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UNIT

 1.  PARTS  OF  SPEECH  


(JENIS-­‐JENIS  KATA)  
 
1. VERB  (KATA  KERJA)  
Example:  Clean,  Cook,  Eat,  Drink  
 
2. ADJECTIVE  (KATA  SIFAT)  
Example:  Smart,  Beautiful,  Lazy,  Crazy,  Nice  
 
3. CONJUNCTION  (KATA  PENGHUBUNG)  
Example:  And,  Or,  But,  While,  So  
 
4. NOUN  (KATA  BENDA)  
Example:  Table,  Pencil,  Book,  House,  Umbrella,  Midwife,  Nurse,  Leni,  Ria  
 
5. ADVERB  (KATA  KETERANGAN)  
Example:    
à  Adverb  of  Time:  Yesterday,  On  Sunday,  Last  Month,  Next  Year,  At  5  O’clock  
à    Adverb  of  Place:  At  hospital,  at  school,    
at  house,  at  the  market  
  à  Adverb  of  Frequency:  Always,  Usually,    
    Sometimes,  Often  
 
6. PREPOSITION  (KATA  DEPAN)  
Example:  At,  in,  on,  to,  of    
 
7. PRONOUN  (KATA  GANTI)  
Example:  I,  You,  They,  We,  He,  She,  It  
 
8. INTERJECTION  (KATA  SERU)  
Example:  Ah,  Wow,  OMG  
 

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 1  


 
 
 
Exercise  1.  Categorize  these  words  into  appropriate  parts  of  speech:  
 
1. Tall   11. Aw   21. Teach   31. The  day  after  
2. And   12. Hurray   22. To   tomorrow  
3. In   13. Beautiful   23. Because   32. Ball  
4. I   14. But   24. White   33. He  
5. You   15. At   25. Ouch   34. Book  
6. Nurse   16. On  Sunday   26. Smart   35. Campus  
7. Cook   17. Uniform   27. So   36. At  10.00  
8. Tomorrow   18. It   28. Happy   o’clock  
9. On   19. Them   29. Eat   37. Yesterday  
10. Or   20. Study   30. Pray   38. Oh  no  
      39. OMG  
      40. Of  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
   

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 2  


 
 
Pronoun   Noun   Verb   Adverb  
I   Nurse   Cook   Tomorrow    
You   Uniform   Study   On  Sunday  
It   Ball   Teach     The  day  after  
Them   Book   Eat   tomorrow  
He     campus   Pray   At  10.00  o’clock  
Yesterday    
Adjective   Conjunction   Preposition   Interjection  
Tall   And     In   Aw  
Beautiful   Or     On     Hurray  
White     But   At   Ouch    
Smart   Because     to   Oh  no  
Happy   So   Of     OMG  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 3  
TOPIC  2:  SIMPLE  PRESENT  TENSE  &  PRESENT  PROGRESSIVE  TENSE  

WHAT IS TENSE?
• Tense is pattern of Verb forms used to indicate the time.
(Tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menentukan waktu)
• In grammar, Tense is the time of a verb's action or state of being, such as present, past or
future.
(Dalam tata bahasa, Tense menunjukan kapan suatu kejadian atau keadaan terjadi,
apakah waktu sekarang, lampau atau akan datang

Example:
No. Tense Meaning
1. I am going to the hospital now. Saya pergi ke rumah sakit sekarang.
2. I went to hospital yesterday Saya pergi ke kampus kemarin.
3. I will go to hospital tomorrow. Saya akan ke rumah sakit besok.

TENSE TIMELINE

PAST   FUTURE  

I went to hospital yesterday I will go to hospital tomorrow.


I am going to the hospital now.    
 

Subject Pronoun To-be Auxiliary verb


Present Past Present Past
I Am Was
You
They Are Were Do Did
We
He
She Is Was Does
It
1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
a. How do we make Simple Present Tense?
Pattern 1 : Simple Present Tense with to be
Positive : Subject + to-be + non-verb (noun, adjective, adverb)
Negative : Subject + to-be not + non-verb (noun, adjective, adverb)
Interrogative : To-be + Subject + non-verb (noun, adjective, adverb)

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 4  


Example :
(+) She is a nurse (noun)
(-) She is not a nurse
(?) Is she a nurse?

(+) Christine is beautiful (adjective)


(-) Christine is not beautiful
(?) Is Christine beautiful?
(+) The teacher is at school (adverb)
(-) The teacher is not at school
(?) Is the teacher at school?

Pattern 2 : Simple Present Tense with verb


Positive : Subject + Verb
Negative : Subject + do/does not + Verb
Interrogative : Do/Does + Subject + Verb?

Example :
(+) She takes the medicine every day
(-) She does not take the medicine everyday
(?) Does she take the medicine everyday?

(+) The nurses study at nursing school


(-) The nurses do not study at nursing school
(?) Do the nurses study at nursing school?

(+) They buy a nursing kit


(-) They do not buy a nursing kit
(?) Do they buy a nursing kit?

Notes:

• In forming negative Simple Present Tense, do/does are inserted after subject
pronoun and use base verb
I, you, they, we do not go / walk
He, she it does not go / walk

• in forming positive Simple Present Sentences, for third person singular, the verb
should add s/es
I, you, they, we go / walk
He, she it goes / Walks

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 5  


Spelling of third person singular forms in Present Simple Tense

Most verbs: Add “s” Work Works


See Sees
Know Knows
Verbs ending with consonant and “y”: Cry Cries
Change “y” for “ies” Fly Flies
Try Tries
Verb ending with vowel + y, just add ‘s” Stay Stays
Play Plays
Verbs ending in sibilant sounds –s, -z, -ch, -sh, or -x Push Pushes
Catch Catches
Buzz Buzzes
Fix Fixes
Confess Confesses
Finish Finishes
Verbs ending with “o” Go Goes
Do Does
Verb “have” Have Has

b. How do we use the Simple Present Tense?


We use the simple present tense when:
• The action is general
Example: Nurses take care of patients
• The action happens all the time, or habitually in the past, present and future
Example: We go to campus everyday
• The action is not only happening now
Example: I live in Kupang
• The statement is a always true
Example: Moon revolves around the sun

2. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


a. How do we make Present Progressive Tense?
Pattern 1 :
Positive : Subject + to-be + Verb-ing
Negative : Subject + to-be not + Verb - ing
Interrogative : To-be + Subject + Verb - ing

Example :
(+) The doctor is checking patient’s status
(-) The doctor is not checking patient’s status
(?) Is the doctor checking patient’s status?

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 6  


(+) The students are studying at the library.
(-) The students are not studying at the library.
(?) Are the students studying at the library?

(+) The nurse is measuring the pediatric patient’s temperature.


(-)The nurse is not measuring the pediatric patient’s temperature.
(?) Is the nurse measuring the pediatric patient’s temperature?

b. How do we use the Present Progressive Tense?


We use the Present Progressive Tense to talk about:
• The action happening now
• Action in the future

Present Progressive Tense for action happening now


a. For action happening exactly now
I am studying English
Past Present Future

The action is happening now

Look at these examples:


• You are sitting
• I am standing
• You are listening
• I am talking

b. For action happening around now


The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before
and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.

Sandy is going out with Mary


Past Present Future

The action is happening around now.


It started in past and will end in the future
Look at these examples:
• Muriel is learning to drive
• I am living with my sister until I find an apartment

Present Progressive Tense for the future


We can also use the present progressive tense to talk about the future – if we
add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word.
Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 7  
“future words” include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas,
etc.
We only use the present progressive tense to talk about the future when we
have planned to do something before we speak, we have already made a decision
and a plan before speaking.

I am taking my exam next month


Past Present Future
!!!
The exam exists now The action is in the
future

Look at theses examples:


• We are eating in a restaurant tonight. We have already booked the table
• They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They are not working.
• When are you starting your new job?

In these examples, we have a firm plan or program before speaking. The


decision and plan were made before speaking.

c. How do we spell Present Progressive Tense?


We make the present progressive tense by adding –ing to the base verb, normally,
it is simple – we just ad –ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little.
Perhaps we double the last letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you
to know how to spell the present progressive tense.

Basic Rule Just add –ing to the base verb:


Work working
Play Playing
Assist Assisting
See Seeing
Be Being
Exception 1 If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel
+ consonant, double the last letter
Stop Stopping
Run Running
Begin Beginning
No that this exception does not apply when the last
syllable of the base verb is not stressed:
Open Opening
Exception 2 If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y:
Lie Lying
Die Dying
Exception 3 If the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit
the e:
Come Coming
Mistake mistaking
 
 
Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 8  
 

TOPIC 3: SIMPLE PAST TENSE & PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

A. HOW TO FORM IT

Pattern 1 à Using BE Past time


(+) Subject Pronoun + to-be past + Noun, Adjective, Adverb
(-) Subject Pronoun + to-be past + not + Noun, Adjective, Adverb
(?) To-be past + Subject Pronoun + Noun, Adjective, Adverb

Subject Pronoun To-be Present To-be Past


I, am was
You ,They, We are were
He, She, It is Was

Example:
1. Noun
(+) I was a student last year..
(-) I was not a student last year.
(?) Were you a student last year?

2. Adjective
(+) The patient was angry this morning
(-) The patient was not angry this morning
(?) Was the patient angry this morning?

3. Adverb
(+) The nurses were at the hospital yesterday.
(-) The nurses were not at the hospital yesterday.
(?) Were the nurses at the hospital yesterday?

Pattern 2 à Using VERB Past time


(+) Subject Pronoun + Verb Past (V2)
(-) Subject Pronoun + did + not + Verb Present (V1)
(?) Did + Subject Pronoun + Verb Present (V1)

Subject Pronoun Auxiliary Verb Auxiliary Verb Past


I, You ,They, We do
did
He, She, It does
Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 9  
Verb 2 - Regular and Irregular Verb
1. Regular Verb (d/ed)
Base form (V1) Simple Past (V2)
Share Shared
Smile Smiled
Cook Cooked
Study Studied
Walk Walked

No. Verb ending in... How to make the Examples


simple past
Live à lived
1. e Add -d
date à dated
Change y to i, then add try à tried
2. Consonant +y
-ed cry à cried
One vowel + one consonant Double the consonant, tap à tapped
3.
(but NOT w or y) then add -ed commit à committed
boil à boiled
fill à filled
4. anything else including w Add -ed
hand à handed
show à showed
2. Irregular Verb
Base form (V1) Simple Past (V2)
Make Made
Catch Caught
Teach Taught
Buy Bought
Write Wrote

Example:
1. Regular Verb
(+) I studied English last month.
(-) I did not study English last month.
(?) Did you study English last month?

2. Irregular Verb
(+) The nurses wrote nursing record last night.
(-) The nurses did not write nursing record last night.
(?) Did the nurses write nursing record last night?

B. WHEN TO USE IT

We use Simple Past Tense to:


1. State a fact about the past
Example:
• In the past, people believed that the earth was flat.
• The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was formed in 1908.
• Linda Richards became the first nurse to earn a nursing diploma in the United
States in 1873.
Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 10  
2. Talk about event, something that happened in the past
• Tens of thousands of qualified nursing school applicants were turned away last
year because U.S. nursing schools didn't have enough faculty or educational
capacity to teach them.
• Florence Nightingale, the most famous nurse in modern history, was only a nurse
for three years.

3. Talk about a state, or condition or people’s habits in the past


• When Lisette and Pete lived in Scotland, they had two cats.
• I went to school by bus when I was a child.
• They took a lot of photographs on their holiday.

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 11  


PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

A. HOW TO FORM IT
Pattern:
(+) Subject Pronoun + to-be past + Verb-ing
(-) Subject Pronoun + to-be past + not + Verb-ing
(?) To-be past + Subject Pronoun + Verb-ing

Example:
(+) Last night, they were sleeping when the accident happened.
(-) Last night, they were not sleeping when the accident happened.
(?) Were they sleeping when the accident happened, last night?

(+) Once, the nurses were helping the victims of Tsunami in Aceh.
(-) Once, the nurses were not helping the victims of Tsunami in Aceh.
(?) Once, were nurses helping the victims of Tsunami in Aceh?

B. WHEN TO USE IT
The past progressive form is used for habits and activities or events in the past just as
the present progressive form is used for the present time. It is used especially to show that an
activity as interrupted.
The past progressive form tells us that the action was happening for a limited period
of time. It can be used to:
1. Talk about something that was happening when something else happened
• She was walking near the hospital when the dog attacked her.
• I met him he was buying groceries in the supermarket
2. To talk about activities in the past
• Once, I was driving through Indonesia with friends.
3. Talk about habits in the past. When we use the progressive form, then we usually add
a word like always.
• Diana was always worrying about their mother condition.
• The patients were always complaining about something.

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 12  


TOPIC 4. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE


Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although
the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different
meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and
practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific
time in the future.

Simple Present Tense with “Will”

Pattern 1:
(+) Subject Pronoun + Will + Verb
(-) Subject Pronoun + Will + Not + Verb
(?) Will + Subject Pronoun + Verb ?

Examples:
(+) I will go to laboratory tomorrow.
(-) I will not go to laboratory tomorrow.
(?) Will you go to laboratory tomorrow?

(+) She will make a cheesecake for us tonight.


(-) She will not make a cheesecake for us tonight.
(?) Will she make a cheesecake for us tonight?

(+) The students will present the assignment next week.


(-) The students will not present the assignment next week.
(?) Will the students present the assignment next week?

Pattern 2:
(+) Subject Pronoun + Will + be + Noun/Adjective/Adverb
(-) Subject Pronoun + Will + not + be +Noun/Adjective/Adverb
(?) Will + Subject Pronoun + be + Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Examples:
(+) He will be a star. à Star = Noun
(-) He will not be a star.
(?) Will he be a star?

(+) The students will be late this afternoon. à Late = Adjective


(-) The students will not be late this afternoon.
(?) Will the students be late this afternoon?

(+) I will be at the market by 10 o’clock. à at the market = Adverb of Place


(-) I will not be at the market by 10 o’clock.
(?) Will you be at the market by 10 o’clock?

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 13  


Simple Present Tense with “To be going to”

Pattern:
(+) Subject Pronoun + to be + going to + Verb.
(-) Subject Pronoun + not + to be + going to + Verb
(?) To be + Subject Pronoun + going to + Verb.

Examples:
(+) You are going to meet Jane tonight.
(-) You are not going to meet Jane tonight.
(?) Are you going to meet Jane tonight?

(+) My parents are going to give me something on my birthday.


(-) My parents are not going to give me something on my birthday.
(?) Are my parents going to give me something on my birthday?

How do we use “Will” and “Be Going to”?


1. We use “Will” to Express a Voluntary Action
“Will” often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action
is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use “will” to respond to
someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use “will” when we request that
someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use “will not” or
“won't” when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

Examples:
• I will send you the information when I get it.
• I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
• Will you help me move this heavy table?
• Will you make dinner?
• I will not do your homework for you.
• I won't do all the housework myself!
• A: I'm really hungry. B: I'll make some sandwiches.
• A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep. B: I'll get you some coffee.
• A: The phone is ringing. B: I'll get it.

2. We use “Will” to Express a Promise


“Will” is usually used in promises.

Examples:
• I will call you when I arrive.
• If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access
to inexpensive health insurance.
• I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
• Don't worry, I'll be careful.
• I won't tell anyone your secret.

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 14  


3. We use “Be going to” to Express a Plan
“Be going to” expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person
intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or
not.

Examples:
• He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
• She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
• A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
• I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
• Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
• They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
• Who are you going to invite to the party?
• A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

4. “Will” or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction


Both “will” and “be going to” can express the idea of a general prediction about the
future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction"
sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do
not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.

Examples:
• The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
• The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
• John Smith will be the next President.
• John Smith is going to be the next President.
• The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
• The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.
 

Leni Amelia Suek, S.S., MA., M.Ed. 15