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ProblemProblemProblem SheetSheetSheet 777 ––– SolutionsSolutionsSolutions

1. (a)

(b)

The critical points are at x˙ = y˙ = 0. So we need to solve for x and y given

x x 2

y

1

2 xy

y 2

=

=

0 ,

0 .

The solutions are at (x 0 , y 0 ) = (0,0), (0,1), (1,0), and (1/2,1).

Consider small perturbations about the critical points x = x 0 +ξ and y = y 0 +η. Inserting these into the system we have

˙

x˙ 0 + ξ

y˙ 0 + η˙

=

=

x 0 + ξ x 0 ξ 2 2x 0 ξ 2 x 0 y 0 2 ξη 2 x 0 η

y 0 + η y

2

1

1

1

2

0

η 2 2y 0 η .

1

2

x 0 ξ

,

Equating the original equations and eliminating terms higher than linear in the perturba- tions ξ and η we have

(c)

˙

ξ

η˙

=

=

1

2

x 0 η

2 1 y 0 ξ = (1 2x 0 1

2

ξ 2x 0 ξ

η 2y 0 η = (1 2y 0 )η .

y 0 )ξ

1

2

x 0 η ,

This can be written the matrix operation

dt

d

ξ = 1 2x

η

0

0

1

2

y

0

1

1 2y 0 η .

2

x

0

ξ

It is easiest to substitute in the values for x 0 and y 0 at this point instead of at the end i.e. for (0,0) we have the matrix

1

0

giving degenerate eigenvalues λ = 1 and eigenvectors e 1 = (0, 1) and e 2 = (1, 0). Similarly the point (x 0 , y 0 ) = (1, 0) gives

0

1

,

1

0

1

2

1

,

giving eigenvalues λ 1 = 1 and λ 2 = 1 and and eigenvectors e 1 = (1/4, 1) and e 2 = (1, 0). The point at (x 0 , y 0 ) = (0, 1) gives eigenvalues λ 1 = 1 and λ 2 = 1/2 and and eigen- vectors e 1 = (0, 1) and e 2 = (1, 0). The point at (x 0 , y 0 ) = (1/2, 1) gives eigenvalues λ 1 = 1 and λ 2 = 1/2 and and eigenvectors e 1 = (1/2, 1) and e 2 = (1, 0).

At each point draw the local eigenvectors. These will show the orientation of the local geometry then draw trajectories with arrows indicating ﬂow depending on stability

At (0,0) we have (case 3) a proper, unstable node. This is symmetric about the origin with trajectories ﬂowing out.

At (1,0) we have (case 2) a saddle point with the stable asymptote along the x axis and the unstable asymptote along the line given by y = 1/4x.

At (0,1) we have (case 2) a saddle point with the stable asymptote along the y axis and the unstable asymptote along the line y = 1.

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ProblemProblemProblem SheetSheetSheet 777 ––– SolutionsSolutionsSolutions

At (1/2,1) we have (case 1) a stable, improper node with stable asymptotes along the line y = 1 and y = 1/2x.

See Fig. 1 for the phase portrait, direction of trajectories as per above but needs to be added to sketch. 2. (a)

(b)

Figure 1:

The system is of the form

˙

L 1 +

˙

L 2

˙

L 3

+

+

AL 2 L 3

BL 3 L 1

CL 1 L 2

=

=

=

0 ,

0 ,

,

0

and all three time derivatives will vanish if any two angular momenta are zero. So we have a six critical points; at L 1 = ±L,L 2 = L 3 = 0 and permutation of the indices.

For small perturbations about the solution with L 1 = L 3 = 0 i.e. L 1 = ξ, L 2 = L 2 + η,

and L 3 = ζ we have

˜

 ˙ ξ + A(L + η)ζ = 0 , ˙ L + η˙ + Bζξ = 0 , zeta˙ + Cξ(L + η) = 0 . ˙

Since L = 0 at zeroth order in the perturbations the linearised system for ξ, η, and ζ is

 ˙ ξ + ALζ = 0 , η˙ = 0 , zeta˙ + CξL = 0 .

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ProblemProblemProblem SheetSheetSheet 777 ––– SolutionsSolutionsSolutions

This can be written as the matrix operation

dt ξ

d

ζ =

0

C L

A L

ξ

ζ ,

where we have dropped the η equation since it has the trivial solution η =constant.

 (c) The eigenvalues for the matrix are λ ± = ± √ ACL. If I 1 < I 2 < I 3 then and since the moments or inertia are all positive by deﬁnition the term in the square root is positive and therefore we have (case 2) an unstable saddle point. (d) In this case we get eigenvalues proportional to ± √ AB. Since AB is always negative we have purely imaginary, conjugate eigenvalues giving (case 6) a stable centre.

3. (a) Substitute for q, p in terms of Q, P to obtain the new Hamiltonian H H ,

(b)

H =

H

=

2 3/2 ω 1 Q 1 sin 2 P 1 + ω 2 Q 2 sin 2 P 2

+ ω

2 3/2

1 2 (Q 1 1 ) cos 2 P 1 + ω

2

2

(ω 1 Q 1 + ω 2 Q 2 ) .

 (Q 2 /ω 2 ) cos 2 P 2 , (3.1) (3.2) [4 marks]

˙

˙

Hamilton’s equations in Q, P coordinates are ∂H /∂P = Q, ∂H /∂Q = P and yield

˙

Q 1 = 0 ,

˙

Q 2 = 0 ,

(3.3)

(3.4)

Q 1 and Q 2 are therefore constants (n.b. the conjugate momenta P 1 and P 2 are cyclic), and the solutions for P 1 and P 2 are

˙

P 1 = 2 3/2 ω 1 ,

P 2 = 2 3/2 ω 2 .

˙

 P 1 = −2 3/2 (ω 1 t + φ 1 ) and P 2 = −2 3/2 (ω 2 t + φ 2 ) , (3.5) where φ 1 and φ 2 are constants determined by the initial conditions. [5 marks]

(c)

The inverse transformation (Q, P ) (q, p) is canonical if {q i , q j } Q,P = {p i , p j } Q,P = 0 and {q i , p j } Q,P = δ ij . Now

{q 1 , q 2 } Q,P = q 1

∂q 2

∂Q 1 ∂P 1

∂q 1

∂q 2

∂P 1 ∂Q 1

+

∂q 1

∂q 2

∂Q 2 ∂P 2

∂q 1

∂q 2

∂P 2 ∂Q 2

.

Evaluating this explicitly for the given transformation

{q 1 , q 2 } Q,P

= 2 1/4 2 1

cos P 1 (ω 1 Q 1 )

1/2 2 1/4 Q 1

1

ω

1/2

sin P 1

2 1/4 Q 1

1

ω

1/2 (sin P 1 ) 2 1/4 2 1

cos P 1

(ω 1 Q 1 ) 1/2

+ 2 1/4 2 1

cos P 2 (ω 2 Q 2 )

1/2 2 1/4 Q 2

2

ω

1/2

(sin P 1 )

2 1/4 Q 2

2

ω

1/2 (sin P 2 ) 2 1/4 2 1

cos P 2 1/2 = 0 .

(ω 2 Q 2 )

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ProblemProblemProblem SheetSheetSheet 777 ––– SolutionsSolutionsSolutions

Very similar calculations show that the remaining nontrivial canonical conditions

{p 1 , p 2 } Q,P = {q 1 , p 2 } Q,P = {q 2 , p 1 } Q,P = 0 and {q 1 , p 1 } Q,P = {q 2 , p 2 } Q,P = 1

[6 marks]

are also satisﬁed.

(d) Transforming the solutions of (3.3) and (3.4) back into the original coordinates gives

 q 1 (t) = 2 −1/4 (Q 1 /ω 1 ) 1/2 cos 2 3/2 (ω 1 t + φ 1 ) + (Q 2 /ω 2 ) 1/2 cos 2 3/2 (ω 2 t + φ 2 ) q 2 (t) = 2 −1/4 − (Q 1 /ω 1 ) 1/2 cos 2 3/2 (ω 1 t + φ 1 ) + (Q 2 /ω 2 ) 1/2 cos 2 3/2 (ω 2 t + φ 2 ) p 1 = 2 1/4 − (ω 1 Q 1 ) 1/2 sin 2 3/2 (ω 1 t + φ 1 ) − (ω 2 Q 2 ) 1/2 sin 2 3/2 (ω 2 t + φ 2 ) p 2 = 2 1/4 (ω 1 Q 1 ) 1/2 sin 2 3/2 (ω 1 t + φ 1 ) − (ω 2 Q 2 ) 1/2 sin 2 3/2 (ω 2 t + φ 2 ) ,

where Q 1 , Q 2 , φ 1 and φ 2 are constants determined from the initial conditions. [5 marks]

[TOTAL 20 marks]

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