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Electromagnetic Waves

Important Results

1. Maxwell found an inconsistency in the Ampere’s law and

suggested the existence of an additional current called

displacement current. This displacement current is due to time

varying electric field and given by

dφ E

Id = ε 0

dt

It acts as a source of magnetic field, as the same way as

conduction current.

2. The ratio of amplitude of electric field to the amplitude of

magnetic field gives the speed of light in vacuum.

E0

i. e., =c

B0

1

3. The speed of light in vacuum c = , where µ0 is the absolute

µ0 ε 0

permeability of space and ε0 be the absolute permittivity of space.

4. The speed of light or electromagnetic waves in a material medium

1

is given by v = , where µ is the permeability of the medium

µε

and ε is its permittivity.

5. Electromagnetic waves carry energy as they travel through space

and this energy is shared equally by the electric and magnetic

fields.

6. The energy density of electric field is given by

1

u E = ε0 E 2 = u B

2

7. The energy density of magnetic field is given by

B2

uB = = uE

2µ0

8. Total average energy density = u E + u B = 2u E = 2u B

1 B2

= ε0 E02 = 0

2 2µ0

200 www.arihantbooks.com

time in an electromagnetic wave. The oscillating electric and

magnetic fields, E and B are perpendicular to each other as well as

perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the

electromagnetic wave.

10. The electromagnetic spectrum has infinite range of wavelengths,

such as γ-rays, X-rays, UV rays, visible rays, infrared rays, micro

and radio waves.

11. In electromagnetic wave, the variation of electric field vector can

x

be given by the equation E = E0 sin ω t − and of magnetic field

c

vector by the equation

x

B = B0 sin ω t −

c

12. Maxwell’s equations

q

(i) ∫ E. dA = (Gauss’s law for electricity)

ε0

(ii) ∫ B. dA = 0 (Gauss’s law for magnetism)

dφ E

(iii) ∫ E. dl = − dt (Faraday’ law)

dφ E

(iv) ∫ B. dl = µ0 IC + µ0 ε0 dt

(Ampere-Maxwell law)

Exercises

Question 1. Figure shows a capacitor made of two circular plates each

of radius 12 cm and separated by 5.0 cm. The capacitor is being charged

by an external source (not shown in the figure). The charging current is

constant and equal to 0.15 A.

(a) Calculate the capacitance and the rate of charge of potential

difference between the plates.

(b) Obtain the displacement current across the plates.

(c) Is Kirchhoff ’s first rule (junction rule) valid at each plate of the

capacitor? Explain.

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 201

K A ε0

capacitor C = .

d

Solution Given, radius of plates r = 12 cm = 12 × 10− 2 m

Separation of two circular plates

d = 5 cm = 5 × 10− 2 m

Current I = 0.15 A

(a) Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor

ε A

C= 0

d

where, A is the area of plates.

8.854 × 10− 12 × 3.14 (12 × 10− 2 )2

C=

5 × 10− 2

8.854 × 3.14 × 144 × 10− 12 − 4 + 2

C=

5

C = 8.01 × 10− 14 F = 8.01 pF

Charge on the plates of the capacitor

q = CV

dq dV

=C⋅

dt dt

dV dq

I =C⋅ Q =I

dt dt

dV I 0.15

= = = 18.7 × 109 V/s

dt C 8.01 × 10− 12

Thus, the rate of change of potential is 18.7 × 109 V/s.

(b) The displacement current is equal to the conduction current

Id = 0.15 A.

(c) Yes, Kirchhoff ’s first rule is valid because we take the current to be

the sum of conduction currents and the displacement currents.

Question 2. A parallel plate capacitor

(shown in figure) made of circular plates

each of radius R = 6.0 cm has a capacitance

C = 100 pF. The capacitor is connected to a

230 V AC supply with a (angular) frequency

of 300 rad/s.

(a) What is the rms value of the

conduction current?

(b) Is the conduction current equal to the displacement current?

(c) Determine the amplitude of B at a point 3.0 cm from the axis

between the plates.

202 www.arihantbooks.com

Capacitance of capacitor

C = 100 pF = 100 × 10− 12 F = 10− 10 F

Voltage of capacitor V = 230 V

Frequency of capacitance ω = 300 rad/s

V

(a) The rms value of current Irms = rms

XC

1 1 1010

∴ XC = = = Ω

ωC 300 × 10− 10 300

230 × 300

∴ Irms = = 3 × 23 × 1000 × 10− 10

1010

= 69 × 10− 7 = 6.9 × 10− 6 A

Irms = 6.9 µ A

(b) Yes, the conduction current is equal to displacement current

dφ E

Id = ε0 (By the definition of displacement current)

dt

d

Id = ε0 (EA) (φ E = EA)

dt

dE σ Q

Id = ε0 A E = =

dt ε0 ε0 A

d Q

Id = ε0 A

dt ε0 A

1 dQ dQ

Id = ε0 A ⋅ ⋅ = =I

ε0 A dt dt

Id = I

(c) Given, the distance of point from the axis between the plates

r = 3 cm = 3 × 10− 2 m

Radius of plates R = 6 cm = 6 × 10− 2 m

The magnetic field at a point between the plates

µ

B = 0 2 ⋅ r ⋅ Id

2 πR

µ r

B= 0 2 I (Id = I)

2 πR

If I = I0 , maximum value of current then I = 2 Irms

µ r

B = 0 2 2Irms

2 πR

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 203

B=

2π × 0.06 × 0.06

B = 1.63 × 10− 11 T

wavelength 10 − 10 m, red light of wavelength 6800 Å and radiowaves of

wavelength 500 m?

Solution Here, X-rays, red light and radiowaves all are the

electromagnetic waves. As we know that all the electromagnetic waves

travel with the same speed c that is speed of light. Thus, the speed is

same for X-rays, red light and radiowaves.

Question 4. A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along

Z-direction. What can you say about the directions of its electric and

magnetic field vectors? If the frequency of the wave is 30 MHz, what is its

wavelength?

Solution As we know that the direction of electromagnetic wave is

perpendicular to both electric and magnetic fields. Here,

electromagnetic wave is travelling in Z-direction, then electric and

magnetic fields are in X-Y direction and are perpendicular to each other.

Frequency of waves f = 30 MHz = 30 × 106 Hz

Speed c = 3 × 108 m/s

Using the formula, c=fλ

Wavelength of electromagnetic waves

c 3 × 108 300

λ= = = = 10 m

f 30 × 10 6

30

Thus, the wavelength of electromagnetic waves is 10 m.

Question 5. A radio can tune into any station in the 7.5 MHz to

12 MHz band. What is the corresponding wavelength band?

Solution Given, frequency f1 = 7.5 MHz

Frequency f2 = 12 MHz

Speed of EM wave c = 3 × 108 m/s

Wavelength corresponding to frequency f1

c 3 × 108 3000

λ1 = = = = 40 m

f1 7.5 × 10 6

7.5

Wavelength corresponding to frequency f2

c 3 × 108 300

λ2 = = = = 25 m

f2 12 × 106 12

Thus, the corresponding wavelength band is 25 m to 40 m.

204 www.arihantbooks.com

position with a frequency of 10 9 Hz. What is the frequency of the

electromagnetic waves produced by the oscillator?

Solution According to the question,

Frequency of the electromagnetic waves = 109 Hz

The frequency of electromagnetic waves produced by the oscillator is

same as that of the oscillating charged particle about its equilibrium

position.

Question 7. The amplitude of the magnetic field part of a harmonic

electromagnetic wave in vacuum is B0 = 510 nT. What is the amplitude of

the electric field part of the wave?

Solution Given, magnetic field part of harmonic electromagnetic wave

B0 = 510 nT

E0

Speed of light in vacuum c =

B0

where, E0 is the electric part of the wave

E0

3 × 108 =

510 × 10− 9

or E0 = 153 N/C

Thus, the amplitude of the electric field part of wave is 153 N/C.

Question 8. Suppose that the electric field amplitude of an

electromagnetic wave is E 0 = 120 N/C and that its frequency is ν = 50.0

MHz. (a) Determine, B0 , ω, k and λ. (b) Find expressions for E and B.

Solution Given, amplitude of an electromagnetic wave, E0 = 120 N/C

Frequency of wave f = 50 MHz = 50 × 106 Hz

(a) Speed of light in vacuum

E

c= 0

B0

E 120

B0 = 0 = = 40 × 10− 8

c 3 × 108

or B0 = 400 × 10− 9 T = 400 nT

Angular frequency of wave,

ω = 2πf = 2 × 3.14 × 50 × 106

ω = 3.14 × 108 rad/s

Wave number of electromagnetic waves

ω 3.14 × 108

K= = = 1.05 rad/m

c 3 × 108

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 205

c 3 × 108

λ= = =6.00 m

f 50 × 106

(b) Expression of electric field E = E0 sin (kx − ωt)

E = 120 sin (1.05x − 3.14 × 108 t)

Expression of magnetic field B

B = B0 sin (kx − ωt)

B = 4 × 10− 7 sin (1.05x − 3.14 × 108 t)

spectrum is given in the text. Use the formula E = hν (for energy of a

quantum of radiation : photon) and obtain the photon energy in units of

eV for different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. In what way are

the different scales of photon energies that you obtain related to the

sources of electromagnetic radiation?

Solution Given, energy of photon E = hν

For γ-rays

Frequency of γ-rays ν = 3 × 1020 Hz

Energy of γ-rays E = hν = 6.6 × 10− 34 × 3 × 1020 = 19.8 × 10− 14 J

19.8 × 10− 14

or E= = 1.24 × 106 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

The source of γ-rays is nuclear origin.

For X-rays

Frequency of X-rays ν = 3 × 1018 Hz

Energy of X-rays E = hν = 6.6 × 10− 34 × 3 × 1018 = 19.8 × 10− 16 J

19.8 × 10− 16

or E= = 1.24 × 104 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

The retardation of high energy electron produces X-rays.

For ultraviolet rays

Frequency of rays ν = 1015 Hz

Energy of ultraviolet rays E = hν = 6.6 × 10− 34 × 1015 = 6.6 × 10− 19 J

6.6 × 10− 19

or E= = 4.125 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

It originates by the excitation of atoms.

For visible rays

Frequency of visible rays ν = 6 × 1014 Hz

Energy of visible rays E = hν = 6.6 × 10–34 × 6 × 1014 = 39.6 × 10– 20 J

206 www.arihantbooks.com

39.6 × 10− 20

or E= = 2.475 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

They produce by the excitation of valance electrons.

For infrared rays

Frequency of infrared rays ν = 1013 Hz

Energy of infrared rays E = hν = 6.6 × 10− 34 × 1013 = 6.6 × 10− 21 J

6.6 × 10− 21

or E= = 4.125 × 10− 2 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

They originate by the excitation of atoms and molecules.

For microwaves

Frequency of microwaves ν =1010 Hz

Energy of microwaves E = hν = 6.6 × 10− 34 × 1010 = 6.6 × 10− 24 J

6.6 × 10− 24

or E= = 4.125 × 10− 5 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

They originate by the oscillating current in vacuum tubes.

For radiowaves

Frequency of radio waves ν = 3 × 108 Hz

Energy of radiowaves E = hν = 6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108 = 19.8 × 10− 26 J

19.8 × 10− 26

or E= = 1.24 × 10− 6 eV

1.6 × 10− 19

They originate by oscillating current.

Type of radiation Photon energy

γ-rays 1.24 × 10 6 eV

X-rays 1.24 × 10 4 eV

Ultraviolet rays 4.12 eV

Visible waves 2.475 eV

Infrared waves 4.125 × 10 − 2 eV

Microwaves 4.125 × 10 −5 eV

Radiowaves 1.24 × 10 − 6 eV

sinusoidally at a frequency of 2.0 × 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V/m.

(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?

(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field?

(c) Show that the average energy density of the E field equals the

average energy density of the B field.

[c = 3 × 10 8 m/s.]

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 207

Given, c = 3 × 108 m/s

Electric field amplitude E0 = 48 V/m

c 3 × 108

(a) Wavelength of waves λ = = = 1.5 × 10− 2 m

f 2 × 1010

E

(b) Using the formula, c = 0

B0

The amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field

E 48

B0 = 0 = = 1.6 × 10− 7 T

c 3 × 108

(c) The average energy density of electric field

1

u E = ε0 E02 …(i)

4

E0

We know that =c

B0

Putting in Eq. (i),

1

∴ u E = ε0 . c2 B02 …(ii)

4

1

Speed of electromagnetic waves, c =

µ0 ε0

Putting in Eq. (ii), we get

1 1

uE = ε0 B02 ⋅

4 µ0 ε0

1 B02 B2

uE = ⋅ = 0 = µ B.

4 µ0 2µ0

Thus, the average energy density of the E field equals the average

energy density of B field.

Additional Exercises

Question 11. Suppose that the electric field part of an electromagnetic

wave in vacuum is

E = {(3.1 N/C) cos [(1.8 rad/m) y + (5.4 × 10 6 rad/s)t]} $i.

(a) What is the direction of propagation?

(b) What is the wavelength λ?

(c) What is the frequency ν?

(d) What is the amplitude of the magnetic field part of the wave?

(e) Write an expression for the magnetic field part of the wave.

208 www.arihantbooks.com

negative direction, so it moves in – $j-direction.

(b) The electric part of electromagnetic wave in vacuum

E = 3.1 cos (1.8 y + 5.4 × 106 t) $i

Comparing with standard equation E = E0 cos (Ky + ωt), we get

Angular frequency ω = 5.4 × 106 rad/s

Wave number K = 1.8 rad/m

The amplitude of the electric field part of the wave

E0 = 3.1 N/C

2π 2π

λ= = = 3.492 m

K 1.8

λ = 3.5 m

(c) ω = 2πν

ω 5.4 × 106 × 7

ν= = = 0.86 × 106 Hz

2π 2 × 22

E

(d) c= 0

B0

Amplitude of magnetic field

E 3.1

B0 = 0 = = 1.03 × 10– 8 T

c 3 × 108

(e) Expression for the magnetic field part of wave

B = B cos (Ky + ωt) k$

0

B = 1.03 × 10– 8 cos (1.8 y + 5.4 × 108 t) k$

to visible radiation. What is the average intensity of visible radiation?

(a) at a distance of 1m from the bulb?

(b) at a distance of 10 m?

Assume that the radiation is emitted isotropically and neglect reflection.

Solution Total power = 100 W

Visible radiation power = 5% of total power

5

= × 100 = 5 W

100

(a) At a distance of 1m, the energy distributed in the form of sphere.

Area of sphere = 4π (radius)2

Intensity of visible radiation

Power 5

= = = 0.4 W/m2

Area 4 × 3.14 × (1)2

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 209

5

= = 4 × 10− 3 W/m2

4 × 3.14 (10)2

characteristic temperature ranges for different parts of the

electromagnetic spectrum. What do the numbers that you obtain tell you?

Solution λ mT = 0.29 cm-K

0.29

λm = m

T × 100

Let we take λ m = 10− 6 m

0.29

Required absolute temperature T = = 2900 K

100 × 10− 6

Let we take λ m = 5 × 10− 5 m

0.29

Required absolute temperature T = = 6000 K

100 × 5 × 10− 5

We can find the temperature for other parts of the electromagnetic

spectrum. These number tell us about the temperature ranges for

particular part of EM waves.

Question 14. Given below are some famous numbers associated with

electromagnetic radiations in different contexts in physics. State the part

of the electromagnetic spectrum to which each belongs.

(a) 21 cm (wavelength emitted by atomic hydrogen in interstellar space).

(b) 1057 MHz (frequency of radiation arising from two close energy

levels in hydrogen; known as Lamb shift).

(c) 2.7 K (temperature associated with the isotropic radiation filling all

space-thought to be a relic of the ‘big-bang’ origin of the universe).

(d) 5890 Å - 5896 Å (double lines of sodium).

(e) 14.4 keV (energy of a particular transition in 57 Fe nucleus

associated with a famous high resolution spectroscopic method

(Mössbauer spectroscopy)).

Solution (a) This wavelength (21 cm) corresponds to the radiowaves.

(b) This frequency (1057 MHz) also corresponds to the radiowaves

(short wavelength).

(c) T = 2.7 K

Using the formula λ m T = b = 0.29 cm-K

0.29

λm = cm = 0.11 cm

2.7

This wavelength corresponds to the microwaves region of the

electromagnetic waves.

210 www.arihantbooks.com

spectrum.

(c) Energy E = 14.4 keV = 14.4 × 103 × 1.6 × 10− 19 J

E 14.4 × 1.6 × 10− 16

Frequency of wave, ν = = = 3 × 1011 MHz

h 6.6 × 10− 34

This frequency lies in the X-ray region of the electromagnetic

spectrum.

Question 15. Answer the following questions :

(a) Long distance radio broadcasts use short-wave bands. Why?

(b) It is necessary to use satellites for long distance TV transmission.

Why?

(c) Optical and radiotelescopes are built on the ground but X-ray

astronomy is possible only from satellites orbiting the earth. Why?

(d) The small ozone layer on top of the stratosphere is crucial for

human survival. Why?

(e) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its average surface

temperature be higher or lower than what it is now?

(f) Some scientists have predicted that a global nuclear war on the

earth would be followed by a severe ‘nuclear winter’ with a

devastating effect on life on earth. What might be the basis of this

prediction?

Solution (a) Long distance radio broadcasts use short waves because

they are reflected by the ionosphere.

(b) It is necessary to use satellites for long distance TV transmission

because the television signal are of high frequency and they are not

reflected by the ionosphere. So, for the reflection of TV waves,

satellites are needed.

(c) Optical and radio telescope uses optical and radiowaves which can

penetrate the atmosphere whereas X-rays are of much smaller

wavelengths and they are absorbed by the atmosphere. So, we can

work with optical and radio telescopes on earth’s surface but X-rays

astronomical telescopes must be used on the satellite orbiting above

the earth’s atmosphere.

(d) The small ozone layer present on the top of the stratosphere absorbs

most of the ultraviolet radiations from the sum which are dangerous

and cause genetic damage to the living cells. Ozone layer prevent

them from reaching the earth’s surface and helps in the survival of

the life.

(e) If the earth did not have atmosphere, its surface temperature would

be lower because the green house effect of the atmosphere would be

absent.

(f) The clouds produced by a global nuclear war would perhaps cover

most parts of the sky preventing solar light from reaching many

parts of the globe. This would cause a winter.

NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 211

Question 1. Why is the orientation of the portable radio with respect to

broadcasting station important?

Solution The orientation of the portable radio with respect to

broadcasting station is important because the electromagnetic waves are

plane polarized, so the receiving antenna should be parallel to the

electric or magnetic vector part of the wave.

water molecules most efficiently?

Solution Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water

molecules most efficiently because the frequency of microwaves matches

the resonant frequency of water molecules.

Question 3. The charge on a parallel plate capacitor varies as

q = q0 cos 2 πνt. The plates are very large and close together (area = A,

separation = d). Neglecting the edges effects find the displacement current

through the capacitor?

Solution The displacement current through the capacitor

dq d

Id = Ic = = (q0 cos 2πνt)

dt dt

Id = Ic = − q0 sin 2πνt × 2πν

Id = Ic = − 2πνq0 sin 2πνt

Question 4. A variable frequency AC source is connected to a

capacitor. How will the displacement current change with decrease in

frequency?

1

Solution Capacitative reaction X C =

2πfC

1

∴ XC ∝

f

As frequency decreases, X C increases and current is inversely

1

proportional to X C Q I ∝ . So, displacement current decreases.

X C

a floodlight is given by B = 12 × 10 8 sin (1.20 × 107 z − 3.60 × 1015 t) T.

What is the average intensity of the beam?

Solution Magnetic field B = B0 sin ωt

Given, equation B = 12 × 10−8 sin (1.20 × 107 z − 3.60 × 1015 t) T

On comparing this equation with standard equation, we get

B0 = 12 × 10−8

212 www.arihantbooks.com

1 B02 1 (12 × 10−8 )2 × 3 × 108

Iavg = ⋅c = × = 1.71 W /m2

2 µ0 2 4π × 10−7

you establish an instantaneous displacement current of 1 mA in the space

between its plates?

Solution Given, capacitance of capacitor C = 2 µF,

Displacement current Id = 1 mA

Charge q = CV

Iddt = CdV [Q q = it ]

dV

or Id = C

dt

dV

1 × 10−3 = 2 × 10−6 ×

dt

dV 1

or = × 10+3 = 500 V

dt 2

So, by applying a varying potential difference of 500 V/s we would

produce a displacement current of desired value.

Question 7. Show that the radiation pressure exerted by an EM wave

of intensity I on a surface kept in vacuum is I/C.

Force F

Solution Pressure = =

Area A

Force is the rate of change of momentum

dp

i.e., F=

dt

U

Energy in time dt, U = p ⋅ C or p =

C

1 U

∴ Pressure = ⋅

A C ⋅ dt

I U

Pressure = Q I = Intensity =

C A ⋅ dt

distance from the bulb is doubled? As a laser beam travels across the

length of a room, its intensity essentially remains constant.

Solution As the distance is doubled, the area of spherical region (4πr 2 )

will become four times, so the intensity becomes one fourth the initial

1

value Q I ∝ 2 but in case of laser it does not spread so its intensity

r

remains same.

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