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CHAPTER - 1

PUMPS GENERAL

1.1 DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION


It is a machine that imparts energy to a fluid. This energy infusion can cause a
fluid to flow rise to a higher level, or both. The centrifugal pump is an extremely simple
machine. It is a member of family known as rotary machines and consists of two basic
parts:
A). the rotary element or impeller and;
B). the stationary element or casing (volute).

Centrifugal pumps are often considered as simple components to be included in


more complex circuits. In reality great care must be taken with regard to their
configuration, which must always be considered in relation to the system's
characteristics, pumping requirements and the user's individual needs. Selecting an
impeller pump, in fact, requires in-depth knowledge of the specific operating conditions:
whoever manufactures centrifugal pumps must know how to evaluate all information
useful achieving the best possible hydrodynamic design. To guarantee the proper use of
the plastic anti-corrosion pumps, the user must provide the manufacturer thorough
details regarding the specific application and in particular the liquid that the pump is
intended handle. Furthermore, to ensure that similar pumps work at full capacity and
efficiently demonstrate their special characteristics, the pump itself must be installed
carefully to evaluate the effects of operating conditions with the aggressive liquid.

Machine designed to:


a. Transport fluid and;
b. Add energy.

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1.2 TYPES OF PUMP
There are two types of pump:
i. Centrifugal pump.
a. Single stage;
b. Multi stage;
c. Split casing and;
d. Axial.

ii. Positive displacement


a. Reciprocating;
b. Gear and;
c. Rotary.
1.2.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
• Moderate pressure (up to 6000 m/WC )
• Moderate capacity ( up to 10000 m3/ hr )
• Up to 30000 m3/hr in case of concrete volute pump.

1.2.2 POSSITIVE DISPLACEMENT (RECIPROCATING)


• High pressure ( up to 10000 m/ WC )
• Low capacity up to 1000 m3/hr.
• Lubrication oil pumps.

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1.3 COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

FIGURE SHOWING THE FLOW AND PARTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP (CS VIEW)

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Figure representing General components of a Centrifugal Pump
1.3.1 Stationary Components

Casing
Casings are generally of two types: volute and circular. The impellers are fitted inside
the casings.

1. Volute casings build a higher head; circular casings are used for low head and high
capacity.
o A volute is a curved funnel increasing in area to the discharge port. As the area of the
cross-section increases, the volute reduces the speed of the liquid and increases the
pressure of the liquid.
o One of the main purposes of a volute casing is to help balance the hydraulic pressure
on the shaft of the pump. However, this occurs best at the manufacturer's recommended
capacity. Running volute-style pumps at a lower capacity than the manufacturer
recommends can put lateral stress on the shaft of the pump, increasing wear-and-tear on
the seals and bearings, and on the shaft itself. Double- volute casings are used when the
radial thrusts become significant at reduced capacities.

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2. Circular casing:
Circular casing have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller
periphery that convert velocity energy to pressure energy. Conventionally, the diffusers
are applied to multi-stage pumps.
o The casings can be designed either as solid casings or split casings.
Solid casing implies a design in which the entire casing including the discharge nozzle is
all contained in one casting or fabricated piece. A
Split casing implies two or more parts are fastened together. When the casing parts are
divided by horizontal plane, the casing is described as horizontally split or axially split
casing. When the split is in a vertical plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, the casing
is described as vertically split or radially split casing. Casing Wear rings act as the seal
between the casing and the impeller.

1.3.2 Rotating Components

1. Impeller
The impeller is the main rotating part that provides the centrifugal acceleration to
the fluid. They are often classified in many ways.
o Based on major direction of flow in reference to the axis of rotation
• Radial flow
• Axial flow
• Mixed flow
o Based on suction type
• Single-suction: Liquid inlet on one side.
• Double-suction: Liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both sides.

o Based on mechanical construction


• Closed: Shrouds or sidewall enclosing the vanes.
• Open: No shrouds or wall to enclose the vanes.
• Semi-open or vortex type.

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2. Shaft
The basic purpose of a centrifugal pump shaft is to transmit the torques encountered
when starting and during operation while supporting the impeller and other rotating
parts. It must do this job with a deflection less than the minimum clearance between the
rotating and stationary parts.

1.3.3 Auxiliary Components

Auxiliary components generally include the following piping systems for the
following services:
o Seal flushing , cooling , quenching systems
o Seal drains and vents
o Bearing lubrication , cooling systems
o Seal chamber or stuffing box cooling, heating systems
o Pump pedestal cooling systems

Auxiliary piping systems include tubing, piping, isolating valves, control valves,
relief valves, temperature gauges and thermocouples, pressure gauges, sight flow
indicators, orifices, seal flush coolers, dual seal barrier/buffer fluid reservoirs, and all
related vents and drains. All auxiliary components shall comply with the requirements as
per standard codes like API 610 (refinery services), API 682 (shaft sealing systems) etc.

1.4 WORKING MECHANISM OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of equipment in any process


plant. Its purpose is to convert energy of a prime mover (a electric motor or turbine) first
into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure energy of a fluid that is being
pumped. The energy changes occur by virtue of two main parts of the pump, the impeller
and the volute or diffuser. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy
into the kinetic energy. The volute or diffuser is the stationary part that converts the
kinetic energy into pressure energy.

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The process liquid enters the suction nozzle and then into eye (center) of a
revolving device known as an impeller. When the impeller rotates, it spins the liquid
sitting in the cavities between the vanes outward and provides centrifugal acceleration.
As liquid leaves the eye of the impeller a low-pressure area is created causing more
liquid to flow toward the inlet. Because the impeller blades are curved, the fluid is
pushed in a tangential and radial direction by the centrifugal force. This force acting
inside the pump is the same one that keeps water inside a bucket that is rotating at the
end of a string.

1.4.1 CAVITATION
Cause:
i. If suction pressure < Vapour pressure of liquid at operating temperature.
• Formation of vapour bubbles.
ii. Increase in pressure at volute casing.
• Vapour bubbles collapse.
• Leads to cavitations.

Remedies:
i. Maintain Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) above vapour pressure.
ii. NPSH = (Total suction head ) – (Vapour pressure of liquid @ operating
pressure )

1.4.2 EFFICIENCY

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Actual efficiency:
Normal efficiency ranges from 60% - 75%.
Best efficiency ranges from 78% - 80% (up to 89% efficiency in case of horizontal split
casing pumps).
Worst efficiency ranges from 30% - 60%.

1.4.3 Formulae:
Calculation of efficiency

1.4.4 PUMPS FORMULAE

• Capacity is directly proportional to the speed of the motor.


i.e., Capacity α RPM.
• Motor head is directly proportional to the square of the speed of the motor.
i.e., Head α (RPM)².
• Power is directly proportional to the product of capacity and head of the pump.
i.e., Power α (Capacity × Head)
α (RPM)³
If the RPM is reduced by say by 10%, which will reflect on the
• Capacity reduce by 10 %.
• Head reduce by 19 %.
• Power reduce by 27 %.

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CHARACTERISTIC CURE OF A PUMP

1.5 TYPES OF IMPELLER

SL. NO TYPES FIGURE EFFICIENCY

1 OPEN BEST – 60 %

2 SEMIOPEN 65 %

3 CLOSED 80 %

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BASED ON IMPELLER DIAMETER

BASED ON SPEED

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1.6 PUMP CAPACITY CONTROL

• On / Off type.
• Recirculation
• Valves control.
• Pump speed control.
• Mechanical system.
• Electrical system.
• Pump modification.
• Combination of small and big pumps.

1.6.1 ON / OFF CONTROL

On/off control is used in many situations where the object is simply to move a
liquid from point A to point B and the exact pressure or flow rate is unimportant. A
typical example is the sump pump. The simplest arrangement employs a level switch with
a very broad dead band. This is used together with a Hand/Off/Auto switch to turn the
pump on and off. The LSHL contact opens when the level is below its set points. "M"
represents the motor contactor which energizes the motor whenever the contactor is
energized. "M" also represents the auxiliary contact that is closed whenever the
contactor is energized.

If it is important that the level never goes beyond the upper or lower set points, the
Start/Stop arrangement is preferred. It is illustrated in The process sensing switch has a
separate output for the upper set point (On) and the lower set point (Off). (Two switches
may be required.) The manual switch consists of a Start and a Stop button or a combined
Start/Run/Stop selector with a spring return to centre. The operator may start or stop the
pump whenever the level is between the two set points. He cannot stop it when the level
exceeds the high set point unless he locks it out. He cannot start the pump below the low
set point. A variation of the circuit places the left connection of the start button to the left
of the low level switch. With this arrangement it is possible to drain a vessel below the
low set point by holding the start button on. The pump will stop as soon as the button is
released.

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With both of these arrangements, there must be sufficient dead band between the high
and low set points to make certain that the pump does not cycle on and off too rapidly.
Excessive wear of both the motor and its starter will result if this occurs. Rapid cycling is
a sign of an over-sized pump.

1.6.2 SPEED CONTROL

There is, of course, one other means of adapting a pump to the changing demands
of the process: Speed control. The virtue of this method is that it reduces the energy input
to the system instead of dumping the excess. The curves reach all parts of the system
curve below the full speed curve. Therefore this is an effective means of control. Note,
however, that these curves have one feature in common with recycle control: At the far
left end of the system curve the pump curve and the system curve are almost parallel.
(The particular pump chosen for this example has a rather steeply rising curve near
shutoff. Most are considerably flatter.) In mathematical terms this means that the
intersection is poorly defined. In practical terms this means that it is difficult to maintain
a precise operating point and that control is 'loose' at high turndown.

In practice, variable speed drives for centrifugal pumps are still relatively uncommon.
For small pumps the power savings are not significant and for large pumps the
associated electronics become very expensive. Also, they do not have the high reliability
of valves. Variable speed steam turbine drives are quite common in the larger
horsepower ranges. Electric variable speed drives are used in certain specialized
applications such as pumps that are embedded inside a high pressure vessel. In such
cases there are no alternatives.

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1.6.3 COMBINATION OF SMALL AND BIG PUMPS

a) Parallel pump installation

Centrifugal pumps are frequently operated in parallel. Their smooth operating


curve allows this to be done without complication. If it is intended that the pumps are
usually operated individually and not simultaneously, it is sufficient to have a common
discharge throttling valve and suction block fire safety valve. However it is essential that
each have its own recycle arrangements. Do not be swayed by the argument that the two
pumps will never be run simultaneously. The most obvious reason for simultaneous
operation is to switch from one to the other so that maintenance can be done without
shutting down the process. In this case the pump that is being started will be operating
against a blocked discharge check valve and is in no position to make use of a common
recycle valve. Remember that the throttling valve is there to serve the process but the
recycle is there to protect the machine. You don't share seat belts do you?

Parallel variable speed pumps obviously have individual controls. The most effective
arrangement is to provide constant flow controls to the majority of the pumps. The set
points should be at the peak efficiency for each individual pump. The remaining pump
should have its controller set to handle the swings. Note that is meaningless to have two
pumps each on pressure control pumping into the same header. They will not share the
load.

b) Series pump installation

Sometimes centrifugal pumps are operated in series. The usual situation is when
a multistage pump has an NPSHR greater than what is available. In such a case, a
single-stage pump with a low NPSHR is used as a booster. This is common with boiler
feed pumps especially if the pump is drawing hot water whose vapour pressure is already
elevated.

Process demand control is applied to the high pressure pump. The booster pump should
be on discharge pressure control. The author was involved in one situation where oil
field injection water was drawn from a cistern connected directly to a river. In this case
the booster pumps were pressure controlled by recycle back to the cistern. This allowed

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the recycle water to keep the water in the cistern agitated, preventing an accumulation of
silt.

It is not unusual for a group of booster pumps in parallel to supply a group of high
pressure pumps in parallel. In such cases care must be taken to ensure that the various
operating combinations are matched in capacity.

Every individual pump in a series installation must have its own minimum flow
arrangement.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS CAPACITY CONTROL

1.7 THROTTLING

1.7.1 Discharge Throttling

Since the pump exists to serve the requirements of the process, and one of the
primary purposes of instrumentation is to adapt the equipment to the process, let us
consider the pump from the point of view of the process. It can be viewed as a constant
pressure device with an internal restriction. It is the restriction that gives it the "curve".
It seems natural to put a valve on the discharge to further restrict the pump. This has the
effect of rotating the curve of the pump/valve system clockwise around Ppm, as can be
seen in Figure.

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The combination of pump and valve will be presented as a "black box" with a single
characteristic curve which terms the "modified" pump curve.

The more traditional way of looking at the situation is from the point of view of the pump.
It sees the process system curve as having rotated counter clockwise around Plm. Figure
shows that the flow, Q1, is the same for both cases. The difference between the two
pressures is the Delta P across the valve. Since the purpose of the pump is to serve the
process requirements, and the purpose of the valve is to adapt the pump to the process, it
makes sense to consider the valve to be part of the pump system and to use the modified
pump curve rather than the modified system curve in our discussion. In any case it can
be seen that a discharge valve can be used to achieve any operating point on the system
curve so long as the point is below the pump curve.

1.7.2 Suction Throttling

The second possibility for control using valves is to place the valve in the pump
suction line. This would have an identical effect on the characteristic curve, but the
method has a fatal flaw – cavitation. Cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs when the
pressure of a liquid is reduced below its vapour pressure and brought back up above the
vapour pressure again. Bubbles of vapour form in the liquid and then collapse upon
arriving at the higher pressure region. The collapse occurs at sonic speed ejecting
minute jets of extremely high velocity liquid. Wherever these jets impinge on solid
surface extreme erosion occurs. Over time even the hardest materials will be destroyed.
Therefore it is of utmost importance that this pressure reduction never occurs. It is
prevented by having sufficient pressure available at the pump suction so that the

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pressure drops that occur as the liquid is drawn into the eye of the impeller are at all
times above the vapour pressure of the liquid at its current temperature.

An explanation of the term Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is in order. This is
the pressure of the liquid at the pump suction in terms of feet or meters of liquid head
above the vapour pressure of the liquid. The actual NPSH under operating conditions is
called NPSHA and the minimum required by the pump to prevent cavitation is called
NPSHR. Clearly NPSHA must be greater than NPSHR to avoid cavitation. It is safe to
leave a margin of about one meter.

These peculiar definitions are very reasonable in terms of the pumps actual
characteristic but they cause some problems to the controls engineer. It means that the
gauge pressure equivalent of a given NPSHA is proportional to the density of the liquid
and is also affected by its temperature. The vapour pressure can rise dramatically as the
temperature rises. This means that the NPSHA can fall without a noticeable change in
pressure.

Anything that would reduce the net positive pressure at the pump inlet below the
NPSHR must be absolutely avoided. Thus suction throttling is never used to control
pump flow.

EFFECT OF VALVE THROTTLING


Design:
Capacity -85 lps.
Head - 4 ksc.
Existing - 4.8 ksc.
Proposed - 3.0 ksc
kWex - (55*48)/(102*0.7) = 37.0 kW
kWp - (55*30)/(102*0.7) = 23.0 kW.
Savings - 14 kW.
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CHAPTER - 2
CRITICAL PUMPS INSTALLATION AT
IIL DOLVI
2.1 BLAST FURNACE WATER SYSTEM

The water system of Blast furnace is classified into three types.

1. Soft water closed re-circulating system is provided to cool the furnace components
I.e. tuyeres, staves, cooling boxes, under hearth and hot blast valves.

2. Make up water and emergency water supply system are provided to replenish the
losses in closed cooling system and to maintain interrupted supply of cooling water to the
blast furnace during emergency.

3. The industrial water surface cooling system is provided to cool the external surface
of the hearth and furnace shell.
2.1.1 CRITICAL PUMPS AT BLAST FURNACE

Quantity Motor
Group Capacity Head
(No.) Rating Location Medium
No. m3/hr m
T W S kW
I 4 2 2 1800 45 320 PH-1 Soft Water
II 3 2 1 600 81 200 PH-1 Soft Water
III 2 1 1 250 65 75 PH-1 Soft Water
Industrial
IV 4 3 1 1200 45 180 PH-1
Water
Industrial
V 2 1 1 900 40 125 PH-3
Water
Industrial
VI 2 1 1 200 70 75 PH-3
Water
Industrial
VII 2 1 1 1100 30 125 PH-3
Water
Industrial
X 2 1 1 150 85 55 PH-3
Water
XI 2 1 1 10 60 5.5 PH-2 Soft Water
XII 2 1 1 100 60 30 PH-2 Soft Water
XIII 2 1 1 100 80 37 PH-2 Soft Water

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2.1.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION – GR-1 CIRCUIT

1. Gr-1 Circuit supplying the soft water to Blast Furnace cooling element namely under
hearth, staves, B1,B2,C1,C2,C3 ,BLT power pack, under Burdon probe & overburden
probe.

2. Group-1 circuit consist of 3 electrical motor driven pumps & 2 Engine operated
pumps of capacity 1800 m3/hr & head- 45 mtr each.

3. Normally 2 pumps are running 1 on MSEB power & 1 on 11.81 DG power in auto
mode. Third pump is on auto stand by mode & comes in operation either of the pump
trips.

4. Hot return water from the Blast Furnace cooling member’s first pass through the Air
Water Heat Exchanger. Parts of the flow pass through the Plate Heat exchanger for
further cooling.

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5. Make up to the Gr-1 closed circuit given through the 2 nos. of expansion tank of
capacity 39 m3 each from Gr-XI or Gr-XII depending upon the expansion tank level
limits in the pump suction line.

6. Gr-1 circuit is also connected with the emergency overhead tank of capacity -550 m3.
In case of power failure Gr-1 circuit is charged via FSV supply & return.

2.1.3 PROCESS GROUP II AND III CIRCUIT

2.1.3.1 PROCESS GROUP II CIRCUIT

1. Gr-2 Circuit supplying the soft water to Tuyere, Tuyere cooler and Blast Furnace
cooling element namely0th row cooling box and cigar coolers.

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2. Group-2 circuit consist of 3 electrical motor driven pumps & 1 Engine operated
pumps of capacity 600 m3/hr & head- 81 mtr each.

3. Normally 2 pumps are running 1 on MSEB power & 1 on 11.81 DG power in


auto mode. Third pump is on auto stand by mode & comes in operation either of
the pump trips.

4. Hot return water from the Blast Furnace cooling members passes through Plate
Heat exchanger for cooling and recycling back to cooling elements.

5. Make up soft water to Gr-2 closed circuit given through the 1 nos. of expansion
tank of capacity 20 m3 automatically from Gr.1 circuit to maintain expansion
tank level from 70-80%.

6. Gr-2 circuit is also connected with the emergency overhead tank of capacity -550
m3. In case of power failure Gr-2 circuit is charged via FSV supply & return

2.1.3.2 PROCESS GROUP – III CIRCUIT


1. Gr-3 Circuit supplying the soft water to Hot Blast Valve Cooling circuit.

2. Group-3 circuit consist of 2 electrical motor driven pumps & 1 Engine operated
pumps of capacity 250 m3/hr & head- 65 mtr each.

3. Normally 1 pump is running on 11.81 DG power in auto mode. 2nd pump is on


auto stand by mode & comes in operation if the pump trips.

4. Hot return water from the Hot Blast Valves cooling system passes through Plate
Heat exchanger for cooling and recycling back to system.

5. Make up soft water to Gr-3 closed circuit given through the 1 nos. of expansion
tank of capacity 10 m3 automatically from Gr.1 circuit to maintain expansion tank
level from 70-80% .

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6. Gr-3 circuit is also connected with the emergency overhead tank of capacity -550
m3. In case of power failure Gr-3 circuit is charged via FSV supply & return

2.1.4 PROCESS GROUP - IV CIRCUIT

1. 1. Gr-4 Circuit supplying the industrial water to Plate Heat Exchangers of Gr1,2
&3, Blower House, Mudgun & drilling m/c hydraulics, Compressors and Gas
expansion turbine for cooling.

2. Group-4 circuit consist of 4 electrical motor driven pumps & 1 Engine operated
pumps of capacity 1200 m3/hr & head- 45 mtr each.

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3. Normally 3 pumps are running, 1 on MSEB power & 2 on 11.81 DG power in
auto mode. Fourth pump is on auto stand by mode & comes in operation either of
the pump trips.

4. Hot return water from the process passes through Cooling tower -1 where it
cools to 34 degC and reclining back to process .

5. Cooling Tower-1 has 3 cells of capacity 1500 m3/hr each.

6. Gr-4 circuit is also connected with side stream filters- 2nos of capacity 160 m3/hr
each & 3 nos. of automatic self cleaning strainers which improve the quality of
water

2.1.5 BLAST FURNACE EXTERNAL SPRAY (PH – 3) SYSTEM

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2.1.5.1 PROCESS V, VI, VII, VIII, AND X CIRCUIT

1. Gr-7 Circuit re-circulate the hot return industrial water from the furnace external
spray to Cooling tower-2 where it cools & collected in PH-3 cold well of Group 5,6,7 &
10.

2. Group-7 circuit consist of 2 pumps, 2 electrical motor driven pump of capacity 1100
m3/hr & head- 30 mtr each.

3. Cooling Tower-2 has 2 cells of capacity 900 m3/hr each.

4. Gr-5 circuit supply cooling water for Blast Furnace external spray, zeroth row spray
cooling, tuyere half round spray cooling, hearth spray ring & under hearth spray
cooling.

5. Group-5 circuit consist of 2 pumps, 2 electrical motor driven pump of capacity 900
m3/hr & head- 40 mtr each
6. Gr-6 circuit supply cooling water for Blast Furnace external stack spray at B-1 & B-2
zone. Group-6 circuit consist of 2 pumps, 2 electrical motor driven pump of capacity
200 m3/hr & head- 70 mtr each.

7. Gr-10 circuit supply cooling water for Blast Furnace top injection. Group-10 circuit
consist of 2 pumps, 2 electrical motor driven pump of capacity 150 m3/hr & head- 85
mtr each.

2.2 EMERGENCY PROCEDURE DURING POWER FAILURE


2.2.1 POWER FAILS

 Action To Be Taken
1. Ensure from the control room that the supply & return emergency valves of the circuit
should be open.

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2. Ensure the one pump of Gr. I, II, III, IV, V & VII on 11.81 MW DG power is running.
OR

3. Ensure the DG pump set of Gr. I, II & IV running on auto mode if not start the pump
manually. OR

4. Call electrical person to start the DG for supplying the emergency power to one pump
of each group.
a. Start at least one pump of group II; III & IV in pump house –1 & stop DG
pump set of Gr. II, III & IV.
b. Start at least one pump of group VII & V in pump house –3.

5. After starting the pumps ensure from the control room that the supply & return
emergency valves of the emergency circuit are closed.

6. Emergency power to be given to the one pump of group XI,XII & XIII.

7. If exp. tank overflows then action to be taken as per the point no.’B’.

8. If exp. Tank level goes very low (0%) then action to be taken as per the point no’C’.

9. Monitor the level of the emergency overhead tank & fill up the tank by starting group
XIII pump if required.

2.2.2 EXPANSION TANK OVERFLOWS THROUGH SAFETY VALVE

 Action To Be Taken
1. Close the manual valve of group II & III of soft water make up line to the expansion
tank.

2. Stop the group XI & XII pump if it is running. At the same time ensure that group –I
expansion tank are full (80%) from control room.

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3. Start the draining of expansion tank upto 80% level from vent valve given at the
expansion tank.

4. Ask instrument dept. to flush the instrument pipeline near the exp. Tank.

5. Monitor the tank level from the control room until the system gets stabilized.

2.2.3 EXPANSION TANK LEVEL GOES VERY LOW (0%)

• Action To Be Taken
1. Close the isolation valve of nitrogen pipeline of exp. Tank.

2. Open the vent valve at the expansion tank for venting out the nitrogen

3. Start the one pump of group XI or group XII for filling the exp. Tank monitor the exp.
Tank level through control room.

4. Ensure from the control room that the supply & return emergency valves of emergency
circuit is closed.

5. Open the vent valves of system to vent out the entrapped air from the closed circuit.

6. Once the exp. Tank level reaches to 80% open the isolation valve of nitrogen to
pressurize the exp. Tank.

7. Monitor the tank level from the control room until the system gets stabilized.

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2.2.4 RESPONSIBILITY DURING POWER FAILURE

Sr.NoAction to be taken Responsibility


1 Ensure from the control room that the EOHT Shift engineer 01
valves have got opened for Gr 1,2 and 3 (Shift In-charge)
2 Transfer the tuyere on Group 5 to Group 2 Shift technician 01
3 Open Nitrogen to PW Gear box. Shift technician 02
4 Check from the control room whether GSSV of Shift engineer 02
the stove which was on gas cycle at the time of
power failure has got closed or not, if not close it
manually.
5 Blower house engineer to ensure Emergency Blower house
diesel Blower has started. engineer
6 Check whether one power source (DG/MESB) is Shift engineer 01
available for water pumps.
7 Check whether emergency DG Pumps have Shift engineer 01
started. If not, start manually.
8 Connect High pressure Nitrogen line to cast Shift engineer 02
house air buffer vessel ( Isolate the air vessel
from the grid) for Drill machine operation.
9 Confirm from the safety person that the engine Shift engineer 01
operated fire water pump has been started
10 Monitor the externally cooled parts of the Shift engineer 02
furnace; provide fire-fighting water if required.

2.3 CRITICAL SYSTEM AT CSP AND MILL UTILITY

CSP Utility mainly consist two types of cooling system which used to extract
heat from Steel and Different auxiliaries during the steel making process at Caster and
Mill Plants.

Details of cooling system:


 Indirect Cooling System
 Direct Cooling System

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2.3.1 INDIRECT COOLING SYSTEM

 In steel making process at Caster plant the hot molten metal is poured in mould
to get hot rolled coils. During this process the temperature of mould and other
auxiliaries raised beyond the metallurgical limit which may damage the
equipments.

 For extracting heat indirect cooling water pump supply the water to heat
exchanger and water jackets of different machines in closed loop system.
 As per the plant water requirement Indirect cooling system divided in four
streams:

1. Side Stream Pressure Filter(IC-1)


2. Caster Machine Cooling(IC-2)
3. Tunnel furnace Roll Cooling(IC-3)
4. HSM Auxiliary cooling(IC-4)
5. Secondary Mould Heat Exchanger(IC-5)

Specification of Pumps

Motor
PUMP Quantity Capacity Head
Rating LocationMedium
NAME (No.) m3/hr m
kW

T W S

Industrial
IC 1 2 1 1 500 25 55 CT-2
Water
Industrial
IC 2 3 3 0 325 80 110 CT-2
Water
Industrial
IC 3 3 2 1 360 45 75 CT-2
Water
Industrial
IC4 2 1 1 1200 60 310 CT-2
Water
Industrial
IC 5 3 2 1 1120 45 20 CT-2
Water
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CSP UTILITY ICW SYSTEM LAYOUT

2.3.2 DIRECT COOLING SYSTEM

 As the name indicates in this system water is directly comes in contact with hot
rolled coils which extract heat from hot rolled coils and also gives a better
surface finish by removing unwanted scale from surface of the coils which is
known as de-scaling process.

 In DC cooling water system because of direct contact of water with hot rolled
coils water carries huge quantity of scale which is to be removed before entering
the cooling tower.
 For removal of scale from water the scale pit vertical turbine pump passes the
water through seventeen number of Pressure filter arranged in between the
processes and cooling tower .

 This DC System also divided into 4 steams which as follows :-.

a) Caster Spray (DC-1)


b) Mill Roll Cooling (DC-2)
c) Mill De-scalier (DC-3)

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d) Laminar Cooling (DC-4)
Specification Of Pumps

Capac Motor
PUMP Quantity Head Locati
ity Rating Medium
NAME (No.) M on
m3/hr kW
T W S
DC1 Industrial
3 2 1 665 160 450 CT-1
ABC Water
Industrial
DC1 DE 2 2 0 360 160 270 CT-1
Water
Industrial
DC 2 5 3 2 1300 115 630 CT-1
Water
Industrial
DC 3 2 1 1 930 56 215 CT-1
Water
Industrial
DC 4 2 1 1 2100 20 200 CT-1
Water
DC 2& 3 Slurry
3 2 1 2900 40 440 sp-1
R water
DC1
Slurry
RA,RB, 3 2 1 665 45 132 sp-3
water
RC
Slurry
DC1 RD 1 1 0 360 45 75 sp-3
water
DC4 Slurry
2 1 1 2050 25 210 sp-2
RA,RB water
DC 4 Slurry
2 1 1 2250 40 340 sp-2
RC,RD water

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CSP UTILITY DCW SYSTEM LAYOUT

2.4 CRITICAL SYSTEM AT SMS UTILITY

 Basic function of water system is to remove heat generated by the steel making
process in Steel Melting shop.

 SMS Utility mainly consist following types of cooling system


1. EAF soft water closed circuit.
2. EAF DM water closed circuit.
3. GCP SOFT water closed circuit.
4. SECONDARY COOLING circuit (COOLING TOWER).

Specification of Critical Pumps at SMS


Q U A N T I T Y C A P A C I THY EA DM O T O R
D ES IG N A T IO N L o c a tio n M e d iu m
T O T A LW S / B C U M /H R M W C K W
P -0 1 A ,B , C 3 2 1 2150 56 4 8 0 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -0 2 A , B 2 1 1 60 100 37 P H A S E 1 R C P DM
H 1 W A T ER
P -0 2 C , D 2 1 1 60 100 37 P H A S E 1 R C P DM
H 1 W A T ER
P -0 3 A , B 2 1 1 430 56 1 1 0 P H A S E 1 R C P DM H 1 W A T ER
P -0 4 A , B 2 1 1 400 40 75 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -0 4 C 1 1 0 400 40 75 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -0 4 D 1 1 0 550 50 1 1 0 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -1 9 A , B , C , D ,E 5 3 2 1800 35 2 3 8 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -1 5 A ,B , C 3 1 2 4300 33 5 5 0 P H A S E 1 R C P RA H 2W W A T ER
P -1 7 A , B 2 1 1 600 20 55 P H A S E 1 R C P RA
H 2W W A T ER
P -1 0 A ,B , C 3 2 1 500 55 1 2 5 P H A S E 1 R C P RA H 2W W A T ER
P -1 2 A , B 2 1 1 130 55 37 P H A S E 1 R C P SHO2FT W A T ER
C N T G 1 ,2 2 1 1 900 40 1 2 5 S I P R E S E R V ORAIRW W A T ER
P -1 0 1 A ,B ,C , D , E ,6F 3 3 1600 40 3 7 5 P H A S E 2 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER
P -1 0 3 A ,B 2 1 1 525 60 1 5 0 P H A S E 2 R C P DM H 1 W A T ER
P -1 1 0 A ,B ,C 3 1 2 6200 24 7 0 0 P H A S E 2 R C P RA H 1W W A T ER
P -1 1 2 A ,B 2 1 1 800 33 1 1 0 P H A S E 2 R C P RA H 1W W A T ER
P -1 1 4 A ,B ,C , D , E ,6F 3 3 1800 35 2 4 0 P H A S E 2 R C P SHO1FT W A T ER

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2.4.1 EAF SOFT water cooling system

 SMS soft water system is designed to extract heat generated during steel making
process. Medium for heat removal is soft Water and soft water will remove heat
from Shell panels, Roof Panels and Elbow.

 Heated soft water will then be cooled in plate type heat exchangers by raw
water and is re-circulated in the system (closed re-circulation)

EAF SOFT WATER COOLING SYSTEM

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2.4.2 EAF DM water cooling system

 Basic function of SMS DM Water system is to remove heat from current carrying
parts, electrode arms transformer and to cool top lances of Shell no 1,2 and Shell
3,4.

 Medium for heat removal is De-mineralized water and DM Water will remove
heat from current carrying parts, electrode Arms transformer and top lances.

 Heated DM water will then be cooled in plate type heat exchangers by raw water
and is re-circulated in the system (closed recirculation)

EAF DM WATER COOLING SYSTEM

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2.4.3 SECONDARY raw water cooling system

 Basic function of secondary cooling water is to remove heat of DM water & Soft
Water of SMS in plate type heat exchangers by raw water.

 Raw water is Cooled in cooling tower and re-circulated (open recirculation)

SECONDARY RAW WATER COOLING SYSTEM

2.4.4 GCP SOFT water system

 Basic function of GCP soft water system is to remove heat generated by the steel
making process from gases evolved due to process.

 GCP soft water system is designed to extract heat generated during steel making
process. Medium for heat removal is soft Water and soft water will remove heat
from water cooled ducts.

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 Heated soft water will then be cooled in Fin fan coolers. (closed recirculation)

GCP SOFT WATER SYSTEM

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