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Engineering Design & Analysis

MI-291
Dr. A. Parashar
#211, West Block
Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering
IIT-Roorkee
Email:drap1fme@iitr.ac.in
01332-284801
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department

1. Subject Code: MI-291


2. Course Title: Engineering Analysis and Design
3. Contact Hours: L: 3 T: 1 P: 2/2
4 Examination Duration (Hrs.): Theory : 3 hrs Practical 0
5 Relative Weightage: CWS 15 PRS 25 MTE 20 ETE 40
6. Credits: 4 7. Semester: Autumn 8. Subject Area: DCC
9. Pre-requisite: None
10. Objective:
• This course aims to describe the role of analysis in
engineering design and enhance critical thinking and design
skills;
OBJECTIVE OF MIN-291
 This course aims to describe the role of analysis in engineering design.

 Compare and contrast design alternatives to select the most promising


idea.

 Enhance critical thinking and design skills.

 Reinforce the importance of mathematics and science in engineering.


design and analysis.

 Emphasize communication skills, both written and oral.

 Develop teamwork skills.

 Offer experience in hands-on, creative engineering projects.

 Introduce students to professional ethics and the societal context of


engineering practice.
CONTENTS
 Chapter I Introduction
 Design
 History of design
 Mechanical engineering design
 Different phases of design

 Chapter II Engineering Analysis


 Role of analysis
 The design spiral
 Computer aided engineering analysis
 Visualization/analysis and redesign
 Statistical consideration
 Safety and reliability
 Chapter III Reverse Engineering
 Introduction
 Applications
 Chapter IV Learning from Failures
 Learning from case studies
 Failure of mechanical components
 Chapter V Engineering Design
 Project for design of mechanical elements
 Chapter VI Aesthetic & Engineering Design
 Written and oral presentation
 Poster presentation
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DESIGN
Mechanical Engineering Design
Involves
 Simple journal bearing involves fluid flow, heat transfer, friction,
energy transport, material selection, thermo-mechanical treatments,
statistical descriptions, and so on.

 A building is environmentally controlled. The heating, ventilation,


and air-conditioning considerations are sufficiently specialized that
some speak of heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning design as if
it is separate and distinct from mechanical engineering design.

 Similarly, internal-combustion engine design, turbo machinery


design, and jet-engine design are sometimes considered discrete
entities.
Design
 Design is an innovative and highly iterative process. It is also a
decision-making process.

 Decisions sometimes have to be made with limited information,


occasionally with just the right amount of information, or with an
excess of partially contradictory information.

 Engineers have to communicate effectively and work with people


of many disciplines.

 Engineering tools (such as mathematics, statics, computers,


graphics, and languages) are combined to produce a plan that,
when carried out, produces a product that is functional ,safe,
reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and
marketable, regardless of who builds it or who uses it.
Design : Aesthetic vs. Engineering

www.hostpaperz.com

www.danier.ca
Design : Aesthetic vs. Engineering

www.ferrari.com

www.asiandefensenews.com
What is Common Among These ?
Common Considerations ?
 FUNCTION: most of the creations serve multiple
functions.

 SHAPE : All designs have sort of shape/form. Shape is


related with function, material selection, aesthetics.

 MATERIAL : All objects have material.

 COST : Cost consideration.

 OTHER FACTORS : Safety, environment, aesthetic etc.


FUNCTIONS vs COST?

Functions 1
2

Function 1

Functions 1 Functions 1
2 2
3 3
4
5
Wind Turbine Structure
The support structure should be optimized for weight
and stiffness (deflection)

Support
Structure
Wind Turbine Structure

Lattice structure

Hollow tube with guy wire

Ken Youssefi Hollow tapered tube


Structural Failure

Support structure failure, Denmark.


Caused by high wind.
Support structure failure, New York.
Stress at the base of the support
tower exceeding the strength of the
material
Structural Failure

Blade failure, Illinois. Failure at Support structure failure


the thin section of the blade
Leonardo de Ser Piero da Vinci
(1452-1519)

The Last Supper

Monalisa
 A man full of curiosity
& energy for inventive
imaginations.

 Painter, sculptor,
architect, musician,
engineer and writer.
Leonardo & Early Engineering
 Water pumps and machines.

 Sketches were inspired from


the work of Martini (1490).

 His eye and hand coordination


was exemplary, his drawings
shows his grasp of mechanics
and nature.

 Leonardo dreamt of great


things.
Leonardo’s Concept of Friction
 In modern terms, Leonardo
assigns a value of 0.25 to
coefficient of friction.

 He repeatedly employed the


same value of coefficient of
friction.

 Specific value 0.25 for


coefficient of friction for most of
the materials is appropriate.
Design: Flying Machine
 Leonardo was
fascinated with the
idea of flying.

 Leonardo’s design
of parachute and
giant crossbow
were interpreted
and tested.
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1727)

A British physicist and


mathematician.

 Respected as the most influential


scientist of all time.

 “Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy” is considered
as most prominent contribution to
classical mechanics.
“Nature and nature’s laws lay
hid in night. God said let
NEWTON be, and all was light”  Also made contributions in the
Epitaph by Pope field of optics and calculus.
Design

 To design is either to formulate a plan for the satisfaction


of a specified need or to solve a problem.

 If the plan results in the creation of something having a


physical reality then the product must be functional, safe,
reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and
marketable.
A Design Must Be
 Functional- fill a need or customer expectation
 Safe- not hazardous to users or bystanders
 Reliable- conditional probability that product will perform
its intended function without failure to a certain age.
 Competitive- contender in the market
 Usable- accommodates human size and strength
 Manufacturable- minimal number of parts and suitable for
production
 Marketable- product can be sold and serviced
Design Process Actions
 Conceive alternative solutions
 Analyze, test, simulate, or predict performance of alternatives
 Choose the “best” solution
 Implement design
Design is…
 An innovative and iterative process
 A communication intensive activity
 Subject to constraints
Standard Design Process
 The complete design process from
start to finish, is often outlined as in
the figure.

 Begins with an identification of need


and a decision to do something about
it.

 After many iterations, the process


ends with the presentation of the
plans for satisfying the need.

 Several design phases may be


repeated throughout the life of the
product.
Phase of the Design Process
 Identification of need generally starts the design process. The need may
only be a vague discontent, a feeling of uneasiness, or a sense that
something is not right.

 The definition of problem is more specific and must include all the
specifications for the object that is to be designed.

 The synthesis of a scheme connecting possible system elements is


sometimes called the invention of the concept or concept design. This is
the first and most important step in the synthesis task.

 Analyses must be performed to assess whether the system performance is


satisfactory.

 Synthesis, analysis and optimization are intimately and iteratively


related.

 Evaluation is the final proof of a successful design and usually involves the
testing of a prototype in the laboratory.

 Presentation is a selling job.


Recognition of need
 The process of designing begins when there is a need.

 Wherever there are people there are problems needing solutions. In some cases
the designer may have to invent a product. An example might be a game for
blind persons.

 At other times the designer may change an existing design. (If the handle of a pot
becomes too hot to touch, it must be redesigned.)

 Designers also improve existing products. They make the product work even
better. Could the chair in the waiting room of a bus or train station be altered so
that waiting seems shorter?
The Definition of the problem
 It involves thorough specification of items to be designed. i.e. what is to be
designed.

 The problem definition cannot be vague. Some examples of need and problem
definition are listed below:

 Need: The handle of a pot becomes too hot to hold when the pot is heated.

 Prob. Definition : Design a handle that remains cool when the pot is heated.
Synthesis
 FUNCTION: A functional object must solve the problem described in the problem
definition. The basic question to ask is : "What, exactly, is the use of the article?"

 APPEARANCE: How will the object look? The shape, color, and texture should make
the object attractive.

 MATERIALS: What materials are available to you?

 CONSTRUCTION: Will it be hard to make? Consider what methods you will need to
cut, shape, form, join, and finish the material.

 SAFETY: The object you design must be safe to use. It should not cause accidents.
Analysis & Optimization
 Synthesis and analysis and optimization are intimately and iteratively related.

 Both analysis and optimization require that we construct or devise abstract


models of the system that will admit some form of mathematical analysis.

 We call these models mathematical models.

 In creating them it is our hope that we can find one that will simulate the real
physical system very well.
Developing alternative solutions
 You should produce a number of solutions. It is very important that you
write or draw every idea on paper as it occurs to you. This will help you
remember and describe them more clearly. It is also easier to discuss
them with other people if you have a drawing.

 These first sketches do not have to be very detailed or accurate. They


should be made quickly. The important thing is to record all your ideas.
Do not be critical. Try to think of lots of ideas, even some wild ones. The
more ideas you have, the more likely you are to end up with a good
solution.
Choosing a solution
 You may find that you like several of the solutions. Eventually, you must choose one.
Usually, careful comparison with the original design brief will help you to select the
best.

 You must also consider:


 Your own skills.
 The materials available.
 Time needed to build each solution.
 Cost of each solution.

 Deciding among the several possible solutions is not always easy. Then it helps to
summarize the design requirements and solutions and put the summary in a chart.
Which would you choose? In cases like this, let it be the one you like best.
Design Evaluation
 Testing and evaluating answers three basic questions:

 Does it work?
 Does it meet the problem definition?
 Will modifications improve the solution?

 The question "does it work?" is basic to good design. It has to be answered.

 This same question would be asked by an engineer designing a bridge, by the designer of
a subway car, or by an architect planning a new school.

 If you were to make a mistake in the final design of the pencil holder what would happen?
The result might simply be unattractive. At worst, the holder would not work well. Not so
if a designer makes mistakes in a car's seat belt design. Someone's life may be in danger!
Models & Prototypes
 A model is a full-size or small-scale simulation of an object. Architects,
engineers, and most designers use models. Models are one more step in
communicating an idea. It is far easier to understand an idea when seen in
three-dimensional form. A scale model is used when designing objects that
are very large.

 A prototype is the first working version of the designer's solution. It is


generally full-size and often handmade. For a simple object such as a pencil
holder, the designer probably would not make a model. He or she may go
directly to a prototype.
Presentation
 Documentation of design by drawing.

 Material specifications.

 Assembly list i.e., the creation of design database.


Design Considerations
 Functionality  Styling
 Strength/stress  Shape
 Distortion/deflection/stiffness  Size
 Wear  Control
 Corrosion  Thermal properties
 Safety  Surface
 Reliability  Lubrication
 Manufacturability  Marketability
 Utility  Maintenance
 Cost  Volume
 Friction  Liability
 Weight  Remanufacturing/resource
 Life recovery
 Noise
Design Engineer’s Responsibilities
 In general, design engineering is required to satisfy the
needs of customers (management, clients, consumers, etc.)
and is expected to do so in a competent, responsible,
ethical, and professional manner.

 Careful attention to the following action steps will help you to


organize your solution processing technique.
 Understand the problem.
 Identify the known.
 Identify the unknown and formulate the solution strategy.
 State all assumption and decision.
 Analyze the problem.
 Evaluate your solution.

 The design engineer’s professional obligations include


conducting activities in an ethical manner.
Standards and Codes
1. A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes
intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality.

1. A code is a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture,


and construction of something.

1. All of the organizations and societies listed below have established


specifications for standards and safety or design codes.

 American Welding Society (AWS) (SAE)


International Bureau of Weights  American Bearing Manufactures
and Measures (BIPM) Association (ABMA)
 International Standards  British Standards Institute (BSI)
Organization (ISO)  Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI)
 National Institute for Standards  Institution of Mechanical
and Technology (NIST) Engineers (I.Mech.E)
 Society of Automotive Engineers
Economics
 The consideration of cost plays an
important role in the design decision
process.

 The use of standard or stock sizes is a


first principle of cost reduction.

 Among the effects of design


specifications on costs, tolerances are
perhaps most significant.

 When two or more design


approaches are compared for cost,
there occurs a point corresponding to
equal cost, which is called the
breakeven point.
Stress and Strength
 The survival of many products depends on how the
designer adjusts the maximum stresses in a component to
be less than the component’s strength at specific locations
of interest.

 Strength is a property of a material or of a mechanical


element. The strength of an element depends on the choice,
the processing of the material.

 Stress is a state property at a specific point within a body,


which is a function of load, geometry, temperature, and
manufacturing processing.

 We shall use the capital letter S to denote strength, the


Greek letters σ (sigma) and τ (tau) to designate normal and
shear stresses, respectively.
Spring Stiffness

Δx

Compression Tension
spring spring
F
F

F = k (Δx)
where
k = spring constant
Δ x = spring stretch
F = applied force
Stiffness : Solid Bar
 k (stiffness) = F/δ
Initial Length (Lo) Tensile
Load (F)  E = Stress/Strain =(FLo)/(Aδ)
Fixed
End
 k = (AE)/Lo

δ
Final Length (Lf) E (steel) = 30 x 106 psi
E (Al) = 10 x 106 psi
E (concrete) = 3.4 x 103 psi
E (Kevlar, plastic) = 19 x 103 psi
E (rubber) = 100 psi
Concept of Area Moment of Inertia
 The Area Moment of Inertia is an important parameter in
determine the state of stress in a part (component, structure),
the resistance to buckling, and the amount of deflection in a
beam.

 The area moment of inertia allows you to tell how stiff a


structure is.

 The Area Moment of Inertia, I, is a term used to describe the


capacity of a cross-section (profile) to resist bending. It is always
considered with respect to a reference axis, in the X or Y
direction. It is a mathematical property of a section concerned
with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the
reference axis. The reference axis is usually a centroidal axis.
Mathematical Equation for Area
Moment of Inertia
Ixx = ∑ (Ai) (yi)2 = A1(y1)2 + A2(y2)2 + …..An(yn)2

A (total area) = A1 + A2 + ……..An

Area, A
A2

A1 y2
y1
X X
Moment of Inertia Equations for
Selected Profiles
Round solid section d Round hollow section do

 (d)4 di
I=
64  [(d )4 – (d )4]
I= o i
64

Rectangular solid section Rectangular hollow section


b
1 3 h h H
I = 12 bh
b B

1 3 1
I = 12 BH - bh3
1 3
12
I = 12 hb b

h
Example – Optimization for Weight & Stiffness
Consider a solid rectangular section 2.0 inch wide by 1.0 high 1.0
I = (1/12)bh3 = (1/12)(2)(1)3 = .1667 , Area = 2 2.0
. consider a hollow rectangular section 2.25 inch wide by 1.25 high by
Now,
.125 thick. b
B = 2.25, H = 1.25 h H
b = 2.0, h = 1.0
B
I = (1/12)bh3 = (1/12)(2.25)(1.25)3 – (1/12)(2)(1)3= .3662 -.1667 = .1995
Area = 2.25x1.25 – 2x1 = .8125
(.1995 - .1667)/(.1667) x 100= .20 = 20% less deflection

Compare the weight of the two parts (same material and length), so
only the cross sectional areas need to be compared.

(2 - .8125)/(2) = .6 = 60% lighter

So, for a slightly larger outside dimension section, 2.25x1.25 instead of 2 x 1,


you can design a beam that is 20% stiffer and 60 % lighter
Stiffness for Different sections

Square

Box

Rectangular
Horizontal

Rectangular
Vertical
Material Strength
Standard Tensile Test Ductile Steel (low carbon)
Standard Specimen

Sy – yield strength
Su – fracture strength

σ (stress) = Load / Area


ε (strain) = (change in length) / (original length)
1 ksi=6.895 MPa
Mechanical Properties
 Yield strength (SY): stress level
upto which no permanent
deformation on unloading.

 Ultimate stress (SU): Fracture


stress.

 Modulus of elasticity (E): Slope


of stress/strain curve in elastic
region.

 Ductility : plastic deformation before fracture.

% Elongation (ductility) = (Lfrcature – Linitial)/Linitial


 Resilience : Capacity of a material to absorb energy within the elastic region
(Elastic area).

 Toughness : Capacity of a material to absorb energy without fracture (Total


area).
Dimensions and Tolerances
 Normal size : size used for general description
 Limits. The stated maximum and minimum dimensions for proper
functioning of the component.
 Tolerance : is the allowable deviation for any given size to achieve a
proper function.
Unilateral tolerance. The basic dimension is taken as one of the limits,
and variation is permitted in only one direction
Bilateral tolerance. The variation in both directions from the basic
dimension, i.e. 25 ± 0.05mm
Upper Limit

Upper Limit
Basic Size
Lower Limit

Lower Limit
Basic Size
Fits
Fit : An assembly condition between hole and shaft
Clearance fit : largest permitted shaft diameter is less than the smallest hole
diameter, so that shaft can rotate or slide.

Interference fit : negative clearance exists between the sizes of holes and shaft.
Minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum allowable
diameter of the holes. Members are intended to be permanently attached.

Transition fit : diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than the
smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft, such that a
small positive or negative clearance exists between the shaft and hole.
Units
 In the symbolic units equation for Newton’s second
law, F=ma. Units chosen for any three of these
quantities are called base units.

 The International System of Units (SI) is an absolute


system. The base units are the meter, the kilogram (for
mass), and the second.
Significant Figures
 The number of significant figures is usually inferred by
the number of figures given (except for leading zeros).
For example, 706, 3.14, and 0.00219 are assumed to be
numbers with three significant figures.

 Computers and calculators display calculations to many


significant figures. However, you should never report a
number of significant figures of a calculation any greater
than the smallest number of significant figures of the
numbers used for the calculation.

 For example, determine the circumference of a solid


shaft with a diameter of d=11mm. The circumference is
given by C=πd. Since d is given with two significant
figures, C should be reported with only two significant
figures.