................................................................................... 80

4.13 Design of frame ............................................................................................................ 82

4.14 Design of water inlet (pipe) .......................................................................................... 85

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4.15 Design of handle........................................................................................................... 87

4.16 Design of tanker ........................................................................................................... 89

4.17 Design of spring for Screen Vibrator ........................................................................... 92

4.18 Design of crank shaft.................................................................................................... 95

4.19 Design calculation for crankshaft ................................................................................. 96

4.20 Design of bolt and nut .................................................................................................. 99

CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................................... 100

5 RESULT AND DISCUTION ............................................................................................. 101

5.1THE FOLLOWING ARE RESULT AND DISCUTION OF SAND WASHING


MACHINE ......................................................................................................................... 101

5.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 102

CHAPTER SIX ...................................................................................................................... 103

6 CONCLUTION RECOMMENDATION AND REFERENCE.......................................... 103

6.1 Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 103

6.2 Recommendation .......................................................................................................... 103

6.3 Reference ...................................................................................................................... 104

APPENDIX .............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND
Sand is a loose fragmented, naturally occurring material consisting of very small particles of
decomposed rocks, corals, or shells. Sand is used to provide bulk, strength and other
properties to construction materials like asphalt and concrete. Specific types of sand are used
in the manufacture of glass and as a molding material for metal casting. Sand was used as
early as 6000 B.C to grind and plish stones to make sharpened tools and other objects In the
United states, sand was used to produce glass as early as 1607 with the founding of the short
lived Jamestown colony in Virginia. But today sand used multi Billions of Dollars or birr b/c
of the rapid development of urbanization. Due to development of urbanization the sand
conception will be increased so the conception of sand will satisfied by using machines, this
machines is used to improve the quality of sand and to produced high amount of sand
quantity, due to these peoples will introduced machines that reduced production time and
increases the sand quality and amount of quantity for the needed purpose.

The first record use of sand filtration for a citywide water supply was in 1804 by Jon Gibb in
paisley, Scotland. The filter provided water for Gibb’s bleaching business and for public
purchase. The model for present practice, however was a one-acre slow sand filter designed
by James Simpson for the Chelsea water company in London and completed in 1829.

The London filter was the first of its kinds and was a technological breakthrough in that the
Designed lead the foundation for a wide spread practice that continues today. Simpson based
his filter Designed upon information he gained during 2000mile study tour through Scotland,
where he saw several installation, mostly for industrial use. None of these were like the forth
coming London filter, which he was to design Simpson made the basic design a down flow
filer and used scraping to remove accumulated material that is the schmuizdecke. The
hydraulic loading rate, sand size sand bed depth, water depth, and other design parameters
that he delineated became the basis for the practice that followed. The London filter, which
used the Thames River as supply (Baker 1948). The Hydraulic loading rate, 0.15m/hr (meter
per hour), or 3.9 mgad (million gallons per day), became a common design criterion and is
one of the several criteria retained to current times.

The first slow sand filter in the United States was installed 1872 for the town of
Poughkeepsie, NY, and was designed by Jams Kirkwood (Baker 1948). Installation followed

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at Hudson, NY, in 1874; State production of sand for construction purpose grew significantly
with the push for paved roads during World War I and through 1920s. The housing boom of
the late 1940s and 1950s, coupled with the increased use of concrete for building
construction, provided another boost in production

In 1940, the United States had about 100 slow sand filters and about 2,275 rapid rate filters
(Logsdon and Fox 1988).With the rapid development of the economy in the world, the
consumption of the sand used as the concrete fine aggregate becomes increasingly
pronounced. Particularly, with the accelerating development of the urbanization in Ethiopian
cities are faced with a dilemma that the river sand resource will be exhausted. Therefore,
replacing river sand with Lake Sand. In fact, it has been a long time since River sand was
used in the Ethiopian construction industry. In Ethiopia, above 90% of the sand

For building is river sand. In Ethiopia, many cities are as store river sand resources. However,
various kinds of salts and hazardous materials will have detrimental effects on the concrete,
which causes that the application and popularization of the river sand in the construction
industry are constrained to some extent. Also, our project shows lake sand will more suitable
than river sand, which can produce more amount of sand content. If the lake sand is used, the
luck of sand will be reduced throughout the country. Therefore, our project will be done
related technology of sand washing machine to improve economic benefits and built quality
construction. This sand washing machine is necessary sand washing product auxiliary
equipment for sand making machine with screw and wheel structure.

It can remove stone powder and impurity away from the mixed sand produced by sand
making machine.so it can improve sand quality. Sand washer adapted advanced technology
and taking the stone sand industry practical condition into consideration is applied for
washing grading and dehydrating in construction site, sand stone factory, hydroelectric
station dame, concrete factory, glass plant and oil well refilling. This series washer with
features of high cleaning ratio, reasonable structure, high capacity, low power conception and
small quantity sand lost during sand washing. Especially transmission part isolates from
water and sand. So it reduces the break down compared with the traditional sand washer. This
product is the best sand washer.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This project will improve the Ethiopian sand quality usage. According to our project the sand
used for construction and concrete purpose must meet the quality stated by Ethiopian
standard sand quality control. For different construction of works requires different standards
of sands. For brick works requires the finest module of fine sand should be 1.2 to 1.5 and silt
content should not be more than 4 %. For plastering works requires the finest module of fine
sand, it should not be less than 1.5 and silt content should not be more than 4 %. For
Concerting Works requires the coarse sand with the finest modulus 2.5 to 3.5 and silt
contents should not be more than 4%.Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between
sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. In this context, the machine will
do both washing and sieving process.

Figure 1; TRADITIONAL sieving system

1.3 OBJECTIVE
1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this project is to design and manufacturing of sand washing machine
by using the available technology and material found in the Debre Tabor University.

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1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE


 Design sand washing machine.
 Draw part drawing.
 To layout the overall sand washing machine arrangement.
 To refine the model if there is any defect.
 To manufacture parts and components based on the specification.
 To operating the machine in manual and motor drives.
 To buy parts that cannot be manufactured based on the available technology.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The project work is limited in the design and manufacturing of sand washing machine
based on the available technology found in the Debre Tabor University and city. This project
is done at which is obligated to produce different casting material and construction building
sands basically at the sand preparation system. So in this project work we will improve the
quality of sand by designing new machine which had low processing time and high capac ity.

Figure 2 Scopes for our project

1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY


Our project mainly used to remove stains, stone chips and other impurities on the surface of
sands one of the raw material in concrete. Therefore the affinity of sand and cement could be
improved to enhance the overall strength of concrete. our machine is widely used in all types
of constructions projects such as, roads, railway, bridges, water conservancy, electric pole

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factory…….etc. It can also use improve the quality of sand.

FIGURE 3 PURE SAND AFTER SIEVE

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT


The limitation of this project is listed below:-

o Shortage of time
o The availability of data source is limited
o Lack of technical skill and experience
o The shortage of raw material land capital

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

CHAPTER TWO

2 LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Sand washing machine is a kind of wheeled, screw, and vibrating washing machine
equipment, and can clean and separate the dust and powder from the sand. Its new structure
and reliable driving device can make sure the cleaning effective and a kind of high efficiency
sand washing equipment matched with sand making machine. Sand washing machine are
mainly used in building site, gravel plant concrete dam building site of hydropower station,
etc., and with features of high degree cleaning up reasonable structure large capacity low
power consumption small loss of sands during the washing process especially for that the
drive parts of the sand washing machine are separated from water and sands.

2.1.1 Critical observations from published papers


From the paper “washing of sand water pass through a bed of sand” (Utah state university
1828 GC) we infer that even though washing of sand water passing through a bed using water
flowing on sand is more easier than the screw conveyor bucket conveyor washing system but
it lack in the sense that is not portable and it has not wheels and it will have high amount of
water conception and sand wastage.

From the paper “washing of sand by using screw and bucket conveyor operated by
motor.” (Department of mechanical engineering M,E,S college of engineering pune
India).We observe that the washing of sand by using screw and bucket conveyor operated by
motor is more simple than that of operated by hand but it has its own limitation. This
limitation is we cannot operate the machine when the electric power is not available and also
the machine does not have sieve to remove the grass and other an wanted materials but our
modified project will have sieve and it can also operate by hand and motor. Therefore our
project will improve more quality than that of the above listed two machines.

From the paper “sand washing by using bucket conveyor” (FAVORSEA INDUSTRY) we
infer that even though washing sand by using bucket conveyor is more simple than that of
using combination of bucket and screw conveyor to wash sand to remove stone chips sand
and other impurities. But it has its own weakness for removing impurities of sand according
to Favor sea industry the only use bucket but our project will have some modification. These

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are including sieves, wheels, handle and combination of bucket and screw conveyor.
Generally our project will drive both by manual and motor.

From the paper “washing sand by using screw conveyor” (yun-fei fu,Jie Gong,Zheng
Deng,JI-Hua Li Si-Dong Li upswing Li and Zi-Ming Tong). The aim of this study is to
minimize the specific energy consumption of the screw sand wash machine but we inferred
that the machine has its own weakness because the machine does not consider sieving and
bucket conveyor also the machine will derive by only but our project will drive by both motor
and hand these means if electric power is available the machine will operated by motor if it is
not available we can drive by hand.

From the paper “screening and washing sand” (Department of mechanical engineering
Nugpur, India 2013) is states that screening and washing sand by using dram and screw
conveyor, for removing large particles by using drum to get fine sands then inter in to
container to wash dusts and silts to get pure sand by using screw conveyor. From the paper
we infer that the machine is simpler than that of washing by bucket conveyor but it has its
own limitations .The limitation is it is not portable, does not drive by hand, high water
consumption, but our projects will a combination of wheel, screw conveyor with bucket
conveyor and it can drive both motor and hand.

2.2 Working Principle of sand washing machine


When the crank shaft is rotate then the sand particles will pass or drop from the screening net.
This working mechanism is performed by creating vibration on the sieve. This means the
spring and small shaft or pin are connected by the side of the frame. This spring will create
vibration during the crank shaft rotate. This mechanism is done by the means of belt connect
with motor. The motor will rotate both sieving and washing shafts. The sieving process will
perform or done by spring mechanism but the washing process first the sand is come from the
river bank then this sand will enter in to the screening net. This screening net will
differentiate large particle of stones and sands then it drop in to the water tanker. This water
tanker contains both sand and water then the screw conveyor mixes the sand and water. This
is used to remove silts from the surface of the sand and give pure sand. After the screw is mix
the sand and water the screw conveyor will come or connect in one part. This connecting
sand will take out by bucket in to the surface of the Flore. This is the working mechanism of
sand washing machine.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

2.3 TYPES OF SAND WASHING MACHINE


There are three types of sand washing machine these are

1 bucket wheel sand washing

2 screw sand washing

3 vibrating sand washing

2.3.1 Bucket wheel sand washing machine


It is types of sand washing machine that used to remove impurities from the surface of sand.
Bucket wheel sand washing is currently available machine in the world these machine has its
own working principle: bucket wheel sand washing machine motor through a triangular belt
reducer drives the impeller to rotate slowly, sand and gravel feed chute in to the washing
groove has a rolling in the impeller drive , grinding each other remove the impurities on the
surface of the sand covered and destroy coated sand moisture layer in order to facilitate the
dehydration; while adding water formation sand washing machine storing currents timely will
take a small proportion of the impurities and the foreign body, and wash tank is discharged
from the over flow out let to complete the cleaning effect.

2.3.2 Screw sand washing machine


Screw sand washing machine has the characteristics of simple structure, smooth operation,
sand washing, sand washing machine production and high yield. It is widely used in
construction sites, sand gravel, glass factory, power station, concrete to the system of stone
electrical and other departments. It is a mechanism [Fig.3] that uses a rotating helical screw
mounted on the shaft along with the bucket elevator and this is mounted in a trough made out
of 3mm hot rolled sheet in which the water is contained. When the machine is started this
screw conveyor churns and pushes the sand towards the rotary elevator. In this action the silt
content in it dissolves in water and the washed sand is picked up and discharged by the rotary
elevator. To avoid the saturation of the silt a continuous supply of water is maintained

2.3.3 Vibrating sand washing machine


Vibrating sand washing machine is used remove impurities from the surface of sand and
clean dust and powder, this machine is different from the above lasted types of sand washing
machine by its working principle. The working principle is vibrating the machine and then
the sand will separate from impurities.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

2.4 Combining Screening and Washing Process


2.4.1 Screening
Screening is the process of removing comparatively larger sand particles and other
unnecessary impurities present in the sand which is excavated from the river banks.”
Screening is the most important process in the screening process. Gravels and pebbles are
screening are separated from required of sand. Due to screening of san we can give good
strength to the concrete and improve quality of sand.

2.4.2 Washing
Washing is the process of removing dust particles and other impurities with the help of water
jet. Screw conveyor combine with bucket conveyor is fitted inside the container. The
conveyor screw combine with bucket is connected to the motor when the sand and water
flows in forward direction with the movement of the conveyor.

2.5 Components of Sand Screening and Washing Machine


1 Frame

2 screening net

3 Shafts

4 Motor

5 Hoppers

6 Water containers

7 Conveyor screw with bucket

8 Water drain

9 Water inlets

10 Pulleys

11Belts

12 Handle

2.5.1FRAME
Frame is acts like guidance which is used to a container of inlet sand screening net is fitted
inside the drum. This component is important for collecting sands and feeding to the
screening net. Therefore drum will full fill for this machine.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 4 FRAME

2.5.2 SCREENING NET


Screening net is providing for screening the sand having large size according to the
requirement. Screening net is used to remove large sands and other unwanted materials that
are available in the sand. A sand screen is typically categorized based on the size of hole of
the weld mesh. This helps in preventing large stone particles present in sand from getting into
the screw conveyor. The screen consists of a two rectangular frame arranged at right
angles toeach other.

FIGURE 5 SCREENING NET

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2.5.3 HANDLE
Handle is a component of sand washing machine that used to operate screw conveyor to wash
sand with the required amount of sand.

FIGURE 6 HANDLE

2.5.4 MOTOR
Motor is a device which used to convert one form of energy to other form of energy. There
are different types of motor but in our project we use electric motor.

FIGURE 7MOTOR

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2.5.5 SHAFTS
The term ‘shaft’ usually refers to a component of circular cross-section that rotates and
transmits power from a driving device, such as a motor or engine, through a machine. Shafts
can carry gears, pulleys and sprockets to transmit rotary motion and power via mating gears,
belts and chains.Alterna- tively,a shaft may simply connect to another via a coupling.A shaft
can be stationary and support a rotating member, such as the short shafts that support the non-
driven wheels of automobiles

Shaft rotates with the help of the motor and it helps to transmit this motion to the screening
net. Shaft is an important component which used to transmit power from motor to the
required position.

FIGURE 8 SHAFT

2.5.6 HOPPER
Hopper is the component of sand washing machine which is used as an inlet for impure sand
in the drum for screening.

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FIGURE 9 HOPPER

2.5.7 WATER CONTAINR


Water container is a component of sand washing machine which is used to contain water to
remove slits from the sand. Therefore this component is very important for storing water an

FIGURE 10 TANKER

2.5.8 GEAR BOX


Gear reducers are used to reduce speed and increase torque. You will find them between the
prime mover (i.e.: electric motor, gas, diesel or steam engine, etc.) and the driven equipment:

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conveyors, mills, paper machines, elevators, screws, agitators, etc.). Gearbox is defined as a
machine for the majority of drives requiring a reliable life and factor of safety, and with the
pitch line velocity of the gears limited to below 25 m/s, as opposed to mass produced
gearboxes designed for a specific duty and stressed to the limit, or used for very high speeds
etc., e.g. automobile, aerospace, marine gearboxes

FIGURE 11 GEAR BOX

2.5.9 SCREWS AND BUCKET CONVEYOR


It is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw mounted on the shaft along with the
bucket elevator and this is mounted in a trough made out of hot rolled sheet in which the
water is contained. When the machine is started this screw conveyor churns and pushes the
sand towards the rotary elevator. In this action the silt content in it dissolves in water and the
washed sand is picked up and discharged by the rotary elevator. To avoid the saturation of the
silt a continuous supply of water is maintained.

FIGURE 12 SCREW CONVEYOR


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Rotary Bucket Elevator It consists of buckets to contain the material. The buckets are made
from perforated sheet to drain out water. The rotary elevator is formed by welding bent plates
between two rimmed discs.

FIGURE 13 BUCKET

2.5.10 WATER DRAIN


Water drain is a component of sand washing machine which used to drain the sand that
removes water from washed sand. Mainly this component is a store of sand after it will wash
or remove impure materials like dusts, slits and other impure materials.

FIGURE 14 WATER DRAIN

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2.5.11 WATER INLET


It is a material or component that used to guide water which inter in to the water container
and remove impure materials from the surface of sand. This component is important for
interring and stopping the amount of water required for washing purpose.

FIGURE 15 WATER INLET

2.5.12 PULLEY
The pulleys are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of flat belts, v
belts or ropes since the velocity ratio is the inverse ratio of the diameter driving and driven
pulleys, therefore the pulley diameters should be carefully selected in order to have a desired
velocity ratio. The pulleys must be in perfect alignment in order to allow the belt to travel in a
line normal to the pulley faces.
The pulley may be made of cast iron, cast steel or pressed steel, wood and passer. The cast
material should have good friction and wear characteristic. The pulley made of pressed steel
are lighter than cast pulleys, but in many cases they have lower friction and may produce
excessive wear. The following procedure may be adapted for the design of cast iron pulleys

FIGURE 16 PULLEY

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2.6 INTRODUCTION TO WELGING


Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or
thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the work pieces and
adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become
a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce
the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-
melting-point material between the work pieces to form a bond between them, without
melting the work pieces.

Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc,
a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding
may be performed in many different environments, including open air, under water and in
outer space. Welding is a potentially hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to
avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and
exposure to intense.

Until the end of the 19th century, the only welding process was forge welding, which
blacksmiths had used for centuries to join iron and steel by heating and hammering. Arc
welding and oxy fuel welding were among the first processes to develop late in the century,
and electric resistance welding followed soon after. Welding technology advanced quickly
during the early 20th century as World War I and World War II drove the demand for reliable
and inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars, several modern welding techniques
were developed, including manual methods like shielded metal arc welding, now one of the
most popular welding methods, as well as semi-automatic and automatic processes such as
gas metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, flux-cored arc welding and electro slag
welding.

Developments continued with the invention of laser beam welding, electron beam welding,
electromagnetic pulse welding and friction stir welding in the latter half of the century.
Today, the science continues to advance. Robot welding is commonplace in industrial
settings, and researchers continue to develop new welding methods and gain greater
understanding of weld quality and properties.

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2.6.1 Arc Welding


Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc
between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can
use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable
electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor,
and/or slag.

2.6.2 Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG)


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG)
welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding
process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed
through a welding gun. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly
used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used.
There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-circuiting,
spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinct properties and corresponding advantages
and limitations.

Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous materials in the 1940s,
GMAW was soon applied to steels because it allowed for lower welding time compared to
other welding processes. The cost of inert gas limited its use in steels until several years later,
when the use of semi-inert gases such as carbon dioxide became common. Further
developments during the 1950s and 1960s gave the process more versatility and as a result, it
became a highly used industrial process. Today, GMAW is the most common industrial
welding process, preferred for its versatility, speed and the relative ease of adapting the
process to robotic automation. Unlike welding processes that do not employ a shielding gas,
such as shielded metal arc welding, it is rarely used outdoors or in other areas of air volatility.
A related process, flux cored arc welding, often does not utilize a shielding gas, instead
employing a hollow electrode wire that is filled with flux on the inside.

2.7 Drive selection and procedures


The belts or ropes are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of
pulleys which rotate at the same speed or at different speeds. The amount of power
transmitted depends upon the following factors:

A widely used type of belt, particularly in industrial drives and vehicular applications, is
the V-belt drive. The V-shape causes the belt to wedge tightly into the groove, increasing
friction and allowing high torques to be transmitted before slipping occurs. Most belts

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have high-strength cords positioned at the pitch diameter of the belt cross section to
increase the tensile strength of the belt. The cords, made from natural fibers, synthetic
strands, or steel, are embedded in a firm rubber compound to provide the flexibility
needed to allow the belt to pass around the sheave. Often an outer fabric cover is added to
give the belt good durability.

 The velocity of the belt.

 The tension under which the belt is placed on the pulleys.

 The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller pulley.

 The conditions under which the belt is used. It may be noted that

(a) The shafts should be properly in line to insure uniform tension across the belt section.

(b) The pulleys should not be too close together, in order that the arc of contact on the
smaller pulley may be as large as possible.

a belt in each groove is provided to transmit the required amount of power from one
pulley to another.

2.7.1 Drive Selection Procedure


The following pages contain Pre-Engineered Drive Selection Tables for which the majority
of all industrial applications will be covered. These various combinations of V-belts and
sheaves cover a wide range of horsepower’s, speed ratios, and center distances for standard
electric motor speeds. The drive tables have been arranged so that the design of a complete
drive can be accomplished as easily as possible. To select a drive from the tables it is
necessary to know only:

 The type of driver (motor) and its rated horsepower.

 The speed of the driver.

 The desired center distance and any space limitations (radial and axial)

 Compactness (small distance b/n the center of the pulleys)

 The fact that the slip between the belt and the pulley are negligible

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 It provide long life

 It can be easily installed as well as maintained

 The center distances have the ability to be horizontal, vertical or set perpendicularly to the
driving motor.

2.7.2.1 V-BELT DRIVE


We have already discussed that a V-belt is the mostly used in factories and workshops
where a great amount of power is to be transmitted from one pulley to another when the
two pulleys are very near to each other.so that for cobblestone cutting machine design V-
belt is sew table because of the following reason

FIGURE 17 GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION OF V-BELT AND SHEAVE


GROOVE

Design procedureFirst we must get the power suitable for the belt drive due to its load
slipping b/n shave and belt, the working condition, the duration of the machine on the
operation. In order to compensate all this influence there must be the service factor as well as
the factor of safety of belt. Considered the service factor is mostly depend up on the type of
shock on the machine the experimentally recommended service factor is listed below

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Source of power
Normal Torque High or Non uniform
Driven Machinery Characteristic Torque
Uniform 1.0 to 1.2 1.1 to 1.3
Light shock 1.1 to 1.3 1.2 to 1.4
Medium shock 1.2 to 1.4 1.4 to 1.6
Heavy shock 1.3 to 1.5 1.5 to 1.8

TABLE 1SUGGESTED SERVICE FACTORS KS FOR V-BELT DRIVES.

From the above table our machine are expected to have light shock thus service factor for our
case is 1.1 and also the factor of safety is 1.1 for normal torque characteristics.

Belt Width a, Thickness b, Minimum Sheave hp


Range,
Section in in Diameter, in One or
More Belts

TABLE 2 BELTRANGE SECTION SPECIFICATION

To specify a V-belt, give the belt-section letter, followed by the inside circumference in
inches (standard circumferences are listed in Table 2.12). Calculations involving the belt
length are usually based on the pitch length. For any given belt section, the pitch length is
obtained by adding a quantity to the inside circumference (Tables 2.12 and 2.13). That is a B
belt has a pitch length of 58.8 in. Similarly, calculations of the velocity ratios are made using
the pitch diameters of the sheaves, and for this reason the stated diameters are usually
understood to be the pitch diameters even though they are not always so specified. From the
above table depends up on the design power used to drive the cutter 10hp the desire
dimension is minimum shave diameter is 5.4in

5.4× 2.54 = 13.516cm~135mm

A = 16.7mm, b = 11.1mm is the belt specification based on the driving motor power

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Section Circumference, in

A 26, 31, 33, 35, 38, 42, 46, 48, 51, 53, 55, 57, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 71,
75, 78, 80, 85, 90, 96, 105, 112, 120, 128

B 35, 38, 42, 46, 48, 51, 53, 55, 57, 60, 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 71, 75, 78,79, 81, 83,
85, 90, 93, 97, 100, 103, 105, 112, 120, 128, 131, 136,144, 158, 173, 180, 195,
210, 240, 270, 300
C 51, 60, 68, 75, 81, 85, 90, 96, 105, 112, 120, 128, 136, 144, 158,162,173, 180,
195, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 390, 420

D 120, 128, 144, 158, 162, 173, 180, 195, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330,360,390, 420,
480, 540, 600, 660

E 180, 195, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 390, 420, 480, 540, 600, 660

TABLE 3 INSIDE CIRCUMFERENCES OF STANDARD V BELTS

The length conversion dimension is 1.8inch it used to get the exact pitch length of the belt
from the inside circumference of the belt.B57 is a B-section belt having an inside
circumference of 57 in. the pitch length is defined as the circumferential length of the belt at
the pitch width (i.e. the width at the neutral axis) of the belt. The value of the pitch width
remains constant for each type of belt irrespective of the groove angle.

Belt section A B C D E

Quantity to be added 1..3 1.8 2.9 3.3 4.5

TABLE 4 LENGTH CONVERSION DIMENSIONS

(Add the Listed Quantity to the Inside Circumference to Obtain the Pitch Length in
Inches)The groove angle of a sheave is made somewhat smaller than the belt-section angle.
This causes the belt to wedge itself into the groove, thus increasing friction. The exact value
of this angle depends on the belt section, the sheave diameter, and the angle of contact. If it is
made too much smaller than the belt, the force required to pull the belt out of the groove as

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the belt leaves the pulley will be excessive. Optimum values are given in the commercial
literature.

The minimum sheave diameters have been listed in Table 2.13. For best results, A

V belt should be run quite fast: 4000 ff/min is a good speed. Trouble may be encountered if
the belt runs much faster than 5000 ft/min or much slower than 1000 ft/min. The pitch length

FIGURE 18 V- BELT CROSSECTION

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CHAPTER THREE

3 METHOD AND MATERIAL SELECTION


3.1 Conceptual Development Method
Concept Development Phase Development process demands the coordination among
functions of the integrative development methods, which is called as the front-end process.
The front end process generally contains many interrelated activities such as;

3.1.1 Identifying customer needs


The goal of this concept is to understand customer’s need (user’s need) like construction
house, concrete and other consumptions etc. The output of this step is to see the needs of
customers and categorize its suitable condition. The data are obtained mainly by interviewing
the construction workers pool making industry, and also from the observation of the current
sand washing system. The identification of the current sand washing machine design
weaknesses is really helpful in providing the target specification.

3.1.2 Establishing target specifications


Target specification is an important concept development steps to specify the project work.
Establishing target for the specifications are put the process and represent the guide for
generating the idea of machine modification based on many variables. After this
specification we can consistent with the product design and manufacturing concept. The
output of this stage is a list of target specifications.

3.1.3 Concept generation


The target of concept generation is to explore the solution for the problem and specify the
machine concepts that may address the customer needs. Concept generation includes a mix of
external search, creative problem solving, and of the various problem solutions.

3.1.4 Concept selection


Concept selection is a critical problem identification stage from different concepts. In our
project we select concepts depend on their quality and its operational easiness of the machine.

3.1.5 Setting final specification


The last stage of concept development is put the final or the selected idea of our project and
describe our machine deferent from the existing machine. When we see the purpose of this
stage it helps to know the final project selection.

Depend on the above listed criteria we develop the following concepts.

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Concept – 1

In our first concept generation for our group is the machine which have not sieve it will done
only washing.

FIGURE 19 CONCEPT DESIGN 1 OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

Concept – 2

The second concept of our group is the machines which have not sieve it has the same
obligation but the screw conveyor assemble with buckets.

FIGURE 20 CONCEPT DESIGN 2 OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

Concept – 3

The third concept is the machine which is don both washing and sieving process but in this
concept the machine does not have bucket it has only screw conveyor.

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FIGURE 21 CONCEPT DESIGN 3 OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

Concept – 4 our fourth concept generation the machine has done both sieving and washing
process and also the screw conveyor is assemble with bucket but the sieving process is done
by means of human because there is no connection between washing and sieving process.

FIGURE 22 CONCEPT DESIGN 4 OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

concept – 5 In our fifth concept generation is the machine which is done both washing and
sieving and the screw conveyor is assemble with bucket, the bucket is a wheel like structure
which is used to take out the sand form the tanker to sand drain and the sand will put on sand
collector.

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FIGURE 23CONCEPT DESIGN 5 OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

3.1.6 Criteria for selection of best design concept


Based on customer needs we have tried to select the best by considering using different
measuring parameters to develop and design good quality for full filling the efficiency of luck
of quality of sand that becomes failairity of different infrastructures. These parameters are
listed below.
Efficiency
Time saving

Flexibility

Safety and Maintainability

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S No selection criteria number of concepts

1 2 3 4 5
1 Time saving 0 0 1 2 4
2 Flexibility 1 2 3 4 5
3 Performance 0 0.25 2.5 1 3
4 Maintainability 1 2 2.5 3.5 4.5
5 Reliability 0.15 0.5 3.75 2 3
6 Cost effective 3 2 1 0.5 3.5
7 Easy to operate 0.54 1 2.5 1 5
8 Sustainability of machine 1 1.5 2 2.75 3.5
9 Easy to use 1.5 2 3 2.5 4
10 Safety 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
11 Grade 10.19 13.75 24.25 22.75 41.5

12 Rank 5 4 2 3 1

TABLE 5 SELECTION CRITERIA OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Depend on the above concept generation we select our final project of design and
manufacturing of sand washing machine Idea by considering the following criteria.

Efficiency

Time saving

Flexibility

Safety

Maintainability

Washing capacity

Power saving

Cost effectiveness

By considering the above listed criteria we select the final design and manufacturing of sand
washing machine. Our group selects the fifth concept which is done both washing and
sieving. And also the screw conveyor is assembling with bucket to take the washing sand
from the washing tanker. By assuming its advantage

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3.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD


3.2.1 Data Source
Data will be assessed from different stake holders through direct interview, observation by
us, from

The whole data will be gained through the two perspectives.

Primary data:-direct observation, formal and informal interview with different workers, and
personal recording of data.

Secondary data: -Different research work by different employee of the university, other
students’ paper work from different universities, and from different metal making industry.

3.3 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD


Using machine element analysis to design machine parts like gear box, shaft, belt …etc.

By using software draw manufacture drawing and blade analysis

It minimizes cost of the physical labor

Since the machine wash high amount of sand in small operating time and consume less water
that means 60% of water consumption reduced.

As the system will have mechanized system, it create improved efficiency

Manual system which it requires more than a week to wash a single car sand (16m3)

But by using this machine it reduce to less than two days or only use 12 hours.

3.4 MANUFACTURING METHOD


Welding:-Welding may be defined as the metallurgical joining together of two metal pieces
to produce essentially a single piece of the metal. It produces what is known as a” permanent
fastening”. Welding is a fabrication method in which portions of metal plate, various rolled
sections, castings and other metal pieces are joined to produce desired shapes. Its products are
known as “weldments”. Welding is also useful as a method of repairing broken, worn or

Defective metal parts. The types of welding used in these manufacturing processes are3 but
joint, lap-joint, T-joint, two kinds of corner joints, two kinds of edge joints.

Sawing:-Metals and many other materials, in addition to wood are often sawed with power-
operated sawing machines. Sawing machines may be grouped in to three classifications as
follows: power hack saws, circular sawing machines and band sawing machines. Sawing is

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governed by the same cutting conditions which apply to the other machining processes. The
sawing processes is used because it has advantages, including doing the job faster, saving
material, and using less power. Also, a minimum of material is lost as chips.

Milling:-It is a machining process for removing excess material from a work piece with a
rotating center. This rotating cutter, called a “milling cutter,” may have only one cutting edge
or a number of similar cutting edges, which are spaced around and located at equal distances
from the rotational axis of the cutter.

Turning:-It is a lathe operation in which an external cylindrical surface is produced. The


cutting tool is first adjusted for the desired depth of cut, using the cross slide. Then as the
work piece rotates, the cutting tool is advanced relatively slowly in a direction parallel to the
rotational axis of the spindle.

Facing:-It is a lathe operation which generates an internal cylindrical surface with a single-
point tool. It can be described as internal turning, if the work piece is rotated as in a lathe. As
in turning, depth of cut is adjusted with the cross slide and the feed is obtained with the

Carriage movement

Drilling:-It is one the cutting operations using drill bits to produce rough holes. The machine
tool involved in this case is a drill press. There are two cutting edges that produce chips
similar to those produced in turning on a lathe and a certain web region that extrudes the
metal at the center of the hole which is not removed by the cutting edges. Both lips (cutting
edges) of a drill operate with variable rake angle,

Inclination angle and clearance angle along the cutting edge. The flutes of a drill play
important role of conveying the chips out of theholeandthehelixangleofthedrillsimportant in
this connection.

Rolling:-The processes of rolling consist of passing a piece of metal between tow fixed
cylinders and one revolving cylinder. The process of rolling is repeated until the required

Shearing:-It is an operation that is used to cut sheet metals in to the required dimensions.
The machine used for this purpose is called shearing machine. There are different types of
shearing machines based on the thickness of the blade. Proper utilization of the machine
based on the thickness of the blade is important for its durability.

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3.5 DESIGN METHOD


S No Component Specification Unit
1 Length of frame 2000 Mm
2 Length of screening 1900 Mm
net
3 Length of Shaft 2000 Mm
4 Motor 4 Kw
Water inlet length 500 Mm
6 Hopper size 300 Mm
7 Length of water 2000 Mm
container
8 Length of screw 2000 Mm
conveyor
9 Size of water drainer 1800 Mm
10 Size bucket 300 Mm
11 Length of belt Mm
12 Size of pulley
13 Length of handle
14 Gear box

TABLE 6 DESIGN SPECIFICATION

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3.6 MATERIAL SELECTION


These mechanical and physical properties are very important for the selection of the
material by using different kind standard such as ASMS.

a) strength
b) corrosion resistance
c) resistance to mechanical attack
d) fracture toughness
e) fabric ability
STRENGTH
The strength of the material is based on the mechanical propriety of the material that used for
the most easy, fast, strong and low cost of production. Some of the mechanical properties are
(yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, creep strength and rupture strength).

 Yield strength
Yield strength is the region which a material changes from plastic to elastic deformation.
Some of the material to select for presser cylinder and there yield strength. The stress level at
which the plastic deformation begins.

 Ultimate tensile strength(UTS)


The ultimate tensile strength (tensile stress) is a measure of the basic strength of the
material. It is the maximum stress that the material will stand and measure by a
Standard tensile test.
 Creep strength
Material are often pleased in a service at elevated temperature and exposed to
static mechanical stress the deformation under such circumstance is termed
creep .The time dependent and permanent deformation of material when
subjected to a constant lode and stress.
Rupture strength
Is the material resistance to the fracture caused by the internal pressure of the fluid that was
present inside the tank? And it is proportional to tensile strength (UTS) which means the
martial have high UTS and it have good Rupture strength.

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B) Corrosion resistance

Corrosion: is partial or complete wearing away, dissolving, or softening of any substance by


chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. The term corrosion specifically
applies to the gradual action of natural agents, such as air or salt water, on metals. The most
familiar example of corrosion is the rusting of iron, a complex chemical reaction in which the
iron combines with both oxygen and water to form hydrated iron oxide. The oxide is a solid
that retains the same general form as the metal from which it is formed but, porous and
somewhat bulkier, is relatively weak and brittle.

C) Resistance to mechanical attack

The tensile strength (UTS) and elastic modulus of metals decrease with increasing
temperature. Hydrogen attack cause irreparable damage through the component thickness &
can damaged carbon and low alloy steel.

D) Fracture toughness

The ability of the material that absorb energy up to fracture .brittle fracture without
applicable deformation and by rapid crank propagation .The direction the crack motion
is very nearly perpendicular to the direction the applied tinsel stress and yield stress
related with fracture surface. Brittle fracture is depended on the stress consternation (K).
And stress consternation facer is shown blow.

E) Fabric ability

Based on how it made and cost of production. A guide to the fabrication properties of
common metals and alloys are shown blow.

S -satisfactory
D -Difficult, special techniques needed.
U-Un-satisfactory.

Form the above listed component of our design we select materials for each component of the
machine according to the above listed properties of material. To make our project first
consider the availability, cos, physical and mechanical property, machinability, and
3manufacturing process of material. Depending on this consideration we can select material
for each component.

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3.6.2 Selection of Materials used for shaft


When service requirement are not too sever, the least expensive shaft material is hot rolled
plane carbon steel. For maximum machinability, a normalizing o annealing treatment may be
necessary to improve the grain structure and to secure uniformity. Since hot rolled bars are
received from the mill are usually covered with scale, the shaft must be machined all over if a
smooth surface is desired. If a greater strength is needed than can be secured by the use of a
low carbon steel in the as-rolled condition, a steel of somewhat higher-carbon content can be
used. After the machining has been completed, the tensile and yield strengths and hardness
can be increased by a quenching and tempering heat treatment. To respond to quenching, the
carbon content must be about 0.30% or more. For forged shafts such as are used in internal
composition engines and rail rolled cars, the carbon content is usually 0.45or 0.50. A widely
used such service is plain- carbon steel 1045.

3.6.3 Selection of Material used for water tanker


We select mild steel due to its really cheap. Mild steel generally around 50c to 2 dollars aped
depending on the quantities. It is easy to form in to things it can be welded. It deforms prior
to failure has good fatigues properties. It can be treats to various state and energy efficient
methods. it is easy to weldability but because it's corrosive type it needs surface treatment to
protect it like painting.

Mild steel has a density of 7.85 g/cm^3, yield strength of mild steel is 248 Mpa, tensile
strength is as a force per unit area the unit being Pascal, Mpa, N/m2 or Psi (pound force per
unit square inch).

Mild steels are more malleable than other steels mild steel are less brittle than other steels

3.6.4 Selection of Material used for screening net


We select aluminum for design of screening net because of availability, strength, and costs.
The strength of aluminum is b/n 70 and 700 Mpa the range for alloys used in extrusion is
150-300Mpa.it does not brittle at low pressure. Aluminum is malleable.it is the essential
extrusion either hot or cold. Aluminum is easy jointing in to profile design, fusion welding,
and friction stir welding; bonding and taping are used for jointing. Corrosion resistance
aluminums reacts with oxygen in the air to form thin layer of oxide this layer has excellent
resistance to corrosion. Aluminum is well suited to cold environment. It has advantage over
steel in that its tensile strength increases with decreasing temperature. Aluminum has a
density of aluminums is about 2700kg/m3, melting point of 658degree culicids and aluminum

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

is easily worked using most machining method’s -drilling, milling, cutting, punching,
bending etc. furthermore the energy input during matching is low.

3.6.5 Selection of material used for frame


We select gray cast iron for frame to design. Gray cast iron is a type of iron which is carbon
content greater than 2% and which micro structure. It is one of the most common types of
carbon iron used in application. It is relatively inexpensive malleable and durable.

Properties of gray cast iron

Compressive or (crushing) strength 570 to 1290Mpa or (8300o to 190000Psi)

Tensile strength 150 to 450Mpa or (22000 to 65000Psi)

Shear strength 180 to 610Mpa

Density 7.2 g/cm³

3.6.6 Selection of Material used for hopper


In our project of sand washing machine has the component of hopper. The least expensive
materials that used to made hopper is stainless steel, stainless steel has the following grades,
such as grade 303, 304, 410, and 430 but in our project making of hopper we select grade 430
due to it has low cost alternative to series 300s grades. Used when high corrosion resistance
is not a primary criteria. Therefore grade 430 the best alternative of making hopper.

3.6.7 Material selection for water inlet (pipe)


We select Wrought iron for pipe to design. Wrought iron is an iron alloy which very low
carbon content with respect to cast iron. It is soft, ductile, and magnetic and has high
elasticity and tensile strength. It can be heated and reheated and work in various shape.

Although wrought iron exhibits properties that are not found in other form of ferrous metal. It
lacks the carbon content necessary for hardening through heat treatment. Wrought iron may
be welded in the same manner as mild steel but present of oxides or inclusion will provide
defective results.

Properties of wrought iron

Density 7.7g/cm³ or (0.278lb/in³)

Melting point 1540ºC or (2860ºF)

Tensile strength 234- 372 Mpa or (34000- 54000Psi)

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Yield strength 159- 221Mpa or (23000- 32000Psi)

Modulus of elasticity 193100Mpa or (28000psi)

3.6.8 Selection of Material used for screw conveyor


Plain carbon steel is selected for the design of screw conveyor. Due to the criteria

1 availability

2 suitability to working

3 low cost

Plain carbon steel is now the most common form of steel. Because of its price is relatively
low while it provides materials properties that are acceptable for many applications

Plain carbon steel contains approximately 0.05%-0.25% carbon

Making it malleable and ductile mild steel has relatively low tensile strength but it is cheap
and easy to form: Surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. Resist oxidization
and corrosive attack from most corrosive media.

3.6.9 Material selection used for crank shaft


The crank is an important component to translate the linear motion in to rotary motion of
connected road which is used to sieve sands that is important to applied force to create
vibration on the sieve part. The crankshaft is usually composed of one or multiple throws to
which the connected road is attached with either spring in right side frame or left side frame
which comes vibration on the sieve net to remove large sands and grasses to disturb screw
conveyor in washing process of sand. Crankshaft is prepared in the process of forging in
which a billet of suitable size is heated to the appropriate forging process temperature range
of 1950-2250 degree far night.

The materials used for design crankshaft is made from low alloy steel and high alloy steel but
the cheapest one is low alloy steel therefore we select for our design is low alloy steel. which
contains carbon from (0.25-0.45%)

The yield strength can be between 250-590Mpa

Tensile strength of low alloy steel is 5-1

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

CHPTER FOUR

4 DESIGN ANALSES
4.1 MOTOR
Motor is a device which used to convert one form of energy to other form of energy. There
are different types of motor but in our project we use electric motor.

4.1.1 Motor selection


The selection of motor is depends on the power needed to the amount of sand that will be
washed, for the analysis which involve the amount of sand, depth of tanker and the peripheral
velocity of the shaft the necessary peripheral velocity for the shaft diameter ø450mm is
35m/s so in order to get this velocity as well’s the sufficient power 6.25KW the preferable
motor is the motor with 1450rpm and with power 7.5kw (it considered with service factor and
the losses due to slip b/n belt and pulley) is the most preferable one is selected from the

FIGURE 24 MOTOR

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

TABLE 7 MOTOR EFFICENCY AND TEMPERATURE TESTING

Mounting arrangements for rotating


AM132M TA Specifications
electrical machines are designated
Pole 4 according to IEC 60034-7, Code I
(in brackets Code II). Motors are
Power 7.5KW
available with the mounting
Rpm 1450 arrangements shown below,
depending on design and frame
diameter of the 45mm
size. Motors with aluminium frame
shaft
are equipped with removable feet

width of key 14mm that allow easy change of


mounting arrangement.It is
length of shaft 110mm essential to state the desired

Height of key 9mm mounting arrangement when


ordering, as the constructive design
diameter of shaft 51.5mm depends partly on the mounting
with key height arrangement

TABLE 8 MOTOR SIZE SPECIFICATION

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Mechanical tolerances: According to IEC 60072-1, the following tolerances on mechanical


dimensions of electric Motors are permitted: The shaft in the key to fit pulley with motor is
selected from the standard table 2.2 as shown below

Detail of motor and the standard dimension of each parts which found b/n input pulley and
motor is listed on the table

Motor size

To select motor size depending upon the motor power we select the standard number of
dimension from the table2.4 above list

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Table a motor size selection

TABLE 9 MOTOR SIZE SELECTION

From the above two tables the dimension of the standard motor is 405mm length and
248mm diameter

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

4.2 Gear box design


Gear reducers are used to reduce speed and increase torque. You will find them between the
prime mover (i.e.: electric motor, gas, diesel or steam engine, etc.) and the driven equipment:
conveyors, mills, paper machines, elevators, screws, agitators, etc.). Gearbox is defined as a
machine for the majority of drives requiring a reliable life and factor of safety, and with the
pitch line velocity of the gears limited to below 25 m/s, as opposed to mass produced gear
boxes.

FIGURE 25 GEAR BOX

Before starting design, the following factors must be known.


• The type, powers and speeds of the prime mover.
• The overall ratio of the gearbox.
• The types of unit required – parallel or angled drive.
• The application.
• Any abnormal operating conditions.
• The disposition of the input to output shaft.
• The direction of rotation of the shafts.
• Any outside loads that could influence the unit, e.g. overhung loads, brakes, outboard
bearing etc.
• The type of couplings to be fitted.
• Any space restriction

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

For designing of gear box we use spure gear for reducing of speed and increase torque for
gating the required rotation. Therefore for design of gear box we can start design of spure
gear we use the following minimum gear teeth selection standard table.

S No Systems of gear teeth Minimum No of teeth on


pinion
1 141/ 20 composite 12
2 141/ 20 full depth involute 32
3 20 full depth involute 18
4 20 stub involute 14

TABLE 10 GEAR TEETH SELECTION FOR DESIGNING OF GEAR BOX

Deepened on this table we can start to design gear for our required wants

To design gear box first we must specified which type of gear is used and select for this gear
minimum number of gear.

In our gear box design we select spur gear because of the availability of material found to
construct this type of gear.

To design this gear first we must know or take the power to be delivered, input speed, output
speed, maximum gear box size and its gear bearing life. Depend on this consideration we can
start to design spur gear take the following assumption. Design of gear box specification

 Power to be delivered 4000w


 Input speed 1400rpm
 Output speed less than 180rev/min
 Input and output shaft extend 100mm
 Maximum gear box size 180mm×180mm in base 275mm
 Gear and bearing life of 10^8 cycle and reliability of 0.99
The recommended series of modules in Indian Standard are 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,
10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50.
For this design, we select module (m) = 4mm, pressure angle (∅) = 20° full depth
involute gear.
For our design analysis, the minimum number of teeth on the king roller gear and the
crushing roller gear (pinion) are the same, that is, zp = zg = 30 teeth.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

d
Depend on the standard proportions of gear system, we can calculate;m = z

Where, z = number of teeth, d = pitch circle diameter


𝑑
4= , 𝑑 = 120𝑚𝑚
30
π × pitch circle diameter πd π × 120
Circular pitch, p = = = = 9.42mm
Number of teeth z 40
Number of teeth z 30
Diametral pitch, P = = = = 0.25teeth/mm
pitch circle diameter d 120
Addendum (ha ) = 1 × m = 1 × 4mm = 4mm
Dedendum (hf ) = 1.157m = 1.157 × 4mm = 4.628mm
Outside (addendum) diameter, da = d + 2ha = 120 + 4 × 2 = 128mm
Root (dedendum) diameter, df = d − 2hf = 120 − 2 × 4.628 = 110.744mm
Clearance, c = hf − ha = 0.628mm
p 9.42
Tooth thickness, t = = = 4.71mm
2 2
p
Width of space = = 4.71mm
2
The face width (b) may be taken as 3p to 4p (or 9.5m to 12.5m) for cut teeth;
Face width, b = 9.5m = 4 × 9.5mm = 38mm
Base circle diameter = dcos∅ = 120 ∗ cos20 = 112.76mm
d1 + d2 m 4
Centre distance, C = = (z1 + z2 ) = (30 + 30) = 120mm
2 2 2
when the same size of gears are used for washing and sieving of sand.
𝜋𝐷𝑁 𝜋∗120∗61.75
𝑉𝑚 = 1000∗60 = = 0.4M/s
1000∗60

Speed ratio, V.R= 1 in our case,


Center distance between the shafts
= (120+120)/2
= 120mm

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Force analysis
In gear, power is transmitted by means of a force extracted by tooth of driven gear.
According to fundamental law of gearing this resultant force wN always acts along pressure

line.
Figure; Tooth of a gear
Since both the roller gears are made of the same material (i.e. cast iron), therefore
pinion is the weaker. Thus the design will be based upon the pinion.
Considering the speed of the roller as 240rpm, then the pitch line velocity of the pinion for
the roller should be
πdp × Np
v= = 0.4m/s
60 × 1000
3
Since v is less than 12 m / s, therefore velocity factor, Cv = 3+v = 0.882

We know that number of teeth on the pinion, zp = 40 (…...the pinion for the roller)
Let us take the allowable static stress for the gear material as,𝜎0 = 105𝑀𝑃𝑎
For 200 full depth gear, tooth form factor for the gear and pinion,
𝟎. 𝟗𝟏𝟐
𝐲𝐩 = 𝐲𝐆 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟓𝟒 − = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟑𝟏𝟐
𝟒𝟎
We also know that maximum tangential force on the gear,
FT = σwg.b.π.My=(σ0 *Cv)* b.π. m.yg
= 105*28.5*3.14*3*0.1312
=3700.3N
Thus, the tangential force of gear = 3700.3N
Values of maximum allowable tooth error in action (e) by applying interpolation =0.05754

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Material Involute Values of deformation factor (c) N-mm


Pinion Gear tooth Tooth error in action (e) in mm
form 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
Cast iron Cast iron 57 114 228 342 456
Steel Cast iron 20° full 79 158 316 474 632
Steel Steel Depth 114 228 456 684 912

TABLE 11 VALUES OF DEFORMATION FACTOR (C).

Now the values of deformation factor (C) =328N/mm


We know that the dynamic load,
21v(b. C + Ft ) 21 × 0.4(28.5 × 318 + 3700.3)
Wd = Ft + = 3700.3 + = 4577N
21v + √b. C + Ft 21 × 0.4 + √28.5 × 318 + 3700.3

From table, we find that flexural endurance limit (𝜎𝑒 ) for cast iron is 84 Mpa.
Material of pinion and Brielle hardness Flexural endurance limit(𝜎𝑒 ) in Mpa
gear (B.H.N)
Grey cast iron 160 84
Semi-steel 200 126
Phosphor bronze 100 168
Steel 150 252
200 350
240 420
. .
. .

TABLE 12 VALUES OF FLEXURAL ENDURANCE LIMIT.

∴Static tooth load or endurance strength of the tooth,


Ws = σe . b. π. m. yp = 126 × 38.5 × π × 3 × 0.1312 = 5998.4N
Thus, the allowable static stress (σ0 ) for both the pinion and gear is same (i.e. 140MPa or
N/mm2) therefore the pinion is weaker. Thus the design should be based upon the pinion.
We know that ratio factor (Q),

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

2 × V. R 2 × 1
Q= = = 1,
V. R + 1 1 + 1
since the gear and pinion have the same number of teeth, then V. R = 1
Maximum or limiting load for wear load for satisfactory wear of gear teeth, is obtained by
using the following
Buckingham equation, i.e.
Ww = dp . b. Q. K = 96 × 38 × 1 × 1.5 = 5130N
Since both Ws 𝑎𝑛𝑑 Ww 𝑎𝑟𝑒 greater thanWd , therefore the design is safe.
Now, we can calculate the mass of gear first calculate the area of the gear.
𝜋𝑑𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 1 𝜋𝑑𝑠2
𝐴𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 = ( − × 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ)2 −
4 2 4
Where Ag = area of geared= diameter of guards = diameter of gear shaft
Working depth = 2*m = 2*3 = 6mm
𝜋∗120 1 𝜋∗322
𝐴𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 = ( − 2 × 6)2 − = 9947.1mm2
4 4

So mass of gear (mg) =b × ρ × 𝐴𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟


𝑘𝑔
𝑚𝑔 = 9947.1𝑚𝑚2 × 28.5𝑚𝑚 × 7200 𝑚3 = 2.04kg

Weight of the gear, Wg=𝑚𝑔 ∗ 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 0.204 ∗ 9.81 = 20.04N

Gear reduction box


Due to the motor’s speed at 1450 rpm is very much larger than the desired speed of the roller
at 100 rpm, gear reduction box is required to reduce the input speed to a much lower value.
The gear reduction box uses two gear pairs that help to reduce the speed from 1405 rpm to
150 rpm. The workings are shown below.
Assumption
 20⁰ full depths involves teeth frame chosen.
 Safety factor 2 will be used
Characteristics of support are accurate mounting small bearings clearance minimum,
precision gear
Analysis
Over all gear box height 8 cm or 80mm
For compound reverted gyration
𝑁2 𝑁4
𝑟= = 7.5
𝑁3 𝑁5

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

For smallest package size both stage be the same reduction also by making the two
stages identical in line condition on the input and outputs will automatically be
satisfied.
𝑁2 𝑁4
= = √7.5 = 2.74
𝑁3 𝑁5
For this ratio the minimum number of teeth on the pinion interference is given by
2𝑘
𝑁𝑝 = × (m+√𝑚2 + (1 + 𝑚)𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜑……………….[1]
(1+2𝑚)𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜑
2(1)
=
(1+2×2.74)𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜑
(2.74+√2.74 + (1 + 2 × 2.74)𝑠𝑖𝑛20)

= 5.87
Select the minimum number of teeth is 18….. [1]
𝑁2 = 𝑁4 =18 teeth
𝑁5 =𝑁3 = 2.74×18
=49.32 ≈ 49
Check if 𝑤5 is within limit
18 18
𝑊5 = (49 × 49) ×1500 =110.32rev/min ……… acceptable

Proceeding with
𝑁2 = 𝑁4 = 18 tooth
𝑁5 =𝑁3 =49 tooth
18
𝑊3 = 𝑊4= 49 ×1500 = 551.02 rev/min

Overall gear box height = 8cm = 80mm


𝑁2 𝑁5
𝑁3+ + +2
2 2
M= (𝑦−𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒−𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 ) …………….[1]
𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠
49+6+24.5+2
= ( ) = 6.52
14−1.5

Let’s take M= 4 when clearance – wall thickness = 2


Let’s say m= 4
𝐷𝑝 = m𝑇2 = 18*4 = 72
DG = m𝑇3 = 4× 49 = 196
The pitch line velocity for the pinion and gear
𝜋 𝐷2𝑁2 3.14×72×1500
V23 = = = 5.652m/s
60 60
𝜋𝑑5𝑤5 3.14×196×110
V45 = = = 1.128m/s
60 60
60𝐻 5000𝑤×60
Wt23 = 𝜋𝑑2𝑛 = = 884.46N
3.14×72×1500𝑚/𝑠

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

60𝐻 𝐻 5000 𝑤
Wt45 = 𝜋𝑑𝐺𝑛 =𝑉 = = 4432.62 N
45 1.128𝑚/𝑠

This calculation starts from the smallest gear because it transmits the largest load
For gear 4

Pinion tooth wear


J = 0.49
𝑡 𝐾 𝑍
𝑌𝑁 = (όc) p = [ZE√𝑊23 𝐾𝑜 𝐾𝑣 𝐾𝑆 𝑑 𝐻𝑏𝑍𝑅 ]
𝑤𝑙 𝐼

Where wt is the tangential transmitted load (N)


ZE is an elastic coefficient √𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
𝐾𝑜 Is the overload factor
𝐾𝑣 Is the dynamic factor
𝐾𝑠 Is the size factor
𝑃𝑑 Is the transverse diametrical pitch
b is the face width of the narrower member (mm)
KH is the load distribution factor
ZR surface condition factor
ZI is the geometry factor for pitting resistance
𝐾𝑜 = 1 for uniform loading
𝐴+√200𝑣 𝛽
𝐾𝑣 = ( )
𝐴

𝛽 = 0.25 (12 –𝑄𝑣 ) 2/3 when as from 3 to 7 for most commercial quality gear
Let’s take 𝑄𝑣 = 4
𝛽 = 0.25 (12 - 4)2/3 = 0.5
A = 50 +56(1- 𝛽)
= 50 + 56(1- 0.5) = 78
78+√200×6.52
𝐾𝑣23 = = 1.46
78

To determine the size factor Ks from table 14.2


𝑌𝑝 = 0.245 for 18 tooth
1
𝐾𝑠 = 𝐾 = 0.8433 (M f √𝑦) 0.0535
𝑏

Assume the face width of the pinion and gears 24mm

KH =1 + 𝐶𝑚𝑒 (𝐶𝑝𝑓 𝐶𝑝𝑚 + 𝐶𝑚𝑎 𝐶𝑒 )


𝐶𝑚𝑒 = 1 uncrowned

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

𝐶𝑒 = 1 all other condition


𝐶𝑝𝑚 = 1 bearing immediately adjacent
18
F= 25.4=0.709inch
18
𝐶𝑝𝑓 = = 0.03 < 0.05
10×60
𝐹
Therefore we use this formula 𝐶𝑝𝑓 = 10𝑑 - 0.025 = 0.05

𝐶𝑚𝑎 = 0.247 + 0.0167(0.709) – 0.765(10-4)× (0.7092)

KH = 1 + 𝐶𝑚𝑒 (𝐶𝑝𝑓 𝐶𝑝𝑚 + 𝐶𝑚𝑎 𝐶𝑒 )

= 1+ 1[0.05× 1 + 0.259× 1]

= 1.309

Reliability factor

KR = 0.5 – 0.109 𝑙𝑛(1-R)

= 0.5 – 0.109 𝑙𝑛 (1-0.99)

= 1.0019635

cos 20° 𝑠𝑖𝑛20° 2.886


Z1 = (2.886+1) = 01193
2

Pinion tooth wear

From table value (material)

ZE = 191√𝑀𝑝𝑎 …………….Strength of Grade 1 steel

1.03×1.309×1
(όc)P =191√1061 × 1 × 1.517 × 60×20×0.1193

= 243.64 𝑀𝑝𝑎

Contact fating strength

(SC) p= 2.22HB+200Mpa…………………….1

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

= 2.22(200) + 200

=644 𝑀𝑝𝑎

Stress cycle factor

(ZN) p = 1.4488(108)-0.023 = 0.948

𝑍𝑤 = CH = 1

𝑆𝑐 𝑍𝑁
6𝑐 =
𝑆𝐻

640∗0.948
= 243.67

= 2.48……………….. This show as pinion gear safe for wear

Pinion tooth bending

𝑆𝑡 = 0.533 HB + 88.3

=0.533× 200 + 88.3

= 194.9 𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝒕
𝐾𝐻 𝐾𝐵
ό𝒑 = 𝑊𝟐𝟑 𝐾𝒐 𝑘𝒗 𝑘𝒔
𝑚𝑡 𝑌𝑆 𝑏

1.003 1.309×1
= [1061× 1 × 1.57 × 18×5 = 73.638 𝑀𝑝𝑎
0.33

ό𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑆𝑡 𝑌𝑁

𝑌𝑁 = 1.3558(N) -0.0178

= 1.3558(108) - 0.0178

=0.977

6𝑎𝑙𝑙 =194.9×0.977

= 190.4 𝑀𝑝𝑎

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

6𝑎𝑙𝑙
𝑛=
6

190.4
= = 2.58…………………….this show as pinion gear safe for bending
73.638

Gear reduction
Due to the motor’s speed at 1450 rpm is very much larger than the desired speed of the roller
at 100 rpm, gear reduction box is required to reduce the input speed to a much lower value.
The gear reduction box uses two gear pairs that help to reduce the speed from 1405 rpm to
150 rpm. The workings are shown below.

Required gear pairs in gear reduction box


The purpose of gear reduction is to reduce the speed of 1450 rpm to about 100 rpm.
To find 1st gear pair;

The output torque, T= P/ω


2200 × 60
𝑇=
2𝜋 × 1450
=14.48Nm
Since the application is of normal importance, Km= 1.5 and with moderate shock loading and
drive, Kt= 1.75, Where, Km and Kt are bending and torsion factors accounts for shock and
fatigue. The values of these factors are given in ASME design code.
𝑇𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑇 ∗ 𝑠 ∗ 𝑓𝑩
𝐵
= 14.48Nm ∗ 1.5 ∗ 1.75
= 38Nm
Then taking module m=3mm,min teeth =18,max teeth=36
1st trial; m=3,Np=18,Ng=48
Check for output speed:

input NG
=
out put NP
1450 60
=
out put 18
Output speed=500srpm
If NG is lower than 42, the output speed will be more than 500 rpm, thus one pair of gears is
not possible, use gear train to reduce speed as low as possible.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

 Outside diameter of NG = 150mm


 Outside diameter of Np= 54 mm
 To find 2nd gear pair;
Output torque, T= P/ω
2200 ∗ 60
T= = 40.24Nm
2 ∗ π ∗ 522
Teff = T ∗ s ∗ f𝐁
B
=40.24 *1.5*1.75
=105.63Nm
Select module, m = 3mm, min teeth = 18, max teeth = 48
2nd trial; m=3,Np=18,Ng=50
Check for output speed:

input NG
=
out put NP
522 50
=
out put 18
Output speed=177.9rpm
Since the new output speed is not close to 100 rpm, choose another trial.
Select module, m = 3mm, min teeth = 18, max teeth = 60
3rd trial; m=3,Np=18,Ng=60
Check for output speed:

input NG
=
out put NP
500 60
=
out put 18
Output speed=140rpm

Check tip to tip dimensions:


Outside diameter of NG = 180mm ,
Outside diameter of NP = 54 mm
st
For gear train: 1 pair: m = 3.0, NP = 18, NG = 50
nd
2 pair: m = 3.0, NP = 18, NG = 60s

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

4.3 Design of Shaft


Shaft is rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one part to another.
The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and resultant torque (twisting
moment) setup on it to transmit the power. Cylindrical shaped shaft is suitable for this design
project. The material used for the shaft should have the following properties:-
 It should have high strength
 It should have good wear resistance
 Material should have good machine ability
The following stresses are induced in the shafts
 Bending stress
 Shearing stress
 Stresses due to combined torsion bending load
According (ASME) American society of mechanical engineering A. Design of transmission
shafts the maximum permissible stresses in tension / compression.
1. 112Mpa for shaft without allowable for keys
2. 84Mpa for shaft with allowable for keys
B. The maximum permissible shear stress may be taken
1. 56Mpa for shaft without allowable keys
2. 42Mpa for shaft with allowable keys
The shaft may be designed on the basis of
 Strength
 Rigidity and stiffness

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 26 SHAFT

Indian standard designation Ultimate tensile strength, Mpa Yield strength ,Mpa
40C8 560-670 320
45C8 610-700 350
50C4 640-760 370
50C12 700mm 390

TABLE 13 STANDARD SELECTION OF SHAFT

From our material selection of the shaft, we select plane carbon steel of the grade
45C8 that means the ultimate tensile strength ranges from 610-700Mpa and also yield
strength 350Mpa.
The ASME code for the design of transmission shafts, the maximum permissible working
stresses in tension or compression may be taken as
a) 112 Mpa for shafts without allowance for key ways
b) 84 Mpa for shafts with allowance for key ways
Then the permissible tensile stress σt=0.6σt or 0.36 σu
The maximum permissible shear stress must be taken as
a) 96 Mpa for a shafts without allowance for key ways
b) 42 Mpa for a shaft with allowance for key ways and the permissible shear stress.
τ=0.3σer or o.18σu which is less
Assuming no power loss, P=T1𝜔1=T2𝜔 2

60∗P
T=2𝜋∗𝑁

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

60∗4000
=2𝜋∗156.6=243.91Nm

Safety of factor, it is recommended as 2 commonly

Considering vertical loading only,

Let RAV and RBVbe the reaction at the bearings A and B respectively due to vertical load only.

Total load=T1+T2 + self-weight of pulley

902+898 – 120 =1680N

Distributed load force on screw conveyor of sand washing,

w =2000N/2000mm

= 1N/mm

Then RAV+RBV=1680+1*2000 = 3680N

Taking moment about A

2000*2000/2-RBV*2000=0

RBV=1000N

RAV=2680N

FIGURE 27VERTICAL LOAD DIAGRAMS

Vertical bending moment at various points on the shaft,

B.M at A=0

M.M at B=0Nmm

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 28 (A) VERTICAL BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

Vertical bending moment diagram is shown in fig (a),

i) Considering horizontal forces only, RAH AND RBH are the reactions horizontal load
only;

We know that; RAH+RBH= 0 N…………………………….. (1)

FIGURE 29(B) HORIZONTAL LOAD DIAGRAM

Taking moment about A we get

0*RAH=340*2235.833

RH= (340*2235.833)/320

=2375.57N

Then, RCH=2235.833-2375.57

=139.7N (down ward direction)

Figure; Horizontal bending moment diagram

Horizontal bending moment at various points on the shaft,

B.M at A=0

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

M.M at B=0

Resultant bending moments,

Resultant bending moments, at A=0

Resultant bending moments, B=67513.5Nmm

FIGURE 30(D) HORIZONTAL BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

Te=√(𝑀𝑏 )2 + 𝑀𝑡 2 = √(257312.3Nmm)2 + (134.15 × 103 )2

=290182.4Nmm

Since, the shaft is made up of 45C8 steel, from table,𝜎𝑦 =350Mpa

According to maximum shear stress theory,

𝜎𝑦 350
𝜏𝑦 =𝑓.𝑠= =175N/mm2
2

Allowable shear stress

𝜏𝑦 175
𝜏𝑦 = 2 = =87.5N/mm2
2

We know that,

π∗τ∗d3
𝑇𝑒 = =
16

16∗𝑇𝑒 16∗290182.4
𝑑3 = = =16890.1mm3
𝜋∗𝜏 𝜋∗87.5

d =25.65mm,
From, Standard sizes of transition shaft one 25 mm to 60mm with 5mm steps, 60mm
to 110mm with 10mm steps 110 to 140 mm with 19 mm steps and 140mm to 500mm with 20
mm step. Depending on this, we select the shaft diameter d= 30mm.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

4.4 Design for key


A key is a piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of the pulley to
connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always inserted
parallel to the axis of the shaft. Keys are used as temporary fastenings and are subjected to
considerable crushing and shearing stresses.
Key material
The material must be able to resist the cursing and share stress, the appropriate material we
select C-45 it`s mechanical properties is listed below

Designation Tensile Yield Elongation Composition Hardness


strength(Mpa) strength(Mpa) %
c-45 carbon 618- 696 353 13 Mn0.6-0.9, 229HB
steel C 0.45-0.55

TABLE 14MATERIAL PROPERTY FOR KEY

By the distortion-energy theory, the shear strength is

Specification
 Shaft diameter =30 mm
 Material for shaft; 45C8 steel having yield strength of 350 Mpa
 Material for key; mild steel having yield strength of 340 Mpa
 Assume a factor of safety of 2
From the following table, we find that for a shaft of 40 mm diameter,
Width of key w = 8mm
Thickness of key, t = 7mm
Metric standard parallel keyway and key sizes
Shaft diameter(mm) Keyway (mm) Key (mm)
From To Width (w) Depth(h) Width(w) Depth(T)
9 10 3 1.4 3 3
18 22 6 2.8 6 6
23 30 8 3.3 8 7
31 38 39 44 12 3.3
45 50 14 3.8 14 9
51 58 16 4.3 16 10

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59 65 18 4.4 18 11

TABLE 15 STANDARD KEY SIZES AND CORRESPONDING KEYWAYS FOR


METRIC SHAFTS

According to maximum shear stress theory, the maximum shear stress for the shaft,
𝜎𝑦𝑡 350
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 87.5𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
2 × 𝐹. 𝑆 2 × 2
And maximum shear stress for the key,
𝜎𝑦𝑡 340
𝜏𝑘 = = = 85 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
2 × 𝐹. 𝑆 4
We know that the maximum torque transmitted by the shaft and key;
𝜋 𝜋
T = 16 × 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 × 𝑑3 = × 87.5 × (40)3 = 1099557.4𝑁 − 𝑚𝑚
16

First of all, let us consider the failure of key due to shearing. We know that the maximum
torque transmitted (T),
𝑑 45
1099557.4 = 𝑙 × 𝑤 × 𝜏𝑘 × = 𝑙 × 14 × 85 × = 26775𝑙
2 2
𝑙 = 41𝑚𝑚
Now considering the failure of key due to crushing; we know that the maximum torque
transmitted by the shaft and key (T),
𝑡 𝑑 340 40 𝜎𝑦𝑡
1099557.4 = 𝑙 × 2 × 𝜎𝑐𝑘 × 2 = 𝑙 × 4 × × = 17212.5𝑙, taking 𝜎𝑐𝑘 =
2 2 𝐹.𝑆

𝑙 = 80.8𝑚𝑚
Taking the larger of the two values, we have
𝑙 = 80.8𝑚𝑚, Say 82mm.
τMax = 0.577(σy) = 0.577(353mpa) = 203.68mpa is for key

τMax = 0.577(σy) = 0.577(373mpa) = 215.2mpa

Selection of bearing

A bearing is a mechanical element that permits relative motion between two points, Such as
the shaft and the housing, with minimum friction.
The functions of bearing are as follows:
1. The bearing ensures free rotation of the shaft or the axle with minimum friction.
2. The bearing supports the shaft to hold in the correct position.
3. The bearing takes up the forces that act on the shaft and transmits them to the frame or
the foundation.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

The most frequently used bearing is deep groove ball bearing. It is found in all most all kinds
of products in general mechanical engineering.
The maximum load on the shaft of the machine is 785.4 N due to the mass of crushing rollers,
gears and bagasse. The load applied on the shaft of rotating gear is 462 N, the shaft of
crushing roller rotates with a speed of 240rpm and the shaft of driven pulley rotates with 586.
Machines working intermittently whose 8000 – 12 000
breakdown would have serious consequences
e.g. auxiliary machinery in power stations,
conveyor plant for flow production, lifts,
cranes for piece goods, machine tools used
frequently.
Machines working 8 hours per day and not 12 000 – 20 000
always fully utilized. E.g. stationary electric
motors, general purpose gear units.
Machines working 8 hours per day and fully 20 000 – 30 000
utilizede.g. Machines for the engineering
industry, counter shafts.

TABLE 16LIFE OF BEARINGS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF MACHINES

The expected life of bearing for the shaft of crushing roller is (bearing life assume 20,000hr).
To select bearing for the shafts;
w= 785.4N (type single raw deep groove ball bearing
The approximate rating (or service) life of ball or roller bearings is based on the fundamental
equation.
𝐶
L=(𝑊)𝑘 × 106 revolutions
𝐿 1
C=w ×(106 )𝑘 =785.4*(14900)1/3

=19.326kN
Where L=rating life.
C=basic dynamic load rating.
W=Equivalent dynamic load, and
K=3.for ball bearings.
The relationship between the life in revolutions (L) and the life in working hours (𝐿𝐻 ) is
given by

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

L=60N× 𝐿𝐻 revolutions
=60×240×14900=2.146×108 revolutions
From dimension static and dynamic capacities of single row deep grove ball bearing table
designation bearing number 210 having the following basic capacities is suitable for shaft
diameter of 50mm.
- C0=21.2KN=21200N and C=19.326kN
- Bore ; d=50mm
- Outside diameter; D=90mm
- Width; h=20mm
Bearing No. Bore (d) Outside diameter Width (w) Single row deep groove ball
(D) bearing
Static Equivalent
load(C0),KN dynamic
load(Cd),KN
206 30 62 16 10 15.3
208 40 80 18 16 22.8
209 45 85 19 18.3 25.5
210 50 90 20 21.2 27.5
211 55 100 21 26 34
212 60 110 22 32 40.5

TABLE 17 PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS FOR RADIAL BALL BEARINGS.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

4.5 Design of Welding


Welding is material joining process in which two or more parts are coalesced at their
contracting surface by a suitable application of heat and/or pressure many welding processes
are accomplished by heat alone with no pressure applied other by a combination of heat and
pressure; and still other by pressure alone, with no external hot heat supplied. In some
welding processes filler material is added to facilitate coalescence the assemblage of parts
that are joined by welding is called elements.
In this design project mostly used fillet weld that means is used to fill in the edges of plates
created by corner, lap, and tee joints. Filler metal is used to provide a cross section
approximately the shape of a right triangle. It requires minimum edge preparation the basic
square edges of the parts are used. Fillet welds can be single or double (i.e. welded along the
entire length of the joint or with unwelded spaces along the length
Material selection
Welding design between the sheet metal and angle iron at the point of the opening of the
tanker
Sheet metal Machined an cold drawn

1018CD 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 500 𝑀𝑝𝑎


𝑆𝑦 = 280 𝑀𝑝𝑎
For angle iron are hot rolled properties
1018 𝐻𝑅 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 500 𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑆𝑦 = 280 𝑀𝑝𝑎

Analysis
ℎ = 6𝑚𝑚
𝑙 = 1000𝑚𝑚
Cold rolled properties degrade to hot rolled properties in the neighborhood of the weld
𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = min(0.3𝑆𝑢𝑡 + 0.4𝑆𝑦 )
= Min(0.3 × 500; 0.4 × 280)
= min(150; 112)
= 112 𝑀𝑝𝑎
The weight silica sand inside the tanker
𝑊 = 𝑚𝑔 = 1020 × 9.81

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

= 10006.2𝑁
𝐹 = 0.707ℎ𝑙𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.707 × 6 × 1000 × 112 × 10−3
= 395.92 𝐾𝑁………………. Safe it can carry the load i.e. the weight of the sand

4.6 Design of V- belt


The rayon and rubber V- belt is widely used for transmission. Such belt is made in two series.

The velocity V of the belt, in feet per minute, is given by the equation

πdn
𝑉=
12

Where: d= diameter of pulley in meter

n= speed in revolution per minute

Most design guidelines suggest that speed in the range of 4000ft/min is ideal for v- belt
applications.

If T1 is the tension, in pounds, in the tight side and T2 is tension in the slack side, the
nominal horsepower of the belt is

(T1 − T2)V
ℎ𝑝 =
33,000

There are two types of V- Belt

The first type of V-Belt

Type- A belt

Where: - b= 13mm

t= 8mm

W/m= 1.06 N/m

Type- B belt

Where: - b= 17mm

t= 11mm

2β= 30, 34, 38, 40…………

μ=0.5, 0.45 0.40 0.40………..respectively

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Depending on the above specification we select belts

V- Belt power capacity Power capacity of the drive is calculated from the formula:
𝑃=𝑃0𝑧𝐾𝐿𝐾𝜑 [kW]

Where:

P – Duty power

P0 – duty power per belt (power transmitted with one belt)

z – Number of belts

KL – length factor

Kφ – contact factor

KT – service factor

Small pulley equivalent diameter it is calculated from

𝐷𝑒=𝑘𝑖∙𝐷1

Where:

Ki – transmission ratio factor

D1 – outside diameter of small pulley

V-belt drive design calculation


Assume V-belt drive that has following parameters: -
AC electric motor power P = 4 kW
- Motor rotational speed n1 = 850 rpm
- Output rotational speed n2 = 220 rpm
- Distance between axes of pulleys A = 580 mm
- Slope of the distance line between axes of pulley β = 450
- Acceptable error of belt drive ratio ∆ = 3%
Driven are a fan less than 8 hrs. Away.
A sketch of V-belt drive is presented in the below figure.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 31 SKETCH V- BELT DRIVE DESIGN CALCULATION

π (r1 −r2 )2
L= 2 (r1+r2) + 2x + ………………. (1), in terms of pulley radii
4x

π (d1−d2)2
L= 2 (d1+d2) + 2x + …………….(2), in terms of pulley diameter
4x

The dimensions for standard V-belts are shown in Table 4.1. The pulleys for V-belts may be
made of cast iron or pressed steel in order to reduce weight.

Type of Power Minimum pitch Top width Thickness Weight per


belt ranges diameter of (b), (t), meter length
in kw pulley (D)in mm Mm Mm in newton
A 0.7-3.5 75 13 8 1.06
B 2-15 125 17 11 1.89
C`1D 7.5-75 200 22 14 3.43
E 20-150 355 32 19 5.96
30-350 500 38 23

TABLE 18DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD V-BELTS ACCORDING TO IS:

To determine the motor pulley diameter, [7]

d1 = 58∗ (motor torque)1/3 (mm) =58*(14.47)1/3

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

d1 = 141.33; Rounding off to the nearest standard value for cast iron pulleys, d1= 140mm.
Taking a velocity ratio of 3.5 to provide for speed reduction.

Then,d2=3.5*140=490mm, Rounding off to the nearest standard value

d2=500mm

We have the diameter of d2 larger pulley, d2=500mm and the diameter of pulley d1=140mm
and let us take center distance X=600mm, then by taking from equation (2), we get

π (𝑑2−𝑑1)2
L= 2 (d1+d2) + 2x + 4𝑥
π (500−140)2
= 2 (140+500) + 2*600 + 4∗600

=2259.3096.mm
Subtracting 36 from ‘A’ type belt, then the inside length of belt=2264mm, According to IS;
2494-1974, the nearest standard inside length of v-belt is 2286mm
Pitch length of the belt,
L=2286+36=2322mm
We know that for maximum power, speed of the pulley,
π N1 d1 𝜋×850×140
V= = = 6.231m/s
60 60×1000
𝑑2 − 𝑑1
The angle of contact is given by; sin 𝛼 = 2𝑥

𝛼 = 17.46°=18.00
Angle of lap on the pulley,
𝑑2 − 𝑑1
𝜃1 = 𝜋 − 2 sin−1[ ] = 145° = 2.53𝑟𝑎𝑑.(i.e. for the pulley of the motor shaft).
2𝑥

𝑑2 − 𝑑1
𝜃𝑙 = 𝜋 + 2 sin−1[ ] = 215° = 3.75rad (i.e. for the pulley of the roller shaft).
2𝑥

In this design, both the pulley materials are assumed to be the same, hence, angle of wrap for
the smaller pulley being lower, smaller pulley governs the design and the angle of wrap is
2.53radian.

𝜃 = 145° = 2.53𝑟𝑎𝑑. (i.e. for the pulley of the motor shaft). Let the belt material be leather
which is quite common.

Mass of belt per meter length is given by the expression, m = area*density


=0.545kg/m

Centrifugal tension;

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

𝑇𝑐 = mV 2 = 0.545*1.52 = 1.3N
And, maximum tension in the belt,
T = σ × a = 3Mpa* 300mm2 =900N

Tension in the tight side of the belt,𝑇1 = T – 𝑇𝑐 = 900 – 1.3 = 898N

Since, the relation between T1 and T2 for the V-belt drive is


T
2.3 log (T1 ) =μ. θ cosecβ …
2

here, 2β = 36°(most recommended for pulley diameter of 125 − 180mm)and ; = 0.25


T
2.3 log ( 1 ) =0.25 ∗. 2.83 ∗ cosec18
T2
T1
= 0.995,
T2
T1
T2 = 0.995 =902.5N

Notice that the bending force on the shaft carrying the sheave (𝐹𝑏 ) is dependent on the sum,
i.e. 𝐹𝑏 = 𝑇1 + 𝑇2
= 1800.51N
The power transmitted per belt = (T1-T2)* v
= (902-898.7)*1.15
= 4.6kw
Taking an over load factor of 1.5, therefore, the belt is to be designed for
=1.5×4 kW =6kw
6
∴Number of belts =4.6=1.304, say ≈ 1belt

Figure 21; Charts used for the Selection of cross- section of v-belt

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Plot a point with coordinates 6kw and 850rpm speed [ref.1]. It is absorbed that the point is
located in region of A –section belt. Therefore; for this application the cross-section of v-belt
is A from table 4.2 [ref.1].
Thus, for type-A belt; width, b =13mm and thickness, t =7mm. [table 4.1]

4.7 DESIGN OF PULLEY


The pulleys are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of flat belts, v
belts or ropes since the velocity ratio is the inverse ratio of the diameter driving and driven
pulleys, therefore the pulley diameters should be carefully selected in order to have a desired
velocity ratio. The pulleys must be in perfect alignment in order to allow the belt to travel in a
line normal to the pulley faces.
The pulley may be made of cast iron, cast steel or pressed steel, wood and passer. The cast
material should have good friction and wear characteristic. The pulley made of pressed steel
are lighter than cast pulleys, but in many cases they have lower friction and may produce
excessive wear. The following procedure may be adapted for the design of cast iron pulleys.

FIGURE 32 PULLEY

Dimensions of pulley;
The pulley diameter, where, d1= the smaller pulley diameter =140mm, and the standard
diameter of larger pulley d2=500mm.
Since, the width of the belt is known, and then the width of the pulley or face of the pulley
(B) is taken 25% greater than the width of belt5

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

B=1.25b=1.25*13
=16.25mm, take 20mm
𝑑 𝑑
The thickness of the pulley rim (t) varies from, 300 + 2𝑚𝑚 𝑡𝑜 + 4𝑚𝑚
200

For single belt the diameter of the pulley (d) in mm, the thickness of the larger pulley is
𝑑 500
t= 200 + 4𝑚𝑚 = 200 + 4 = 6.5𝑚𝑚

For single belt the diameter of the pulley (d) in mm, the thickness of the smaller pulley is
𝑑 140
t= 200 + 4𝑚𝑚 = 200 + 4 = 4.7𝑚𝑚

Then the speed of the second pulley N2 can be found the following relation,
𝑁1 𝑑 𝑑
= 𝑑2 , 𝑁2 = 𝑁1 ∗ 𝑑1 =850*140/500
𝑁2 1 2

=238rp

4.8 Design of Hopper


Hoper is a component of sand washing machine that used to fill the sand to screening net in
proper manner. Therefore we will determine
To design hopper we consider variables that affect the strength of hopper like the amount of
sand that flowing in to hopper, how Mach pressure sand is act on hopper, the type of material
select for hopper………etc.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 33 HOPPER

Maximum hopper width


Minimum wall thickness
Maximum vertical pressure
Minimum hopper discharge width
Maximum mass flow rate
Uniaxial compressive strength
Flow factor ff (x >1)

Major Principal Stress at out let

Wall normal stress

Hopper specification

m = 0 wedge shaped hopper

m = 1 conical hopper

ῳw + 25̊ ≤ 90̊ - θcf ≤ ῳw + 15̊

Hopper angle θcf = 65̊ - ῳw

λ =0.5 ±0.1

ῳe = 32̊ ±4̊

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

1−𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ῳe
𝜆 = 1+𝑠𝑖𝑛2 ῳe Rough wall ῳe = ῳw

1−sinῳe
𝜆 = 1+sinῳe Smooth wall ῳw = 0

𝜆ₒ = 1 − sinῳe Sand pressure at rest

b = 0.036m where θ = 15̊

For conical mass flow hopper

Kb = 3, ɛ = 1, ff > 10

𝑘𝑔
Assume density of sand = 1200 𝑚3

όc = 42mpa

g= 9.81𝑚/𝑠 2

b= 36mm

ff= 0.5

Maximum hopper width


(m + 1) ∗ όc, krit, max ∗ sin2(ῳw + θ)
𝑏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
ρb ∗ g

1+1∗42∗sin2(36+15̊)
𝑏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 4.2*10−6 s
1200∗36∗9.81

𝐷𝑚∗𝜃 4∗𝑀𝑤 ⅀𝐹𝐺𝑖


Minimum wall thickness 𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = √121∗𝑐𝐵∗𝐾𝑏∗ῳ𝑘∗𝐸 ∗ [𝑙𝑝𝑤 ∗ 𝑐𝑗 + + ]
𝜋𝐷 2 𝜋∗𝐷

45∗15 4∗24 ⅀20


𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = √121∗5∗12∗36∗2 ∗ [2 ∗ 12 + 𝜋∗382 + 𝜋∗38] = 0.015

Maximum vertical pressure


ρsan ∗ g ∗ b ∗ ff
𝑝𝑣 =
(m + 1) ∗ sin2(ῳw + θ)
1200∗9.81∗36∗0.5
𝑝𝑣 = (1+1)∗sin2(28+25) = 57.279Mpa

Minimum hopper discharge width

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

(𝑚 + 1) ∗ 𝑠𝑖𝑛2(ῳ𝑤 + 𝜃)
𝑏𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
𝜌𝑠𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∗ 𝑔 ∗ (1 − 𝑎1 ∗ 𝑓𝑓)

(1 + 1) ∗ 𝑠𝑖𝑛2(28 + 25)
𝑏𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = 0.033 𝑚𝑚
1200 ∗ 9.81 ∗ (1 − 250𝑚𝑚2 ∗ 0.5)

4.9 Design of sand drain


There are three types of sand drain according to their design construction

1 horizontal sand drain

2 vertical sand drains

3 inclined sand drain

But in our project we select vertical sand drain so depending up on the following
consideration.

Why use vertical sand drain

• Installation of vertical drain typically 6,000 linear meters per day and result in a lower
project cost.

• No risk of vertical drain breaking during installation - sand drains can have discontinuities if
mandrill is withdrawn too fast.

• No risk of shear failure of vertical drain during settlement - sand drains are vulnerable to
shear failure during settlement.

Why use vertical drain over sand drain

• Vertical drain have high discharge capacities; typically 30 x 10-6 m3/sec to 90 x 10-6
m3/sec compared to a ∅ 0.35 sand drain with a discharge capacity of 20 x 10-6 m3/sec (Van
Santvoort, 1994).

• When installed with purpose designed mandrill, smear effects are much smaller for vertical
drain for the large diameter sand drains. Zone of smear is directly proportional to the
diameter of mandrill used for installation.

• Vertical are consistent factory produced whereas sand drains are subject to quality variance
of naturally occurring sands.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

• Calculation assumes vertical cylindrical and draining effect dependent on periphery

• Vertical drain effective periphery is 2 x widths x f, where f is a correction factor allowing


for

: − less favorable inflow to possible disturbance & smear effect to soil during installation
π
Delft laboratory finds 𝑓 = 4

2𝑏 𝜋 b
d= ∗ =
𝜋 4 2

Where d= equivalent diameter of sand drain

b = width of sand drain

f= correction factor

Let’s take width of sand drain = 300mm

300
𝑑= = 150𝑚𝑚
2

Drain spacing

Triangular spacing standard

𝜋𝐷2 1𝑠 2
= ∗ √3
4 2

√2√3
𝐷= = 1.05𝑆
π

For square grid

D= 1.128S

Where:- s= spacing of drain

D= diameter of the equivalent cylindrical column of sand drained by the drain

Assume s= 20mm

Uh= 25̊

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Ch= 400mm

d = 150mm

D= 1.05*20= 0.021m

𝐷2 D 3 1
𝑡= [ln ( ) − ] 𝑙𝑛
8𝐶ℎ 𝑑 4 1 − Uh

Where: t = consolation period (years)

D = diameter of drained sand cylinder (m)

d = equivalent diameter of drain (m)

Ch = horizontal consolidation coefficient (m2/year)

Uh = average horizontal consolidation degree

212 21 3 1
𝑡 = 8∗400 [ln (150) − 4] 𝑙𝑛 1−0.423 = 1.5mm

Discharge capacity
• Maximum flow observed from vertical drain = 5 x 10-6 m3/s = 158 m3/year.
•Hydraulic gradient approximately 0.1
• Reduction in discharge capacity from
• Deformation and creep of filter into core
• Permeability reduction due to clogging of filter and core
• Bending and kinking of PVD during settlement
• Pressure on vertical drain

qw = Q / i Darcy’s Law (valid for laminar flow only)


Where qw is constant: qw ≥140 x 10-6 m3/s from test ASTM D4716

Effect of i on qw: plot of discharge against hydraulic gradient at 360 kPa


Confining pressure for filament core vertical drain.

4.10 Design of screening net


Before we start screening net design first we consider the following variables.

 Classify the size of screening net: - It is always nessery consider the size
characteristics of particular material that is feed in to the screening net.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

 Classify screening net based on sieving.


 Operation of screening net will be simple.
 Screening net design model will be based on sieve capacity.

FIGURE 34 SIEVE NET

Based on the above listed variables we can start our sieve design.

Rated sieve (screen) feed capacity (RSFC) = 𝐼𝑈 𝐾1 𝐾2

Where k = capacity factor

𝐼𝑈=0.783ℎ+37 For h ≥ 25mm

𝐼𝑈=20.0ℎ0.33 −1.28 For h < 25mm

h = mesh size in mm

Let’s take h = 20mm

𝐼𝑈=20.0∗200.33 −1.28=52.47 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠/ℎ𝑟𝑚2

Open area factor (𝐾𝐽 )

Standard condition is usually 50% for open area

% open area
𝐾1 =
50

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

800 kg/m3 the standard open area is 60% rather than50% and equation should be modified
accordingly.

Half size factor (𝐾2 )

K2 = 2𝑃𝐹 (0.5h) + 0.2

Where𝑃𝐹 = fraction of material

Assume 𝑃𝐹 = 5

K2 = 2*5 (0.5*20) + 0.2 = 100.2

Over size factor (k3)

0.914𝑒𝑥𝑝4.22𝑃 −𝐹 (ℎ)

𝑃−𝐹 (ℎ) = 1 − 𝑃𝐹 (ℎ) = 1 − 5 ∗ 20 = −99

Bulk density factor (K4)

𝜌𝐵
𝐾4 =
16000

𝜌𝐵 = 1200

1200
𝐾4 = = 0.075
16000

Deck position factor (K5)

K5 = 1.1-0.15 = 1.05

Screen angle factor (K6)

K6 = 1.0-0.01(α-15)

The wet screen factor (K7)

K7 =1.0 +2.4×10−4 (25 − ℎ)2.5for h≤25mm


= 1.0 for h >25mm

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

K7 = 1.0 +2.4×10−4 (25 − 20)2.5 = 13

Shape of screen
Opening
K8
Round 0.8
Square 1.0
2to 1 rectangular slot 1.15
3 to 1 rectangular slot 1.2
4 to 1 rectangular slot 1.25

TABLE 19 STANDARD SHAPE OF SCREENING NET

The standard screen has square openings and other shapes influence the capacity

Screen transmission efficiency

The efficiency of transmission decreases if the screen must handle feed in excess of80% of
the rated tonnage because the access of individual particles to the screen surface is hindered
to a greater or lesser degree. The efficiency also decreases as the actual feed tonnage falls
below 80% of rated capacity because particles tend to bounce on the lightly loaded screen
and make fewer contacts with the screen surface. IfWF represents the actual feed tonnage,
then the rating ratio is given by
Wf
𝑅𝑅 =
Iuπiki ∗ screen area

Wf
𝑅𝑅 =
Iuπiki ∗ screen area

And the efficiency of transmission is given by


e 0.95 - 0.25(RR - 0.8) - 0.05(𝑅𝑅 − 0.8)2 for RR ≥ 0.8
0.95-1.67(08 − 𝑅𝑅)2for RR < 0.8 (4-14)
The actual tonnage passed to the undersize stream is W U
ePF (h) W F (4-15)
Each size class smaller than the mesh size is subject to the same efficiency factor e so that the
Particle size distribution in the underflow stream is calculated in discrete form as

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

𝑒𝑝𝑖 𝐹 𝑊 𝐹 𝑃𝑖 𝐹
𝑃𝑖 𝑈 = 𝑒𝑝𝐹(ℎ)𝑊 𝐹 = 𝑃𝐹(ℎ) For dpi < h

= 0for dpi ≥ h
Where 𝑝𝑖 𝑈= the fraction of the underflow stream in the size class i and
𝑃𝑖 𝐹= Fraction in the feed stream.
The actual tonnage passed to the overflow stream is
Let take the following assumption
𝑝𝑖 𝑈 = 2
𝑃𝑖 𝐹 = 4
𝑤 𝐹 = 31 𝑚3
h = 300mm
u = 12m/s
ρb = 1200
Wd = 27
𝑊 𝑜 = (1 − 𝑃𝐹 (ℎ)𝑊 𝐹 + (1 − 𝑒)𝑝𝐹 (ℎ)𝑤 𝐹

𝑊 𝑜 = (1 − 4(0.3)31 + (1 − 0.8)4(0.3)31 = 1.56

(1 − e)pi 𝐹
𝑝𝑖 𝑜 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑝 < ℎ
(1 − 𝑒𝑝𝐹 (ℎ))
𝑝𝑖 𝐹
= 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑝 ≥ ℎ
1 − 𝑒𝑝𝐹 (ℎ)
𝑤𝑜
𝑡𝑏 =
buρb
Where
this the bed thickness,
wd mass flow rate across the discharge end,
b the screen width
U the velocity of travel across the screen surface and
Ρb the bulk density.

15600
𝑡𝑏 = = 3.6𝑚𝑚
0.3 ∗ 12 ∗ 1200

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

400F
𝑑=
ρvW
Where
d = Bed Depth, mm
F = Feed Rate, 𝑚3
ρ= Bulk Density, lb. /mm
V = Travel Rate, m/min.s
W = Net Width of Screen, m
Assumption
F= 3 𝑚3
ρ=1200
v=0.4m/min
400∗3
W=0.3m𝑑 = 1200∗0.4∗0.3 = 0.8𝑚

Design of screw conveyor


Height = 80 cm= 0.8 m

Length = 200 cm =2 m

Width =150 cm = 1.5m

Area =length* width

Area=200 cm * 150 cm

=30,000 cm2

=3 m2

The design is safe because the bed thickness is required to area ratio

4.11 Design of support


We are used rectangular high strength concrete for designing a support because of cost and
availability.

- Tensile modulus or young modulus =30MPa


- Ultimate tensile strength=40MPa
The amount of sand on the sieve is 3 m3and height of frame 1.5m then the area of sieve is
3m2. When compare the mass of sand and mass of sieve is much greater than mass of sieve so
neglecting the mass of frame.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

mS = ρS × V = 1200 ∗ 6 = 7200kg

Total weight of the sieve W

W = mS × g = 7200kg × 9.81 m⁄s2 = 70,632kN

There is arround foursupports each carry the weight of 17.685kN

17.685

h=0.7m

FIGURE 35 SUPPORT OF SAND SIEVING BED

calculate the stress of beam

assume width and thicness is equal to 30cm

F F 1
σ= = = 17.685kN = 1𝟗. 𝟔𝟐𝟎 𝐌𝐏𝐚
A w×t 0.032

The design is safe because the thickness 30mm and hight 700mm σ = 19.620Mpa < 40Mpa

4.12 Screw Conveyor


It is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw mounted on the shaft along with the
bucket elevator and this is mounted in a trough made out of hot rolled sheet in which the
water is contained. When the machine is started this screw conveyor churns and pushes the
sand towards the rotary elevator. In this action the silt content in it dissolves in water and the
washed sand is picked up and discharged by the rotary elevator. To avoid the saturation of the
silt a continuous supply of water is maintained. The water flow required depends on the silt
contained in sand. The rate of volume transfer is proportional to the rotation rate of the shaft.
The screw conveyor is of paddle type which consists of eight blades arranged in a helical
pattern of pitch 67mm and length

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

FIGURE 36 SCREW CONVEYOR

Maximum operating speed (R.P.M)


120
𝑁𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
shaft diameter

120
𝑁𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 3.33 𝑟. 𝑝. 𝑚
36

Required Horsepower
To calculate the required horse power first we must determine the force that required per
minutes and take values depend on our design consideration. Therefore we can take the
following values.
Assume pitch diameter of the blade = 9mm
Rpm = 100rpm
𝑝𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑑𝑖𝑎 ∗ 3.1416 ∗ 𝑟𝑝𝑚
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 (𝐹. 𝑃. 𝑀) =
12
F.P.M = pitch dia *262*rpm

F.P.M = 9mm *262*100rpm = 235.8KN

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

load on blade(lbs ∗ fpm)


𝐻𝑃 =
3000 lbs

HP∗33000 lbs 4000∗33000 lbs


𝐿oad on blade = = = 55.9796𝑘𝑁
Fpm 235.8

55.9796𝑘𝑁(lbs ∗ 235.8𝐾𝑁)
𝐻𝑃 = = 4.4 = 4
3000 lbs

Torque(inch)
𝐿oad on blade =
pich radius

Torque(inch ∗ lbs ∗ rpm)


𝐻𝑃 =
63000

HP ∗ 6300 inch
𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 =
Rpm
55.9796 ∗ 6300 inch
𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 = = 2.519𝑘𝑁
140

It is safe because the toque large to get good rotation

4.13 Design of frame


Frame is sieve guiding component that used to design the parameters of the following
variables. Before we start to design frame we consider a simple machine tool bed with two
side wall’s which may be represented as a simple supported beam loaded by concentered

FIGURE 37 FRAME
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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Force p acting at its center.


 Overall design approach for the structure
 Stiffness requirement
 Damping requirement
 Structural configurations with sieve
Frame is used to guide sieve, and used to housing of spring holding shaft for these application
is gray cast iron is selected.
St Designation FG150
Having tensile strength=150mpa
Compressive strength 600mpa
Maximum normal bending stress acting on the beam is given by the expression.
𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥.𝑍𝑚𝑎𝑥
ó𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ………………1
𝐼𝑦
pl
Where 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
4

h
𝑍𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑖𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠
2
𝑏ℎ3
𝐼𝑦 = = 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠
12
Substituting the above variable or value in equation ……….1
pl h
∗ 3 𝑝𝑙
4 2
ó𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑏ℎ3
=
2 𝑏ℎ2
12

Let’s take p = 1000N


h = 300mm
l = 2000mm
b = 400mm
1000 ∗ 2000
𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 0.5𝑀𝑝𝑎
4

h 300
𝑍𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 150
2 2

𝑏ℎ3 400 ∗ 3003


𝐼𝑦 = = = 900𝑀𝑝𝑎
12 12
\

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

To calculate maximum normal bending stress acting on the beam is considering the above
variables to get the required value.

𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥.𝑍𝑚𝑎𝑥 0.5𝑀𝑝𝑎
ó𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 5.55 ∗ 10−4
𝐼𝑦 900𝑀𝑝𝑎

If the permissible normal stress under tension for beam material be denoted by (ó), then

3 𝑝𝑙
(ó) =
2 𝑏ℎ2
3 𝑝𝑙 3 1000 ∗ 2000
(ó) = = ∗ = 0.083𝑀𝑝𝑎
2 𝑏ℎ2 2 400 ∗ 3002

3𝑝 𝑙2
𝑉ó = b. h. l. = 8 ∗ = 400 ∗ 300 ∗ 2000 = 240𝑀𝑝𝑎
2ó ℎ
Where 𝑉ó is the minimum volume of metal required for sufficient strength of beam. For
maximum deflection of simply supported beam, we know,

𝑝𝑙 3 1000 ∗ 20003
ó𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 3.3 ∗ 105 𝑀𝑝𝑎
48𝐸𝐼𝑦 48 ∗ 0.5𝑚𝑝𝑎
Where E = modulus of elasticity of the beam material, if the deflection of the beam is not to
exceed a permissible value, denoted by(ó), then

𝑝𝑙3 𝑝𝑙3
[𝛿 ] = = 48𝐸∗ 𝛿 = 2.56𝑀𝑝𝑎 =
48𝐸𝐼𝑦 𝑏ℎ3
12

2
𝑝 𝑙2
𝑉𝛿 = b. h. l. = ∗( )
4𝐸. [𝛿] ℎ
2 2
𝑝 𝑙2 1000 20002
𝑉𝛿 = ∗( ) = ∗( ) = 0.493𝑚3
4𝐸. [𝛿] ℎ 4 ∗ 600 ∗ 150 300

Where 𝑉ó is the minimum volume of metal required to ensure that deflection of the beam
under load does not exceed the specific value.
The condition of optimum design is:

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

𝑉ó = 𝑉𝛿

3 𝑝 𝑙2 𝑝 𝑙2
∗ ( ℎ ) = 4𝐸.[𝛿] ∗ ( ℎ )Ref design of machine tool structure and analysis page 7
2 [ó]

𝑙 2 4𝐸. [𝛿]
=
ℎ [ó]
𝑙 2 4𝐸. [𝛿]
=
ℎ [ó]

4.14 Design of water inlet (pipe)


The design of water involves the determination of inside diameter of the water and its wall
thickness as discussed below: [9]
The material used for making pipe is wrought iron because it is malleable and ductile
material.

FIGURE 38 WATER INLET PIPE

The ultimate tensile strength is 250Mpa to 500M pa


Ultimate compressive strength 300Mpa
Inside diameter of water inlet: inside diameter of the water inlet depends upon the quantity of
fluid to be delivered.
D = Inside diameter of the water inlet,
v = Velocity of fluid flowing per minute, and
Q = Quantity of fluid carried per minute.
We know that the quantity of fluid flowing per minute,
Q = Area × Velocity

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

2. Wall thickness of the pipe: After deciding upon the inside diameter of the pipe, the
thickness cylindrical or thick cylindrical formula. The thin cylindrical formula may be
applied when
(a) The stress across the section of the pipe is Uniform,
(b) The internal diameter of the pipe (D) is more than twenty times its wall thickness (t), i.e.
D/t > 20, and
(c) The allowable stress (ó) is more than six times the pressure inside the pipe (p), i.e. ót /p >
6.
According to thin cylindrical formula, wall thickness of pipe,
t =PD/2ót
=300kpa *0.25m/2*12MPa
= 0.45
The wall thickness of pipe is 0.015m, D/t>20
D/t=0.45m/0.0045m=100,i.e the pipe thin cylinder
Outer diameter (D outer) = t +D inner
D outer =0.0045m+0.45m
D outer =0.4545m
4.5.1 Circumferential or Hoop Stress
Consider a thin cylindrical shell subjected to an internal pressure and tensile stress acting in
a direction tangential to the circumference is called circumferential stress or hoop stress In
other words, it is a tensile stress on longitudinal section (or on the cylindrical walls) Design
of sprinkler irrigation system 2015
Department of mechanical Engineering Page 47
Hoop stress =intensity of pressure*pressurized area
Ót=P*d/2t
300kpa*0.45m/2*0.0045m=10kpa
Longitudinal stress
Consider a closed thin cylindrical shell subjected to an internal pressure and tensile stress
acting in the direction of the axis is called longitudinal stress. In other words, it is tensile
stress acting on the transverse.
Longitudinal stress (ót) =P*d/4t
=300KPa*0.45m/4*0.0045m
Ót =7.5MPa
Shear max=óhoop-ólongitudinal/2=3.75Mpa
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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

4.15 Design of handle


Handle is a component of sand washing machine that used to operate screw conveyor to wash
sand with the required amount of sand.

FIGURE 39 HANDLE

Before we design sand washing machine first we must consider the following factors.

 Forces applied on the handle.

 Maximum torque on the handle.

 The strength of material that made handle.

 Life time of handle required.

 Maximum stress on the handle.

All the above listed factors will consider designing handle.

In general we have to use the following formula to design handle.

Force applied on handle

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒
F=
𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑒

But first calculate work done required

Work done = Torque*angular displacement = T * ө


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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Where T = torque

Ө = angular displacement

Assume F = 300N

Length of handle = 700mm

Time taken = 60min

𝑁 𝑁
Young’s modulus (𝑚2 ) = 30 𝑚2

Second moment of area = 25

W = 𝐹 ∗ 𝑙 = 300𝑁 ∗ 700𝑚𝑚 = 210𝐾𝑁

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒
power =
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 210𝐾𝑁 𝐾𝑁


power = = = 3.5
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛

2П𝑁
p = Tϣ =
60

60p = 2П𝑁

60 ∗ 3.5
N= = 33.42𝑟𝑝𝑚

Now we calculate torque of handle

60𝑝
p = Tϣ = 𝑇 =
2П𝑁

60 ∗ 3.5 𝐾𝑁
𝑇= = 1.000076
2П ∗ 33.42 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Maximum deflection for an end loaded of handle

𝐹𝐿3
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
24𝐸𝐼

Where F = force (N)

L = length (m)

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

𝑁
E = young’s modulus (𝑚2 )

I = second moment of area

300 ∗ 0.73 𝑁
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 5.72 ∗ 10−3
24 ∗ 30 ∗ 25 𝑚

Critical speeds of shafts

Operating speed should be 20% away from the critical speed.

Vibration frequency, f is given by

1 𝑘𝑔
f= ⎷
2П 𝑊

f = frequency in cycles per second, Hz

k = force constant, force per inch of deflection

g = acceleration due to gravity, 386.4 in./s2

W = weight in pounds, lb
30.9𝑚
1 5.72∗10−3 ∗
𝑠2
f = 2П ⎷ = 5.72 ∗ 10−4 𝐻𝑍Ref text book of machine design R.S kurrmi
300

4.16 Design of tanker


Before we start design of water tanker we must consider the following parameters of the
design of water tanker.

FIGURE 40 WATER TANKER

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

That means to design water tanker we assumes

 The stability of tanker

 The shape of tanker

 Strength of tanker

 The stress of sand that effect on tanker

 Length of tanker

 The containing capacity of tanker

All the above listed parameters must consider designing tanker.

Assumption

Over all dimension of the machine 2400 × 2000 × 1200mm

Washing capacity of the machine 31m3 silica sand

Total water consumption around 20l or 2000mL

kg
The density of water 1000
m3

kg
The density of silica sand 1200 m3

Take factor of safety = 1.5

This assumption depend on the required washing capacity of the machine

Analysis

Using the above figure we can determine the capacity of the tanker

First the area of rectangle

A = bh = 2000 × 1000 = 2,000,000mm2

1
A′ = bh = 0.5 × 500 × 300
2

= 75000mm2

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

The area triangle ….2

1
A′′ = bh = 0.5 × 1800 × 600
2

= 540000mm2

The total area of the tanker

At = A − (A′ + A′′ ) = 2,000,000 − (75000 + 540000)

= 1,385,000mm2 = 1.385m2

The volume of the tanker

V = At × W = 1.385 × 1 = 1.385m3 … … . ans

The mass of silica sand and water within the tanker

mw = ρv = 1000 × 0.1 = 100kg

msi = ρv = 1200 × 0.6 = 720kg

Total mass

mto = msi + mw

= 820kg

The weight

W = mg = 820 × 9.81 = 8044.2N

1. Calculate total weight including walls

WTank = Wfloor + Wwall

2. Calculate total uplift

uplift = yw hw ∗ Floor Area

3. Check factor of safety

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

WTank
FOS = ≥ 1.2 "for maximum level of water ≥ 1.5
Uplift

Let’s take WWater = 40 KN

Wwall = 15KN

Wfloor = 28KN

WTank =40 +15 +28 + 18 = 101KN

uplift = yw hw ∗ Floor Area

uplift = 2 ∗ 0.3 ∗ 0.6 = 0.36

WTank 101
FOS = = = 0.28
Uplift 360

The design is safe because factor of safety becomes less than that of given factor of safety

4.17 Design of spring for Screen Vibrator


Spring for screen vibrator used for shock absorb and help to vibrate the load simply. During
operation of screen vibrator the spring produces random harmonic motion or vibration of
amplitude. The source of harmonic excitation or forces are unbalanced in rotation machine,
force generated by reciprocating machine such as unbalanced motor power. Harmonically
varying force occurs because of mechanical or structural components and producing restoring
force. Four springs are used for shock absorbing that applied a load on it. The applied load on
the spring is the total mass of a vibrating body’s

To design spring we consider the following factors that affect spring strength

Is an elastic body whose function to distort when loads and recovers its original shape when
the load is removed. The cushion absorbs or control energy due to either shock or vibration.
To apply force
To control motion by maintaining contact between two elements
To measure forces as spring balance
To store energy
Spring is manufactured by either hot or cold working process depending up on the size of the
material the spring index the properties designed a great variety of spring materials are
available to the designer including plain carbon steels alloy steels and corrosion resisting

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

steels as well as nonferrous materials such as phosphors, bronze, beryllium, copper, other
metals. But for our project spring design we select bronze

FIGURE 41 SPRINGS

Wire diameter(mm) N
Minimum tensile strength (𝑚𝑚2 )

2 Gr1 Gr2 Gr3 Gr4


1420 1720 1990 2160
2.5 1370 1640 1890 2050
3 1320 1570 1830 1880
3.6 1270 1510 1750 1890
4 1250 1480 1700 1840
4.5 1230 1440 1660 1800
5 1190 1390 1600 1750
6 1130 1320 1530 1670

TABLE 20 GRADES OF SPRING

The spring is made up of grade three steel wire which has ultimate tensile strength and
modules of rigidity of spring material are 1400 and 91260 N/mm² respectively.
The permissible shear stress for compression helical spring should be 60% ultimate tensile
strength

𝑊𝑇
WAP = where WAP =applied load in newton
4

MT =150.5Kg

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Where MT=Total mass of vibrating body


WAp=total weight applied on the spring=150.5kg×9.81=1476.4N

WT= 4*WAP = 4* 1476.4N = 5905.62N

0.35Sut ≤ Ss ≤ 0.52Sut

Ʈ1= 0.5Ʈsut =0.5×1400N/mm² =700N/mm

8𝐾𝑊𝐴𝑃𝐶
Ʈ1 = Where C = spring index 4to 12 in normal application let c= 6
П𝐷 2

K = Wahl factor because springs are in fluctuating stress and given

4𝐶−1 0.615 4∗6−1 0.615 8𝐾𝑊𝐴𝑃𝐶 8∗1.25∗1476.4N∗6


But K = 4𝐶−4 + = 4∗6−4 + = 1.25,Ʈ1 = =
𝐶 6 П𝑑2 П𝑑2

8 ∗ 1.25 ∗ 1476.4N ∗ 6
𝑑2 = ² = 6.34/mm
3.14 ∗ 700
8∗1.25∗1476.4N∗6
d= = 6.34/mm
3.14∗700

D=Cd =6×6.34=38.04mm
Di= D- =38.04-5=33.04mm
𝑑
Do =D+ 2 =38.04 +5=43.04mm

Where d= diameter of spring wire


D=mean diameter of spring
Di =inside diameter of the spring
Do = outside diameter of the spring
The deflection of spring (δ)

8∗𝑊𝐴𝑃∗𝑑3 ∗𝑁
δ = Where N= no. of coils let assume let N=8
𝐺𝑑4

G=Modulus of rigidity=81370N/mm²
d =wire diameter

8 ∗ 𝑊𝐴𝑃 ∗ 𝐷3 ∗ 𝑁 8 ∗ 1476.4 ∗ 38.043 ∗ 8


δ = = = 35.27
𝐺𝑑4 91260 ∗ 6.344

it assumed that the spring has square and ground ends. The number of inactive coil is 4
Nt =N +2 Where Nt =total number of coil and
N=number of active coil

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Nt 4=8 =12

Ls =solid length of spring = Noted=12*6.34 =76.08mm


g= gap between coil in mm =Nt -1 =12-1 =11mm
LF =free length of spring =Ls +δ +g =76.08 +35.27 +6 =119.35mm
The actual sheer stress (Ʈ1)
8𝐾𝑊𝐴𝑃𝐶 8 ∗ 1.25 ∗ 1476.4N ∗ 6
Ʈ= = = 701.85N/mm²
П𝑑 2 3.14 ∗ 6.34

Ʈ1< Ʈsat then the design is safe.

The force that restores the applied load is given by.


FR =Krδ where FR=Restoring force in N
Kr =spring rate or stiffness of spring in N/mm
𝑊𝐴𝑃 1476.4
Kr = = 35.27 =41.86/mm
δ

FR =41.86N/mm×35.27mm=1476.4N

Then the restoring force and the applied load is equal it shows that spring can maintain the
applied load.
The critical load (Wcr) that cause buckling calculation by
Wcr=Kr ×Kb×LF where KR=spring rate in N/mm
LF=free length in mm
KB=buckling factor depends up on the ratio of

𝐿𝐹 119.35
= = 3.14 from standard table that corresponding to the ratio is 0.12 f
D 38.04

4.18 Design of crank shaft


The crank is an important component to translate the linear motion in to rotary motion of
connected road which is used to sieve sands that is important to applied force to create
vibration on the sieve part. The crankshaft is usually composed of one or multiple throws to
which the connected road is attached with either spring in right side frame or left side frame
which comes vibration on the sieve net to remove large sands and grasses to disturb screw
conveyor in washing process of sand. Crankshaft is prepared in the process of forging in
which a billet of suitable size is heated to the appropriate forging process temperature range
of 1950-2250 degree far night.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

The materials used for design crankshaft is made from low alloy steel and high alloy steel but
the cheapest one is low alloy steel therefore we select for our design is low alloy steel. which
contains carbon from (0.25-0.45%)

The yield strength can be between 250-590Mpa

Tensile strength of low alloy steel is 5-15Mpa

FIGURE 42CRANK SHAFT

4.19 Design calculation for crankshaft


The configuration of the sieve for this crankshaft design specification is described below.

Maximum power 8.1hp@3600 rpm


Maximum torque 16.7Nm@2200 rpm
Maximum spring pressure 25bar

TABLE 21 DESIGN SPECIFICATION OF CRANK SHAFT

Design of crank shaft when the rank is at an angle of maximum twisting moment

Force on the spring Fs = area of coil spring *maximum pushing pressure

П 2 П
Fs = 𝐷 ∗ 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 38.642 ∗ 25 = 29.136𝐾𝑁
4 4

In order trust in the connecting road (FQ) we should first find out the angle of inclination of
the connected rod with the line of spring (I, e. angle Ø)

We know that

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 350
SinØ = 𝐿
=
(𝑅) 4

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Which implies that Ø= 8.240

We know that trust in connected rod FQ = 29.136KN

Trust on crankshaft can be split in to tangential component and the radial component.

1) Tangential force on the crank shaft FT= FQ sin(θ+Ø) = 19.87KN


2) Radial force on the crankshaft, 𝐹𝑅= 𝐹𝑄 cos(𝜃 + Ø) = 19.87KNcos(35+8.24) =
14.48KN

Reaction at bearing (1$2) due to tangential force is given by

𝐹𝑇 ∗ 𝑏1 14.48 ∗ 4
𝐻𝑇1 = 𝐻𝑇2 = = = 9.6𝐾𝑁
𝑏 6

Reaction force and bending moment analysis of crankshaft

The shaft AB of length L bearing tight at the ends A and B and carrying point load W at its
middle point C.The reaction at the bearing will be equal to W/2 as the load is acting of the
middle point of the shaft hence RA= RB = W/2

Take a section x at a distance x from the end A between A and C

At Fx = sear force at x

Mx = bending moment at x

Hence we have consider the left portion of the section the sear force at x will be equal to the
resultant force acting on the left portion of the section but resultant force at left section is W/2
acting upward.

Fx = W/2

Hence the shear force between A and C is constant and equal to W/2

Now consider any section between C and B of distance x from end A

The resultant force on the left portion will be

(W/2 – W) = -W/2

Sear force diagram

First calculate the reaction force at RA and RB

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

Taking moment of the force about A, we get

RB*2 = 1*1476.4N = 738.2N

RA = Total load on shaft – RB = 1476.4N – 738.2N = 738.2N

Sear force diagram at A, FA =RA =738.2N

Sear force between A and C is constant and equal to 738.2N

Sear force at c, Fc = 738.2N- 738.2N = 0N

Sear force at B FB = -738.2N

FIGURE 43 BANDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

B.M at A, MA = 0kNm

B.M at C, MC = RA *2 = 738.2N*2 = 1476.4kNm

B.M at B, = 0kNm

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FIGURE 44BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

4.20 Design of bolt and nut


A bolt is a metal pin that screws into a nut used to fasten things. A nut is a device having
internal threads. It used to in combination with a bolt having external thread. A nut is screwed
on the threaded end of bolt. Nuts are usually in two forms, hexagonal and square. In drawing
a nut, the diameter of bolt on which it is to be used or the diameter of the hole in the nut only
will be known. These proportions are usually specified in terms of nominal diameter d1 of the
bolt on which the nut is to be used. We select plain carbon steel for the following mechanical
property.

 Mechanical property of plain carbon steel


 Allowable tensile stress (Sall)t = 80 Mpa
 Allowable compressive stress (Sall)c = 60 Mpa
 Allowable shear stress ፒall = 40 Mpa
Design analysis
 from the stand point of shearing strength
Tmax= (𝜏𝑖𝑛 )*pi*d12/4*n*D1/2
Where d1 = diameter of bolt
D1 = pitch circle diameter of bolt D1=3*40 = 120mm
n = Number of bolts = 4 because shaft diameter d =40 mm
d12= 8*Tmax/ (𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 *𝜋*n*D1)
=8*38620/ (40*𝜋*3*105)
d12=81.24
d1=2.79 mm ………………………………………………say 3 mm

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 From the stand point of crushing strength


Tmax=d1*tf*(Sindc) b*D1/2*n
Where tf=Thickness of flange or sieve housing = 0.5*d =0.5*105 =52.5mm
c
(Sind ) b=2Tmax/ (d1*tf*D1*n)
=2*38620/ (3*52.5*105*3)
= 1.56Mpa
c
(Sind ) b < (Sall) b that is 1.56Mpa<60 Mpa
Therefore the design is safe.
 To find the dimension of bolt with its proportions for bolts are
 Head of bolt =2*d1=2*3 = 6 mm
 Threaded portion =0.9*d1=0.9*3=2.7 mm
 Thickness of bolt =0.8*3 = 2.4 mm
 Threaded length =2*d1 + 6 mm because length of bolt <125 mm and diameter <
48 mm then Lt =2*3 + 6 mm =12 mm
 Length of unthreaded length =2* sieve housing thickness =2*= 30 mm
 Length of bolt =threaded length + unthreaded length =26 mm + 30 mm =56 mm
 Chamfer on bolt end =0.1 d1 x 45° =1.0 mm x 45°
 Chamfer angle of hold head =30°
 The usual proportions for d1 < 12 mm hexagonal nut are as follows.
 Height of nut = d1= 10 mm
 Size across flat = 1.25 d1 + 6 mm =1.25*10 + 6 mm = 18.5 mm
 Radius of front chamfer = 1.2 d1=12mm
 Size across corner =1.155*size across flat =1.155*18.5= 21.37 mm

FIGURE 45 BOLT

CHAPTER FIVE `

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5 RESULT AND DISCUTION


5.1THE FOLLOWING ARE RESULT AND DISCUTION OF SAND
WASHING MACHINE
SNo Name Quantit Force Length Diame Width Thic Material
y ter knes
s
1 Motor 1 4 6m 0.45 0.06 0.68 Cast iron
2 Gear box 1 140 0.18 0.03 0.175 275 Low alloy
steel
3 Screw 1 2.519 2 0.03 0.2 0.38 50C8
Shaft
4 Key 4 215 0.08 0.07 Mild steel
5 Bearing 4 140 0.08 0.09 0.2 0.08 High
carbon
6 Belt 1 6 2.26 0.5 275 0.01
3
7 Pulley 2 230 0.3 0.5 0.02 0.00
65
8 Hopper 1 0.3 0.02 0.036 0.015 Mild steel
9 Drain 1 360 2 0.07 1.05 0.00 Mild steel
5
10 Net 1 33 0.7 0.8 0.15 0.00 Aluminum
36
11 Support 4 7063 2 0.7 0.03 0.36 Cast iron
12 Screw 1 2.51 2 0.025 0.4 0.03 50C8
conveyor
13 Frame 1 38 2 0.03 Grey
6 carbon steel
14 Water 1 51.5 0.08 0.45 0.01 0.45 Wroth iron
inlet(pipe)
15 Handle 1 0.3 0.7 0.18 0.06
16 Tanker 1 2 0.375 0.25 Mild steel
17 Spring 1 1476.4 0.75 0.38 0.06 0.00 Bronze

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125
18 Crankshaft 1 738.2 2 0.038 0.004 0.38 Low alloy
steel

TABLE 22 RESULT TABLE

5.2 Discussion
The result of this project will design in a good and best performance for washing of sand with
the required amount of sand. Most components will design and prove their formulas for
calculating the force, bending moment, shear and compressive stress, tensile and compressive
strength, factor of safety maximum holding capacity of the components listed analysis parts
are done by this project.

BASIC COST SPEND INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING


Material cost
Labor cost
Machine cost

MATERIAL COST:- It is the total cost of the small material, which means gear, shaft,
hopper, water container, conveyor screw, water draine, sand draine, etc.
Cost of screening net= 400 birr
Cost of shaft = 250 birr
Cost of hoper= 500 birr
Cost of water container = 1250 birr
Cost of screw conveyor=1000 birr
Cost of water drainer = 1000 birr
Cost of water inlet =50 birr
Cost of frame = 500 birr
Total material cost=6050 birr
LABOR COST:- It the paid for daily labors and operator of machine.
Four labor and one operator is needed
For each labor per day= 60 birr
For one operator /machine= birr
Total labor cost per day=60*4+50 = 290

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MACHINE COST: - It is the amount many paid the machine

Motor cost= 2*5000 birr= 10000 birr Total cost= material cost + labor cost + machine cost
=6050birr+17400birr 10000 birr
=33450 birr

CHAPTER SIX

6 CONCLUTIO, RECOMMENDATION AND REFERENCE


6.1 Conclusion
Generally mechanized sand washing machine is one of a most advantage type of machine
used to wash silts from the surface of sand.During this time it has no any sand washing
machine both construction and concert pool making sectors.This cause waste of time and
quality reduction on product. This led us to design mechanized sand washing machine.
Design of this project used to reduce human labor, to reduce time wasted by separating
manually, reduce the material wastage during operating condition, and keep quality of sand.
This design of sand washing machine from starting up to the end part we follow strictly
engineering analysis and mathematical calculation. These done on calculation value of the
belt, pulley, shaft, spring, support, frame, tanker, crankshaft, and screen vibrator. Other parts
like idler, motor, and bearing we select based on standard and depends on our design
parameters.

6.2 Recommendation
The design of sand washing machine for this project is important for removing of silts from
the surface of sand that improve the quality of sand in required manner. These washing
processes will do by means of screw conveyor to get the required product. When construction
and concert production sectors use this machine they get the following advantages:-improve
productivity, Can do the task by one operator and use the remain operator for other task,
minimize wastage of time and improve productivity of their company. Therefore it is highly
recommended the construction and concert production sectors should use this machine and
get good result for improving their profit.
The recommended idea for future practice
1 construction working companies or sectors will use this machine to improve the quality of
buildings and attract customers’ for getting better income.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

2 concert beam and pool manufacturing companies will use this machine to get good
plastering of cement with sand in a good performance and avoiding cracking of pools and
beams and pools.
3 project working students will use as reference to design and understand the overall working
principles of sand washing machine.

6.3 Reference
1 international journal of advanced engineering research and studies E-LSSN ISSN DEISEL
design analysis of crank shaft for cylinder 4-stroke DESISEL engine PG student assistant
professor department of mechanical engineering orienrol institute of science and terminology
Bhopal India. In JAERS (vol.1) issue (July-Sept 2012/88-90

2 FHWA river engineering for high way encroachments high ways in the river environment
in 2012.

3 TECHNICAL NOTES for vibrating screens copy right RP king 2000.

4 Screening theory and practice journal F. solium.P.E

5 technical presentations pre-fabricated vertical drain for soil consolidation.

6 Ground improvement plot G.L

7 Design data facility of mechanical engineering PSG College of technology Coimbatore


(1978).

8 J.R highly mechanical engineering design total mc grow hill publishing company Ltd, New
Delhi (2001).

9 processing folien au smit mar 27 1485 press fohinge folien au’s mit fosermmotten
verstorktem polyr insured verfohren via institute of polymerization of theroposric (meth)
acrylic resins and institute Phillips PETROLEUM ey.

10 Dudley D.Whand book of practical gear design CRC RESS 1494

11 Wash R.A electromechanical hand book third editions Mc grew Hill 2000.

12 Dubbel H.Beitee W.kurrner K.H hand book of mechanical engineering.

13 shaft design in august 5, 2007

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

14 Mechanical analysis of gear trains plot Ahmed Kovacevic School of engineering and
mathematical science poem c113

15 Den hurt age J.P (1956) Mechanical vibration 4th edition M.C Grew Hill UK.

16 A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the equipment for diploma of


mechanical engineering November 2008.

17 Vaibbav.v.potil sand washing and screening net machine department of mechanical


engineering K.D.K college of NOBPUR India sand rout M.Tech CAD/CAM symbolsis
institute of technology pone India.

18 Screw conveyor and bucket elevator engineering guide ku.s manufacturing company Ltd
3041 conveyor drive Burleson Texas m 6028

19 Screw conveyor manual instruction (operation) maintenance continental screw conveyor a


subsidry of ips group Inc.

20 Inter mittent sand filtration to upgrade existing waste water treatment Gary M.C reshot Joe
middle book January (1974).

21 Experimental study of artificial sand concrete

M.R. chitlang, head applied mechanics department government polytechnic Aurangabad

Dr.p.s pajgade prof and head civil engineering department prof. Ram meghe institute of
technology and Research badneral Amravati.

22 Modeling and simulation of transportation system of screw conveyor by the discreet


element,

Department of Mechanical engineering Wuhan university luojia hill Wuhan 430072,


pir.china.

23 Screw conveyor and bucket elevator engineering, guide

KWS manufacturing company ltd 3041 conveyor drive Texas 76028.

24 screw conveyor manual installation /operation maintenance continental screw conveyor a


subsidiary of IPS group Inc.

25 Designe, Development and validation of sand washing machine department of mechanical


engineering M.ES College of engineering, pune, India.

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

26 V.B Bhandari introduction to machine design Tata Magraw, Hill publishing company ltd,
New Delhi (2001)

27 Mechanical engineering design JOSEPH E. SHIGLEY CHARLES R. MISCHKE six


edition published by Mc Graw HILL an important of the Mc Graw HILL company Inc 1221
Avenue of Americas New York Ny c 2001 1989 1983 1977 1972 1963 by the Mc Graw
HILL companies.
28 Strength of materials DR. RK Bansal six edition Ban 2015.
29 Machine design Rs khurmi JH. Cupta in 1980.
30 Fundamentals of modern manufacturing materials process and systems Mikell P. Groover
third edition in 2007.
31 Authors F. Koenigsbeger J. Trustily published data; first January 1970.
Machine tool structure; volume one deals with fundamental theories and stability of the
machine structure against charter, methods of stability journal of the machine tools and
manufacturing.

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APPENDIX
ASSEMBLY AND PART DRAWIN

APPENDEX A PULLY

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APPENDEX A MOTOR

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APPENDEX A BUKET

109
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APPENDEX A SCREW CONVEYOR

110
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APPENDEX A CRANKSHAFT

111
DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

APPENDEX A HOPPER

112
DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

APPENDEX A SIEVE

113
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APPENDEX A GEAR BOX

114
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APPENDIX A FRAME

115
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APPENDEX A HANDLE

116
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APPENDEX A TANKER

117
DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

APPENDIX A SAND DRAIN

118
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APPENDIX A WATER INLET PIPE

119
DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

APPENDIX WATER DRAIN PIPE

120
DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

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DESIGN OF SAND WASHING MACHINE January 1, 2017

APPENDEX A ASSEMBLY DRAWING

ASSEMBLY DRAWING OF SAND WASHING MACHINE

122