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Zhejiang University of Science and Technology

Process Management Documents of


Undergraduate Graduation Thesis
Collection (Graduation Year: 2016)
浙 江 科 技 学 院
本科毕业论文过程管理材料
汇总(2016 届)

Title Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of

cement-reinforced muddy clay

School Civil Engineering and Architecture

Major Civil Engineering


Class International 121
Student ID 9120560032
Student Name Mohamed Farah Kahie
Advisor Xue Wen
Date May 21, 2016
Zhejiang University of Science and Technology
Process Management Documents of
Undergraduate Graduation Thesis
Collection Checklist

浙 江 科 技 学 院
本科毕业论文过程管理材料
汇 总 清 单

1. Graduation Thesis Assignment

2. Literature Review of Graduation Thesis

3. Graduation Thesis Proposal Report

4. Midterm Check Form of Graduation Thesis (Checked by Advisor)

5. Record Form of Graduation Thesis Work

6. Direction Form of Graduation Thesis Work

7. Comment Form of Graduation Thesis by Advisor

8. Comment Form of Graduation Thesis by Reviewer

9. Defense Record Form of Graduation Thesis

10. Evaluation Form of Graduation Thesis by the Defense Group and the

Defense Committee
1. Graduation Thesis Assignment(毕业论文任务书)

Zhejiang University of Science and Technology


Undergraduate Graduation Thesis
Assignment (Graduation Year: 2016)
浙江科技学院本科毕业论文
任务书(2016 届)

Title Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of

cement-reinforced muddy clay

School Civil Engineering and Architecture

Major Civil Engineering


Class International 121
Student ID 9120560032
Student Name Mohamed Farah Kahie
Advisor Xue Wen
Date December 29, 2015
(1) Main Assignments and Objectives(主要任务与目标):
 Objectives:
Understand the mechanic properties of cement-mixed soil and the influence from
mixture design.
 Main Assignments:
-Learn the application of cement-mixed soil in the internship construction site;
-Learn the testing specifications and standards of cement-mixed soil;
-Prepare the materials and design the experiments;
-Make the specimens and perform the tests;
-Analyze the data and discuss the mixture design factors influence on
cement-mixed soil mechanic properties;
-Write the research thesis and all the other process management documents.

(2) Main Contents and Basic Requirements(主要内容与基本要求):


 Main Contents
-Retrieval and search the literature related to the topic;
-Make a detail investigation of the topic;
-Discuss the feasibility of the topic;
-Write a thesis proposal report;
-Perform experiments;
-Organize and analyze the data;
-Solve the problems of the thesis;
-Write the thesis;
-Reorganize all the process management materials and documents related to the
thesis;
-Defence.

 Basic Requirements
-Make presentation on the weekly group meeting;
-Comply with the requirements of process management documents of graduation
thesis, prepare each document well;
- Submit the documents to the advisor on time;
- Check each document well before submitting;
- Attend the group meeting on time.
(3) Planned Schedule(计划进度):
Date(时间) Work of Graduation Thesis(毕业论文工作内容)
From 27th Dec,2015
Get task from the supervisor
to 28th Dec,2015
From 29th Dec,2015
Retrieve the literature and discuss with the supervisor;
to 20th Jan,2016
From 21th Jan,2016
Write the literature review;
to 29th Jan,2016
From 30th Jan,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the review, and modify
to 6th Feb, 2016 it;
From 7th Feb,2016
Write the proposal report;
to 15th Feb, 2016
From 16st Feb,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the proposal report, and
to 24th Feb, 2016 modify it;
From 25th Feb, 2016 Do Experiment, including specimens casting, curing,
to 31th Mar, 2106 testing;
From 1st Apr,2016
Analyze testing results and discuss with advisor;
to 15th Apr, 2016
From 16th Apr,2016
Write the graduation thesis and discuss with advisor;
to 30th Apr, 2016
From 1st May,2016 Modify the graduation thesis, make PPT and get
to 21th May, 2016 prepared for the final defense.

(4) References(主要参考文献):
[1] Specification of soil test. SL237-1999.中国铁道出版社.
[2] Specification for Mix Proportion Design of Cement Soil. JGJ/T233-2011.中国建筑
工业出版社.
[3] Li Jianjun. Research on compression strength and modulus of deformation of
cemented soil. Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2009. 30(20): 473-477.
[4] Liang Renwang. Analysis of laboratory test results of cemented soil. Rock and Soil
Mechanics. 2001. 22(2): 211-213.

Advisor(指导教师) Date(年 月 日)

Dean(系主任) Date(年 月 日)
2. Literature Review of Graduation Thesis(毕业论文文献综述)

Zhejiang University of Science and Technology


Undergraduate Graduation Thesis
Literature Review (Graduation Year: 2016)
浙江科技学院本科毕业论文
文献综述(2016 届)

Title Study Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay

School Civil Engineering and Architecture

Major Civil Engineering


Class International 121
Student ID 9120560032
Student Name Mohamed Farah Kahie
Advisor Xue Wen
Date January 14, 2016
Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay

ABSTRACT

In this work, ternary mixes of clay, cement and fiber are studied in order to design
extruded building products with reduced environmental impact. Firstly, the amount of water
required to reach the extrusion rheological criterion and the immersed mechanical strength are
studied. Results lead to a compressive strength prediction tool which provides the
compressive strength of a given ternary mix. Then, the dimensional and immersion stabilities
of ternary mixes are studied. It shows that for mixes containing more kaolin volume than
cement volume, mechanical strength is largely influenced by the saturation state.
Finally, collected data show that cement stabilized clay blocks and high content cement
substitution concrete can be designed with clay/cement mixes.

Keywords: Cement, Clay, Fiber reinforced.


1. INTRODUCTION

Cement-treated with clay has been used widely in ground improvement during the past
forty years and is becoming more attractive and efficient method for soil treatment due to its
economy, availability and feasibility. However, cement-treated clay, especially at high cement
content, tends to be brittle. Previous studies have shown that fiber-reinforcement increases the
strength and ductility while decreasing the stiffness of the soil. [1] Recent studies have also
shown that incorporation of both fibers and cement in clay improvement seems to be more
efficient than fibers or cement alone. Maher and Ho’s work presented a basic study of the
mechanical behavior of artificially cemented sand reinforced with randomly distributed glass
fibers. [2]
Clay minerals are used as coatings on paper to produce whiteness and to allow the proper
absorption of ink, to extend the life of rubber in tires, in concrete, as catalysts in many
industries, to purify oils, in pharmaceuticals, in the ceramic industry to make bricks, Chinas
and porcelains, and in many other industries and processes. Clay minerals, and specifically
montmorillonite, are used as clay barriers for nuclear and chemical wastes because of their
cation-exchange capabilities, low permeability, and long term structural stability. [3]
The use of randomly distributed fiber as a new reinforcement material for cement-treated
soil has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Previous research works,
however, have focused mainly on low cement content (10%), sand or sandy soil and particular
fiber. In this paper, different fiber types (PP & PVA), fiber lengths (6 & 12mm) and fiber
contents (0.0%0.32% by volume of mixture) will be investigated with different cement and
water contents for Singapore marine clay treatment. The specimens were made in laboratory
and tested with unconfined compression loading. The strength and ductility of the FRCT
marine clay specimens were then analyzed based on the experiment results. [4]
2. Research status [in China and abroad]
This study have shown that addition of both fibers and cement in soil improvement,
indicate that the strength and ductility of cement-admixed marine clay
This research status that the Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay; when the clay
encountered at a particular site is not suitable for construction, design engineers have various
options. They can bypass the poor clay, replace it with superior clay, redesign the structure for
the poor condition, or improve the clay’s properties by, for example, mixing it with materials
such as cement, fiber or other cementitious by-products.
The increased strength of a clay–cement mix results from the physicochemical reactions
between soil and cement, such as the interaction between the substances founded on the soil
and the products of the hydration of cement. [5]
The development of higher strength and stiffness is achieved by:
1. Reducing void space,
2. Bonding particles and aggregates together,
3. Maintaining flocculent structures, and
4. Preventing soil swelling. [6]

The most commonly used cement type is Portland cement. Portland cement is composed
primarily of calcium aluminates and calcium silicates that hydrate after mixing with water,
creating the cementing compounds calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminates hydrate.
The hardening process of the clay–cement mix occurs immediately after mixing water with
the cement. The hardening agent provides the hydrated calcium silicates, hydrated calcium
aluminates, and calcium hydroxide, thereby forming hardened cement structures. [7]
Cement stabilization techniques, including jet grouting and deep cement mixing (dry and
wet), have been used worldwide, especially in South East Asia (China) and North America
and recently in Australia, for stability and deformation control of land reclamation and road
construction projects, and in deep excavations in soft clay.
3. MATERIALS USED IN THIS STUDY

Different materials like cement, clay and fiber were used in this study and they are
discussed below.

3.1Cement
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic
ingredient of concrete, mortar and many plasters. It consists of a mixture of calcium silicates,
aluminates and ferrites - compounds which combine calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron in
forms which will react with water. Portland cement and similar materials are made by
heating limestone with clay and/or shale a source of silicon, aluminum and iron and grinding
this product called clinker with a source of sulfate most commonly called gypsum.
When water is mixed with Portland cement, the product sets in a few hours and hardens
over a period of weeks. These processes can vary widely depending upon the mix used and
the conditions of curing of the product, but a typical concrete sets in about 6 hours and
develops a compressive strength of 8 MPa in 24 hours. The strength rises to 15 MPa at
3 days, 23 MPa at 1 week, 35 MPa at 4 weeks [8]

Physical properties of cement


Portland cements are commonly characterized by their physical properties for quality
control purposes. Their physical properties can be used to classify and compare Portland
cements. The challenge in physical property characterization is to develop physical tests that
can satisfactorily characterize key parameters. [9]
o Fineness
o Soundness
o Setting Time
o Strength
3.2Water and Water resistance

Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of
hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it, and makes it
flow more freely. Hydration involves many different reactions, often occurring at the same
time. As the reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond
together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete to form
a solid mass. [10]

Water resistance indicates ability of materials, which are effected by water for a long
period, to maintain their original properties, which means that materials are not damaged and
strength do not drop. In general, different materials have distinguished water resistance e.g.
the softening coefficient of steel and clay are 1 and 0 respectively. Softening coefficient of the
structure I damp air or under water is an important index for choosing materials. [11]

3.3Clay

Clay is the common name for a number of fine-grained, earthy materials that become
plastic when wet. Chemically, clays are hydrous aluminum silicates, usually containing minor
amounts of impurities such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or iron.

Clay refers to naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained minerals,


which is generally plastic at appropriate water contents and will harden when fired or dried."
The minerals found in clay are generally silicates less than 2 microns (one millionth of a
meter) in size, about the same size as a virus. Clays are very abundant at the earth's surface;
they form rocks known as shales and are a major component in nearly all sedimentary rocks.
The small size of the particles and their unique crystal structures give clay materials special
properties, including cation exchange capabilities, plastic behavior when wet, catalytic
abilities, swelling behavior, and low permeability. [12]
Clays will continue to be an important industrial mineral for the foreseeable future. Clays
continue to be used widely as raw materials for refractoriness and other traditional ceramics
because of their availability, low cost, and ease of processing.

More importantly for the modern materials community, understanding the processing and
characterization of traditional ceramics can provide significant insight into the structure of the
materials curriculum and the methods used to process and characterize advanced ceramic
materials. [13]

Types of Clay Deposits


In nature, clays can be found either in the same location where they were formed or they
can be found in a location where they were transported after formation. Clay deposits that are
found where they were formed are referred to as primary or residual deposits. Clays that have
been transported after formation are said to be in secondary or sedimentary deposits. The
discussion in this section will be limited to kaolinite, but will be expanded to other types of
clays of significance to the ceramics industry in the following section. [12]

3.4Fiber
Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites differ according to the type of cementitious
matrix employed to bind the reinforcing fibers: concrete, mortar, or cement paste. In order of
increasing complexity: a cement paste is a mixture of cement and water, a mortar is a mixture
of cement, water, lime, and fine aggregate (typically well-graded sand), and concrete is a
mixture of cement, water, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate. Cement paste, mortar, and
concrete may also all include admixtures such as fly ash, silica fume, or high-range water
reducers. [14]
The inclusion of coarse aggregates in FRC typically decreases the fiber content of the
material and consequently the reinforcement effectiveness of the fibers. Therefore, cements
and mortars are more effective than concretes when fiber inclusion is considered.
Types of fiber
Today, reinforcing fibers are available in a wide variety of materials and can be classified
into four primary categories: steel (low carbon or stainless), mineral (glass or asbestos),
synthetic organic (carbon, cellulose, or polymeric), or natural organic (fiber from plants or
animals). Steel fibers are the most commonly used type of fiber for both structural and
non-structural applications. [15]

The reason used fibers in cementitious materials


Mortar, concrete, and Cement/clay, mixes are brittle materials that are stronger in terms of
compression, while weaker in terms of flexure and tension. When subjected to tension, these
unreinforced brittle matrices initially deform elastically.

Since the largest benefit of the inclusion of fibers is for post-cracking behavior, crack
control is one of the most exciting applications of FRC. The fibers can prevent larger crack
widths that could permit water and contaminant penetration and cause corrosion in
reinforcing steel. [16]
4. Experiment Investigation

The materials used in the study are Singapore upper marine clay, type I Ordinary Portland
cement, and fibers. The constituents of the clay are 24.13% of colloid, 21.77% of clay,
47.71% of silt and 6.39% of very fine to medium sand. Two different fibers were used,
namely polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. PVA fibers are commonly
used in concrete reinforcement to improve the tensile and flexural strength of concrete.
The cement soil mix ratio will be expressed in the form of S: C: W wherein S is mass of
soil solid, C the mass of cement and W the mass of water at the point of mixing. The cement
content Aw is defined as the ratio of mass of cement to the mass of soil solid. The water
content Cw is defined as the ratio of mass of water to the total mass of soil solid and cement.
In this study, the cement content ranges from 20 to 50% by weight of soil solid while the
water content ranges from 100 to 167% by weight of cement and soil solid. The fiber content
is defined as the ratio of volume of fiber to the total volume of the mixture at the point of
mixing, and ranges from 0 to 0.32%. The ductility of the fiber-reinforced cement-treated
(FRCT) soil is designated herein by the brittleness index (BI), which is defined as the ratio of
the peak strength to the strength at a prescribed post-peak strain.
The natural marine clay was first mixed with the prescribed amount of water to achieve
100% moisture content and remolded. Cement slurry with the water-cement ratio needed to
achieve the desired mix ratio was then added to marine clay in a Hobart Mixer and mixed at a
rotational speed of 125rpm for around 5 minutes. The fiber was finally added to cement soil
mixing and mixed for another 10 minutes. For mixtures with water content of 100%, the
mixture was placed into a 50mm (diameter) by 100mm (height) cylindrical polyvinyl chloride
(PVC) split-mould. No compaction was applied during placement. Specimens were then
submerged in distilled water within their split-moulds without loading for curing. The
specimens were then taken out after 28 days for unconfined compression testing. [17]
SUMMARY
In this report, ternary mixes of sand, cement and kaolin are studied in order to design
extruded building products with reduced environmental impact. In a first step, the amount of
water required to reach the extrusion rheological criterion and the immersed mechanical
strength are studied. Results lead to a compressive strength prediction tool (derived from the
Feret model) which give the compressive strength at 28 days as a function of the water
demand to reach the extrusion criterion for kaolin and clay, the water absorbed by the sand,
the cement standard compressive strength and the cement, kaolin and sand mass ratios. The
results of mechanical tests show that using ternary mixes of cement, sand and kaolin can lead
to an interesting compressive strength.
Soft clay soils consist of normally consolidated clays and are generally identified by low
shear strength. In the scope of the tests carried out on soft clay samples, cement was used as a
soil stabilizer in order to improve the mechanical properties of the natural soft clay. A change
in the plasticity of the clay–cement mix was observed as the cement content was increased for
a curing time of 28 days.

Reasonable indications of the optimum cement contents to stabilize the tested clay soils.
Experiments suggested that the overall geotechnical index properties of clay–cement mixes
were controlled by the water to cement ratio, as well as the cement content. Therefore, a
phase diagram was developed to present the geotechnical index properties, such as dry
density, specific gravity, and void ratio of a typical clay–cement mix. This phase diagram
showed that increasing the cement content of the clay–cement mix resulted in an increased
void ratio and decreased total dry density for the same water to cement ratio. Therefore,
higher compaction efforts may be needed to achieve the same dry density with increased
cement content. The clay–cement mix had a greater strength than the natural soft clay. The
compressive strengths of clay–cement mixes increased significantly with increasing cement
content and followed linear relationships at different curing times.
REFERENCES

[1] Gray, D.H., Ohashi, H. 1983. Mechanics of fiber reinforcement in sand. Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering 109 (3), 335–353
[2] Consoli, N.C., Prietto, P.D.M., Ulbrich, L.A. 1998. Influence of fiber and cement
addition on behavior of sandy soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental
Engineering 124 (12), 1211– 1214.
[3] Stephen Guggenheim, Introduction to the properties of clay minerals, Geological
Sciences

[4] Consoli, N.C., Zortéa, F., Souza, M., Festugato, L. 2011. Studies on the dosage of
fiber-reinforced cemented soils. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE 23
(12), 1624-1632.

[5] Chen H, Wang Q (2006) The behavior of organic matter in the process of soft soil
stabilization using cement. Bull Eng Geol Environ 65(4):445–44
[6] Oh EYN (2007) Geotechnical and ground improvement aspects of motorway
embankments in soft clay. PhD dissertation. Griffith University, Gold Coast/Brisbane
[7] Saitoh S, Suzuki Y, Shirai K (1985) Hardening of soil improvement by deep mixing

Ramy Saadeldin • Sumi Siddiqua, Geotechnical characterization of a clay–cement mix,

Bull Eng Geol Environ (2013) 72:601–608

[8] Rayment, D. L. (1986). "The electron microprobe analysis of the C-S-H phases in a 136
year old cement paste". Cement and Concrete Research 16 (3): 341–344.
[9] “Concrete- Microstructure, Properties and Materials”, P.K. Mehta and Palulo J.M.
Monteiro, Tata Mcgraw Hill., 2006.
[10] "Cement hydration". Understanding-Cement.com, Retrieved 1 March 2016
[11] Civil engineering materials, Book, 2011.4, P20.
[12] William G. Fahrenholtz, Book Chapter 7, 2008
[13] Mineral Commodity Survey 2003, U.S. Geological Survey, 2003
[14] Johnston, C.D. Fiber-Reinforced Cements and Concretes; Gordon and Breach: Sydney,
Australia, 2001.
[15] Skourup, B.N.; Erdogmus, E. Mechanical characteristics of PVA fiber-reinforced PCL
mortars for masonry applications. ACI Mater. J. 2010, 107, 1–9.
[16] ACI Committee 544. State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete
ACI544.1R-96, Reapproved in 2002; ACI Committee 544 Report; ACI: Farmington
Hills, MI, USA, 2002.
[17] Xiao H.W., Lee F.H., Zhang M.H., Yeoh S.Y., Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay,
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical
Engineering, Paris 2013

Advisor’s comments(指导教师意见):

Advisor’s signature(指导教师签名)
Date(年 月 日) January 15, 2016
3. Graduation Thesis Proposal Report(毕业论文开题报告)

Zhejiang University of Science and Technology


Undergraduate Graduation Thesis
Proposal Report (Graduation Year: 2016)
浙江科技学院本科毕业论文
开题报告(2016 届)

Title Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of

cement-reinforced muddy clay

School Civil Engineering and Architecture

Major Civil Engineering


Class International 121
Student ID 9120560032
Student Name Mohamed Farah Kahie
Advisor Xue wen
Date January 19, 2016
(1) Background and Meaning of Subject Selection(选题的背景与意义):

This research mainly deals with the following two questions: the major factors
influencing the compacted cement-treated soil compression strength; the mechanical
characteristics and the dropping deformation rules of compacted cement-treated soil pile
composite foundation under vertical loading. The major factors influencing compression
strength is curing time, cement label, mixed-soil quality, dry density etc. The paper
points out the relation between compression strength and those major factors.
Clay based material is one of the materials that has been widely used in construction
materials instead of wood, sand, concrete and other waste materials. This material is a
major compound in clay brick, clay tiles, clay roofing tiles and SMW due to its
wide-ranging properties, high resistance to atmospheric condition, geochemical purity,
and easy access to its deposits near the earth’s surface and low price. The utilization of
this type of clay based waste materials would replace the natural aggregates in concrete
mixture. Studies related to ancient clay bricks alone deal mainly with physical,
chemical, and mineralogical composition, durability and deterioration agents and
deterioration modeling neglecting the mechanical properties.
Cement and clay are particulate materials that interact with water by virtue of their
reactivity. As cement is the only interacting materials in cement based composite, it sit e
hardened cement paste that provides the continuity in structure with the coarse
constituents in embedded state. In this case of soft clay, cement is added to strengthen
the clay.
The primary objective of this research is to study the mechanical properties and the
influence factors of cement-mixed clay, and to conduct an experiment test of the
compressive strength of the cement-mixed clay.
(2) Basic Contents and Main Problems to be Solved(研究的基本内容与拟解决的主
要问题):

In this thesis I will discuss various subjects related to the compressive strength of
cement-mixed clay, and I will cover the cement ratio, and the influence factors of
cement ratio used I this research. The mechanism properties of the clay-cement will also
be discussed in detail.
The compressive strength of cement-mixed clay is the main problem that we are
going to solve in this research. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the soil
increases drastically with the increase of the stabilizer content. Generally, cement
stabilized soils possesses higher UCS than the soils treated with other stabilizers for the
same stabilizer-moisture ratio.

Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) The test procedure for UCS test as we
described before, where a cubic specimen of cement-mixed clay is subjected to a
steadily increasing axial load until failure occurs. The axial load is the only force or
stress which is applied. We use this Equation to solve the unconfined compressive
strength:

σ = P/A (1)

Where;

σ = unconfined compressive strength


P = compressive force
A = cross-section area
Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads
tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to
elongate. In other words, compressive strength resists compression, whereas tensile
strength resists tension.
(3) Methods and Technical Processes(研究的方法与技术路线):

This method specifies the apparatus, instrumentation, and procedures for


determining unconfined compressive strength of cement-mixed clay specimens. The
clay sample with desired consistency was mixed with water and cement. Ordinary
Portland Cement (OPC) and the water content was added in different percentages
ranging from 1.3 – 1.7 putting into consideration the volume of each mould. The OPC
was thoroughly mixed with the clay sample for even distribution and homogeneity. The
mixture was loaded into the three moulds; each mould contained three parts which has
volume of 7.07cm3. After sometime, we use vibration machine to remove the bulk
materials in the cement-mixed clay, and then we numbered the specimen to identify their
mix proportion since they have different mixture. We put the specimen in the curing
room to make that the mixture gets the required temperature and humidity. Normally we
remove the specimen from the mould after 24 hours, but the specimen in this research
were too soft so we left the specimen in the curing room with mould. Each sample was
left for the first 28 days for proper curing and sufficient strength, before compression
testing was carried out.

(4) General Arrangement and Planned Schedule(研究的总体安排与进度):

 General Arrangements

Admixture design:

After I finished my internship I got some clay from the construction site to
conduct some experiment for the graduation thesis, and to figure it out the compressive
strength of cement-mixed clay, in this experiment we used different water ratio which
changes the strength of the cement-mixed clay. A total of 9 cubic specimens were casted
in this experiment, we divide into groups with 3 cubic specimens each, each group has
difference water ratio as shown table 1.
Table 1 The following table indicates the mixture we used for the experiment

Cement ratio W/C Clay (kg) Cement (kg) Water (kg)

1.3 1.908 0.382 0.497

20% 0.382
1.5 1.908 0.573

0.382
1.7 1.908 0.650

Materials and apparatus required:


o Cement __ the cement we used in this experiment is Portland cement
GB175-2007, grade 32.5, and the properties which are given in table 2.
o Muddy Clay __ the clay used in this experiment is a wet clay which has apparent
density of 1.8g/cm2, and it was obtained from underground tunnel in south of
Hangzhou between a depth of 5m to 7m.
o Water Water from the laboratory tap was used for mixing; it was ensured that
it was fit for drinking, free from contaminants either dissolved or in suspension,
using water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of
hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it, and
makes it flow more freely.
o Graduated glass cylinders __ it is a scale, or graduations marked up its length,
which is used to measure liquids and solutions fairly accurately.
o Weigh Balance __ it is used to measure the mass of the materials we used in this
experiment.
o Gauging Trowel __ it is used for smoothing the top surface of the cubic specimen.
o Vibration Machine __ used to separate bulk materials in a mixture of different
sized particles
o Cube Mould of size 70.7 mm X 70.7 mm X 70.7 mm
Table 2 Physical properties of Cement
PHYSICAL PROPERITES
Type of Cement 32.5 Grade
Minimum Compressive Strength, N/mm2 3 day 11.0
28 day 32.5
Fineness Specific surface (Blaine’s air 300
permeability) m2/kg

Setting times (minutes) Initial 45


Final 390
2
Specific gravity (m/s ) 3.15

Testing the compressive strength An electrically operated Impact compression


machine of 300 KN capacity will be employed in carrying out the compressive test on the
cubic specimens, at the curing period of 28 days respectively. After crushing the 36 cubic
specimen the average compressive strength will be recorded according to their difference
of admixture.
Mix Proportions: Clean appliances shall be used for mixing and the temperature of
the water and that of the test room at the time when the above operations are being
performed shall be normal temperature.
Preparation of specimen:
1. Mixing of material for each test cube shall be separately prepared. The quantities of
Muddy clay, cement and water shall be as follows:
Clay – 1908 gms, Cement – 20%; and we use different Water ratio – 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7.
2. All ingredients shall be mixed for couple minute. First we mixed the cement with
water and then clay added till cement-mix clay is formed. Mixing time shall be
between 3-4 minutes.
3. Apply mould oil on interior surface of mould, fill the mixture in the mould and place
the mould on vibrating table. Immediately after preparing mixture.
4. Further compaction shall be done by using vibrating machine. The period of vibration
shall be 1-2 minutes.
5. After completion of vibration, smooth the top surface by trowel and place in the curing
room.
6. Keep moulds filled with specimen for 24 ± 1 hour in the curing room. After 24 hours
remove samples from mould and immediately submerge in clean water.
7. After curing period is over, remove cubes from water and immediately place in testing
machine with side facing upwards. Cubes shall be tested without packing between
steel plates of the testing machine and cubes surface. Load shall be steadily and
uniformly applied, starting from zero at a rate of 35 N/mm2/min. till failure of sample.

 Planned schedule

After selecting the subject we meet with our supervisor who instructed us an gave
us an scheduled plan to follow during the thesis process. We were given the choice to
choose a thesis topic and I chose study on uniaxial compressive strength of
cement-reinforced muddy clay. We usually meet with the supervisor every two weeks
and get the instruct of what we going to do in the next two weeks retrieving the
literature and discussing if it was suitable for the thesis. We were instructed to get not
less than 15 references and have them approved by the supervisor. These references
would be the basis of our research and essential information that would be use in our
thesis. The first two weeks of our task we wrote the literature review and submitted it to
the supervisor. After the literature review was completed we did modification on it
according to what the supervisor told us. The next step was to do the proposal report.
We completed the experiment on clay before the date specified on the table below. In
the future we will complete the thesis and finally do our final defence. A complete and a
modified thesis would be finished before May 1st 2016, and the defence of our thesis
will be held on May 21st 2016.
Schedule:

Date(时间) Work of Graduation Thesis(毕业论文工作内容)

From 27th Dec,2015


Get task from the supervisor
to 28th Dec,2015
From 29th Dec,2015
Retrieve the literature and discuss with the supervisor;
to 20th Jan,2016
From 21th Jan,2016
Write the literature review;
to 29th Jan,2016
From 30th Jan,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the review, and modify
to 6th Feb, 2016 it;
From 7th Feb,2016
Write the proposal report;
to 15th Feb, 2016
From 16st Feb,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the proposal report, and
to 24th Feb, 2016 modify it;
From 25th Feb, 2016 Do Experiment, including specimens casting, curing,
to 31th Mar, 2106 testing;
From 1st Apr,2016
Analyze testing results and discuss with advisor;
to 15th Apr, 2016
From 16th Apr,2016
Write the graduation thesis and discuss with advisor;
to 30th Apr, 2016
From 1st May,2016 Modify the graduation thesis, make PPT and get
to 21th May, 2016 prepared for the final defense.
(5) References(主要参考文献):

[1] Gray, D.H., Ohashi, H. 1983. Mechanics of fiber reinforcement in sand. Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering 109 (3), 335–353
[2] Stephen Guggenheim, Introduction to the properties of clay minerals, Geological
Sciences
[3] Chen H, Wang Q (2006) The behavior of organic matter in the process of soft soil
stabilization using cement. Bull Eng Geol Environ 65(4):445–44
[4] Saitoh S, Suzuki Y, Shirai K (1985) Hardening of soil improvement by deep mixing

Ramy Saadeldin • Sumi Siddiqua, Geotechnical characterization of a clay–cement

mix, Bull Eng Geol Environ (2013) 72:601–608

[5] Civil engineering materials, Book, 2011.4,


[6] Mineral Commodity Survey 2003, U.S. Geological Survey, 2003
[7] Johnston, C.D. Fiber-Reinforced Cements and Concretes; Gordon and Breach:
Sydney, Australia, 2001.
[8] Skourup, B.N.; Erdogmus, E. Mechanical characteristics of PVA fiber-reinforced
PCL mortars for masonry applications. ACI Mater. J. 2010, 107, 1–9.
[9] Xiao H.W., Lee F.H., Zhang M.H., Yeoh S.Y., Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated
Clay, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
[10] "Cement hydration". Understanding-Cement.com, Retrieved 1 March 2016

Advisor’s review comments(指导教师审核意见):

Advisor’s signature(指导教师签名)
Date(年 月 日) January 19, 2016
4. Midterm Check Form of Graduation Thesis (Checked by Advisor)
浙江科技学院毕业论文中期教学检查表(指导教师填写)

School(二级学院): Civil Engineering and Architecture Class(班级): International 121


Student Name(学生姓名): Mohamed Farah Kahie Advisor(指导教师): Xue Wen
Graduation Thesis Title ( 毕 业 论 文 题 目 ) : Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of
cement-reinforced muddy clay
一、选题内容
;工程设计( );实验型( );理论计算( )
1、题目的类型:学术论文(√) ;其它( )


2、题目与专业的结合程度:好(√) 较好( )
; 中 ( )
; 差 ( )。
3、题目的难易程度:较难( ); 适中(√)
; 较易( )

二、文献查阅和文献综述情况:
1、文献查阅与资料总结:好( )
; 较好(√)
; 中( )
; 差( )
, 15 篇;
文献查阅题录 ;摘要 篇。
2、外文文献内容与课题的相关性:好( )
; 较好(√)
; 中( ); 差( )。
外文献翻译质量:好( )
; 较好( )
; 中( )
; 差( )。
译文数量 篇。

3、文献综述书面材料准备情况:好(√) 较好( )
; 中( )
; 差( )

三、开题报告情况:好( ); 较好(√); 中( )
; 差( )

四、毕业论文进展情况:
1、是否按原定计划进程执行: 是(√)
; 基本是( )
; 否( )

2、已完成总任务 80 %。
3、毕业实习报告或实地考察报告进展情况:好(√)
; 较好( )
; 中( )
; 差( )

4、指导教师对阶段性工作的评语:好(√); 较好( )
; 中( )
; 差( )。
五、学生前阶段工作态度和纪律情况:
1、指导教师对学生工作态度的评价: 认真(√)
; 一般( )
; 不认真( )。
2、是否经常在设计场所(实验室、设计院(所)、机房等)工作: 是(√)
; 不是( )

每天平均工作时间 6h ;每周平均工作时间 50h ;
3、有否请假 无 ;请假天数 ;有否旷课 ;请假天数 ;
主要原因 。
六、总体评价:好(√)
; 较好( ); 中( ); 差( )

七、对下一阶段工作的意见和建议: Modify the proposal report carefully, analyze testing data.

Checked by(检查人)

Date(年 月 日) April 12, 2016


5. Record Form of Graduation Thesis Work(毕业论文工作记录卡)

School(学院) Civil Engineering and Architecture Major(专业) Civil Engineering


Class(班级) International 121 Name(姓名) Mohamed Farah Kahie
Completion Main Process
Main Work Advisor’s Signature
Date (毕业论文
(主要工作内容) (指导教师签名)
(完成日期)主要环节)
Subject
12/28/2015 selection Get the assignments
(选题)
Data
01/20/2016 collection Finish the literature review and reading
(搜集资料)
Thesis
proposal
03/08/2016 Finish the proposal report
report
(开题报告)
First draft
05/03/2016 Finish the first draft
(初稿)
Second draft
05/09/2016 Finish the second draft
(二稿)
Final
05/16/2016 version Finish the final version
(定稿)
Defense
05/21/2016
(答辩)
6. Direction Form of Graduation Thesis Work(毕业论文工作指导卡)
School(学院) Civil Engineering and Architecture Major(专业) Civil Engineering
Class(班级) International 121

Advisor
Name(姓名) Mohamed Farah Kahie Xue Wen
(指导教师)
Planned Schedule(计划进程表)
Completed or
Date(日期) Work(工作内容) Non-completed
(完成情况)
th
From 27 Dec,2015
Get task from the supervisor
to 28th Dec,2015
From 29th Dec,2015
Retrieve the literature and discuss with the supervisor;
to 20th Jan,2016
From 21th Jan,2016
Write the literature review;
to 29th Jan,2016
From 30th Jan,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the review, and
to 6th Feb, 2016 modify it;
th
From 7 Feb,2016
Write the proposal report;
to 15th Feb, 2016
From 16st Feb,2016 Discuss with the supervisor on the proposal
to 24th Feb, 2016 report, and modify it;
From 25th Feb, 2016 Do Experiment, including specimens casting,
to 31th Mar, 2106 curing, testing;
From 1st Apr,2016
Analyze testing results and discuss with advisor;
to 15th Apr, 2016

From 16th Apr,2016 Write the graduation thesis and discuss with
to 30th Apr, 2016 advisor;
From 1st May,2016 Modify the graduation thesis, make PPT and get
to 21th May, 2016 prepared for the final defense.
Check and Q&A Record by Advisor(指导教师检查答疑记录)
Advisor’s Signature
Date(日期) Contents of Check and Q&A(检查答疑内容)
(指导教师签名)
12/28/2015 Get the assignments
01/20/2016 Check literature review and reading
02/06/2016 Check literature review writing by email;
02/29/2016 Guide to cast specimens
03/08/2016 Check the proposal report
03/29/2016 Guide to do the experiments
Check the testing data, modify the experiment
04/08/2016
chapter
04/22/2016 Explain the data analysis method by teacher
05/03/2016 Check the first draft of thesis
05/09/2016 Check the second draft of thesis
05/16/2016 Check the final version of thesis
Student’s Leave Record(学生请假记录)
Advisor’s Signature
Date(日期) Leave Reason(请假原因)
(指导教师签名)
7. Comment Form of Graduation Thesis by Advisor(毕业论文指导教师评语表)
Graduation thesis title(毕业论文题目): Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of
cement-reinforced muddy clay
School Civil Engineering and Class
International 121
(学院) Architecture (班级)
Name Mohamed Farah Student ID
9120560032
(姓名) Kahie (学号)

Advisor’s comments(指导教师评语):

Agree or do not agree to defense(是否同意答辩)?

Suggested score (100 mark system)【建议成绩(百分制)】:

Advisor’s signature(指导教师签名)

Date(年 月 日)
8. Comment Form of Graduation Thesis by Reviewer(毕业论文评阅教师评语表)
Graduation thesis title(毕业论文题目): Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of
cement-reinforced muddy clay
School Civil Engineering and Class
International 121
(学院) Architecture (班级)
Name Mohamed Farah Student ID
9120560032
(姓名) Kahie (学号)

Reviewer’s comments(评阅教师评语):

Agree or do not agree to defense(是否同意答辩)?

Suggested score (100 mark system)【建议成绩(百分制)】:

Reviewer’s signature(评阅教师签名)

Date(年 月 日)
9. Defense Record Form of Graduation Thesis(毕业论文答辩记录表)
Mohamed
Name Gender Major Civil Class
Farah Male International 121
姓名 性别 专业 Engineering 班级
Kahie
Advisor Professional Research
Discipline
指导教师 Xue Wen Title Direction
学科
姓名 职称 研究方向
Graduation
Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of cement-reinforced muddy clay
Thesis Title
论文题目
Members of
Defense
Group
答辩组成员
Defense
Defense From to on Recorded
Location
Time May , 2016( 年 月 by
答辩
答辩时间 日 时 分至 时 分) 记录人
地点

Key Points
Presented by
Student
学生
陈述
要点

Key Points
of Q&A in
Defense
教师
提出
的问
题及
学生
回答
要点

Defense group leader’s signature(答辩小组组长签名)


Date(年 月 日)

注:答辩时间应适度(学生报告 15 分钟左右,提问及答辩 15 分钟左右)


,答辩记录应准确、完
整(记录应在 100 字以上)

10. Evaluation Form of Graduation Thesis by the Defense Group and the Defense
Committee(毕业论文答辩评语表)
Graduation thesis title(毕业论文题目): Study on uniaxial Compressive strength of
cement-reinforced muddy clay
Name Mohamed Farah Student ID
9120560032
(姓名) Kahie (学号)
Major Class
Civil Engineering International 121
(专业) (班级)
Defense group’s evaluation(答辩小组评语):

Grade(等级)
Defense group leader’s signature(组长签名)
Date(年 月 日)

Defense committee’s concluding evaluation(答辩委员会综合评语):

Grade(等级)
Defense committee chair’s signature(答辩委员会主任签名)
Dean’s signature(院长签名)
School (Stamp)(学院盖章)
Date(年 月 日)

Note: Grade shall be A (90-100), B (80-89), C (70-79), D (60-69) or E (< 60).


(注:“等级”分优秀、良好、中等、及格和不合格五级)
浙 江 科 技 学 院
学生毕业论文评分标准

答辩小组评分标准:
序号 答 辩 考 核 主 要 内 容 标 准 分

1 学生自述思路清晰,表达清楚。 5

2 论述正确、深入、有逻辑性。 10

3 回答问题有理论依据,基本概念清楚。主要问题回答准确、深入。 15

4 回答问题反映快、理解领悟力强或有独特的见解。 10

注:1、对表中评分项目每项均要评分,评分计量精确到 0.5 分。

2、答辩小组评分表各学院自行制定

学院答辩委员会评分标准:

序号 考核项目 考 核 主 要 内 容 标 准 分

掌握、运用基 基础理论、专业知识的运用能力;查阅、分析中
1 20
本知识及技能 外文资料能力;独立进行实验、设计和科研能力
开题报告、论文、选题应用性、先进性;指导思想可行性、理论依
2 说明书、译文、 据正确性、方案合理性、计算及实验结果正确性; 30
作品 图纸、作品质量、撰写说明书及翻译文献能力

3 平时工作表现 出勤情况、工作学习态度及效率 10

4 小组答辩 (按答辩成绩评分标准表) 40

注:对表中评分项目每项均要评分,评分计量精确到 0.5 分。