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The 'Distribution of Primes' contains two expansions of the 'prime number theorem' (PNT), which are both used for a proof of the Riemann hypothesis, whereby we show that the primes are as uniformly distributed as possible. Further, we show a symmetry in the equation for the distribution of primes. Afterwards we give an asymptotic equivalence to compute the zeros of the Riemann zeta function.

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M. N. G. EINSTEIN

Abstract. In this paper we expand the prime number theorem, twice. Then

we use both expansions to describe the distribution of primes. Afterwards we

analyze the symmetry in the asymptotic equivalence. At last we come to the

solution of the zeros of the ζ−function.

Contents

1. Expansion of the Prime Number Theorem 1

2. Visualisation of the Distribution of Primes 3

3. Distribution of Primes 5

4. Conformation 6

5. Symmetry in Prime Distribution 7

6. Zeros of the ζ−function 8

7. Computing the non trivial zeros 10

8. Closing Argument 12

9. Proving the equivalence 15

References 18

Theorem 1.1. For all R+ 3 k ≥ 1 it is:

π(x)

lim = k

x→∞ x

π

k

Proof. After the prime number theorem we have:

x x x

k log k log

log(x) x k k

lim x = lim = lim =

x→∞ x→∞ log(x) x x→∞ log(x)

x

k log

k

= lim = lim − =k

x→∞ log(x) n→∞ log(x) log(x)

1

2 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

(n−1)

π(x) x0 n

lim 1 =

x→x0 π(x n ) n

Proof. After the prime number theorem we have:

x

log(x) x0 n1 log(x0 ) 1 x0

lim x = 1 = n 1 =

x→x0 log(x0 ) x0n x0n

1

log(x n )

(n−1)

1− 1

x n x0 n

= 0 =

n n

This yields in total:

x

π(x) ∼

log(x)

(n−1)

1 x n

π(x) ∼ π(x n )

n

x

π(x) ∼ kπ

k

n 1

π(x) (n−1)

∼ π(x n )

x n

π(x) x

∼ π

k k

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 3

After the expansion of the prime number theorem we have:

π(x) x

∼π

k k

which is equivalent to:

]|P| ≤ x x

∼ ]|P| ≤

k k

]|P| ≤ x x

∼ ]|P| ≤

2 2

]|P| ≤ x x

∼ ]|P| ≤

3 3

]|P| ≤ x x

∼ ]|P| ≤

4 4

.. .. ..

. . .

This sequence shows, that half (one third, one fourth, . . . ) of the prime numbers

lie in half (one third, one fourth, . . . ) of x. But this means, that the prime numbers

are as uniformly distributed as possible. Hence, we can conclude, that the expansion

of the prime number theorem proves already the Riemann hypothesis. For k = 2

we receive:

y

π(x) x

∼π

2 2

π(x)

]|P| ≤ x ]|P| ≤ x

2 2

0 x→∞

x x

π = ]|P| ≤

2 2

4 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

which yields:

Zx Zx/2

]|P| ≤ x 1 dt dt x

∼ ∼ ∼ ]|P| ≤

2 2 log(t) log(t) 2

2 2

While the left hand side counts for half of all the primes in the interval [2, x], the

x

right side counts all primes in the interval [2, ]. Hence, we can conclude that half

2

x

of all the primes in the interval [2, x] lie in the interval [2, ]. We can continue

2

this sequence of course, which results in:

Zx Zx/2

1 dt dt

∼

2 log(t) log(t)

2 2

Zx Zx/3

1 dt dt

∼

3 log(t) log(t)

2 2

Zx Zx/4

1 dt dt

∼

4 log(t) log(t)

2 2

.. .. ..

. . .

We point out, that not only the expansion of the prime number theorem −, but

also the established Mertens matrix becomes visible. Further, it proves:

π(x) = li(x) + O(xϑ+ε )

with 12 ≤ ϑ < 1 and ε > 0, which is equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis, since

π(x) ∼ li(x) ⇒ π(x) = li(x) + y, but y = O(xϑ+ε ) → 0. This is very easy to show,

if we claim:

x

+ xϑ+ε

log(x)

lim x =1

x→∞

log(x)

this yields:

" # " #

x log(x) x log(x) log(x)

lim + xϑ+ε = lim + 1−ϑ−ε =1

x→∞ log(x) x x→∞ x log(x) x

| {z } | {z }

→1 →0

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 5

3. Distribution of Primes

Theorem 3.1. Prime numbers are as uniformly distributed as possible.

Proof. After the explicit formula we have:

∞ 1 Z ∞

X π(x n ) X

ρ 1−ρ

du

π(x) + = li(x) − li(x ) + li(x ) + 2 − 1) log(u)

− log(2)

n=2

n ρ=β+iγ

u(u

γ>0 x

for any x ≥ 2. According to the prime number theorem we have for the prime

counting function:

x

π(x) ∼

log(x)

and for its expansion:

x 1 n

kπ ∼ π(x) and π(x n ) ∼ π(x) (n−1)

k x n

with which we get:

X π(x n1 ) X nπ(x) X π(x)

π(x) + ∼ π(x) + (n−1)

= π(x) + (n−1)

n

n=2 2≤n≤x x n n 2≤n≤x x n

whereby we have:

X π(x) X π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x)

π(x) + (n−1)

∼ (n−1)

∼ π(x) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + . . .

2≤n≤x x n n≤x x n

x2 x3 x4 x5

This is the exact symmetry we have expected in order for the prime numbers

to be as uniformly distributed as possible. The same symmetry can be found in

the functional equation for the zeta function. How does this show that the prime

numbers are as uniformly distributed as possible?

Let us assume the following three different distributions:

" #

1 1 1

Ω1 (x) = A1 x 1 + x + x + x + . . .

2 4 6

" #

1 1 1

1

Ω2 (x) = A2 x + x + x + x + . . .

3 5 7

1

X

Ω3 (x) = A3 xn

comn

favour the one or the other side. Hence, they cannot describe an uniformly dis-

tribution. Ω3 (x) on the other hand would create gaps that are much to wide in

contradiction to Bertrand’s postulate (n < p < 2n). Therefore an uniformly distri-

1

bution can only be given by an equation that covers all x n as it is shown by the

explicit formula. Both expansions of the prime number theorem bring that only

forward and make it visible.

6 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

4. Conformation

Riemann gave the following formula in terms of the related prime counting func-

tion:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Π(x) = π(x) + π(x 2 ) + π(x 3 ) + π(x 4 ) + π(x 5 ) + . . .

2 3 4 5

After the second expansion of the prime number theorem, we have:

n 1

π(x) (n−1) ∼ π(x n )

x n

which yields:

1 2 π(x) 1 3 π(x) 1 4 π(x) 1 5 π(x)

Π(x) ∼ π(x) + + + + + ...

2 x (2−1)

2 3 x (3−1)

3 4 x (4−1)

4 5 x (5−1)

5

∼ π(x) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + ...

x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7

1 1 1 1

x x2 x3 x4 x5

Π(x) ∼ + + + + + ...

log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x)

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 7

We have found previously for:

∞ 1

X π(x n ) X

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ )

π(x) + = li(x) −

n=2

n ρ=β+iγ

γ>0

Z∞

du

+ − log(2)

u(u2 − 1) log(u)

x

X π(x) X π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x)

π(x) + (n−1)

∼ (n−1)

∼ π(x) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + . . .

2≤n≤x x n n≤x x n

x2 x3 x4 x5

for which we get, with π(x) ∼ x/ log(x), the following equation:

" #

1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 X π(x)

x + x + x + x + ... =

2 3 4 xn ∼ (n−1)

log(x) log(x)

n≤x n≤x x n

We recognize the prime number theorem and both its expansions. Hence, we have:

1 X 1 X

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ )

x n ∼ li(x) −

log(x)

n≤x ρ=β+iγ

γ>0

Z∞

du

+ − log(2)

u(u2 − 1) log(u)

x

8 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

The asymptotic equivalence yields:

X π(x) X

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ )

(n−1)

∼ li(x) −

n≤x x n ρ=β+iγ

γ>0

Z∞

du

+ − log(2)

u(u2 − 1) log(u)

x

For x% we get:

Z∞

X π(x) X du

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ ) +

log(2) + ∼ −

x

(n−1)

n u(u2 − 1) log(u)

2≤n≤x ρ=β+iγ

x

γ>0

| {z }

→0+

Hence, we have found an asymptotic equivalence for the zeros of the Riemann

ζ−function.

We can rewrite the asymptotic equivalence:

Z∞

X π(x) X du

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ ) +

log(2) + ∼ −

x

(n−1)

n u(u2 − 1) log(u)

2≤n≤x ρ=β+iγ

x

γ>0

| {z }

→0+

to: " #

1 1 1 1

log(2) + x + x + x + ...

2 3 4

log(x)

which is quite similar to the equation we have found prior:

" #

1 1 1 1 1 X 1 X π(x)

x1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + . . . = xn ∼ (n−1)

log(x) log(x)

n≤x n≤x x n

Thus, we have found an equation that allows us to compute the zeros of the

Riemann ζ−function directly via the prime distribution.

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 9

" #

1 1 1 1

log(2) + x2 + x3 + x4 + . . .

log(x)

| {z }

∈R

we can conclude:

X

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ )

−

ρ=β+iγ

γ>0

| {z }

∈R

which means that all roots have to be real, meaning, the condition:

ξ(z) = ξ(1/2 ± it) = 0

for t ∈ R has to be fulfilled.

Remark 6.2. The asymptotic equivalence:

X π(x) X π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x)

π(x) + (n−1)

∼ (n−1)

∼ π(x) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + . . .

2≤n≤x x n n≤x x n | x2 x 3 {z x 4 x5 }

:=π(ζ)

reveals why the values γ of the zeros ρ = β + iγ take such irrational forms. A short

n

analysis of π(ζ) shows, that the exponents x n+1 not only create a step function,

but also push the values towards their final form.

10 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

We want now to present a formula that allows us to calculate the non−trivial

zeros of ζ(z). On the basis of the already proven and derived equations, we get:

1 ρ

xn

X 1 Z Zx Zx Z∞

dt dt X dt du

∼ − − log(2) +

n log(t) log(t) ρ

log(t) u(u2 − 1) log(u)

n≤x 2 2 2 x

ρ

Zx Zx Zx Z∞

X 1 dt dt X dt du

n ∼ − − log(2) +

x n+1 log(t) log(t) ρ

log(t) u(u2 − 1) log(u)

0≤n≤x 2 2 2 x

due to:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

π(x) + π(x 2 ) + π(x 3 ) + π(x 4 ) + π(x 5 ) + · · · =

2 3 4 5

Z∞

X

ρ du

= li(x) − li(x ) + − log(2)

ρ

u(u2 − 1) log(u)

x

We can expand the prime number theorem one more time, which yields:

1 1 1

π(x k )nx n − k

1

π(x ) ∼ n

k

The formula allows us now to verify the line of zeros. By inserting the expansion

into the asymptotic equivalence we get with k = 2:

1 ρ

Zx 2 Zx Zx Z∞

1 X 1 −1 dt dt X dt du

(7.05) xn 2 ∼ − − log(2) +

2 log(t) log(t) ρ

log(t) u(u2 − 1) log(u)

n≤x 2 2 2 x

or more appropriately:

1

!

π(x 2 ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

∼ π(x) + 1 + x3−2 + x4−2 + x5−2 + x6−2 + x7−2 + . . .

2

We recognise the symmetry in the prime distribution, we have encountered before,

and the construction rule of the Riemann ζ function within/via the logarithms; if,

1 1

in the sequence x n − k one exponent would be different or would even miss, then it

would not represent ζ(z). Of course it is possible to change k to any real number

≥ 1 (k ∈ R+ ), but due to the uniformly distribution of the prime numbers this is

only a different representation of the above asymptotic equivalence (since you can

transform them back via the expansion of the prime number theorem to the above

asymptotic equivalence).

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 11

We can use now equation 7.05 to compute the zeros. Since the last integral on

the right hand side tends to zero and the first integral on either side is equal, we

can conclude:

1

Zx 2 xρ

1 X 1 −1 du XZ du

(7.07) xn 2 ∼− − log(2)

2 log(u) ρ

log(u)

2≤n≤x 2 2

We can rewrite the left hand side as follows:

1 1

x 2 (cos(t log(x))+i it log(x)

Z sin(t log(x))) x 2 eZ

1 X 1 −1 du 1 X 1 −1 du

xn 2 = xn 2

2 log(u) 2 log(u)

2≤n≤x 2 2≤n≤x 2

t ∈ R. But we can clearly see, that when t 6= 0, then the integrals start to oscillate.

1 −1

In order to get the zeros, we have to get rid of the front factor x n2 2 . Since σ is

predetermined and x increases, it only can go into t. Thus, if we solve (for n ≥ 2):

1 1

Zx 2 x 2 eiγ

Zn

log(x)

Zx

ρ

1 1 −1 du du du

xn 2 = ∼

2 log(u) log(u) log(u)

2 2 2

such as the asymptotic equivalence is fulfilled, we are actually solving for the

non−trivial zeros of ζ(z). Hence, we have established that the complete knowledge

of the primes is contained in the Riemann zeros and we have used the primes to

determine those exact zeros.

We can see the factor σ = 1/2 controls the oscillation as xσ is the amplitude. If

σ 6= 1/2, then we recognise that:

Zx Zx/k

]|P| ≤ x 1 dt dt x

∼ ∼ ∼ ]|P| ≤

k k log(t) log(t) k

2 2

would not hold anymore as the oscillation would either be amplified (σ > 1/2) or

abated (σ < 1/2) (in terms of the distribution of the primes this would mean, either

a gap would exist contrary to Bertrand’s postulate or a pattern would occur), which

after the prime number theorem and its expansions cannot be true.

To solve for the non−trivial zeros, we can use the left hand side, which we can

compute via the many series we have already established (we can use even the

left hand side of equation 7.07) and set it asymtotically equal to our asymptotic

equivalence. All that remains then, is to variate the γn , whereby we have the

condition: γ1 < γ2 < · · · < γn .

12 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

8. Closing Argument

For Re(z) > 1 we have:

!

X 1

log ζ(z) =

p

1 − p−z

after: Y 1

ζ(z) =

p

1 − p−z

With the integral:

Z∞

−nz

p =z x−z−1 dx

pn

we get for log ζ(z):

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

p−nz

Z Z

XX XX 1

log ζ(z) = =z x−z−1 dx = z x−z−1 Π(x) dx

p n=1

n p n=1

n

pn 0

which yields:

Z∞ 1 1 1

!

x x2 x3 x4

log ζ(z) ∼ z x−z−1 + + + + ... dx

log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x)

0

Z∞ !

1 1 2 3

∼z x−z + x−z− 2 + x−z− 3 + x−z− 4 + . . . dx

log(x)

0

Hence, we have:

Z " Z∞

c+i∞ !#

1 1 1 2 3

Π(x) ∼ xz x−z + x−z− 2 + x−z− 3 + x−z− 4 + . . . dz

2πi log(x)

c−i∞ 0

which explains:

Z∞

X du

Π(x) = li(x) − li(xρ ) + − log(2)

ρ

u(u2 − 1) log(u)

x

With:

! !

X z z z

log ζ(z) = log 1 − − log(2) − log Γ 1 + + log(π) − log(z − 1)

ρ

ρ ρ 2

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 13

we get, on the basis of the previous derivation, the following asymptotic equiva-

lence:

Z∞ 1 1 1

!

−z−1 x x2 x3 x4

z x + + + + . . . dx ∼

log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x)

0

! !

X z z z

log 1 − − log(2) − log Γ 1 + + log(π) − log(z − 1)

ρ

ρ ρ 2

Z∞ " #∞ " #∞

−z−1 x−z −z

z x dx = z = x = p−nz

z n n

pn p p

Z∞ 1 1 1

!

−z−1 x x2 x3 x4

z x + + + +... dx ∼

log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x)

0 | {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }

∼π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x)

∼ 1 ∼ 2 ∼ 3

x2 x3 x4

log ζ(z), since the lower bound in the above integral changed from pn to zero.

For any x ≥ 2 we have the explicit formula:

∞ 1 Z ∞

X π(x n ) X du

li(xρ ) + li(x1−ρ ) +

π(x) + = li(x) − 2

− log(2)

n=2

n ρ=β+iγ

u(u − 1) log(u)

γ>0 x

If we substitute: X X 1 X 1

Π(x) := =

p pn <x

n pn <x n

in the left hand side, we get:

∞ ∞

!

X 1 X µ(n) 1

Π(x nk )

k n=1 n

k=1

which we can do after:

∞

X µ(n) 1

π(x) = Π(x n )

n=1

n

whereby:

X π(x) X π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x) π(x)

π(x) + (n−1)

∼ (n−1)

∼ π(x) + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ...

2≤n≤x x n

n≤x x n x 2 x 3 x 4 x5

yields:

1 1 1 ∞ ∞

x x2 x3 x4 X µ(n) 1 1 X µ(n) 1

+ + + + ··· ∼ Π(x n ) + Π(x 2n ) + . . .

log(x) log(x) log(x) log(x) n=1

n 2 n=1 n

14 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

We recognize on the right hand side the Mertens matrix with the exact same

behaviour we have encountered before for x → ∞ as the negative elements of the

first series are canceled out. After the definition of Π(x) we have expected the left

hand side of the asymptotic equivalence to turn out this way. But, since we have

derived the left − and the right hand side completely separate from each other, the

two expansions of the prime number theorem for the left − and the new Mertens

matrix for the right hand side, we can conclude with the formula:

Z∞

X

ρ du

Π(x) = li(x) − li(x ) − log(2) + 2 − 1) log(u)

ρ

u(u

x

that the proof for the Riemann hypothesis is complete.

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 15

Theorem 9.1. Let > 0, n > 2. Then there exists some constant c such that:

|M (n)| ≤ cn1/2+

Proof. We begin with the equation:

π(bn/pi c)−i≤0 π(bn/δi c)−(i+1)≤0

X n X n

M (n) = 1 − π(n) + (π − i) − (π − (i + 1)) + . . .

i=1

pi i=1

δi

n n n

n 2 3 p

∼1− + − 1 + − 2 + · · · + k1 − k1 −

log(n) n n n

log log log

2 3 pk1

n n n

6 10 δ

− + 2 − + 3 − · · · − k2 + (k2 + 1)+

n n n

log log log

6 10 δk2

n n n

30 42 σ

+ − 3 + − 4 − · · · − k3 + (k3 + 2) − . . .

n n n

log log log

30 42 σk3

As n tends to infinity, we observe, that almost all linear elements, besides those

at the beginning of the sums in each row with odd numbers, will cancel each other

out. Hence we are left with:

n n n

n 2 3 p

M (n) ∼ − + + + · · · + k1 −

log(n) n n n

log log log

2 3 pk1

n n n

6 10 δ

− − − · · · − k2 +

n n n

log log log

6 10 δk2

n n n

30 42 σ

+ − 3 + − · · · − k3 − . . .

n n n

log log log

30 42 σk3

16 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

N1 N2 N3

M (n) ∼ − + − ...

D1 D2 D3

whereby the first numerator is:

n n n n

N1 = −n log log log · · · log +

2 3 5 pk1

n n n n

+ log(n) log log · · · log +

2 3 5 pk1

n n n n

+ log(n) log log · · · log +

3 2 5 pk1

+···+

n n n n

+ log(n) log log · · · log

pk1 2 3 pk1 −1

n n n n

D1 = log(n) log log log · · · log

2 3 5 pk1

For the second numerator we have:

n n n n n

N2 = − log log log · · · log −

6 10 14 15 δk2

n n n n n

− log log log · · · log −

10 6 14 15 δk2

n n n n n

− log log log · · · log −

14 6 10 15 δk2

−···−

n n n n n

− log log log · · · log

δk2 6 10 14 δk2 −1

n n n n

D2 = log log log · · · log

6 10 14 δk2

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMES 17

we can compactify with the laws of logarithm. We start with the first numerator

N1 , thus we are getting:

n n

n log · · · log

n 3 pk1

N1 = − log +

2

| {z }

= a11

n log n

· · · log

n

+ log |n 2 3 p k

} +

1

{z

= a12

n log n

· · · log

n

+ log n 3 2 p k

} +

1

| {z

= a13

+···+

n n n

log · · · log

+ log n p k1

2 p k1 −1

| {z }

= a1k1

a12 a13 · · · a1k1

= log

a11

n n n

log log · · · log

n 10 14 δk2

D1 = log

6

| {z }

= b1

If we summarise the rest, we get:

a12 a13 · · · a1k1 1

log log log a31 a32 · · · a3k3

a11 a21 a22 · · · a2k2

M (n) ∼ + + −. . .

log(b1 ) log(b2 ) log(b3 )

which we can compactify one last time to:

log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk ) log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk )

a12 a13 · · · a1k1 a31 a32 · · · a3k3 · · ·!

log log(b ) log(b )··· log(b )

1 3 k

log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk )

a11 a21 a22 · · · a2k2 ···

M (n) ∼

log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk )

log b1

18 M. N. G. EINSTEIN

With:

elog(n) = n

we get the transformation:

1

log(n)

elog(n)/ log(m) =e log(m) = elog(n) log−1 (m) =

log−1 (m) −1

= elog(n) = nlog (m)

M (n), with which we arrive at:

log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk ) log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk )

1

a12 a13 · · · a1k1 a31 a32 · · · a3k3 · · · ! log(b t)

M (n)

e ∼ log(b ) log(b )··· log(b )

1 3 k

log(b2 ) log(b3 )··· log(bk )

a11 a21 a22 · · · a2k2 ···

whereby:

log(b2 ) log(b3 ) · · · log(bk )

bt = b1

Thus, we have:

1/2+

lim |eM (n) | ≤ ecn

n→∞

1/2+

since the basis of |eM (n) | is a fraction, while for ecn it is the Euler constant,

which increases faster than every other power as a result of:

nr

lim n

n→∞ e

whereby r ∈ R. For r ≤ 0, which is our case, since:

1

lim =0

n→∞ log(n)

nr

= er log(n)−n

en

√

due to log(n) < n we then get:

√

r log(n) − n < r n − n

with which follows the statement − and the equation above as well.

References

[1] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Number Theory.

[2] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Algebraic Number Theory.

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