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ME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSAT

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 1 / 32


Syllabus
ME 1604 : HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Module I
Introduction to heat transfer – basic modes of heat transfer – conduction heat transfer –Fourier law of heat
conduction– temperature dependence of thermal conductivity- general heat conduction equation in cartesian,
cylindrical and spherical coordinates – boundary conditions – one-dimensional steady state conduction- critical
insulation thickness -one-dimensional steady state conduction with heat generation -extended surface – two
dimensional steady state heat conduction – conduction shape factor – unsteady state heat conduction in one
dimension – lumped heat capacity system – semi-infinite solids with sudden change in surface temperature –
Introduction to numerical methods in conduction.

Module II
Convective heat transfer – Newton’s law of cooling – Prandtl number – laminar forced convection heat transfer
from flat plates – fully developed laminar flow in pipes – turbulent forced convection – Reynolds’ analogy – natural
convection – natural convection heat transfer from vertical plates and horizontal tubes – condensation and boiling
– film and drop wise condensation – film boiling and pool boiling – introduction to multiphase flow and heat
transfer. Diffusion and convective mass transfer-Ficks law of diffusion.

Module III
Radiative transfer – electromagnetic radiation spectrum – thermal radiation –radiation properties- black body,
gray body – monochromatic and total emissive power – Planck’s law – Stefan-Boltzman law – Wien’s displacement
law – Kirchhoffs identity – shape factor- reciprocity relation – heat exchange between non black bodies; surface
and shape resistances- electrical network analogy- heat transfer between parallel surafces – radiation shields.

Module IV
Heat Exchangers: Type of heat exchangers- overall heat transfer coefficient -fouling factors -Logarithmic mean
temperature difference (LMTD)- derivation of LMTD for parallel flow and counter flow heat exchangers-LMTD
correction factor- effectiveness, NTU method of heat exchanger analysis- effectiveness derivation for parallel flow
and counter flow heat exchangers. Design of parallel flow-counterflow-shell and tube multipass heat exchangers-
condensers.

References:

1)� Cengel, Heat Transfer Tata McGraw Hill


2)� Holman J.P., “Heat Transfer”, McGraw Hill International Students Edition
3)� Incorpera F.P. & De Witt D.P., “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”, John Wiley
4)� Kreith F., “Heat Transfer”, International Text Book Company
5)� Gebhart B., “Heat Transfer”, McGraw Hill
6)� R.K. Rajput, “Heat and Mass Transfer”, S Chand.
7)� Venkanna, Fundamentals of HMT, PHI

Data Book (1) Heat & Mass Transfer – C.P Kothandaraman, New Age International.
Data Book (2) Heat & Mass Transfer – Domkundwar, Dhanpat Rai.

Approved data book to be specified in the question paper.


Type of Questions for University Exam
Q 1.Eight short answer questions of 5 marks with two questions from each of the four modules. (8x5 = 40 marks)
Q 2. to Q.5 : Two questions A & B of 15 marks from each modules with option to answer either A or B. (4x15 = 60
marks)

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 2 / 32


Course Outcome

1 CO-1: To understand basic modes of heat transfer. Units, heat


transfer basic applications
2 CO-2: Analyse conduction heat transfer, one dimensional, unsteady
conduction. Application of extended surfaces
3 CO3; Fundamentals of convective heat transfer. Forced convection
problems
4 CO4: Analysing natural convection problems, understanding heat
transfer with phase change.
5 CO5; Understanding radiation heat transfer, radiation theory
6 CO6: Radiation networks, simple radiation problems
7 CO7: Application of heat transfer, heat exchangers, design basics
8 CO8: Heat exchanger design using different methods

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 3 / 32


Introduction-Heat Transfer

1 Heat =⇒ Energy Transport rate (kW or kJ/s)


2 Thermodynamics =⇒ Relation between heat and other forms of
energy
3 Heat transfer rate form of Energy transfer
4 Modes of heat transfer
1 Conduction
2 Convection
3 Radiation
5 Potential =⇒ Temperature difference (K )

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 4 / 32


Conduction heat transfer

Condction heat transfer


1 Heat transfer takes place as conduction in a soilid if there is a
temperature gradient.
2 conduction is mediated by the combination of vibrations and collisions
of molecules
3 diffusion and collisions of free electrons
4 Conduction is within a solid or between solid objects in thermal
contact.
Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 5 / 32
Conduction heat transfer

Fourier law of Condction


1 Conduction heat transfer Q (W) Heat

2 Q = −kA dT
dx 200°C
Heat
3 k - Thermal conductivity (W /mK ) 80°C

4 A cross sectional area through which Heat


heat transfer occurs
5 -ve sign heat flow direction

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 6 / 32


Thermal conductivity

Condction heat transfer


1 Less thermal conductivity materials -insulators
2 Conductivity changes with temperature k(T ) = k0 (1 + βT )

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 7 / 32


General Heat Condction equation-Rectangular coordinates

y q+dq /dy
y y
q+dq /dz
z z

qx ∆y
q+dq
x x
/dx

qz ∆z
∆x

qy
z

x
1 Elemental volume dx,dy,dz
2 Thermal conductivity k, density ρ, specific heat capacity c

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 8 / 32


General Heat Condction equation-Rectangular coordinates

1 T = T (x, y , z, τ )
2 Energy entering in x direction Qx = −kA ∂T
∂x
dQx
3 Energy leaving in x directionQx+∆X = Qx + dx ∆x
2
4 Energy leaving in x direction = −kA ∂x + −kA ∂∂xT2 ∆x
∂T

5 Heat generation per unit volume =q̇ (W /m3 )


6 Total heat generationQgen = q̇∆x∆y ∆z
7 Mass of the elemental volume = ρ∆x∆y ∆z
8 Internal energy change of the element I .E ,(mc∆T )= ρc∆x∆y ∆z ∂T
∂τ
9 energy balance
Qx + Qy + Qz + Qgen = I .E + Qx+∆x + Qy +∆y + Qz+∆z
∂2T ∂2T ∂2T q̇ 1 ∂T
10 General heat conduction equation ∂x 2
+ ∂x 2
+ ∂x 2
+ k = α ∂τ

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 9 / 32


General Heat Condction equation-Rectangular coordinates
- Simplifications

∂2T 2 2
1 General heat conduction equation ∂x 2
+ ∂∂xT2 + ∂∂xT2 + kq̇ = α1 ∂T
∂τ
∂2T ∂2T ∂2T 1 ∂T
2 With no heat generation ∂x 2 + ∂x 2 + ∂x 2 = α ∂τ
2 2 2
3 Steady state conduction ∂∂xT2 + ∂∂xT2 + ∂∂xT2 = 0
2 2
4 Two dimensional steady state conduction ∂∂xT2 + ∂∂xT2 = 0
2
5 One dimensional steady state conduction ∂∂xT2 = 0
6 Assumes conductivity and density constant.
7 α is the thermal diffusivity

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 10 / 32


General Heat Condction equation-Cylindrical coordinates

1 Cylindrical coordinates
T = T (r , θ, z)
∂2T 2 2
2
∂r 2
+ 1r ∂T
∂r + r12 ∂∂θT2 + ∂∂zT2 + kq̇ =
1 ∂T
α ∂τ
3 One dimensional steady state
d 2T
dr 2
+ 1r dT
dr = 0
4 Heat transfer in radial direction
only Q = −2πkrL dT dr
5 Useful to handle radial systems

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 11 / 32


General Heat Condction equation-Spherical coordinates

1 Spherical coordinates
T = T (r , θ, φ)
∂T
1 ∂ 2 (rT ) 1 ∂ (sinθ ∂θ )
2
r ∂r 2 + 2
r sinθ ∂θ +
1 ∂2T q̇ 1 ∂T
r 2 sin2 θ ∂φ2
+ k = α ∂τ

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 12 / 32


Boundary conditions

1 Constant temperature T = T1 ...


2 Constant heat flux q = Q/A
(W /m2 )
3 Convective heat transfer
Q = hAs (T − T∞ )
4 Radiative heat transfer
5 Combined

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 13 / 32


One dimensional steady heat transfer

1 One dimensional temperature variation


T = T (x)
d 2T
2
dx 2
=0
dT
3 Integrating dx = C1
4 Integrating T = C1 x + C2
5 C1 , C2 depends on the boundary
conditions.
6 For b.c at x = 0, T = T1 and
x = L, T = T2
(T2 −T1 )x
7 T = L + T1
kA(T1 −T2 )
8 Heat transfer Q = L

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 14 / 32


Composite walls
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T2 T3 T4
T1
R1 R3
R2

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 15 / 32


One dimensional steady heat transfer -Cylinders
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R= ln(ro/ri) ln(r2/r1) ln(r3/r2)
R = R =
2kl Π A 2kl Π B 2kl Π
T T2 T
To 1 3
T
i

1 One dimensional temperature variation T = T (r )


2πkL(Ti −To )
2 Radial heat transfer Qr = ln(ro /ri )
2πL(T1 −T3 )
3 Composite cylinder Qr = ln(r2 /r1 )/kA +ln(r3 /r2 )/kB

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 16 / 32


Overall heat transfer -coefficient
T
A Fluid o
Fluid i

T1 ro
Fluid B Ti
Fluid A r T
i o

T2

TB

T2 To
Ti T1
T2 TB
TA T1
1 1
1 h A ln(ro/ri) h A
1 ∆x i 2kl Π
o
hA A kA hB A

TA −TB
1 Heat transfer Q = 1/hA A+∆x/kA+1/hB A , Q = UA∆Toverall
1
2 Overall heat transfer coefficient U = 1/hA +∆x/k+1/hB
" #
Ti −To
3 Cylinder Q = 1 ln(ro /ri )
hi Ai
+ 2πkL
+ h 1A
o o
1
4 Q = Uo Ao ∆Toverall , Uo = Ao 1 Ao ln(ro /ri )
Ai h i
+ 2πkL
+ h1
o
1
5 Q = Ui Ai ∆Toverall , Ui = 1 Ai ln(ro /ri ) A
hi
+ 2πkL
+ A i h1
o o

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 17 / 32


Critical radius of insulation ln(ro/ri)
1
2roLh Π
2kl Π

11111111
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r
00000000
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Qmax 00000000
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c
00000000
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00000000
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Ti
00000000
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00000000
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Heat
00000000
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QW 00000000
11111111

r
c

Radius, r

2πL(Ti −T∞ )
1 Heat transfer Q = ln(ro /ri )
k
+ r 1h
o
 
−2πL(Ti −T∞ ) kr1 − 12
dq o hro
2
dro =0= h
ln(ro /ri ) 1
i2
k
+r h
o
k
3 Critical radius of insulation rc = h

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 18 / 32


Plane wall with heat source

d 2T q
1
dx 2
+ k =0
2 Boundary conditions
T = T − w , at − x = ±L
x 2
Solution TTw−T

−To = L
3 o q
x=0

T −Tw x 2 To

4 Alternatively To −Tw =1− L
R
Tw Tw
5 Cylinder with heat generation L L

T = Tw , at − r = R
r 2
Solution TTo−T

−Tw = 1 − R
6 w

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 19 / 32


Extnded surfaces -Fins

1 Need for Extended surfaces


2 Applications
Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 20 / 32
Heat transfer from fins

1 Base temperature Tb
2 Ambient temperature T∞
3 Convection heat transfer
coefficient h(W /m2 K )
4 Convective heat transfer
Q = hAs (T − T∞ )
5 Surface perimeter P
6 Surface area As = Pdx
7 Energy balance

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 21 / 32


Heat transfer from fins

1 Ambient temperature T∞
2 Surface perimeter P
3 Surface area As = Pdx
4 Heat transfer coefficient h(W /m2 K )
5 Convective heat transfer
Q = hAs (T − T∞ )
6 Energy balance
7 Fin solution
Θ = T − T∞ = C1 e −mx + C2 e mx
8 Fin very long
Θ = Θ0 −at−x = 0, Θ = 0−at−x = ∞
q
T −T∞ −mx , m = hP
9
T0 −T∞ = e kA
∂T

10 Heat loss q = −kA ∂x |x=0 = Θ0 hPkA
Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 22 / 32
Fin Efficiency and effectiveness

1 Fin efficiency -ηfin =


Q−Fin−actual
Q−Fin−entire−fin−at−base−temp.
2 Fin conduction resistance Vs
convective resistance
3 Fin thickness varying - minimise
weight
4 Fin effectiveness -
Q−Fin−actual
εfin = Q−with−out−fin−(base−area)
5 Fin effectiveness must be >1

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 23 / 32


Steady state two dimensional

Two dimensional
∂ 2 (T ) ∂ 2 (T )
1
∂x 2
+ ∂y 2
=0
2 Heat flow qx = −kAx ∂T
∂x
3 Heat flow qy = −kAy ∂T
∂y
4 Two dimensional system with two
temperatures q = kS∆Toverall
5 S- conduction shape factor

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 24 / 32


Lumped System Analysis

Assumptions
1 Interior temperature is uniform
2 One dimensional
3 h -constant
T
4 k - constant T
T
h

5 h is low compared to k T

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 25 / 32


1 Heat transfer by convection = Internal energy change
2 hA(T − T∞ ) = −mcp dT /dt
d(T −T∞ )
3
(T −T∞ ) = − hA s dt
ρVcp =

θ = − hA s dt
ρVcp
4 Limits θ = θi ⇒ (Ti − T∞ ), t = 0 and θ = θt ⇒ (T − T∞ ), t = t
Rθt Rt hAs dt
5 integrating d(θ)
θ = − ρVcp
θi 0
6 [ln(θ)]θθti hAs t
= ln[θt ] − ln[θi ] = − ρVc p
h i
θt hAs t
7 ln θi = − ρVc p

(T −T∞ )
8
(Ti −T∞ ) = e −bt , where b = hAs
ρVcp
9 Criterion Biot Number Bi = hL/k ≤ 0.1, Error within 5%
(T −T∞ ) hL αt
10
(Ti −T∞ ) = e BiFo , Bi = k , Fo = L2

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 26 / 32


Unsteady conduction semi infinite solids

Semi infinite solid


∂2T 1 ∂T
1
∂x 2
= α ∂t
2 T (0, t) = Ts , T (x −→ ∞, t) = Ti ∞

3 initial condition T (x, 0) = Ti T


s

x

h

4 Use similarity variable η = √x


4αt ∞

5 boundary conditon η = 0, at
x = 0, η −→ ∞ at x −→ ∞ ∞

d 2T
6 after simplification dη 2
= −2η dT

7 T (0) = Ts andT (η −→ ∞) = Ti

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 27 / 32


Unsteady conduction semi infinite solids

Semi infinite solid contd


dT
1 define a new variable w = dη
dw
2
dη = −2ηw ∞

T
3 lnw = −η 2 + C0 s

h
x

4 w = C1 e −η 2 , where, C1 = lnC0 ∞
dT
5 substituting w = dη and integrating
Rη 2

6 T = C1 e −u du + C2
0
7 where ’u’ is a dummy variable The
boundary condition η = 0 gives C2 = Ts

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 28 / 32


semi infinite solids- unsteady conduction

1 applying boundary condition η −→ ∞


R∞ √
2
2 Ti = C1 e −u du + C2 = C1 2π + Ts
0
2(Ti −Ts )
3 give C1 = √
π
4 substituting C1 and C2
T −Ts
Rη −u2
5 = √2 e du = erf (η) = 1 − erfc(η)
Ti −Ts π
0
Rη 2 Rη 2
6 where erf (η) = √2
π
e −u du and erfc(η) = 1 − √2
π
e −u du
0 0
7 heat flux at the surface qs = −k ∂T dT
∂x |x=0 = −k dη
∂T
∂x |x=0
2 k(Ts −Ti )
8 = −kC1 e −η √ 1 |η=0
4αt
= √
παt

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 29 / 32


semi infinite solids- unsteady conduction

1 specified surface temperature Ts = C


 
T (x,t)−Ti
2 = erfc √x
Ts −Ti 2 αt
k(Ts −Ti )
3 q(t) = √
παt
4 Specified surface heat flux qs = C
q  2  
qs 4αt −x x
5 T (x, t) − Ti = k π exp 4αt − xerfc 2 αt

6 convection on the surface qs (t) = h(T∞ − T (0, t))


     √ 
T (x,t)−Ti
√x hx h2 αt √x h αt
7
T∞ −Ti = erfc 2 αt
− exp k + k2
erfc 2 αt
+ k

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 30 / 32


Numerical methods in conduction

1 Problem solutions=⇒
Analytical, Experimental,
Numerical
2 Numerical ⇒ FDM, FEM, Finite
Volume
3 FDM - Divide domain into
nodes
4 Governing equations (PDE’s) Y
m,n+1 ∆Y
converted to algebric equations ∆Y
m−1,n m,n m+1,n
5 Write equations for each nodes X m,n−1 ∆Y
∆Y
Z
∆X ∆X

Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 31 / 32


Numerical methods in conduction
∂T Tm+1,n −Tm,n
1 At the node(m+1/2, n) ∂x = ∆x
Tm,n −Tm−1,n
2 At the node(m-1/2, n) ∂T
∂x = ∆x
∂T Tm,n+1 −Tm,n
3 At the node(m,n+1/2) ∂y = ∆y
∂T Tm,n −Tm,n−1
4 At the node(m,n-1/2) ∂y = ∆y
[ ∂T − ∂T
 
∂2T ∂x ]m+1/2,n [ ∂x ]m−1/2,n
5 At the node (m,n) ∂x 2
= ∆x

∂2T Tm+1,n +Tm−1,n −2Tm,n


6 At the node (m,n) ∂x 2
= ∆x 2
 ∂T
[ ∂x ]m,n+1/2 −[ ∂T

∂2T ∂x ]m,n−1/2
7 At the node (m,n) ∂y 2
= ∆y

∂2T Tm,n+1 +Tm,n−1 −2Tm,n


8 At the node (m,n) ∂y 2
= ∆y 2
9 2D equation
∂2T 2 Tm+1,n +Tm−1,n −2Tm,n Tm,n+1 +Tm,n−1 −2Tm,n
∂x 2
+ ∂∂yT2 = ∆x 2
+ ∆y 2
=0
10 Solution - Gauss - Seidel Iteration etc.
Dr. James Varghese School of Engineering, CUSATME-1604-Heat and Mass Transfer 32 / 32