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36 Chapter 1

ZTL for the low-voltage winding and ZTH for the high-voltage winding. An infinite
impedance between the junction point of these impedances to the fictitious bus R is
connected. In computer calculations this infinite impedance will be simulated by a
large value, i.e., 999 þ j9999, on a per unit basis.
The zero sequence network is treated in a similar manner, i.e., the zero
sequence impedance is split between the windings and the equivalent grounding
resistor 3RN is connected between the junction point and the fictitious bus R.
Figure 1-15( c) shows another approach to the creation a fictitious bus R to
preserve the integrity of nodes in the sequence networks. For the positive sequence
network, a large impedance is connected between bus 2 and bus R, while for the zero
sequence network an impedance equal to Z0TH þ 3RN is connected between bus 2
and bus R.
This chapter provides the basic concepts. The discussions of symmetrical com-
ponents, construction of sequence networks, and fault current calculations are car-
ried over to Chapter 2.

1. A short transmission line of inductance 0.05 H and resistance 1 ohm is
pffiffiffi short-circuited at the receiving end, while the source voltage is
480 ð 2Þ sin ð2ft þ 30 Þ. At what instant of the short-circuit will the dc
offset be zero? At what instant will the dc offset be a maximum?
2. Figure 1-1 shows a nondecaying ac component of the fault current.
Explain why this is not correct for a fault close to a generator.
3. Explain similarity transformation. How is it related to the diagonaliza-
tion of a matrix?
4. Find the eigenvalues of the matrix:
2 3
6 2 2
6 7
4 2 3 1 5
2 1 3
5. A power system is shown in Fig. 1-P1. Assume that loads do not con-
tribute to the short-circuit currents. Convert to a common 100 MVA
base, and form sequence impedance networks. Redraw zero sequence
network to eliminate discontinuities.
6. Three unequal load resistances of 10, 20, and 20 ohms are connected in
delta 10 ohms between lines a and b, 20 ohms between lines b and c and
200 ohms between lines c and a. The power supply is a balanced three-
phase system of 480 V rms between the lines. Find symmetrical compo-
nents of line currents and delta currents.
7. In Fig. 1-10, the zigzag transformer is replaced with a wye–delta con-
nected transformer. Show the distribution of the fault current for a phase-
to-ground fault on one of the phases.
8. Resistances of 6, 6, and 5 ohms are connected in a wye configuration
across a balanced three-phase supply system of line-to-line voltage of
480 V rms (Fig. 1-P2). The wye point of the load (neutral) is not
grounded. Calculate the neutral voltage with respect to ground using
symmetrical components and Clarke’s components’ transformation.

Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Short-Circuit Currents and Symmetrical Components 37

Figure 1-P1 Power system with impedance data for Problem 5.

Figure 1-P2 Network for Problem 8.

9. Based on the derivation of symmetrical component theory presented in

this chapter, can another transformation system be conceived?
10. Write equations for a symmetrical three-phase fault in a three-phase wye-
connected system, with balanced impedances in each line.
11. The load currents are generally neglected in short-circuit calculations. Do
these have any effect on the dc component asymmetry? (1) Increase it;
(2) Decrease it; (3) have no effect. Explain.
12. Write a 500 word synopsis on symmetrical components, without using
equations or figures.
13. Figure 1-9(a) shows the zero sequence current flow for a delta–wye trans-
former, with the wye neutral grounded. Construct a similar diagram for a
three-winding transformer, wye–wye connected, with tertiary delta and
both wye neutrals solidly grounded.
14. Convert the sequence impedance networks of Example 1.2 to single impe-
dances as seen from the fault point. Use the following numerical values
on a per unit basis (all on a common MVA base). Neglect resistances.
Generators G1 , G2 , and G3 : Z1 ¼ 0:15, Z2 ¼ 0:18, Z0 ¼ 0:08, Zn (neu-
tral grounding impedanceÞ ¼ 0:20;
Transmission lines L1 , L2 , and L3 : Z1 ¼ 0:2, Z2 ¼ 0:2;
Transformers T1 , T2 , T3 , T4 , T5 , and T6 : Z1 ¼ Z2 ¼ 0:10, transformer
T1 : Z0 ¼ 0:10
15. Repeat problem 14 for a fault at the terminals of generator G2.

Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Short-Circuit Currents and Symmetrical Components 25

Figure 1-10 (a) Current distribution in a delta–delta system with zigzag grounding trans-
former for a single line-to-ground fault; (b) zigzag transformer winding connections.

The impedance to the zero sequence currents is that due to leakage flux of the
windings. For positive or negative sequence currents, neglecting magnetizing current,
the connection has infinite impedance. Figure 1-10(a) shows the distribution of zero
sequence current and its return path for a single line to ground fault on one of the
phases. The ground current divides equally through the zigzag transformer; one-
third of the current returns directly to the fault point and the remaining two-thirds
must pass through two phases of the delta connected windings to return to the fault
point. Two phases and windings on the primary delta must carry current to balance

Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Short-Circuit Currents and Symmetrical Components 23

we can say that, in a core type, the windings surround the core, and in the shell type,
the core surrounds the windings. Delta–Wye or Wye–Delta Transformer

In a delta–wye transformer with the wye winding grounded, zero sequence impe-
dance will be approximately equal to positive or negative sequence impedance,
viewed from the wye connection side. Impedance to the flow of zero sequence cur-
rents in the core-type transformers is lower as compared to the positive sequence
impedance. This is so, because there is no return path for zero sequence exciting flux
in core type units except through insulating medium and tank, a path of high
reluctance. In groups of three single-phase transformers or in three-phase shell-
type transformers, the zero sequence impedance is higher.
The zero sequence network for a wye–delta transformer is constructed as
shown in Fig. 1-9(a). The grounding of the wye neutral allows the zero sequence
currents to return through the neutral and circulate in the windings to the source of
unbalance. Thus, the circuit on the wye side is shown connected to the L side line. On
the delta side, the circuit is open, as no zero sequence currents appear in the lines,
though these currents circulate in the delta windings to balance the ampère turns in

Figure 1-9 (a) Derivations of equivalent zero sequence circuit for a delta–wye transformer,
wye neutral solidly grounded; (b) zero sequence circuit of a delta–wye transformer, wye
neutral isolated.

Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

32 Chapter 1

Example 1.2
Figure 1-13(a) shows a single line diagram, with three generators, three transmission
lines, six transformers, and three buses. It is required to construct positive, negative,
and zero sequence networks looking from the fault point marked F. Ignore the load
The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. 1-13(b). There are three gen-
erators in the system, and their positive sequence impedances are clearly marked in

Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.