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IBLE

POLYNOMIALS

A Project submitted to

Periyar University, in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the award of the degree

of

by

G.ANUSUYA

(Reg.No 16PMA2022)

Mrs.S.SATHIYA,M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed.,

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

Laxminarayana Arts & Science College for Women

Dharmapuri – 636705

2016 - 2018

CERTIFICATE

Mrs.S.SATHIYA,M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed.,

Assistant Professor in Mathematics,

Laxminarayana Arts & Science College for Women,

Dharmapuri – 636705.

CERTIFICATE

FIELD AND IRREDUCIBLE POLYNOMIALS’’

submitted to the PERIYAR UNIVERSITY by

G.ANUSUYA, (Reg No: 16PMA2022) in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the award of degree MASTER OF

SCIENCE IN MATHEMATICS is done during 2016-2018

under my guidance and supervision.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Acknowledgement

Laxminarayana Arts & Science College for Women, Dharmapuri for

having provided with all necessary facilities.

Principal, Laxminarayana Arts & Science College for Women,

Dharmapuri for having provided with all necessary facilities.

Mrs.S.Sathiya,M.Sc.,M.Phil.,B.Ed., Assistant Professor, Department

of Mathematics, Laxminarayana Arts & Science College for Women,

Dharmapuri, for his valuable guidance. His constant help, valuable

advice and unfailing interest gave me a great impetus for the

completion of the project.

Head of the Department, Department of Mathematics, Laxminarayana

Arts & Science College for Women, Dharmapuri, for his sustained

encouragement.

for their moral support without which it would have been difficult to

pursue my course and complete my project work successfully.

G.Anusuya

Contents

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 1

I BASIC DEFINITIONS 2

II FINITE FIELD 5

III IRREDUCIBLEPOLYNOMIALS 14

COMMUTATIVE

CONCULUSION 35

BIBLIOGRAPHY 36

INTRODUCTION

irreducible polynomials over finite fields, the proof of Wedderburn’s

little theorem and describe them in detail. All the materials presented

in here are expository and taken from the various sources, listed in the

reference. However, we have made effort to collect the basic concepts

and results needed to understand the contents of the chapters and

presented them in a self contained exposition. Also, we have

provided, wherever we thought necessary, explanation and proofs for

the results mentioned with very brief details in the source material.

We also provided many examples throughout this dissertation.

deals with deals with finite fields and their characterization. We also

see an important characterization theorem wich says about the

existence and uniqueness of finite fields. At the end of this chapter,

we give a criterion for sub fields.The fourth chapter of this

dissertation deals with irreducible polynomials over finite fields. In

this we are going to see the theorems related to irreducible

polynomials and the additive version of Moebius Inversion formula.

Wedderburn’s Theorem, which says that a finite division ring is

commutative. Also, this chapter presents some important theorems of

Artin, Zassenhaus and Cartan – Brauer –Hua.

1

CHAPTER 1

BASIC DEFINITIONS

1.1 Field:

field.

contains F. Equivalently, K is an extension of F if F is a subfield of K.

field over F for 𝑓(𝑥) if over E (that is, in E(x)), but not over any

proper subfield of E, 𝑓(𝑥) can be factored as a product of linear

factors.

zero element as got multiplicative inverse.

2

1.6 Commutative ring:

R, than we call R a commutative ring.

are integers and its highest co-efficients is 1. Thus an integer monic

polynomial is merely one of the form 𝑥 𝑛 + 𝑎1 𝑥 𝑛−1 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛

where a’s are integers.

whenever 𝑝(𝑥) = 𝑎(𝑥), 𝑏(𝑥) with 𝑎(𝑥), 𝑏(𝑥) ∈ 𝐹(𝑥), then one of

𝑎(𝑥) or 𝑏(𝑥) has degree 0 (ie) is a constant.

element of 𝐹𝑞 . 𝐹𝑞 contains ∅(𝑞 − 1) primitive elements, where ∅ is

Euler function. the number of integers less than and relatively prime

to q-1.

𝑝1𝑘1 𝑝2𝑘2 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝑝𝑟 𝑘𝑟 , then

1 1 1

∅(𝑛) = 𝑛(1 − )(1 − ) ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ (1 − )

𝑝1 𝑝2 𝑝𝑟

3

1.10. Moebius Function

.

1 𝑖𝑓 𝑛 = 1

µ(𝑛) = {(−1) 𝑖𝑓 𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐾 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑡 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑠;}

𝑘

4

CHAPTER 2

FINITE FIELDS

Lemma: 2.1

has 𝑞 𝑚

Proof:

Denote this dimension by m; then F has a basis over K consist of m

elements, say 𝑏1 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑏𝑚 .

can take q values, F must have exactly 𝑞 𝑚 elements.

We are now ready to answer the question; “what are the possible

cardinalities for finite fields?

Theorem: 2.2

P is the characteristic of F and n is the degree of F over its prime

subfield.

5

Proof:

and so contains p elements. Applying Lemma yields the result.

finite field with 6 elements, for example.

We next ask: does there exist a finite field of order 𝑝𝑛 for every

prime power 𝑝𝑛 ? How can such fields be constructed?

fields 𝐹𝑝 and construct other finite fields from them by adjoining

roots of polynomials.

root of f to 𝐹𝑝 yields of a finite fields 𝑝𝑛 elements. However, it is not

clear whether we can find an irreducible polynomial in 𝐹𝑝 (𝑥) of

degree n, for every integer n. The following two lemmas will help us

to characterize fields using root adjunction.

Lemma: 2.3

𝑎.

6

Proof:

form a group of order q-1 under multiplication. Using the fact that

𝑎|𝐺| = 1𝐺 for any element of a finite group G, we have that all 0 ≠

𝑎 ∈ 𝐹 satisfy 𝑎𝑞−1 = 1,

i.e. 𝑎𝑞 = 𝑎.

Lemma: 2.4

then the polynomial 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 in K[x] factors in 𝐹[𝑥] as

Proof:

roots in F. All the elements of F are roots of the polynomial, and there

are q of them. Thus the polynomial splits in F as claimed, and cannot

split in any smaller field.

for finite fields.

finite field with 𝑝𝑛 elements. Any finite field with 𝑞 = 𝑝𝑛 elements

is isomorphic to the splitting field of 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 over 𝐹𝑝 .

7

Proof:

splitting field over 𝐹𝑝 . Since its derivative is 𝑞𝑥 𝑞−1 − 1 = −1in 𝐹𝑝 [𝑥],

it can have no common root with 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 and so, by theorem, 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥

has q distinct roots in F.

S contains 0;

𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ 𝑆 implies (by Freshmen’s Exponentiation) that

(𝑎 − 𝑏)𝑞 = 𝑎𝑞 − 𝑏 𝑞 = 𝑎 − 𝑏, 𝑠𝑜 𝑎 − 𝑏 ∈ 𝑆;

so 𝑎𝑏 −1 ∈ 𝑆.

roots, i.e. its splitting field F is a subfield of S. Thus F=S and, since S

has q elements, F is a finite field with 𝑞 = 𝑝𝑛 elements.

characteristic p and so contains 𝐹𝑝 as a subfield. F is a splitting field of

𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥. The result now follows from the uniqueness (up to

isomorphism) of splitting fields. As a result of the uniqueness part of

Theorem, we may speak of the finite field (or the Galois field) of q

elements. We shall denote this field by 𝐹𝑞 , where q denotes a power of

the prime characteristics p of 𝐹𝑞 .

8

Example 2.6

the polynomial 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 2 ∈ 𝐹3 [𝑥]. L is the field of 9 elements,

i.e. 𝐹9 .

the polynomial 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 1 ∈ 𝐹2 [𝑥]. L is the field of 4 elements,

i.e. 𝐹4 .

subfield of 𝐹𝑞 has order 𝑝𝑚 , where m is a positive divisor of n.

Conversely, if m is a positive divisor of n, then there is exactly one

subfield of 𝐹𝑞 with 𝑝𝑚 elements.

Proof:

positive integer 𝑚 ≤ 𝑛. By known Lemma, 𝑞 = 𝑝𝑛 must be a power

of 𝑝𝑚 , and so 𝑚 must divide n. Conversely, if 𝑚 is a positive divisor

𝑚−1 𝑛 −1

of n, then 𝑝𝑚 -1divides 𝑝𝑛 -1, and so 𝑥 𝑝 − 1 divides 𝑥 𝑝 −1

𝑚 −1

in 𝐹𝑝 [𝑥]. So, every root of 𝑥 𝑝 − 𝑥 is a root of 𝑥 q − 𝑥, and hence

belongs to 𝐹𝑞 .

9

𝑚

It follows that, 𝐹𝑞 must contains a splitting field of 𝑥 𝑝 − 𝑥

over 𝐹𝑝 as a subfield, and such a splitting field has order 𝑝𝑚 . If there

were two distinct subfields of order 𝑝𝑚 in 𝐹𝑞 , they would together

𝑚

contain more than 𝑝𝑚 roots of 𝑥 𝑝 − 𝑥 in 𝐹𝑞 , a contradiction.

𝑚

positive divisor for 𝑛, consists precisely of the roots of 𝑥 𝑝 − 𝑥 in

𝐹𝑝 𝑛.

Example:2.8

positive divisors of 30. The containment relations between subfields

are equivalent to divisibility relations among the positive divisors of

30. (For diagram, see lectures!)

a finite field. For the finite field 𝐹𝑞 , we denote the multiplicative group

of non-zero elements of 𝐹𝑞 by 𝐹 ∗ 𝑞 .

Theorem: 2.9

zero elements of 𝐹𝑞 is cyclic.

Proof:

ℎ = 𝑝𝑟1 1, 𝑝𝑟2 2, ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝑝𝑟𝑚 𝑚 be its prime factor decomposition. For

10

each 𝑖, 1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑚, the polynomial 𝑥 ℎ⁄𝑝𝑖 − 1 has at most ℎ⁄𝑝𝑖 < ℎ, it

follows that there are non zero elements of 𝐹𝑞 which are not roots of

𝑟𝑖

this polynomial. Let 𝑎𝑖 be such element, and set 𝑏𝑖 = 𝑎𝑖 ℎ⁄𝑝𝑖 = 1.

𝑟𝑖

Now, 𝑎𝑖 𝑝𝑖 =1, so the order of 𝑏𝑖 divides 𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 and so has the form 𝑝𝑖 𝑠𝑖

for some 0 ≤ 𝑠𝑖 ≤ 𝑟𝑖 .

𝑟𝑖 −1

𝑏𝑖 𝑝𝑖 =𝑎𝑖 ℎ𝑖⁄𝑝𝑖 ≠ 1

Let 𝑏 = 𝑏1 𝑏2 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝑏𝑚 .

group.

It is therefore a divisor of atleast one of the 𝑚 integers ℎ⁄𝑝𝑖 ,

1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑚;

ℎ⁄ ℎ⁄ ℎ⁄ ℎ⁄

1=𝑏 𝑝1 = 𝑏1 𝑝1 = 𝑏2 𝑝1 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝑏𝑚 𝑝1 .

ℎ

Now, if 2 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑚, then 𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 divides ℎ⁄𝑝1 , andso 𝑏𝑖 ⁄𝑝1 = 1.

ℎ⁄

This forces 𝑏1 𝑝1

11

1. Thus the order of 𝑏1 must divide ℎ⁄𝑝1 , which is impossible

since the order of 𝑏1 is 𝑝1𝑟1 . Thus 𝐹 ∗ 𝑞 is a cyclic group with

the generator b.

Example; 2.10

𝐹4 has 𝜙(3) = 2 primitive elements, Expressing 𝐹4 as

𝐹4 (𝜃) = {0,1, 𝜃, 𝜃 + 1}, where 𝜃 2 + 𝜃 + 1 = 0, we find that

both 𝜃 and 𝜃 + 1 are primitive elements. we are now ready to

prove an important result.

Theorem:2.11

over 𝐹𝑞 .

Proof:

other hand, since 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼) contains 0 and all powers of 𝛼, it contains all

elements of 𝐹𝑟 .

So 𝐹𝑟 = 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼).

adjoining to F a root 𝛽 of an appropriate irreducible polynomial f,

12

which of course must have degree 𝑑 = [𝑘: 𝐹]. Although the proof of

uses a 𝛽 which is a primitive element of K, it is not in fact necessary

for 𝛽 to be a multiplicative generator of 𝐾 ∗ , as the next example

shows.

Example: 2.12

where 𝛽 is a root of the polynomial 𝑥 2 + 1, irreducible over 𝐹3 .

However, since 𝛽 4 = 1, 𝛽 does not generate the whole of 𝐹𝑞 ∗ ,

Corollary:2.13

For every finite field 𝐹𝑞 and every positive integer n, there exists an

irreducible polynomial in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] of degree n.

Proof:

[𝐹𝑟 : 𝐹𝑞 ] = 𝑛.

polynomials, the minimal polynomial of 𝛼 over 𝐹𝑞 is an irreducible

polynomial in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] of degree n.

CHAPTER 3

13

IRREDUCIBLE POLYNOMIALS

Lemma:3.1

and let 𝛼 be a root of f in an extension field of 𝐹𝑞 . Then, for a

polynomial ℎ ∈ 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥], we have ℎ(𝛼) = 0 if and only if f divides h.

Proof:

is the leading coefficient of f (since it is a monic irreducible

polynomial in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] having a as a root.] The position then follows

from part of known theorem.

Lemma:3.2

𝑛

f divides 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 if and only if m divides n.

Proof:

𝑛

First, suppose f divides 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥. Let 𝛼 be a root of f in the

splittinfg field of f over 𝐹𝑞 .

𝑛

Then 𝑎𝑞 = 𝛼, so 𝛼 ∈ 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . Thus 𝐹𝑞 [𝛼] is a subfield of 𝐹𝑞𝑛 .

14

Conversely, suppose m divides n. Then 𝐹𝑞𝑛 contains 𝐹𝑞𝑚 as a

subfield. Let 𝛼 be a root of f in the splitting field of f over 𝐹𝑞 . Then

[𝐹𝑞 (𝛼): 𝐹𝑞 ] = 𝑚, and so 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼) = 𝐹𝑞𝑚 .

𝑛

Thus 𝛼 ∈ 𝐹𝑞𝑛 , hence 𝛼 𝑞 = 𝛼, and so 𝛼 is a root of

𝑛 𝑛

𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 ∈ 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥]. Therefore, f divides 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥.

polynomial.

Theorem:3.3

a root 𝛼 in 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . Moreover, all the roots of f are simple and are given

2 𝑚−1

by the m distinct elements. 𝛼, 𝛼 𝑞 , 𝛼 𝑞 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼 𝑞 of 𝐹𝑞𝑚 .

Proof:

[𝐹𝑞 (𝛼): 𝐹𝑞 ] = 𝑚, so 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼) = 𝐹𝑞𝑚 , and so 𝛼 ∈ 𝐹𝑞𝑚 .

f. write

𝑓 = 𝑎𝑚 𝑥 𝑚 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑎0 (𝑎𝑖 ∈ 𝐹𝑞 ).

Then

𝑓(𝛽𝑞 ) = 𝑎𝑚 𝛽 𝑞𝑚 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝛽 𝑞 + 𝑎0

15

= 𝑎𝑞 𝑚 𝛽 𝑞𝑚 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝑞 𝛽 𝑞 + 𝑎𝑞 0

= (𝑎𝑚 𝛽 𝑚 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝛽 + 𝑎0 )𝑞

𝑓(𝛽)𝑞 = 𝑓(𝛽)𝑞 = 0

2 𝑚−1

Thus the elements 𝛼, 𝛼 𝑞 , 𝛼 𝑞 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼 𝑞 are roots of f. we

𝑙 𝑘

must check that they are all distinct. Suppose not, i.e. 𝛼 𝑞 = 𝛼 𝑞 for

some 0 ≤ 𝑗 ≤ 𝑘 ≤ 𝑚 − 1. Raising this to the power 𝑞 𝑚−𝑘 , we get

𝑚−𝑘+𝑙 𝑚

𝛼𝑞 = 𝛼 𝑞 = 𝛼.

contradiction since 0 < 𝑚 − 𝑘 + 𝑗 < 𝑚.

Corollary:3.4

the splitting field of f over is 𝐹𝑞 is 𝐹𝑞𝑚 .

Proof:

Shows that f splits in 𝐹𝑞𝑚 . To see that this is the splitting field,

2 𝑚−1

note that 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼, 𝛼 𝑞 , 𝛼 𝑞 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼 𝑞 ) = 𝐹𝑞 (𝛼) = 𝐹𝑞𝑚 .

Corallary:3.5

have isomorphic splitting fields.

16

As we shall see later, sets of elements such as those in Theorem

appear often in the theory of fields.

Theorem:3.6

monic irreducible polynomial over 𝐹𝑞 whose degrees divide n is equal

𝑛

to 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥.

Proof:

𝑛

the canonical factorization of 𝑔 = 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] are precisely

those whose degrees divide n. Since 𝑔′ = −1, by g has no multiple

roots in its splitting field over 𝐹𝑞 . Thus each monic irreducible

polynomial over 𝐹𝑞 whose degree divides n occurs exactly once in the

canonical factorization of g in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥].

Example:3.7

whose degree divide 2 are 𝑥, 𝑥 + 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥 2 , 𝑥 + 1. It is easily seen that

𝑥(𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 1) = 𝑥 4 + 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 − 𝑥

17

Corollary:3.8

degree d, then

Proof:

𝑛

degree of 𝑔 = 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 with the total degree of the canonical

factorization of g.

of monic irreducible polynomial in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] of a given degree. To do so,

we need the following arithmetic function, which will also prove

useful in the next chapter.

Example:3.9

(ii) µ(35) = 1;

(iii) µ(50) = 0;

Lemma:3.10

1 𝑖𝑓 𝑛 = 1

∑ µ(𝑑) = { }

0 𝑖𝑓 𝑛 > 1

𝑑 ⁄𝑛

18

Proof:

(i) Then n=1 case is immediate. For n>1 we need only consider

the positive divisors d of n for which µ(𝑑) is non- zero,

namely those d for which d=1 or d is a product of distinct

primes.

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑖=1 1≤𝑖1< 𝑖2 ≤𝑘

+ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ µ(𝑝1𝑝2 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝑝𝑘)

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘

= 1 + ( ) (−1) + ( ) (−12 ) + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + ( ) (−1𝑘 )

1 2 𝑘

= (1 + (−1))𝑘 = 0

additively written abelian group G. Then,

𝑑 ⁄𝑛

if and only if

𝑛 𝑛

𝐻(𝑛) = ∑ µ ( ) 𝐻(𝑑) = ∑ µ(𝑑)𝐻 ( ) 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑛 ∈ 𝑁 … . . (2)

𝑑 𝑑

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛

19

Multiplicative version: Let h and H be two functions from N into a

multiplicatively written abelian group G. Then,

if and only if

𝑛 𝑛

ℎ(𝑛) = ∏ 𝐻(𝑑)𝑚(𝑑) = ∏ 𝐻( )µ(𝑑) ∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑁 … … … … … … … … (4)

𝑑

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛

Proof:

converse is similar and is left as an exercise. Assume the first identity

holds we get

𝑛 𝑛

∑ µ ( ) 𝐻(𝑑) = ∑ µ(𝑑)𝐻 ( ) = ∑ µ(𝑑) ∑ ℎ(𝑐)

𝑑 𝑑 𝑛

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛

𝑐𝑑

𝑐 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑐 ⁄𝑛 𝑑⁄

𝑛

𝑐 𝑐

by products and multiplies by powers.

Theorem: 3.12

of degree n is given by

1 𝑛 1 𝑛

𝑁𝑞 (𝑛) = ∑ µ ( ) 𝑞 𝑑 = ∑ µ(𝑑)𝑞𝑑

𝑛 𝑑 𝑛

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛

20

Proof:

the group 𝐺 = (𝑧, +).

Remark: 3.13

zero for all n, this gives an alternatively.

Example:3.14

by

1

𝑁𝑞 (12) = (µ(1)𝑞12 + µ(2)𝑞 6 + µ(3)𝑞4 + µ(4)𝑞 3 + µ(6)𝑞2

12

+ µ(12)𝑞)

1

= (1. 𝑞12 + (−1)𝑞 6 + (−1)𝑞 4 + 0. 𝑞 3 + 1. 𝑞 2 + 0. 𝑞)

12

1

= (𝑞12 − 𝑞 6 −𝑞 4 + 𝑞 2 )

12

We can also obtain a formula for the product of all monic irreducible

polynomials in 𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] of fixed degree.

21

Theorem:3.15

𝐹𝑞 [𝑥] of degree n is given by:

𝑛 𝑛

𝑞𝑑 µ( ) 𝑞𝑑

𝐼(𝑞, 𝑛; 𝑥) = ∏(𝑥 − 𝑥) 𝑑 = ∏(𝑥 − 𝑥)µ(𝑑)

𝑑 ⁄𝑛 𝑑 ⁄𝑛

Proof:

we know that

𝑛

𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 = ∏ 𝐼(𝑞, 𝑛; 𝑥)

𝑑

𝑛

multiplicative group G of non-zero rational functions over 𝐹𝑞 . Take

𝑛

ℎ(𝑛) = 𝐼(𝑞, 𝑛; 𝑥) and 𝐻(𝑛) = 𝑥 𝑞 − 𝑥 to get the desired formula.

Example:3.16

Take q=2 and n=4. then the product of all monic irreducible quartics

in 𝐹2 [𝑥]is:

𝑥 16 − 𝑥 𝑥 15 − 1

= 4 = 3

𝑥 −𝑥 𝑥 −1

= 𝑥 12 + 𝑥 9 + 𝑥 6 + 𝑥 3 + 1

22

CHAPTER 4

THEOREM

We will prove the well know fact that a finite division ring is

commutative along the following lines. We start with a minimal

counter example L, viz. a finite division ring which is not

commutative but all its maximal divison subrings are commutative.

We then prove that not all maximally commutative subgroups in these

maximal subfields are eigen heimers. (A subgroup H of a group G ≠

H is called an eigen heimetr of G if NG (H) = H.

conjugate then by a simple counting argument the number of elements

in these maximal subfields don’t add up to the number of elements of

the finite division ring L and if we assume that there are a least two

different classes of conjugate maximal subfields then we find also by

a simple counting argument that there are too many elements.

at least one of the maximally commutative subgroups, let us say 𝑀𝘟 ;

has a normalizer different from 𝑀𝘟 and 𝑀𝘟 is thus not an eigen

heimer of 𝐿𝘟 . Thus there exists a maximal subfield, let us say 𝑁 ≠ 𝑀,

whose cyclic group 𝑁 𝘟 contains an element 𝑥 ∈ 𝑁 − 𝑍 that lies in the

normalize of 𝑀 𝘟 but not in M. We prove that the whole subgroup 𝑁 𝘟

23

lies in the normalize of 𝑀𝘟 by defining a left vectorspace V over the

maximal subfield M spanned by a set Q of independent powers of x.

We will see that the sum but also the product of two vectors is in V.

𝑔𝑄𝑔−1 , 𝑔2 𝑄𝑔−2 , … … in matrix form and we prove the contradiction

that g ∈ NL𝘟 (M 𝘟 ). So M is an normal subfield. According to a

theorem of Cartan-Brauer-Hua M is in the center of L. A

contradiction.

The proof:

complex numbers or permutation theory, of the following.

Theorem:4.1

commutative.

group which is abelian, and with zero element 0, and

commutative, with identity element 1. In addition the multiplication is

left as well as right distributive over the addition.

consisting of all elements z ∈ 𝐿 which commutes with all elements a

24

∈ 𝐿 is a subfield. L can be considered as a left vector space over Z.

Thus there exists a unique prime p and natural numbers z and ℓ such

that |𝑍| = 𝑃 𝑍 and |𝐿| = 𝑃𝑙 and 𝑍 ∣ ℓ. We use induction on the number

n of elements of finite division rings. The theorem is true for n=2.

is commutative. So we assume the theorem is true for finite division

rings with less than n elements and we put

Theorem:4.2

maximally commutative subgroup. Then 𝑍 ⊂ 𝐻.

Proof:

𝑍. Then ℎ1 𝑧1 𝘟 ℎ2 𝑧2 = ℎ1 ℎ2 𝑧1 𝑧2 = ℎ3 𝑧3 ∈ 𝐻𝑍 and

ℎ1 𝑧1 𝘟 ℎ2 𝑧2 = ℎ2 𝑧2 𝘟ℎ1 𝑧1 .

25

We proceed with the main proof. We assume that L is a

minimal counter example where the maximal division subrings of L

are commutative and we that the groups of units are cyclic and by

theorem 2 all the maximal division subrings contain the center Z of L.

We see also that every element 𝑎 ∈ 𝐿 − 𝑍 lies in a unique maximal

subfield (or otherwise it is an element of Z). We need a definition.

Definition

if the normalize of H is equal to H: Thus 𝑁𝐺 (𝐻) = 𝐻.

Hypothesis:4.4

is equal to 𝑀𝘟 all the 𝑀𝘟 are thus eigenheimers.

division rings L,M,N,Z.

with M. Then

𝑙−1

|𝐿| = |𝑍| + |𝑀 − 𝑍|𝑜𝑟 ℓ

𝑚−1

𝑙−1

=𝑍+ (𝑚 − 𝑧)𝑜𝑟(ℓ − 𝑧)(𝑚 − 1)

𝑚−1

= (ℓ − 1)(𝑚 − 𝑧)𝑜𝑟ℓ𝑚 − ℓ − 𝑧𝑚 + 𝑧

= ℓ𝑚 − ℓ𝑧 − 𝑚 + 𝑧 𝑜𝑟 ℓ = 𝑚.

But ℓ > 𝑚.

26

Contradiction: (ii) Suppose that there are two maximal subfields M

and N which are not conjugate. Then,

𝑙−1 𝑙−1

|𝐿| ≥ |𝑍| + (𝑚 − 𝑧) + (𝑛 − 𝑧) or

𝑚−1 𝑛−1

𝑙−1

ℓ − 𝑧 ≥ 2( ) (𝑚 − 𝑧) or

𝑚−1

ℓ𝑚 − ℓ − 𝑧𝑚 + 𝑧 ≥ 2ℓ𝑚 − 2ℓ𝑧 − 2𝑚 + 2𝑧

2ℓ𝑧 ≥ ℓ(𝑚 + 1) or

2𝑧 ≥ 𝑚 + 1 > 2𝑧or

𝑍 > 𝑧.

𝑙−1 𝑙−1

But 𝑧 = 𝑧. (We have assumed that (𝑚 − 𝑧) ≤ (𝑛 − 𝑧)).

𝑚−1 𝑚−1

longer holds and must be replaced by another hypothesis as we shall

state in a moment.

27

Theorem:4.5

Theorem of Artin

𝑈𝑥 ∈ 𝐺(𝑥𝐻𝑥 −1 ) ≠ 𝐺

Proof:

Let|𝐺| = 𝑔, |𝐻| = ℎ.

Let |𝐷| = 𝑑 ≥ 1

Then,

g g

|G: NG (H)| ≤ and thus (g − d) ≤ ( ) (h − d) or h(g − d) ≤ g(h − d) or

h h

gd ≤ hd or g = h. A contradiction.

Theorem:4.6

maximally commutative subgroups is not an eigenheimer.

Proof:

𝐻 ≠ 𝐾. Let Z be the center of G. then 𝐻 ∩ K = Z. we call a subgroup

H of a group G≠ 𝐻 an eigenheimer if the normalizer NG (H) = H. we

28

assume that all maximally commutative subgroups are eigenheimers,

otherwise we are done.

with H.

g

Then (g − z) = (h − z)or g = h

h

assume that the number |𝑈𝑥 ∈ 𝐺(𝑥𝐻𝑥 −1 )| is minimal.

𝑔 𝑔 𝑔

Then,(𝑔 − 𝑧) ≥ (ℎ − 𝑧) + (𝑘 − 𝑧) ≥ 2 (ℎ − 𝑧)𝑜𝑟

ℎ 𝑘 ℎ

one of the maximally commutative subgroups, let us say H, is not an

eigenheimer: NG (H) ≠ H.

Theorem:4.7

Theorem of Zassenhaus

of G we have : NG (H) = CG (H)

Then G is commutative.

29

Proof:

commutative subgroups of G. Then one of the maximally

commutative subgroups, let us say H, is not an eigenheimer.

commutative. Thus H is not maximally commutative. A contradiction.

Thus G is commutative.

following hypothesis which replaces hypothesis 4.

Hypothesis:4.8

M x , whose normalize Nlx (M x ) ≠ (M x ).

Z and x is an element of Nlx (M x ). We call the smallest subfield of N

containing x to be 𝑁1 . We are going to prove that 𝑁1 = 𝑁 but first we

make a necessary detour.

by an element, let us say m. Thus the elements

2 𝑘

𝑚, 𝑥𝑚𝑥 −1 = 𝑚𝑖 , 𝑥 2 𝑚𝑥 −2 = 𝑥𝑚𝑖 𝑥 −1 = (𝑥𝑚𝑥 −1 )𝑖 = 𝑚𝑖 , … … , 𝑥 𝑘 𝑚𝑥 −𝑘 = 𝑚𝑖

30

Are elements of M x where K is minimal for x k to be an element of Z.

Let 𝑛1 be the multiplicative order of x.

set of powers of x,

space 𝑁1 over Z.

vectors of P.

be written as a linear combination of the powers of x which are in Q.

Then we consider the left vector space L over M with basis Q. So

𝑀 ⊂ 𝑉 ⊂ 𝐿. We shall prove V = L.

𝑓(𝑥) = µ1 + µ2 + µ3 𝑥 𝑖3 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + µ𝑞 𝑥 𝑖𝑞

𝑖𝑞

= (µ1 + µ′1 )𝑥 + (µ2 + µ′ 2 )𝑥 + ⋯ ⋯ + (µ𝑞 + µ′𝑞 )𝑥

31

and we define µ𝑓(𝑥) = µµ1 + µµ2 + ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ + µµ𝑞 𝑥 𝑖𝑞 , where µ ∈ 𝑀,

so that V is a left vector space over M.

𝑓(𝑥)𝑔(𝑥) is also a linear combination of the powers of x in Q after

suitable simplifications.

combination of the powers of x which are in set Q. We leave all the

necessary details to the reader. V contains M and x and V=L.

contains subfield 𝑁1 has a cyclic subgroup 𝑁 − {0} which is

generated by an element, let us say y. y is a linear combination of

powers of x in Q with scalars in M.

Let

+ 𝑥µ′′ 𝑞 𝑥 −1 )𝑥 𝑖𝑞 )

32

All the scalars of y are in Z and 𝑦 ∈ 𝑁1 . Thus 𝑁1 = 𝑁

the matrix of order 𝑞 𝑋 q with elements from M such that

𝑀1 𝑋 = 𝑔𝑋𝑔−1 .

such that 𝑀𝑖 𝑋 = 𝑔𝑖 𝑋𝑔−𝑖 .

= 𝑔𝑀1 𝑔−1 (𝑔𝑋𝑔−1 ) = 𝑔𝑀1 𝑔−1 𝑀1 𝑋.

𝑀2 𝑀1 −1 = 𝑔𝑀1 𝑔−1

have 𝑀𝑟+𝑠 = 𝑔 𝑠 𝑀𝑟 𝑔−𝑠 𝑀𝑠 so that the elements of 𝑔 𝑠 𝑀𝑟 𝑔−𝑠 are from

33

M. Especially let H be the union of all the elements in the matrices

𝑀1 , 𝑔𝑀1 𝑔−1 , 𝑔2 𝑀1 𝑔−2 , … ….

generated by the elements of H then H is cyclic and the only subgroup

of 𝑀 𝑋 order (H).

of H and vice versa. Thus 𝑁𝐿𝑋 (𝐻) = 𝑁𝐿𝑋 (𝑀 𝑋 ) so that 𝑔 ∈ 𝑁𝐿𝑋 (𝑀 𝑋 ).

A contradiction. Thus M is an normal subfield of L. However

Theorem:4.9

normal subfield of L. Then 𝑀 ⊂ 𝑍.

Proof:

following Identity of Hua(1949):

−1

− (ℓ − 1)−1 𝑚−1 (ℓ − 1))

commutative. By induction L is commutative.

34

Conclusion

irreducible polynomials over finite fields and theorems of

Wedderburn, Artin, Zassenhaus and Carter-Brauer-Hua in a detailed

manner. Also in this exposition we have seen many results on finite

fields and irreducible polynomials. Moreover, in this dissertation we

have produced many facts, examples, wherever necessary, so that it

will be easier to understand the concepts in the material. we have

given the list of references from where we have collected the details

for this dissertation. I hope that the whatever the things that are

discussed in the dissertation will give be clear to the reader.

35

Bibliography

Wedderburn, Hamb. Abb 5 (1928) pp. 245-250. I found it in

EMIL ARTIN COLLECTED PAPERS, Edited by S. Lang and

J.T. Tate, Springer Verlag, 1965, pp. 301-306.

2. Loo-Keng Hua, some properties of a SField, Reprinted from the

proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 35,no.

9, pp. 533-537. September, 1949. I found it in LOO- KENG

HUA, SELECTED PAPERS, Edited by

H. Halberstam, Springer – verlag, (1983), pp. 485-489.

3. Wedderburn’s Theorem on Division Rings. A finite division

ring is a field, http://

math.colgate.edu/math320/dlantz/extras/wedderburn.pdf

4. Harry Gohean, The wedderburm Theorem, Canadian Journal of

Mathematics, 1995, vol.7, pp.60-62.

5. Michael Adam and Birte Julia Mutschler, On Wedderburn’s

Theorem about Finite Division Algebras, 23 Apr 2003,

www.mathematik.uni-bielefeld.de/LAG/man/009.pdf.

6. I.N. Herstein – Topics In Algebra – Second edition. Authorized

reprint by Wiley (2014).

36

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