engineering design

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engineering design

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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MI-291

Dr. A. Parashar

#211, West Block

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

IIT-Roorkee

Email:drap1fme@iitr.ac.in

01332-284801

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department

2. Course Title: Engineering Analysis and Design

3. Contact Hours: L: 3 T: 1 P: 2/2

4 Examination Duration (Hrs.): Theory : 3 hrs Practical 0

5 Relative Weightage: CWS 15 PRS 25 MTE 20 ETE 40

6. Credits: 4 7. Semester: Autumn 8. Subject Area: DCC

9. Pre-requisite: None

10. Objective:

• This course aims to describe the role of analysis in

engineering design and enhance critical thinking and design

skills;

OBJECTIVE OF MIN-291

This course aims to describe the role of analysis in engineering design.

idea.

design and analysis.

engineering practice.

CONTENTS

Chapter I Introduction

Design

History of design

Mechanical engineering design

Different phases of design

Role of analysis

The design spiral

Computer aided engineering analysis

Visualization/analysis and redesign

Statistical consideration

Safety and reliability

Chapter III Reverse Engineering

Introduction

Applications

Chapter IV Learning from Failures

Learning from case studies

Failure of mechanical components

Chapter V Engineering Design

Project for design of mechanical elements

Chapter VI Aesthetic & Engineering Design

Written and oral presentation

Poster presentation

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DESIGN

Mechanical Engineering Design

Involves

Simple journal bearing involves fluid flow, heat transfer, friction,

energy transport, material selection, thermo-mechanical treatments,

statistical descriptions, and so on.

and air-conditioning considerations are sufficiently specialized that

some speak of heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning design as if

it is separate and distinct from mechanical engineering design.

design, and jet-engine design are sometimes considered discrete

entities.

Design

Design is an innovative and highly iterative process. It is also a

decision-making process.

occasionally with just the right amount of information, or with an

excess of partially contradictory information.

of many disciplines.

graphics, and languages) are combined to produce a plan that,

when carried out, produces a product that is functional ,safe,

reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and

marketable, regardless of who builds it or who uses it.

Design : Aesthetic vs. Engineering

www.hostpaperz.com

www.danier.ca

Design : Aesthetic vs. Engineering

www.ferrari.com

www.asiandefensenews.com

What is Common Among These ?

Common Considerations ?

FUNCTION: most of the creations serve multiple

functions.

related with function, material selection, aesthetics.

FUNCTIONS vs COST?

Functions 1

2

Function 1

Functions 1 Functions 1

2 2

3 3

4

5

Wind Turbine Structure

The support structure should be optimized for weight

and stiffness (deflection)

Support

Structure

Wind Turbine Structure

Lattice structure

Structural Failure

Caused by high wind.

Support structure failure, New York.

Stress at the base of the support

tower exceeding the strength of the

material

Structural Failure

the thin section of the blade

Leonardo de Ser Piero da Vinci

(1452-1519)

Monalisa

A man full of curiosity

& energy for inventive

imaginations.

Painter, sculptor,

architect, musician,

engineer and writer.

Leonardo & Early Engineering

Water pumps and machines.

the work of Martini (1490).

was exemplary, his drawings

shows his grasp of mechanics

and nature.

things.

Leonardo’s Concept of Friction

In modern terms, Leonardo

assigns a value of 0.25 to

coefficient of friction.

same value of coefficient of

friction.

coefficient of friction for most of

the materials is appropriate.

Design: Flying Machine

Leonardo was

fascinated with the

idea of flying.

Leonardo’s design

of parachute and

giant crossbow

were interpreted

and tested.

Sir Isaac Newton

(1642-1727)

mathematician.

scientist of all time.

“Mathematical Principles of

Natural Philosophy” is considered

as most prominent contribution to

classical mechanics.

“Nature and nature’s laws lay

hid in night. God said let

NEWTON be, and all was light” Also made contributions in the

Epitaph by Pope field of optics and calculus.

Design

of a specified need or to solve a problem.

physical reality then the product must be functional, safe,

reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and

marketable.

A Design Must Be

Functional- fill a need or customer expectation

Safe- not hazardous to users or bystanders

Reliable- conditional probability that product will perform

its intended function without failure to a certain age.

Competitive- contender in the market

Usable- accommodates human size and strength

Manufacturable- minimal number of parts and suitable for

production

Marketable- product can be sold and serviced

Design Process Actions

Conceive alternative solutions

Analyze, test, simulate, or predict performance of alternatives

Choose the “best” solution

Implement design

Design is…

An innovative and iterative process

A communication intensive activity

Subject to constraints

Standard Design Process

The complete design process from

start to finish, is often outlined as in

the figure.

and a decision to do something about

it.

ends with the presentation of the

plans for satisfying the need.

repeated throughout the life of the

product.

Phase of the Design Process

Identification of need generally starts the design process. The need may

only be a vague discontent, a feeling of uneasiness, or a sense that

something is not right.

The definition of problem is more specific and must include all the

specifications for the object that is to be designed.

sometimes called the invention of the concept or concept design. This is

the first and most important step in the synthesis task.

satisfactory.

related.

Evaluation is the final proof of a successful design and usually involves the

testing of a prototype in the laboratory.

Recognition of need

The process of designing begins when there is a need.

Wherever there are people there are problems needing solutions. In some cases

the designer may have to invent a product. An example might be a game for

blind persons.

At other times the designer may change an existing design. (If the handle of a pot

becomes too hot to touch, it must be redesigned.)

Designers also improve existing products. They make the product work even

better. Could the chair in the waiting room of a bus or train station be altered so

that waiting seems shorter?

The Definition of the problem

It involves thorough specification of items to be designed. i.e. what is to be

designed.

The problem definition cannot be vague. Some examples of need and problem

definition are listed below:

Need: The handle of a pot becomes too hot to hold when the pot is heated.

Prob. Definition : Design a handle that remains cool when the pot is heated.

Synthesis

FUNCTION: A functional object must solve the problem described in the problem

definition. The basic question to ask is : "What, exactly, is the use of the article?"

APPEARANCE: How will the object look? The shape, color, and texture should make

the object attractive.

CONSTRUCTION: Will it be hard to make? Consider what methods you will need to

cut, shape, form, join, and finish the material.

SAFETY: The object you design must be safe to use. It should not cause accidents.

Analysis & Optimization

Synthesis and analysis and optimization are intimately and iteratively related.

models of the system that will admit some form of mathematical analysis.

In creating them it is our hope that we can find one that will simulate the real

physical system very well.

Developing alternative solutions

You should produce a number of solutions. It is very important that you

write or draw every idea on paper as it occurs to you. This will help you

remember and describe them more clearly. It is also easier to discuss

them with other people if you have a drawing.

should be made quickly. The important thing is to record all your ideas.

Do not be critical. Try to think of lots of ideas, even some wild ones. The

more ideas you have, the more likely you are to end up with a good

solution.

Choosing a solution

You may find that you like several of the solutions. Eventually, you must choose one.

Usually, careful comparison with the original design brief will help you to select the

best.

Your own skills.

The materials available.

Time needed to build each solution.

Cost of each solution.

Deciding among the several possible solutions is not always easy. Then it helps to

summarize the design requirements and solutions and put the summary in a chart.

Which would you choose? In cases like this, let it be the one you like best.

Design Evaluation

Testing and evaluating answers three basic questions:

Does it work?

Does it meet the problem definition?

Will modifications improve the solution?

This same question would be asked by an engineer designing a bridge, by the designer of

a subway car, or by an architect planning a new school.

If you were to make a mistake in the final design of the pencil holder what would happen?

The result might simply be unattractive. At worst, the holder would not work well. Not so

if a designer makes mistakes in a car's seat belt design. Someone's life may be in danger!

Models & Prototypes

A model is a full-size or small-scale simulation of an object. Architects,

engineers, and most designers use models. Models are one more step in

communicating an idea. It is far easier to understand an idea when seen in

three-dimensional form. A scale model is used when designing objects that

are very large.

generally full-size and often handmade. For a simple object such as a pencil

holder, the designer probably would not make a model. He or she may go

directly to a prototype.

Presentation

Documentation of design by drawing.

Material specifications.

Design Considerations

Functionality Styling

Strength/stress Shape

Distortion/deflection/stiffness Size

Wear Control

Corrosion Thermal properties

Safety Surface

Reliability Lubrication

Manufacturability Marketability

Utility Maintenance

Cost Volume

Friction Liability

Weight Remanufacturing/resource

Life recovery

Noise

Design Engineer’s Responsibilities

In general, design engineering is required to satisfy the

needs of customers (management, clients, consumers, etc.)

and is expected to do so in a competent, responsible,

ethical, and professional manner.

organize your solution processing technique.

Understand the problem.

Identify the known.

Identify the unknown and formulate the solution strategy.

State all assumption and decision.

Analyze the problem.

Evaluate your solution.

conducting activities in an ethical manner.

Standards and Codes

1. A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes

intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality.

and construction of something.

specifications for standards and safety or design codes.

International Bureau of Weights American Bearing Manufactures

and Measures (BIPM) Association (ABMA)

International Standards British Standards Institute (BSI)

Organization (ISO) Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI)

National Institute for Standards Institution of Mechanical

and Technology (NIST) Engineers (I.Mech.E)

Society of Automotive Engineers

Economics

The consideration of cost plays an

important role in the design decision

process.

first principle of cost reduction.

specifications on costs, tolerances are

perhaps most significant.

approaches are compared for cost,

there occurs a point corresponding to

equal cost, which is called the

breakeven point.

Stress and Strength

The survival of many products depends on how the

designer adjusts the maximum stresses in a component to

be less than the component’s strength at specific locations

of interest.

element. The strength of an element depends on the choice,

the processing of the material.

which is a function of load, geometry, temperature, and

manufacturing processing.

Greek letters σ (sigma) and τ (tau) to designate normal and

shear stresses, respectively.

Spring Stiffness

Δx

Compression Tension

spring spring

F

F

F = k (Δx)

where

k = spring constant

Δ x = spring stretch

F = applied force

Stiffness : Solid Bar

k (stiffness) = F/δ

Initial Length (Lo) Tensile

Load (F) E = Stress/Strain =(FLo)/(Aδ)

Fixed

End

k = (AE)/Lo

δ

Final Length (Lf) E (steel) = 30 x 106 psi

E (Al) = 10 x 106 psi

E (concrete) = 3.4 x 103 psi

E (Kevlar, plastic) = 19 x 103 psi

E (rubber) = 100 psi

Concept of Area Moment of Inertia

The Area Moment of Inertia is an important parameter in

determine the state of stress in a part (component, structure),

the resistance to buckling, and the amount of deflection in a

beam.

structure is.

capacity of a cross-section (profile) to resist bending. It is always

considered with respect to a reference axis, in the X or Y

direction. It is a mathematical property of a section concerned

with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the

reference axis. The reference axis is usually a centroidal axis.

Mathematical Equation for Area

Moment of Inertia

Ixx = ∑ (Ai) (yi)2 = A1(y1)2 + A2(y2)2 + …..An(yn)2

Area, A

A2

A1 y2

y1

X X

Moment of Inertia Equations for

Selected Profiles

Round solid section d Round hollow section do

(d)4 di

I=

64 [(d )4 – (d )4]

I= o i

64

b

1 3 h h H

I = 12 bh

b B

1 3 1

I = 12 BH - bh3

1 3

12

I = 12 hb b

h

Example – Optimization for Weight & Stiffness

Consider a solid rectangular section 2.0 inch wide by 1.0 high 1.0

I = (1/12)bh3 = (1/12)(2)(1)3 = .1667 , Area = 2 2.0

. consider a hollow rectangular section 2.25 inch wide by 1.25 high by

Now,

.125 thick. b

B = 2.25, H = 1.25 h H

b = 2.0, h = 1.0

B

I = (1/12)bh3 = (1/12)(2.25)(1.25)3 – (1/12)(2)(1)3= .3662 -.1667 = .1995

Area = 2.25x1.25 – 2x1 = .8125

(.1995 - .1667)/(.1667) x 100= .20 = 20% less deflection

Compare the weight of the two parts (same material and length), so

only the cross sectional areas need to be compared.

you can design a beam that is 20% stiffer and 60 % lighter

Stiffness for Different sections

Square

Box

Rectangular

Horizontal

Rectangular

Vertical

Material Strength

Standard Tensile Test Ductile Steel (low carbon)

Standard Specimen

Sy – yield strength

Su – fracture strength

ε (strain) = (change in length) / (original length)

1 ksi=6.895 MPa

Mechanical Properties

Yield strength (SY): stress level

upto which no permanent

deformation on unloading.

stress.

of stress/strain curve in elastic

region.

Resilience : Capacity of a material to absorb energy within the elastic region

(Elastic area).

area).

Dimensions and Tolerances

Normal size : size used for general description

Limits. The stated maximum and minimum dimensions for proper

functioning of the component.

Tolerance : is the allowable deviation for any given size to achieve a

proper function.

Unilateral tolerance. The basic dimension is taken as one of the limits,

and variation is permitted in only one direction

Bilateral tolerance. The variation in both directions from the basic

dimension, i.e. 25 ± 0.05mm

Upper Limit

Upper Limit

Basic Size

Lower Limit

Lower Limit

Basic Size

Fits

Fit : An assembly condition between hole and shaft

Clearance fit : largest permitted shaft diameter is less than the smallest hole

diameter, so that shaft can rotate or slide.

Interference fit : negative clearance exists between the sizes of holes and shaft.

Minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum allowable

diameter of the holes. Members are intended to be permanently attached.

Transition fit : diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than the

smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft, such that a

small positive or negative clearance exists between the shaft and hole.

Units

In the symbolic units equation for Newton’s second

law, F=ma. Units chosen for any three of these

quantities are called base units.

system. The base units are the meter, the kilogram (for

mass), and the second.

Significant Figures

The number of significant figures is usually inferred by

the number of figures given (except for leading zeros).

For example, 706, 3.14, and 0.00219 are assumed to be

numbers with three significant figures.

significant figures. However, you should never report a

number of significant figures of a calculation any greater

than the smallest number of significant figures of the

numbers used for the calculation.

shaft with a diameter of d=11mm. The circumference is

given by C=πd. Since d is given with two significant

figures, C should be reported with only two significant

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