You are on page 1of 109

INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS

JIMMA UNIVERSITY OBJECTIVE:


 To understand the basic principles of measurements
 To learn the various linear and angular measuring equipments, their principle of
JIMMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY operation and applications
 To learn about various methods of measuring Mechanical parameters

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIT I CONCEPT OF MEASUREMENT 9

General concept – Generalised measurement system-Units and standards-measuring instruments- sensitivity,


MEngg 3261- INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS readability, range of accuracy, precision-static and dynamic response-repeatability-systematic and random
errors-correction, calibration, interchangeability.

UNIT II LINEAR AND ANGULAR MEASUREMENT 9


Definition of metrology-Linear measuring instruments: Vernier, micrometer, interval measurement, Slip
gauges and classification, interferometery, optical flats, limit gauges- Comparators: Mechanical, pneumatic
and electrical types, applications.
Angular measurements: -Sine bar, optical bevel protractor, angle Decker – Taper measurements.

UNIT III FORM MEASUREMENT 9


Measurement of screw threads-Thread gauges, floating carriage micrometer-measurement of gears-tooth
thickness-constant chord and base tangent method-Gleason gear testing machine – radius measurements-
surface finish, straightness, flatness and roundness measurements.

UNIT IV LASER AND ADVANCES IN METROLOGY 9


Precision instruments based on laser-Principles- laser interferometer-application in linear, angular
measurements and machine tool metrology, Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) - Constructional
features – types, applications – digital devices- computer aided inspection.

UNIT V MEASUREMENT OF POWER, FLOW AND TEMPERATURE RELATED PROPERTIES


9
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Alan S. Morris, “The Essence of Measurement”, Prentice Hall of India, 1997
2. Jayal A.K, “Instrumentation and Mechanical Measurements”, Galgotia Publications 2000
3. Beckwith T.G, and N. Lewis Buck, “Mechanical Measurements”, Addison Wesley, 1991
4. Donald D Eckman, “Industrial Instrumentation”, Wiley Eastern, 1985. UNIT – I
5. Measurement System: Application and Design by Doebelin E.O McGraw Hill Publishing Company.
6. Experimental Methods for Engineers by Holman JP McGraw Hill Publication Company. CONCEPT OF MEASUREMENT
7. Mechanical Measurement and Control by Kumar DS; Metropolitan Book Co Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
8. Automatic Control systems by Kuo BC; Prentice Hall.
Calibration.

Calibration is the process of establishing the relationship between a measuring device and the
units of measure. This is done by comparing a devise or the output of an instrument to a standard
having known measurement characteristics. For example the length of a stick can be calibrated by
comparing it to a standard that has a known length. Once the relationship of the stick to the
standard is known the stick can be used to measure the length of other things.

Sensitivity of a measuring instrument.

Change in the output signal


Sensitivity =
Change in the input signal

Instrument dy
Reading

dx
Measured quantity

Readability.

In the sciences, readability is a measure of an instrument's ability to display incremental


changes in its output value. For example, a balance with a readability of 1 mg will not display any
difference between objects with masses from 0.6 mg to 1.4 mg, because possible display values are
0 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg etc. Likewise, a balance with a readability of 0.1 mg will not display any
difference between objects with masses from 0.06 mg to 0.14 mg.
dependence, or "rate-independent memory”. systems. It often occurs between interacting mechanical parts as a result of looseness.
Range.
response time.
Range is the difference between the highest and lowest value.
Response time (technology), the time a generic system or functional unit takes to react to a given
Span. input

Span is the distance or interval between two points. Repeatability.

Example : In a measurement of temperature higher value is 200 C and lower value is 150 C means Repeatability is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the
span = 200 – 150 = 50 C. same item and under the same conditions. A measurement may be said to be repeatable when this
variation is smaller than some agreed limit.
resolution.
Bias.

Resolution is the quantitative measure of the ability of an optical instrument to produce Bias is a term used to describe a tendency or preference towards a particular perspective,
separable images of different points on an object; usually, the smallest angular or linear separation ideology or result. All information and points of view have some form of bias. A person is
of two object points for which they may be resolved according to the Rayleigh criterion. generally said to be biased if a reasonable observer would conclude that the person is markedly
Verification. influenced by inner biases, rendering it unlikely for them to be able to be objective.

magnification.
It is the process of testing the instrument for determining the errors.

Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size.
Scale interval.
Magnification is also a number describing by which factor an object was magnified.
It is the difference between two successive scale marks in units.
Drift.
Dead Zone.
Drift is a slow change. In metrology and measurements it refers to delay in response of an
instrument for changes in input signals.
Dead zone is the range through which a stimulus can be varied without producing a change in the
response of the measuring instrument. reproducibility.

Threshold. Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ability of a
test or experiment to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working
Threshold is the smallest detectable sensation of an instrument. independently.
Traceability refers to the completeness of the information about every step in a process chain. Error : The deviation between the results of measured value to the actual value.

Fiducial value. Correction : The numerical value which should be added to the measured value to get the correct
result.
The prescribed value of a quantity to which the reference is made.
Measured.
Parallax.
Measured is physically quantity or property like length, diameter, and angle to be measured.
Parallax, more accurately motion parallax, is the change of angular position of two observations
of a single object relative to each other as seen by an observer, caused by the motion of the Deterministic Metrology.
observer.
Them metrology in which part measurement is replaced by process measurement. The new
accuracy and uncertainty with example. techniques such as 3D error compensation by CNC systems are applied.

Accuracy – Closeness to the true value. over damped and under damped system.
Example: Measuring accuracy is ± 0.02mm for diameter of part is 25mm.
Here the measurement true value lie between 24.98 to 25.02 mm. Over Damped : The final indication of measurement is approached exponentially from one side.
Uncertainty about the true value ± 0.02mm. Under damped : The pointer approach the position corresponding to final reading and makes a
number of oscillations around it.
Difference between precision and accuracy.
Under Damped
Accuracy  The maximum amount by which the result differ from true value.

Precision  Degree of repetitiveness. If an instrument is not precise it will give different results Indication
for the same dimension for the repeated readings.

Differentiate between sensitivity and range with suitable example.


Over Damped
Example : A Instrument have a scale reading of 0.01mm to 100 mm.

Here, the sensitivity of the instrument is 0.01mm i.e the minimum value by the scale by which the accuracy in terms of repeatability and systematic error.
instrument can read. The range is 0.01 to 1000mm i.e the minimum to maximum value by which
the instrument can read.
Accuracy = (Reponsibility)2  (Systematic error)2
From the figure the instrument is ______.
1. Angle measuring instruments Abbe's principle of alignment states that the line of axis of measurement should coincide
2. Length measuring instruments with the line of scale or other dimensional reference.
3. Instruments for surface finish
4. Instruments for deviations. optical principles employed in metrology

metrology. 1) Reflection 2) Refraction 3) Interference

Metrology s as the Science of pure measurement. But in engineering purposes, it in restricted to sources of controllable error
measurements of length and angles and other qualities which are expressed in linear or angular
terms. 1. Calibration error
2. Ambient condition
Dynamic metrology . 3. Stylus pressure
4. Avoidable error.
It refers to a group of techniques for measuring small variation of a continuous nature. These
technique has proved very valuable and a record of continuous measurement over a surface. sources of random error

basic need for Measurement Specific causes for such error can not be determined. But likely sources are

1. Small variations in the position of setting standards and workpiece.


The basic need for Measurement in the engineering industry in to determine whether a
2. Slight displace of lever joints in the measuring device
component has been manufactured to the requirements of a specification.
3. Transient fluctuation in the friction in measuring instrument
4. Operator error in reading scale.
dimensional properties need to be considered when checking or measuring a component
accuracy of Measurement is affected by poor contact between the work piece and measuring
Length, Flatness, parallelism, surface, roughness, angle, profile, relative position. Roundness
probe
and concentricity, accuracy of form.
The poor contact between the work piece and instrument will cause for error. Although
difference between indicative type measuring instrument and Non-indicative type measuring
everything feels all right yet the error in bound to occur. Gauge with wide areas of contact should
instrument
not be used on part with irregular or curved surfaces.

The indicative type measuring instrument indicate the size of the measured value.
A test indicator is used to check concentricity of a soft but its stylus is set so that in movement
The Non-indicate type of instrument does not indicate the measured size. Ex. "Go" and "Not - go"
makes an angle of 30' with the normal to the shaft, if the total indicator reading 0.02 mm what is
gauge.
the true eccentricity

factors affecting the accuracy of measurement


controlled conditions. 10. Interpolation method of measurement
11. Extrapolation method of measurement
Reproducibility. 12. Complementary method of measurement
13. Composite method of measurement
The term reproducibility of a method of measurement refers to the consistency of its 14. Element method of measurement
pattern of variation. 15. Contact and contact less method of measurement

Accuracy. measuring Instruments.

The term accuracy refers to the agreement of the results of a measurement with the true According to the functions:
value of the measure quantity. 1. Length measuring instrument
2. Angle measuring instrument
difference between indicating and recording instrument 3. Instrument for checking deviation from geometrical forms
4. Instrument for determining the quality of surface finish.
In indicative type measure instrument the value of the measured quantity in visually According to the accuracy.
indicative but not recorded. In case of recording instruments the values of the measured quantity
are recorded on a chart, digital computer or data logger. 1. Most accurate instruments Example - light interference instrument
2. Less accurate instrument Example - Pool room Microscope, Comparators, Optimeter
accuracy and sensitivity of a measuring instrument.
3. Still less accurate instrument Example - Dial indicator, vernier caliper.
Accuracy is the closeness with which the measuring instrument can measure the "true
value" of a quantity under stated conditions of use. ie its ability to "tell the truth".
Damping.

Sensitivity in the relationship between a change in output reading for a given change of
Damping is any effect, that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system.
input. Sensitivity in often known as scale factor or instrument magnification.
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
readability
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a symbolic language used on engineering
Readability in d as the ease with which readings may be taken an instrument. Readability drawings and computer generated three-dimensional solid models for explicitly describing
difficulties may often arise due to parallax errors. nominal geometry and its allowable variation.

methods of measurements.

In precision measurement various methods are followed depends upon the accuracy required.
deflection of the workpiece shape will occur.

Avoidable Errors :

These error include the errors due to Parallel and the effect of misalignment of the workpiece
centers. Instrument location errors such as placing a thermometer is sunlight when attempting to
measure air temperature also being to this category.
b) Random Errors :

These occur randomly and the specific causes of such errors cannot be determined, but
likely sources of this type of error are small variations in the position of setting standards and
workpiece, slight displacement of lever joints in the measuring joints in the measuring instrument,
sources of error transient flaction in the friction in the measuring instrument and operator errors in reading scale
and pointer type displays or in reading engraved scale positions.
During measurement several types of error may arise as indicated and these error can be broadly
classified into two categories. From the above, it is clear that systematic errors are those which are repeated consistently
with repetition of the experiment, where as random errors are those which are accidental and
a) Controllable Errors: whose magnitude and sign cannot be predicted from a knowledge of the measuring system and
condition of measurement.
These are controllable in both their magnitude and sense. These can be determined and
reduced, if attempts are made to analyse them. These are also known as systematic errors. These classification of measurements
can be due to:
In the precision measurements, various methods of measurement are followed depending
1.Calibration Errors : upon the accuracy required and the amount of permissible error.

The actual length of standards such as slip gauges and engraved scales will vary from nominal The various methods of measurement are classified as follow :-
value by small amount. Sometimes the instrument inertia and hysteresis effects do not let the
instrument translate with complete fidelity. Often signal transmission errors such as a drop in Directmethod of measurement
voltage along the wires between the transducer and the electric meter occur. For high order Indirectmethod of measurement
accuracy these variations have positive significance and to minimize such variations calibration Absolute method of measurement

curves much be used. Comparative method of measurement


Contact method of measurement

2. Ambient Conditions : Contact less method of measurement


tool or instrument corresponding zero value of the measured dimension. eg. Steel rule, vernier Scale division Value :
Caliper, micrometer, Screw gauge). By absolute method the full value of the dimension is
determined. It the measured value corresponding to one division of the instrument scale, eg. For
In the comparative method, only the deviation of the measured dimension from a master Vernier Caliper the scale division value 0.1mm.
gauge are determined (eg. Dial comparator).
Sensitivity (amplification or gearing ratio ):
In contact methods of measurement, the measuring tip of the instrument actually touches
the surface to be measured, eg. By dial comparator, screw gauges etc. In such cases arrangements
It is the ratio of the scale spacing to the space division value. It would also be expressed as
for constant contact pressure should be provided in order to prevent errors due to excess contact
the ratio of the product of all the larger lever arms and the product of all the smaller lever arms.
pressure.
Sensitivity Threshold :
In Contact less method of measurement, no contact is required. Such instruments include
tool maker's micrometer and projection comparator.
It is d as the minimum measured value which may cause any movement whatsoever of the
indicating hand..
According to the functions, the measuring instruments classified as.
Length measuring instruments
Angle measuring instruments Reading Accuracy :
Instrument for checking deviation from geometrical forms
Instrument for determining the quality of surface finish. It is the accuracy that may be attained in using a measuring instrument.

According to the accuracy of measurement, the measuring instrument are classified as follows. Reading Error :
Most accurate instrument eg : light – interference instruments.
 It is d as the difference between the reading of the instrument and the actual value of the
Second group consists of less accurate instruments. Such as tool room Microscopes, comparator dimension being measured.
optimeter etc.
 Mention a few important precautions for use of instruments towards achieving accuracy in
Third group consists of , still less accurate instruments eg: dial indicators, vernier caliper and measurement are as follows :
rules with vernier skills.
The measurement must be made at right angles to the surfaces of the component.
Measuring instrument are also classified in accordance with then metrological proper ties,
such as range of instrument, scale graduation value, scale spacing, sensitivity and reading The component must be supported so that it does not collapse under the measuring pressure or
accuracy. under its own weight.

Range of Measurement :
The work piece must be cleaned before being measured, and coated with oil or a corruption
a high degree of accuracy, form the engineer's common rule to the most complex optical Q
instrument, and they should be treated accordingly. Instruments are easily damaged, and very If e = Induced error
often the damage is not noticeable. Always handle instrument with great care, and report L = change in indicator reading,
immediately any accidental damage. Protect highly polished surfaces from corrosion by reading.
handling them as little as possible and by covering them with petroleum jelly when not in use. L case = Surface displacement
\ e = L (1-Cose) Line or axis of measure Dial gauge axis.
Sources of errors in precision measurement .
To ensure correct displacement readings on the dial indicator the plunger must, of course
Failure to consider the following factors may introduce errors in measurement : be normal to the surface in both mutually perpendicular planes.

Alignment Principle A second source of error will illustrated by the vernier Caliper and similar instruments or
Location of the measured part circumstance is associated with measuring pressure or "feel". The measuring pressure in applied
Temperature by the adjusting screw which is adjacent and parallel to the scale. A bending moment in
Parallax. introduced equal to the product of the force applied by the adjusting screw and the perpendicular
distance between the screw centre line and the line of measurement as in Fig.
Alignment Principle (Abbe's Principle) :
Variation of force applied at the screw are augmented at the line of measurement and a hot
Abbe's principle of alignment states that " the axis or line of measurement of the measured unusual form of damage to Vernier Caliper is permanent distortion to the measuring jaws
part should consider with the measuring scale or axis or measurement of measuring instrument ". presumably from this source as in fig.

The effect of simple scale alignment error is shown in fig.

L Location :
Q JCL
when using a sensitive comparator, the measured part in located on a table which forms the
datum for comparison with the standard. The comparator reading in thus an indication of the
displacement of the upper surface of the measured part from the datum. Faults at the location
if Q = angle of scale misalignment surface of the part damage, geometrical variations from part to part or the presence of foreign
L = apparent length matter are also transmitted to the indicator. This provides false information regarding the true
The standard reference temp. at which line and end standards are said to be at their true
length is 20o and for highest accuracy in measurement this temp. Should be maintained. When Classifications of Methods of Measurements
this is not possible and the length at reference temp. must be known, a correction is made to allow
for the difference between ambient and reference temp. The correction value required to – In precision measurements various methods of measurement are followed depending upon
0.001375mm, when steel object exactly 25mm long at 20oC and Co-efficient of linear expansion the accuracy required and the amount of permissible error.
11Mm c/m in measured at 25oC, Which is rather larger than the increment step the M88/2 stip
gauge set. There are numerous ways in which a quantity can be measured. Any method of
measurements should be d in such a detail and followed by such a standard practice that there is
However, for less stringent measurement requirements it is not essential that correction to little scope for uncertainty. The nature of the procedure in some of the most common
reference temperature is made provided that the following precautions and conditions are measurements is described below. Actual measurements may employ one or more combinations
observed. of the following.

a) The temp. at which measurement is made is not changing significantly. (i) Direct method of measurement: In this method the value of a quantity of obtained
b) The gauge and work being compared are at the same temp and the temp is the same as directly by comparing the unknown with the standard. It involves no mathematical
ambient temp. calculations to arrive at the results, for example, measurement of length by a graduated
c) The gauge and work have the same Co-efficient of linear expansion. scale. The method is not very accurate because it depends on human insensitiveness in
making judgement.
Conditions a) and b) can be met if gauge and work allowed sufficient time to reach equal temp (ii) Indirect method of measurement: In this method several parameters (to which the
with surrounding after being arranged in the measuring positions. quantity to be measured is linked with) are measured directly and then the value is
determined by mathematical relationship. For example, measurement of density by
If the measurement can be carried out on the surface of a large mass, eg: Surface plate, then measuring mass and geometrical dimensions.
temp. equalization will be family vapid as heat will be conducted away form the work and gauge (iii) Fundamental method of measurement: Also known as the absolute method of
but will not contribute any significant temp. change to the plate. measurement, it is based on the measurement of the base quantities used to the
quantity. For example, measuring a quantity directly in accordance with the definition
A component having a co-efficient of linear expansion significantly different from the gauge may of that quantity, or measuring a quantity indirectly by direct measurement of the
be said to correct to size only at a given temp. quantities linked with the definition of the quantity to be measured.
(iv) Comparison method of measurement: This method involves comparison with either a
known value of the same quantity or another quantity which is function of the quantity
to be measured.
Parallax Effect : (v) Substitution method of measurement: In this method, the quantity to be measured is
measured by direct comparison on an indicating device by replacing the measuring
On most dials the indicating finger or pointer lies in a plane parallel to the scale but quantity with some other known quantity which produce same effect on the indicating
displaced a small distance away to allow free movement of the pointer. It is then essential to device. For example, determination of mass by Borda method.
observe the pointer along a line normal to the scale otherwise a reading error will occur. This (vi) Transposition method of measurement: This is a method of measurement by direct
(vii) Differential or comparison method of measurement: This method involves measuring For every method of measurement a detailed definition of the equipment to be used, a
the difference between the given quantity and a known master of near about the same sequential list of operations to be performed, the surrounding environmental conditions and
value. For example, determination of diameter with master cylinder on a comparator. descriptions of all factors influencing accuracy of measurement at the required level must be
(viii) Coincidence method of measurement: In this differential method of measurement the prepared and followed.
very small difference between the given quantity and the reference is determined is
determined by the observation of the coincidence of scale marks. For example, Metrological characteristics of Measuring Instruments.
measurement on vernier caliper.
(ix) Null method of measurement: In this method the quantity to be measured is compared Metrological characteristics of Measuring Instruments:
with a known source and the difference between these two is made zero.
(x) Deflection method of measurement: In this method, the value of the quantity is directly Measuring instruments are usually specified by their metrological properties, such as range
indicated by deflection of a pointer on a calibrated scale. of measurement, scale graduation value, scale spacing, sensitivity and reading accuracy.
(xi) Interpolation method of measurement: In this method, the given quantity is compared
with two or more known value of near about same value ensuring at least one smaller Range of Measurement: It indicates the size values between which measurements may be
and one bigger than the quantity to be measured and the readings interpolated. made on the given instrument.
(xii) Extrapolation method of measurement: In this method, the given quantity is compared
with two or more known smaller values and extrapolating the reading. Scale range: It is the difference between the values of the measured quantities corresponding
(xiii) Complimentary method of measurement: This is the method of measurement by to the terminal scale marks.
comparison in which the value of the quantity to be measured is combined with a
known value of the same quantity so adjusted that the sum of these two values is equal
to predetermined comparison value. For example, determination of the volume of a Instrument range: It is the capacity or total range of values which an instrument is capable of
solid by liquid displacement. measuring. For example, a micrometer screw gauge with capacity of 25 to 50mm has instrument
(xiv) Composite method of measurement: In involves the comparison of the actual contour of range of 25 to 50mm but scale range is 25mm.
a component to be checked with its contours in maximum and minimum tolerable
limits. This method provides for the checking of the cumulative errors of the Scale Spacing: It is the distance between the axes of two adjacent graduations on the scale.
interconnected elements of the component which are controlled through a combined Most instruments have a constant value of scale spacing throughout the scale. Such scales are said
tolerance. This method is most reliable to ensure inter-changeability and is usually to be linear.
effected through the use of composite “Go” gauges, for example, checking of the thread
of a nut with a screw plug “GO” gauge. In case of non – linear scales, the scale spacing value is variable within the limits of the
(xv) Element method: In this method, the several related dimensions are gauged scale.
individually, i.e., each component element is checked separately. For example, in the
case of thread, the pitch diameter, pitch, and flank angle are checked separately and Scale Division Value: It is the measured value of the measured quantity corresponding to one
then the virtual pitch diameter is calculated. It may be noted that value of virtual pitch division of the instrument, e.g. for ordinary scale, the scale division value is 1mm. As a rule, the
diameter depends on the deviations of the above thread elements. The functioning of scale division should not be smaller in value than the permissible indication error of an
thread depends on virtual pitch diameter lying within the specified tolerable limits. instrument.
Temperature is by far the most significant of these ambient conditions and due correction is
Reading Accuracy: It is the accuracy that may be attained in using a measuring instrument. needed to obtain error free results.
3. Styles Pressure: Error induced due to styles pressure is also appreciable. Whenever any
Reading Error: It is d as the difference between the reading of the instrument and the actual component is measured under a definite stylus pressure both the deformation of the
value of the dimension being measured. workpiece surface and deflection of the workpiece shape will occur.
4. Avoidable Errors: These errors include the errors due to parallax and the effect of
Accuracy of observation: It is accuracy attainable in reading the scale of an instrument. It misalignment of the workpiece centre. Instrument location errors such as placing a
depends on the quality of the scale marks, the width or the pointer / index, the space between the thermometer in sunlight when attempting to measure air temperature also belong to this
pointer and the scale, the illumination of the scale, and the skill of the inspector. The width of category.
scale mark is usually kept one – tenth of the scale spacing for accurate reading of indications. 5. Experimental arrangement being different from that assumed in theory.
6. Incorrect theory i.e., the presence of effects not taken into account.
Parallax: It is apparent change in the position of the index relative to the scale marks, when
the scale is observed in a direction other than perpendicular to its plane. (b) Random Errors:

These occur randomly and the specific cases of such errors cannot be determined, but likely
Repeatability: It is the variation of indications in repeated measurements of the same sources of this type of errors are small variations in the position of setting standard and
dimension. The variations may be due to clearances, friction and distortions in the instrument’s workpiece, slight displacement of lever joints in the measuring joints in measuring instrument,
mechanism. Repeatability represents the reproducibility of the readings of an instrument when a transient fluctuation in the friction in the measuring instrument, and operator errors in reading
series of measurements in carried out under fixed conditions of use. scale and pointer type displays or in reading engraved scale positions.

Measuring force: It is the force produced by an instrument and acting upon the measured Characteristics of random errors:
surface in the direction of measurement. It is usually developed by springs whose deformation
and pressure change with the displacement of the instrument’s measuring spindle. The various characteristics of random errors are:

Systematic error and random error.  These are due to large number of unpredictable and fluctuating causes that can not be
controlled by the experimenter. Hence they are sometimes positive and sometimes negative
For statistical study and the study of accumulation of errors, errors are categorized as
and of variable magnitude. Accordingly they get revealed by repeated observations.
controllable errors and random errors.
 These are caused by friction and play in the instrument’s linkages, estimation of reading by
(a) Systematic or controllable errors: judging fractional part of a scale division, by errors in position the measured object, etc.
 These are variable in magnitude and sign and are introduced by the very process of
Systematic error is just a euphemism for experimental mistakes. These are controllable in observation itself.
both their magnitude and sense. These can be determined and reduced, if attempts are made to  The frequency of the occurrence of random errors depends on the occurrence probability for
analyse them. However, they can not be revealed by repeated observations. These errors either different values of random errors.
have a constant value or a value changing according to a definite law. These can be due to:  Random errors show up as various indication values within the specified limits of error in a
 The most reliable value of the size being sought in a series of measurements is the arithmetic respectively) and the results are plotted. In any set of measurements, the individual
mean of the results obtained. measurements are scattered about the mean, and the precision signifies how well the various
 The main characteristic of random errors, which is used to determine the maximum measurements performed by same instrument on the same quality characteristics agree with each
measuring error, is the standard deviation. other.
 The maximum error for a given method of measurement is determined as three times the
standard deviation.
 The maximum error determines the spread of possible random error values
 The standard deviation and the maximum error determine the accuracy of a single
measurement in given series.
From the above, it is clear that systematic errors are those which are repeated consistently with
repetition of the experiment, whereas Random Errors are those which are accidental and whose
magnitude and sign cannot be predicted from knowledge of measuring system and conditions of
measurement.

accuracy and precision and


distinction between precision and accuracy.

The agreement of the measured value with the true value of the measured quantity is called
accuracy. If the measurement of a dimensions of a part approximates very closely to the true
value of that dimension, it is said to be accurate. Thus the term accuracy denotes the closeness of
the measured value with the true value. The difference between the measured value and the true
value is the error of measurement. The lesser the error, more is the accuracy.

Precision and Accuracy

Precision, The terms precision and accuracy are used in connection with the performance of
the instrument. Precision is the repeatability of the measuring process. It refers to the group of
measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions. It indicates to what The difference between the mean of set of readings of the same quality characteristic and
extent the identically performed measurements agree with each other. If the instrument is not the true value is called as error. Less the error more accurate is the instrument.
precise it will give different (widely varying) results for the same dimension when measured
again and again. The set of observations will scatter about the mean. The scatter of these Figure shows that the instrument A is precise since the results of number of measurements
measurements is designated as , the standard deviation. It is used as an index of precision. The are close to the average value. However, there is a large difference (error) between the true value
less the scattering more precise is the instrument. Thus, lower, the value of , the more precise is and the average value hence it is not accurate.
the instrument.
1. Factors affecting the calibration standards e. Thermal expansion effects due to heat radiation from lights, heating elements,
2. Factors affecting the workpiece sunlight and people,
3. Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of the instrument f. Manual handling may also introduce thermal expansion.
4. Factors affecting the person, who carries out the measurements, and
5. Factors affecting the environment. Higher accuracy can be achieved only if, all the sources of error due to the above five elements in
the measuring system are analysed and steps taken to eliminate them.
1. Factors affecting the standard. It may be affected by:
a. Coefficient of thermal expansion, The above analysis of five basic metrology elements can be composed into the acronym.
b. Calibration interval,
c. Stability with time, SWIPE, for convenient reference
d. Elastic properties, Where, S – STANDARD
e. Geometric compatibility
2. Factors affecting the Workpiece, these are: W - WORKPIECE
a. Cleanliness, surface finish, waviness, scratch, surface defects etc., I - INSTRUMENT
b. Hidden geometry, P - PERSON
c. Elastic properties, E - ENVIRONMENT
d. Adequate datum on the workpiece
e. Arrangement of supporting workpiece Sensitivity ,Readability , Calibration , Repeatability
f. Thermal equalization etc.
Sensitivity
3. Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of Instrument
a. Adequate amplification for accuracy objective, Sensitivity may be d as the rate of displacement of the indicating device of a
b. Scale error, instrument, with respect to the measured quantity. In other words, sensitivity of an instrument is
c. Effect of friction, backlash, hysteresis, zero drift error, the ratio of the scale spacing to the scale division value. For example, if on a dial indicator, the
d. Deformation in handling or use, when heavy workpieces are measured scale spacing is 1.0 mm and the scale division value is 0.01 mm, then sensitivity is 100. It is also
e. Calibration errors, called as amplification factor or gearing ratio.
f. Mechanical parts (slides, guide ways or moving elements)
g. Repeatability and readability If we now consider sensitivity over the full range o instrument reading with respect to
h. Contact geometry for both workpiece and standard dy
measured quantities as shown in Fig., the sensitivity at any value of y  where dx and dy are
4. Factors affecting person: dx
a. Training, skill increments of x and y, taken over the full instrument scale, the sensitivity is the slope of the curve
b. Sense of precision appreciation, at any value of y.
c. Ability to select measuring instruments and standards
d. Sensible appreciation of measuring cost,
- Without any change in location.
Sensitivity refers to the ability of measuring device to detect small difference in a quantity
being measured. High sensitivity instruments may lead to drifts due to thermal or other effects, line standard and end standard measurements and their characteristics.
and indications of lower sensitivity.
Line and End Measurements
Readability
A length may be measured as the distance between two lines or as he distance between two
Readability refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be parallel faces. So, the instruments for direct measurement of linear dimensions fall into two
read. It is the susceptibility of a measuring device to have its indications converted into categories
meaningful number. Fine and widely spaced graduation lines ordinarily improve the readability.
If the graduation lines are very finely spaced, the scale will be more readable by using the 1. Line standards
microscope, however, with the naked eye the readability will be poor. 2. End standards

To make micrometers more readable they are provided with vernier scale. It can also be Line standards. When the length is measured as the distance between centres of two
improved by using magnifying devices. engraved lines, it is called line standard. Both material standards yard and metre are line
standards. The most common example of line measurement is the rule with divisions shown as
Calibration: lines marked on it.

The calibration of any measuring instrument is necessary to measure the quantity in terms Characteristics of Line Standard
of standard unit. It is the process of framing the scale of the instrument by applying some
standardized signals. Calibration is a premeasurement process, generally carried out by 1. Scales can be accurately engraved but the engraved lines them selves possess thickness
manufactures. and it is not possible to take measurements with high accuracy.
2. A scale is a quick and easy to use over a wide range.
It is carried out by making adjustments such that the read out device produces zero output 3. The scale markings are not subjected to wear. However, he leading ends are subjected
for zero measured input. Similarly, it should display an output equivalent to the known to wear and this may lead to undersize measurements.
measured input near the full scale input value. 4. A scale does not posses a “built in “ datum. Therefore it is not possible to align the scale
with the axis of measurement.
5. Scales are subjected to parallax error.
The accuracy of the instrument depends upon the calibration. Constant uses of instruments 6. Also, the assistance of magnifying glass or microscope is required if sufficient accuracy
affect heir accuracy. If the accuracy is to be maintained, the instruments must be checked and is to be achieved.
recalibrated if necessary. The schedule of such calibration depends upon the severity of use,
environmental conditions, accuracy of measurement required etc. as far as possible calibration End standards: When length is expressed as the distance between two flat parallel faces, it is
should be performed under environmental conditions which are vary close to the conditions known as ends standard. Examples: Measurement by slip gauges, end bars, ends of micrometer
under which actual measurements are carried out. If the output of a measuring system is linear anvils, vernier calipers etc. the end faces are hardened, lapped flat and parallel to a very high
3. They are subjected to wear on their measuring faces. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is used to the nominal geometry of parts and
assemblies, to the allowable variation in form and possibly size of individual features, and to the
4. Group of slips can be “wrung” together to build up a given size; faulty wringing and allowable variation between features. Dimensioning and tolerancing and geometric dimensioning
careless use may lead to inaccurate results. and tolerancing specifications are used as follows:

5. End standards have built in datum since their measuring faces are flat and parallel and  Dimensioning specifications the nominal, as-modeled or as-intended geometry. One
can positively locked on datum surface. example is a Basic Dimension.
 Tolerancing specifications the allowable variation for the form and possibly the size of
6. They are not subjected to parallax effect as their use depends on feel. individual features, and the allowable variation in orientation and location between
features. Two examples are Linear Dimensions and Feature Control Frames using a datum
The accuracy of both these standards is affected by temperature change and both are reference.
1
originally calibrated at 20 C. It is also necessary to take utmost case in their manufacture to There are several standards available worldwide that describe the symbols and the rules used in
2
ensure that the change of shape with time, secular change is reduced to negligible. GD&T. One such standard is American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Y14.5M-1994.
This article is based on that standard, but other standards, such as those from the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO), may vary slightly. The Y14.5M standard has the
advantage of providing a fairly complete set of standards for GD&T in one document. The ISO
standards, in comparison, typically only address a single topic at a time. There are separate
standards that provide the details for each of the major symbols and topics below (e.g. position,
line and end standard measurements: flatness, profile, etc)

Comparison between line standards and End Standards: Dimensioning and tolerancing philosophy

Sr.
According to the ASME Y14.5M-1994 standard, the purpose of geometric dimensioning and
Characteristics Line standard End standard tolerancing (GD&T) is to describe the engineering intent of parts and assemblies. This is not a
No.
Length is expressed as the Length is expressed as the distance between two flat completely correct explanation of the purpose of GD&T or dimensioning and tolerancing in
1. Principle
distance between two lines parallel faces general.
Limited to is 0.2 mm for high Highly accurate for measurement of close tolerances
accuracy, scales have to be used up to  0.001 mm. The purpose of GD&T is more accurately d as describing the geometric requirements for part and
2. Accuracy
in conjunction with magnifying
assembly geometry. Proper application of GD&T will ensure that the allowable part and assembly
glass or microscope.
Ease and time of Measurement is quick and easy. Use of end standard requires skill and is time geometry d on the drawing leads to parts that have the desired form and fit (within limits) and
3.
and easy. consuming. function as intended.
Scale markings are not subject to These are subjected to wear on their measuring
wear. However, significant wear surfaces. There are some fundamental rules that need to be applied (these can be found on page 4 of the
4. Effect of wear may occur on leading ends. Thus 1994 edition of the standard):
 Engineering drawings the requirements of finished (complete) parts. Every dimension and Positional
Location
tolerance required to the finished part shall be shown on the drawing. If additional tolerance
dimensions would be helpful, but are not required, they may be marked as reference. Location Concentricity
 Dimensions should be applied to features and arranged in such a way as to represent the Runout Circular runout
function of the features. Runout Total runout
 Descriptions of manufacturing methods should be avoided. The geometry should be
described without explicitly defining the method of manufacture. Tolerance Frame with Symbol identifications
 If certain sizes are required during manufacturing but are not required in the final
geometry (due to shrinkage or other causes) they should be marked as non-mandatory.
 All dimensioning and tolerancing should be arranged for maximum readability and should
be applied to visible lines in true profiles.
 When geometry is normally controlled by gage sizes or by code (e.g. stock materials), the
dimension(s) shall be included with the gage or code number in parentheses following or
below the dimension.
 Angles of 90° are assumed when lines (including center lines) are shown at right angles, but
no angular dimension is explicitly shown. (This also applies to other orthogonal angles of
0°, 180°, 270°, etc.)
 Dimensions and tolerances are valid at 20 °C unless stated otherwise.
 Unless explicitly stated, all dimensions and tolerances are valid when the item is in a free
state.
 Dimensions and tolerances apply to the full length, width, and depth of a feature.
 Dimensions and tolerances only apply at the level of the drawing where they are specified.
It is not mandatory that they apply at other drawing levels, unless the specifications are
repeated on the higher level drawing(s).

Geometric tolerancing reference chart

Can be Can be Can be


Can be Can
applied Datum Can use Can use affected affected
Type of Geometric applied affect
Symbol to a reference by a by a Indication of datum
tolerance characteristics to a virtual
feature used modifier modifier bonus shift
feature condition
of size tolerance tolerance
Form Straightness
Exchange of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) information between CAD systems UNIT – II
is available on different levels of fidelity for different purposes:
LINEAR AND ANGULAR MEASUREMENT
 In the early days of CAD exchange only lines, texts and symbols were written into the
PART – A
exchange file. A receiving system could only display them on the screen or print them out,
but only a human could interpret them.
 GD&T presentation: On a next higher level the presentation information is enhanced by purpose of Hook rules.
grouping them together into callouts for a particular purpose, e.g. a datum feature callout and
a datum reference frame. And there is also the information which of the curves in the Hook rules are used to make accurate measurements from a shoulder step, or edge of
exchange file are leader, projection or dimension curves and which are used to form the workpiece. They may be used to measure franges, circular pieces and for setting inside caliper to
shape of a product. a dimension.
 GD&T representation: Unlike GD&T presentation, the GD&T representation does not deal
with how the information is presented to the user but only deal with which element of a short length rule.
shape of a product has which GD&T characteristic. A system supporting GD&T
representation may display the GD&T information in some tree and other dialogs and Short length rules are useful in measuring small openings and hard to reach locations
allow the user to directly select and highlight the corresponding feature on the shape of the where ordinary rules cannot be used.
product, 2D and 3D.
 Ideally both GD&T presentation and representation are available in the exchange file and how accurate measurement can be made if the end of the rule in worn.
are associated with each other. Then a receiving system can allow a user to select a GD&T
callout and get the corresponding feature highlighted on the shape of the product. In case of worn rules, measurement can be made by placing the 1cm graduation in line on
the edge of the work, taking the reading and subtracting them from final reading.
An enhancement of GD&T representation is defining a formal language for GD&T (similar like a
programming language) which also has build in rules and restrictions for the proper GD&T usage. rule used as a straight edge
This is still a research area.
The edge of a steel rule are ground flat. The edge of a rule in placed on the work surface
which in then held up to the light. In accuracies as small as 0.02 mm may easily be seen by this
method.

two types of outside caliper.

1. Spring joint caliper


2. Firm joint caliper

dangerous to measure work while revolving ,outside caliper should be held position when
Inside Calipers are used to measure the diameter of holes, or width of keyways and slots. two usual methods of testing the accuracy of a micrometer.

two uses of a surface plate. The first method to check is the zero line on the thimble coin cider with the centre (index)
line on the sleeve. If it does coincide, the micrometer in correct.
1. As a datum reference plane for marking out or inspection. In the second method a standard or a gauge blocks is measured with the micrometer. The
2. To check the flatness of another surface. reading of the micrometer must be the same the standard or a gauge block.

the materials used for surface plate and uses of that material comparing with Cast Iron. two types of dial indicator

1) Cast Iron 2) Granite 3) Glass 4)Non-metallic substance 1. Those with a linear moving plunger called plunger type.
1) Granite and Glass plates of same depth are more rigid than Cast Iron plates. 2. Those with an angular moving stylus called level type.
2) Damage to this surfaces Causes indentation and does not throw up a projecting burn.
3) Corrosion in virtually absent. "magnification" of a dial indicator
4) It is easier to slide metallic articles such as weight gauges and squares, on their surfaces.
The magnification of a dial indicator in the ratio of the movement of the pointer to the
Cast Iron in a preferred material for surface plates and tables movement of the dial indicator item.

1. It is a self-lubricating, and the equipment slides on its working surface with a pleasant feel. As an example, suppose the end of the pointer traverses a circle of diameter 21mm and a
2. It is easy to provide complex shape of stiffening ribs. full pointer resolution of say 0-100 is in units of 0.01mm
3. It is stable and rigid metal and relatively in-expensive Magnification = 21/100 x 0.01
4. It is easily machined and scrapped to an accurate plane surface. = 66 to 1

V-Blocks are generally bought in pairs important feature of slip gauges which makes them of considerable importance in engineering
measurement.
V-Blocks are manufactured in pairs so that long components can be supported parallel to
the datum surface and for this reason they must always be bought and kept as a pain. The important factor in the geometric accuracy of opposing gauging surfaces. The accuracy
of flatness enables slip gauges to be wrong to each other to make up a specified length. They can
the accuracy of a Vernier Caliper also be wrong to surfaces whose accuracy is of the same orders as the slip gauges. The thickness
of the wringing films can be discounted in comparison with the overall size of the slip gauge pile.
Vernier Caliper are normally available in measuring accuracy of 0.02mm. The accuracy is not only that of flatness, but includes parallelism and length. Combinations of slip
gauge produce end standards whose length, flatness and parallelism are of a higher order of
advantage of a vernier depth gauge as compared to micrometer depth gauge accuracy.

The vernier depth gauge has longer scale than a micrometer depth gauge and does scale Where will you support on end bar of 200mm length
overall magnification or sensitivity of the system.
surface gauge.
It is the ratio of scale movement for a given change of dimension and it is the product of
It is also known as height transfer gage which is used to check the accuracy or parallelism of sensitivities of measuring head, pneumatic sensitivity and indicator sensitivity.
surfaces, and to transfer measurement in layout work by scribing them on a vertical surface.
advantages of differential type pneumatics comparators
surface plate. The advantage of differential type pneumatics comparator over ordinary pneumatic
comparators are:-
it is an accurately machined flat casting or lapped granite block upon which the part to be check i) The small variation in supply pressure are compensated for by the differential pressure
and the surface checking instruments are placed for obtaining some measure of the accuracy of a measurement.
surface or the condition of finish. ii) The differential pressure can be zeroed, using the adjusting valve, corresponding to given
mean size.
tools maker's flat. iii) Full range of scale of measuring device can be used.

It is a small plate which is lapped to a greater degree of accuracy and is used for inspection different types of comparator.
of small parts with precision gauge blocks.
1. Mechanical 2. Mechanical- optical 3. Electrical and Electronic 4. Optical
optical flats. 5. Pneumatic 6. Fluid displacement 7. Electro-Mechanical 8. Multi check
9. Auto gauging.
Optical flats are flat lenses usually made from natural quality with very accurately polished
" Damping of an instrument”
surfaces having light transmitting quality. These are used in connection with interferometer
measurements (science of measuring with light waves ) for testing of plane surfaces. The damping may be an inherent factor in the operation of a measuring instrument or it
may deliberately be introduced as a feature in its design. An instrument is said to be damped
profilometer. when there is a progressive reduction in the amplitude or complete suppression of successive
oscillations of the index after an abrupt change in the value of the measured quantity.
It is an instrument used for measuring surface roughness. It measures the number of
roughness peaks in unit traverse length above a reselected length by passing a fine tracing point How the damping effect is achieved on the " Johansson mikrokator"
over the surface.
In Johansson microkator the damping in provided by immersing a portion of the twisted
characteristic advantages of mechanical indicators band in a drop of oil in a split bush adjacent to the pointer and also perforating the strip as shown
in fig.
1. Ling measuring range: Mechanical indicators operating on the rack and pinion system have
measuring ranges extending over several turns.
" Magnification " as applied to a mechanical comparator
3. Electrical Magnification 4. Parallelism of roller axes to upper surface of bar.
a)inductance bridge circuit 5. Flatness of upper surface.
b)capacitance bridge circuit 6. Equality of distance from roller centers to upper surface.
4. Prematic Magnification
a)back pressure system The three sources of error in angular rotation.

1. Eccentricity of rotation when considered separately is of sinusoidal form.


Usual range of a magnification of mechanical comparator
2. Error in the indexing mechanism, backlash, wear and etc.
3. Error in the plane of rotation is wobble.
The usual range of magnification in mechanical comparator does not exceed x500, because of
The classification of Angular measurement.
play and size f gears and levels

1. Measurement of angular features on components or gauges.


The magnification to be changed to suit the work
2. Measurement of the angular rotation of a divided circle.

The mechanical comparator Johansson Mikrokator in so designed as to allow easy change


The advantages of photo electric autocollimator
in magnification. The magnification can be changed by increasing or reducing the length of
cantilever spring.
1. These replace the judgments of the human eye with appropriate photoelectric systems.
2. Setting accuracy in increased and constant for all operators.
An increased length reduces the force available to unwind the strip they reducing
3. Remote reading (digital or analog) are possible.
magnification.

Important rules for putting dimensions on drawings in respect of Tolerance

1. The dimension should be shown at place where it can be measured directly.


2. Considering the interchangeability of part all important dimensions with reference to the
Specialty of a toolmaker's microscope as compared to an ordinary laboratory microscope
locating surface should be clearly marked.
3. Contradictory additive dimensions which affect the actual location and interchangeability.
A toolmakers microscope shows the object and movements in this natural aspect and
direction instead of reversed as in the ordinary laboratory microscope.
Nominal size and tolerance

Angle dekkor is less sensitive than an autocollimator


A nominal size in ascribed to a part for general identification purpose. Thus a shaft may
have a nominal size of 60mm, but for practical reasons this size cannot be manufactured without
While an autocollimator incorporators a microscopy, the same is normally fitted in an angle
great cost. Hence, certain tolerance or machining allowance must be added to it depending upon
dekkor and reflected image in viewed through an eyepiece only.
the intended application for which this part is to be used.

Sine bar with angle gauges


1. Vernier bevel Protractor Types of steel rules used in machine shop work.
2. Tool room microscope
3. Sine bar and dial gauge 1. Spring - tempered
4. Auto Collimator 2. Flexible type
5. Taper measuring machine 3. Narrow type
6. Roller, Slip gauge, and micrometer. 4. Hook type.

The objective of measurement of thread elements mention some important thread elements of Accurate measurement can be made of the end of the rule in worn.
linear measurement
Measurement can be made by Piecing the 1cm graduation in line on the edge of the work
The purpose of thread measurement in to ensure that the thread element are within the taking the reading and subtracting1cm from the final reading.
tolerance limits in order to satisfy the conditions of required fit.
Two types of outside Calipers.
The important thread elements which have linear measurement are,
1. Spring joint Caliper.
1. Effective diameter 2. Firm joint Caliper.
2. Major diameter
3. Miner diameter Principle of Vernier Caliper.
4. Pith
The Vernier contains scale of length 9mm divided into 10 parts. The vernier scale is read in
"best wire" size conjunction with the main scale, which in marked in divisions of 1mm, the vernier scale is marked
in divisions of 9/10mm (i.e. 0.9mm). That it is possible the read the scale to (1.0 - 0.9) mm or
The best wire (diameter of the wire) is one such that its points of contact with the thread are 0.1mm. The accuracy of reading of the vernier scale, a typical size being 12mm divided into 25
on the pitch line or effective diameter. graduation. The main scale graduation may also be changed from 1.0mm to 0.5mm. The smallest
measurement which may then be conveniently read in.
The desirable qualities of good rule (0.5 - 12/25)mm = (0.5 - 0.48)mm = 0.02mm.

1. Made from hardened and tempered spring steel. The main use of a vernier height gauge
2. Engine divided, that in, graduations should be precision engraved for accuracy and clarity.
3. Ground on the edges so that it can be used as straight-edge when scribing lines or testing a The main use of a vernier height gauge in to measure (or) mark out components that
surface for flatness. require a high degree of dimensional accuracy.
4. Satin chrome (or) matt finish so as to reduce glare and make it easier to read, also to prevent
(vi) To check gap between parallel locations such as in gap gauges or between two mating
parts.

There are many measurements which can be made with slip gauges either alone or in
conjunction with other simple apparatus such as straight edges, rollers, balls sine bars etc.

Wringing of Slip Gauges


PART – B
The success of precision measurement by slip gauges on the phenomenon of wringing. The slip
Slip gauges gauges are wrung together by hand through a combined sliding and twisting motion. The gap
(i) Explain wringing of slip gauges. between two wrung slips is only of the order of 0.00635 microns (0.63510-3mm) which is
(ii) Explain the classification of slip gauges. negligible.

Slip Gauges Procedure for Wringing

Slip gauges or gauge blocks are universally accepted end standard of length in industry. These (i) Before using, the slip gauges are cleaned by using a lint free cloth, a chamois leather or a
were introduced by Johnson, a Sweedish engineer, and are also called as Johnson Gauges. cleansing tissue.
(ii) One slip gauge is then oscillated slightly over the other gauge with a light pressure.
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of high grade steel with exceptionally close tolerances. These (iii) One gauge is then placed at 900 to other by using light pressure and then it is rotated
blocks are suitably hardened though out to ensure maximum resistance to wear. They are then until the blocks one brought in one line.
stabilized by heating and cooling successively in stages so that hardening stresses are removed.
In this way is air is expelled out from between the gauge faces causing the gauge blocks to
After being hardened they are carefully finished by high grade lapping to a high degree of adhere. The adhesion is caused partly by molecular attraction and partly by atmospheric pressure.
finish, flatness and accuracy. For successful use of slip gauges their working face are made truly When two gauges are wrung in this manner is exactly the sum of their individual dimensions. The
flat and parallel. A slip gauge are also made from tungsten carbide which is extremely hard and wrung gauge can be handled as a unit without the need for clamping all the pieces together.
wear resistance.

The cross- sections of these gauges are 9mm 30mm for sizes up to 10mm and 9mm35mm for
larger sizes. Any two slips when perfectly clean may be wrung together. The dimensions are
permanently marked on one of the measuring faces of gauge blocks.
Gauges blocks are used for:
1.01 to 1.49 0.01 49
Grade II. Grade II gauge blocks are workshop grade for rough checks. They are used for 0.5 to 24.50 0.05 49
preliminary setting up of components where production tolerances are relatively wide; for 25 to 100 25 4
positioning milling cutters and checking mechanical widths. 1.005 - 1
Grade I. Grade I gauge blocks are used fro more precise work such as setting up since bars, Total 112 Pieces
checking gap gauges and setting dial test indicators to zero.
Set M33/2(2mm based set
Grade 0. These are inspection grade gauge blocks, used in tool room and inspection department
for high accuracy work. Range (mm) Step (mm) Pieces
2.005 - 1
Grade OO. These gauges are placed in the standard room and used for highest precision work. 2.01 to 2.09 0.01 9
Such as checking Grade I and Grade II slip gauges. 2.10 to 2.90 0.1 9
1 to 9 1 9
Calibration Grade. This is a special grade, with the actual size of the slips calibrated on a special 10.30 10 3
chart supplied with a set. The chart must be referred while making up dimension. 60 - 1
The following two sets of slip gauges are in general use: 100 - 1
Total 33 Pieces
Normal set (M-45)
Limit gauges and the different types of limit gauges
Range (mm), Pieces
Step (mm) Limit Gauges: Limit gauges are very widely used in industries. As there are two permissible
1.01 to 1.009 0.001 9 limits of the dimension of a part, high and low, two gauges are needed to check each dimension of
1.01 to 1.09 0.01 9 the part, one corresponding the low limit of size and other to the high limit of size of that
1.1 to 1.9 0.1 9 dimension. These are known as GO and NO-GO gauges.
1 to 9 1 9
10 to 90 10 9 The differences between the sizes of these two gauges is equal to the tolerance on the work
Total 45 Pieces piece. GO gauges check the Maximum Metal Limit (MML) and NO-GO gauge checks the
minimum metal limit (LML). In the case of hole, maximum metal limit is when the hole is as small
Special set (M-87) as possible, that is, it is the low limit of size. In case of hole, therefore, GO gauge corresponds to
the low limit of size, while NO- GO gauge corresponds to high limit of size. For a shaft, the
Range (mm) Step (mm) Pieces maximum metal limit is when the shaft is on the high limit of size. Thus, in case of a shift GO
1.001 to 1.009 0.001 9 gauge corresponds to the high limit of size and NO-GO gauge corresponds to the low limit size.
1.01 to 1.09 0.01 49
0.5 to 0.5 0.5 19 While checking, each of these two gauges is offered in turn to the work. A part is considered to
Limit Plug Gauges

Gauges used for checking the holes are called “Plug gauges”. The ‘GO’ plug gauge is the size of
the low limit of the hole while ‘NO-GO’ plug gauge is the size of the high limit of hole. 4. Flat type. For sizes over
100mm and up to 250mm.
Types of Plug Gauges (Refer Fig. 9.22).

1. Solid type. For sizes up to 10mm. (Refer Fig. 9.17)

2. Renewable type (Taper inserted type). For sizes over 10mm and up to 30mm. (Refer Fig.
9.18)

3. Fastened type:
Fig. 9.24
The plug gauges are marked with the following on their handles for their identification:
5. Progressive type. For relatively short through hole. It has both the ends on one side of the
gauge as shown in Fig. 9.21. (i) Nominal size,
6. Pilot Plug gauge. To avoid jamming of the plug gauge inside of the hole pilot groove type (ii) Class of tolerance
gauge (Fig. 9.25) may be used. In pilot plug gauge there is first a small chamber, then a (iii) The word Go on the Go side
narrow ring or pilot-its diameter being equal to that of the body of the gauge, the pilot is of (iv) The words NOGO (or Not- Go) on the Not-Go side
the nature of an ellipse in respect to the hole. It touches at two points across the major axis (v) The actual value of the tolerance
which is the diameter of the plug on entering the hole. If the pilot enters the hole it is (vi) Manufacturer’s trade mark.
sufficiently large for the rest of the gauge to enter. The chamber behind the pilot lifts the (vii) A red colour band near the Not-Go end to distinguish in from the Go-end.
gauge into link, making jamming impossible. The advantages of such a gauge are that the
operator can work even with less care and there is saving in time. Snap, Gap or Ring Gauges

Snap gauges, Gap gauges or Ring gauges are used for checking the shafts or male components.
Snap gauges can be used for both cylindrical as well as non-cylindrical work or compared to ring
gauges which are conventionally used only for cylindrical work. To Go snap gauge is the size
corresponding to the high limit of the shaft, while the ‘NO GO’ gauge corresponds to the low
limit. Double – ended snap gauges can be conveniently used for checking sizes from 3 mm to
100mm and single- ended progressive type snap gauges are suitable for sizes from 100mm to
250mm. The gauging surfaces of the snap gauges are hardened up to 750 HV and are suitably
Pilot Plug Gauge
stabilized, ground, and lapped. Ring gauges are available in two designs, ‘GO’ and ‘NO-GO’.
7. Combined dual purpose limit gauge. Combined plug gauge combines both the GO and
These are designated by ‘GO’ and ‘NO-GO’ as may be applicable, the nominal size, the tolerance
NO-GO dimensions in a single member. Thus a single gauge may be used to check both the
of the work piece to be gauged, and the number of the standard allowed.
upper and lower limits. It consist of a spherical end A of the diameter equal to the lower
limit. A spherical projection B of the outer edge of the spherical member (Refer Fig. 9.26) is
arranged so that the spherical surface B and the diametrically opposite part on the spherical
surface is equal to the maximum limit.

For checking the hole by combined limit gauge, for ‘GO’ limit the gauge is inserted into the hole
with the handle parallel to the axis of the hole. For checking the hole the ‘NO- GO’ limit, the gauge
is tilted so that the spherical projection B is normal to the hole. The gauge in this position should
Adjustable Type Gap Gauges

In case of fixed gap gauges, no change can be made in the size, range, whereas in adjustable
gauges the gauging anvils are adjustable endwise in the horse-shoe frame. Thus, a small change
within about 0.002mm can be made in the size range. For example, suppose gauge is used to check Fig.9.31
a 50mm for shaft. If for some reason the tolerance is changed to, say, a tolerance grade of f8 or f6,
the same gauge can be used after adjustment. Also the anvils of such gauges can be reset with the
help of slip gauges, by means of independent and finely threaded screws provided at the back
end. After resetting they can be finally locked in position by means of clamping screw. Fixed
gauges are less expensive initially, but they do not permit adjustment to compensate for wear and
can also be used over a small range of different setting.

Fig.9.32

Taylor’s Principle of Gauge Design.

It state that (1) GO gauges should be designed to check the maximum material limit, while the
NO-GO gauges should be designed to check the minimum material limit.
Fig9.29
Now, the plug gauges are used to check the hole, therefore the size of the GO plug gauge
should correspond to the low limit of hole, while that of NO-GO plug gauge corresponds to the
high limit of hole.
(i) Uses of Comparator

(2) ‘GO’ gauges should check all the related dimensions (roundness, size, location etc). The various ways in which comparators can be used are:
Simultaneously whereas ‘NO-GO’ gauge should check only one element of the dimension at a
time. 1. Laboratory Standards: Comparators are used
According to this rule, GO plus gauge should have a full circular section and be of full length of as laboratory standards from which working or inspection gauges are sent and co-related.
the hole it has to check. This ensures that any lack of straightness, or roundness of the hole will 2. Working Gauges: They are also used as
prevent the entry of full length GO-plug gauge. If this condition is not fulfilled, the inspection of working gauges to prevent work spoilage and to maintain required tolerance at all important
the part with the gauge may give wrong give wrong results. stages of manufacture.
3. Final Inspection Gauges: Comparators may be used as final inspection gauges where
For example, suppose the bush to be inspected has a curved axis and a short ‘GO’ plug gauge is selective assembly, of production parts is necessary.
used to check it. The short plug gauge will pass through all the curves of the bent bushing. This 4. Receiving Inspection Gauges: As receiving
will lead to a wrong result that the work pieces (hole) are within the prescribed limits. Actually, inspection gauges comparators are used for checking parts received from outside sources.
such a bushing with a curved hole will not mute properly with its mating part and thus defective. 5. For checking newly purchased gauges: The use of comparators enables the checking of the
A GO plug gauge with adequate length will not pass through a curved bushing and the error will parts (components in mass production at a very fast rate)
be detected. A long plug gauge will thus check the cylindrical surface not in one direction, but in a
number of sections simultaneously. The length of the ‘GO’ plug gauge should not be less than 1.5 (ii) Essential characteristics of a good comparator
times the diameter of the hole to be checked.
1. Robust design and construction: The design and construction of the comparator should be
robust so that it can withstand the effects of ordinary uses without affecting its measuring
accuracy.
2. Linear characteristics of scale: Recording or measuring scale should be linear and uniform
(straight line characteristic) and its indications should be clear.
3. High magnification: The magnification of the comparator should be such that a smallest
deviation in size of components can be easily detected.
4. Quick in results: The indicating system should be such that the readings are obtained in
least possible time.
5. Versatility: Instruments should be designed that it can be used for wide range of
measurements.
Fig. 9.34 6. Minimum wear of contact point. The measuring plunger should have hardened steel
contact or diamond to minimize wear effects. Further the contact pressure should be low
Now suppose the hole to be checked has an oval shape While checking it with the cylindrical and uniform.
‘NOT GO’ gauge the hole under inspection will over lap (hatched portion) the plug and thus will 7. Free from oscillations: The pointer should come rapidly to rest and should be free from
not enter the hole. This will again lead to wrong conclusion that the part is within the prescribed oscillations.
12. Means to prevent damage: Suitable means should be provided for preventing damage of
the instrument in the event of the plunger moving through a greater distance than that
corresponding to the range of its measuring scale.

(iii) Classification

A wide variety of comparators are commercially available at present. They are classified
according to the method used for amplifying and recording the variations measured into the
following types.

1. Mechanical comparators
2. Optical comparators
3. Mechanical-Optical comparators
4. Electrical and Electronics comparators Fig.5.2.Johansson Mikrokator F.g.5.3 Twisted strip of Mikrokator
5. Pneumatic comparators
6. Fluid displacement comparators A slight upward movement of plunger will make the bell crank lever to rotate.
7. Projection comparators.
8. Multi check comparators Due to this a tension will be applied to the twisted strip in the direction of the arrow. This
9. Automatic Gauging Machines causes the strip to untwist resulting in the movement of the point. The spring will ensure that the
10. Electro-Mech. Comparators. plunger returns when the contact pressure between the bottom tip of the plunger and the
workpiece is not there, that is, when the workpiece is removed from underneath the plunger.
In addition to above, comparators of particularly high sensitivity and magnification, used in
standard rooms for calibration of gauge include. The length of the cantilever can be varied to adjust the magnification. In order to prevent
excessive stress on the central portion, the strip is perforated along the centre line by per
1. The Brookes Level comparator formation as shown in Fig.5.3. The magnification of the instrument is approximately equal to the
2. The Eden-Rolt’millionth’ comparator. dQ
ratio of rate of change of pointer movement to rate of change in length of the strip, i.e., . It can
dL
The work principle of Johansson Mikrokator dQ L
be shown that the magnification of the instrument  2 ,
dL  n
The Johansson Mikrokator
Where, Q = twist of mid point of strip with respect to
This instrument was first devised by m/s C.F. Johansson and hence the name. It uses a the end
twisted strip to convert small linear movement of a plunger into a large circular movement of a L = length of twisted strip measured along its
pointer. It is therefore, also called as twisted strip comparator. It uses the simplest method for neutral axis
dial indicator. The dial indicator is mounted on a base supported by a sturdy column. Fig.5.4 movement for the plunger. The plunger carries a knife edge, which bears upon the face of the
shows a read type mechanical comparator. mounting block of a cross-strip hinge. The cross strip hinge is formed by pieces of flat steel springs
arranged at right angle and is a very efficient pivot for smaller angular movements. The moving
The read mechanism is frictionless device for magnifying small motions of the spindle. It block carries a might metal Y-forked arms. A thin phosphor bronze ribbon is fastened to the ends
consists of a fixed block. A which is rigidly fastened to the gauge head case, and floating block B, of the forked arms and wrapped around a small drum, mounted on a spindle carrying the pointer.
which carries the gauging spindle and is connected horizontally to the fixed block by read C.
Any vertical displacement of the measuring plunger and hence that of the knife edge makes
the moving block of the cross strip liver to pivot. This causes the rotation of the Y-arms. The
A vertical reeds are indicated by D. Beyond this joint metallic band attached to the arms makes the driving drum and hence the pointer to rotate.
extends a pointer. A linear motion of the spindle moves the free
block vertically causing the vertical reed on the floating block The ratio of the effective length (L) of the arm and the distance (a) of the knife edge from
to slide past the vertical reed on the fixed block. However, as the the pivot gives the first stage magnification and the ratio of the pointer length (l) and radius ( r ) of
vertical reeds are joined at the upper end, instead of slipping, the the driving drum gives second stage magnification of the instrument. Total magnification of the
movement causes both reeds swing through an arc. L l
instrument is thus    . The magnification of the instrument can be varied by changing the
The scale may be calibrated a r
by means of gauge block to indicate any deviation from an distance (a) of Knife edge of tightening or slackening of the adjusting screws: The range of
initial setting. The mechanical amplification is usually less than instruments available provides magnifications of x 300 to X 5000, the most sensitive models
100 but it is multiplied by the optical lens system. It is available allowing scale estimation of the order of 0,0001 mm to be made.
in amplification ranging from 500 to 1000.
Some important features (advantages) of the sigma comparator are:
The working of a sigma mechanical comparator
1. Safety: As the knife edge moves away from the moving member of the hinge and is
Sigma comparator followed by it, therefore, if too robust movement of plunger is made due to shock load, that
will not be transmitted through the movement.
This is a mechanical comparator providing magnification in the range of 300 to 5000. It 2. Dead beat Readings: By mounting a nonferrous disc on the pointer spindle and making it
consists of a plunger mounted on two flat steel strings move in field of a permanent magnet, dead beat reading can be obtained.
3. Parallax: The error due to Parallax is avoided by having a reflective strip on the scale.
4. Constant pressures: The constant measuring pressure over the range of the instrument is
obtained by the use of magnet plunger. On the frame
5. Fine adjustments are possible

Disadvantages: 1. Due to motion of the parts there is a wear in the moving parts. 2. It is not
sensible as optical comparator due to friction of the moving parts.
Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparators.

Advantages of Mechanical comparators


Fig.5.11 Principle of electrical comparator
1. Cheaper, Mechanical comparators are less costly as compared to other amplifying devices.
2. No need of external agency. These instruments do not require any external agency such as The principle of an electrical comparator is shown in Fig.5.11. An armature supported on
electricity or air and as such the variations in outside supply do not affect the accuracy. thin steel strips is suspended between two coils A and B. When the distance of the armature
3. Linear Scale. Usually the mechanical comparators have linear scale. surface from the two coils is equal, the Whetstone bridge is balanced and no current flows through
4. Robust and compact: These instruments are robust and compact in design and easy to its galvanometer. Sight movement of the measuring plunger unbalances the bridge resulting in the
handle. flow of current through the galvanometer. The scale of the galvanometer is calibrated to give the
5. Portable: For ordinary workshop conditions, these instruments are very suitable and being movement of the plunger. Electrical comparators have minimum moving parts and therefore give
portable can be issued from the stores. a high degree of reliability. Magnification of the order of X30,000 are possible with these
comparators.
Disadvantages of Mechanical Comparators
Visual Gauging Heads
1. Less accuracy (a) Due to more moving parts, the friction is more which reduces the
accuracy. The purpose of the visual gauging heads is to give visual inspection using small coloured
2. Sensitive to vibrations: The mechanisms in mechanical comparators have more inertia and signal lamps, of the acceptability of an engineering component with regard to the dimension
this may cause them to be sensitive to vibrations. under test. Clearly an electrical principle is involved, which may be simply described, as follows,
3. Faults magnified: Any wear backlash or dimensional faults in the mechanical devices used with reference to Fig.5.12. Vertical displacement of an interchangeable plunger causes movement
will also be magnified. of the rod C either to the left or right, as shown in the figure A and B are electrical contacts,
4. Limited range: The range of the instrument is limited as the pointer moves over a fixed capable of precise adjustment in the direction of the arrows, a micrometer device is available.
scale.
5. Parallax error: Error due to Parallax are more likely with these instruments as the pointer In the position shown, that is to say with the rod in mid position between the contacts A
moves over a fixed scale. and B, the dimension under test is within the limits. If the dimension is oversize, the rod C moves
to the right and makes contact with B. Immediately the top red lamp is illuminated. Likewise if the
The working principle of an electrical comparator dimension is undersize the rod moves to left, making contact with A and illuminating the yellow
lamp.
Electrical Comparators:
It may, however, be noted that the actual magnifying device is not shown in the figure;
Principle: These comparators depend on their operation on an A.C. Whetstone bridge circuit levers and thin steel strips, together with knife-edge seatings, are employed.
incorporating a galvanometer. In these comparators, the movement of the measuring contact is
converted into an electrical signal. This electrical signal is recorded by an instrument which can be With various detachable plungers, there is practically no limit to the application of this
calibrated in terms of plunger movement. instrument. Fig.5.12 illustrates the visual gauging of a single dimension, but the same principle
Fig.5.12. Visual gauging head
Fig.5.15 Solex Pneumatic Gauge
It uses a water manometer for the indication of back pressure. It consist of a vertical metal
cylinder filled with water upto a certain level and a dip tube immersed into it upto a depth
corresponding to the air pressure required. A calibrated manometer tube is connected between the
cylinder and control artifice as shown in Fig.5.15.
The Advantages and disadvantages of electrical comparators.
If the pressure of the air supplied is higher than the desired pressure, some air will bubble
Advantages of electrical comparators: out from the bottom of the dip tube and air moving to the control volume will be at the desired
constant pressure. The constant pressure air then passes through the control orifice and escape
1. Few number of moving parts: The electric and electronic comparators have few number of from the measuring jets when there is no restriction to the escape of air, the level of water in the
moving parts, and there is less friction and wear. manometer tube will coincide with that in the cylinder. But, if there is a restriction to the escape of
2. High magnification: It has a wide range of magnification. air through the jets, a back pressure will be induced in the circuit and level of water in the
3. Not sensitive to vibrations: The mechanism carrying the pointer is very light and not manometer tube will fall. The restriction to the escape of air depends upon the variations in the
sensitive to vibrations. dimensions to be measured.
4. Easy to set up and operate.
5. Less error due to sliding friction: operation of the instrument on AC supply reduces sliding Thus the variation in the dimension to be measured are converted into corresponding
friction errors. pressure variations, which can be read from the calibrated scale provided with the manometer.
6. The instrument is small and compact.
7. The indicating instrument need not be placed close to the measuring unit. To find concentricity (roundness of any job at any section).the workpiece may be
revolved around measuring gauge. If no change in reading is there, then it is perfectly round hole.
(ii) Disadvantages: Similarly the diameter can be noted down at several places along the length of bore and thus
tapering of hole is determined. This is method is therefore, best suited for measuring roundness
1. Fluctuation in the voltage or frequency of the electric supply may affect the results. and taper ness of cylinder bases and gun barrel bores.
2. Heating of coils in the measuring unit may cause zero drift and alter the calibration.
3. When measuring unit is remote from the indicating unit, reliability is lower. The working if Differential comparator
4. Cost is generally more than mechanical comparator.
5. If only a fixed scale is used with a moving pointer than with high magnification a very Differential Comparator
small range is obtained.
It is the balanced circuit type of air gauge. Fig.5.16 shows a differential comparator.
reference jet Om) is done with master 4. The scale is generally not uniform.
workpiece whose dimension is exact 5. When indicating device is the glass tube, then high magnification is necessary in order to
nominal size. avoid the meniscus errors.
6. The apparatus is not easily portable.
7. Different gauging heads are required for different dimensions.

Explain the uses of Sine bar

1. Locating any work to a given angle: To set the given angle, the surface plate is assumed to be
perfectly flat, so that the surface can be treated as horizontal. One roller of the sine bar is placed on
the surface plate and a combination of slip gauges is inserted under the second roller. Let, h be the
height of slip gauge combination and the sine is to be set at an angle .

Fig. 5.16 Differential circuit. Then sin  = h/l, where l is the distance between the centre of the rollers. Thus knowing , h
can be found out and any work could be set at this angle, as the top face of the sine bar is inclined
Now, the variation of the dimension at the measuring head will cause change of back at angle  to the surface plate. For better results, both the rollers could also be placed on slip
pressure in channel A. This pressure will be different from the mean pressure which has been gauges of height h1 and h2 respectively,
already set in the channel B (by reference jet. Now the difference of pressure of the two channels
will be indicated device which can be directly calibrated in terms of variation of dimension from h2  h1
sin  
the mean dimensions. The instrument is thus based on the measurement of differential pressure l
and is called as differential comparator.

Advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic comparators.

Advantages of pneumatic Comparators Fig.6.9

1. It is possible to obtain high degree of magnification (30,000 : 1) or more coupled with good 2. Checking or measuring unknown angle:
stability and readability.
2. The gauging member does not come in contract with the part to be measured and hence (a) When component is of small size. For measuring unknown angle it is necessary to first find the
practically no wear takes place on gauging member. angle approximately with the help of a bevel protractor. The sine bar is then set up at that nominal
3. It has few number of moving parts and in some cases none. Thus the accuracy obtainable is (approximate) angle on a surface plate by suitable combination of slip gauges. The component to
more due to absence of friction and less inertia. be checked is placed over the surface of the sine bar (if necessary the component may be clamped
4. Measuring pressure is very small and the jet of air helps in cleaning the dust, if any, from with the angle plate). The dial gauge is then set at one end of the work and moved along the upper
the part to be measures. surface of the component. If there is a variation in parallelism of the upper surface of the
Fig.6.12

Fig.6.10 The limitations and source of errors in sine bar.

h Imitations of Sine Bars


The angle of the component is then calculated by the relation   sin 1  
 L
The perfect adjustment of slip gauge combination requires too much time, so the variation (i) Sine bar is fairly reliable for angles less than 15o, and becomes increasingly inaccurate as the
in the parallelism of the upper surface of the component and the surface plate indicated by the dial angle increases. It is impractical to use sine bars for angle above 45o.
gauge is converted into corresponding angular variation. If ‘dx’ is the variation in parallelism over (ii) It is physically clumsy to hold in position.
h (iii) Slight errors of the sine bar cause larger angular errors.
a distance ‘x’ the corresponding variation in angle   sin 1  
 L (iv) A difference of deformation occurs at the point of roller contact with the surface plate and to
the gauge blocks.
b. When the component is of large size/heavy. In such cases, the component is placed over a (v) The size of parts which can be inspected by since bar is limited.
surface plate. The sine bar is placed over the component as shown in Fig.6.11. The height over the
rollers can then be measured by a vernier height gauge; using a dial test gauge mounted on the Sources of Error in Sine Bars
anvil of height gauge to ensure constant measuring pressure.
The difference sources of errors in angular measurement by a sine bar are:
1. Error in distance between roller centres.
2. Error in slip gauge combination used for angle setting.
3. Error in parallelism between gauging surface and plane of roller axes.
4. Error in equality of size of rollers and cylindrical accuracy in the form of the rollers.
5. Error is parallelism of roller axes with each other.
6. Error in flatness of the upper surface of the bar.

The modifications of sine bar.


The anvil of height gauge is adjusted with probe of dial test gauge showing same reading
for the topmost position of rollers of sine bar. The height gauge is thus used to obtain two Sine Centre: Due to difficulty of mounting conical work easily on a conventional sine bar, sine
readings for either of the rollers of sine bar. If ‘h’ is the difference in the heights and T distance centres are used. Two blocks as shown in Fig.6.13 are mounted on the top of sine bar. These blocks
h accommodate centres and can be clamped at any position on the sine bar. The centres can also be
between the roller centres of the sine bar, then   sin 1   .
 L adjusted depending on the length of the conical work-piece, to be held between centres. Sine
Another method of determining angle of large size part is shown Fig.6.12. The component centres are extremely useful for the testing of conical work, since the centres ensure correct
is placed over a surface plate and the sine bar is set up at approximate angle on the component so alignment of the work-piece. The procedure for its setting is the same as that for sine bar.
Fig.6.13 two scales engraved on a glass screen which is placed in the focal plane of the objective lens. One
of the scales, called datum scale, is horizontal and fixed. It is engraved across the centre of the
Sine Table: The sine table is the most convenient and accurate design for heavy work-piece. The screen and is always visible in the microscope eye-piece. Another scale is an illuminated vertical
equipment consist of a self-contained sine bar, hinged at one roller and mounted on its datum scale fixed across the centre of the screen and the reflected image of the illuminated scale is
surface. The table is quite rigid one and the weight of unit and work-piece is given fuller and safer received at right angles to this fixed scale, and the two scales, in the position intersect each other.
support. The table may be safety swing to any angle from 0 to 900 by pivoting it about it hinged Thus the reading on illuminated scale measures angular deviations from one axis at 90o to the
end. Due to the work being held axially between centres, the angle of inclination will be half the optical axis, and the reading on the fixed datum scale measures the deviation about an axis
included angle of the work. The use of since centres and sine table provides a convenient method mutually perpendicular to the other two.
of measuring the angle of a taper plug gauge.

Figure. Angle dekkor

Thus, the changes in angular position of the reflector in two planes are indicated by
changes in the point of intersection of the two scales. Readings from scale are read direct to 1’
without the use of a micrometer.

The uses of angle dekkor in combination with angle gauges.

(i) Measuring angle of a component:-

It may be made clear that angle dekkor is capable of measuring small variations in angular
setting, i.e. determining angular tilt. In operation the measuring principle is that of measurement
by comparison; the angle dekkor is set to give a fixed reading form a known angle (i.e. using
known angular standards to obtain a zero reading). (Refer Figure)

Thus first the angle gauge combination is set up to the nearest known angle of the
Figure
(iv) To measure the angle of cone or
taper gauge:-
Figure. Measuring angle of a component.
(ii) To obtain precise angular setting for machining operations.
A simple set-up for this purpose is shown in Figure. The instrument is first set for the
nominal angle of cone on a combination of angle gauges or on a sine bar set to the nominal angle.
The cone is then placed in position with its base resting on the surface plate. A slip gauge or other
parallel reflector is held against the conical surface as no reflection can be obtained fro ma curved
surface. Any deviation from the set angle will be noted by the angle dekkor in its eye-piece and
indicated by the shifting of image of illuminated scale, whose reading while setting with angle
gauge is noted down before hand.

The working principle and uses of vernier bevel protractor.

Vernier Bevel Protractor:-

We will consider an example of milling a slot at a precise angle to a previously machined Vernier bevel protractor is the simplest angle measuring instrument. It consists of
datum face. A parallel bar is used as a datum face, the component being securely clamped when in
close contact with it parallel bar is positioned on the table of milling machine with the aid of angle 1. Main body
dekkor. The setting-up technique is illustrated in Figure. Wit the aid of this surface as reference, 2. Base plate stock
the angle dekkor is set up such that zero reading is obtained; in other words, the axis of the optical 3. Adjustable blade
beam is truly at 90o to the table feed. Then build up the combination of angle gauges to the exact 4. Circular plate containing Vernier scale
value , i.e. the inclination of the slot to the milled on the component. The angle gauges along with 5. Acute angle attachment
the parallel bar are placed on the table and adjusted in position such that the angle dekkor shows
zero reading when viewing the flat surface of the angle gauge combination. It means that the Figure shows a Vernier bevel protractor with acute angle attachment. The body of the
angular inclination between the datum face of the parallel bar and the feed direction of the table is Vernier Bevel protractor is designed in such a way that its back is flat and there are no projections
Figure. Vernier Bevel Protractor

The base plate is attached to the main body, and an adjustable blade is attached to a circular
plate containing Vernier scale. The main scale graduated in degrees is provided on the main body.
The adjustable blade is capable of rotating freely about the centre of the main scale engraved on
the body of the instrument can be locked in any position. An acute angle attachment is provided
at the top as shown in the figure for measuring acute angles. The base of the base of the base plate Figure (a) Use of bevel protractor for checking inside beveled face of a ground surface.
is made flat so that it could be laid flat upon the work and any type of angle measured.

The blade can be moved along throughout its length and can also be reversed. It is about
150 or 300 m long, 13 mm wide and 2 mm thick. Its ends are beveled at angles of 45o and 60o. The
acute angle attachment can be readily fitted into the body and clamped in any position.

The bevel protractors are tested for flatness, squareness, parallelism, straightness, etc.

Figure(b)Use of bevel protractor for checking ‘V’ block


(c) Use of Vernier protractor for measuring acute angle

The various methods of taper measurements.


Figure. The principle of the vernier protractor
Taper Measurement
As shown in Figure the main scale is graduated in degrees of arc. The Vernier scale has 12
divisions each side of the centre zero. These are marked 0-60 minutes of arc, so that each division Use of Precisions Balls and Rollers:-
equals 1/12 of 60, that is 5 minutes of arc. These 12 divisions occupy the same space as 23 degrees
1 11 Precision balls and rollers are used to determine both linear and angular dimensions in
on the main scale. Therefore, each division of the Vernier is equal to : of 23o or 1 .
12 12 conjunction with gauge blocks. These are made of good quality steel and are hardened and
tapered. The length for the roller is equal to the diameter. The balls and rollers are available in
sides of the lower surface of the plug on the slip gauge combinations of equal heights (H1). The
distance (M1) between the ends of the roller is measured with a micrometer. Then the rollers are
placed on slip gauge combinations of height (H2) touching on the opposite sides of the top portion
of the plug. The distance (M2) between the ends of the roller in this new position is again
measured by means of micrometer. The half the taper angle of the plug is then calculated as
follows:

If d = diameter of roller, then

Figure  M 2  d   M 1  d  
 2    2  
   
tan   
With reference to Figure from triangle O1 A O2 2   d 
  H 2  d / 2    H1  2  
  
d 2 d1 thus,

O1 A
tan /2 =  2 2 M 2  M1
AO2 1  d1  d 2 tan  /2=
2 2 2  H 2  H1 

d 2  d1 To check the angle of a taper hole.


i.e., tan /2 = …(i)
2l  d1  d 2
Figure shows the arrangement for checking the internal taper of a taper ring gauge using
Where l = length of slip gauge pile and d1 and d2 are diameters of rollers. two precision balls of different sizes. The taper ring gauge is placed on a surface plate and a small
ball of radius ‘r1’ is inserted in the ole close to the small end of the taper.
From equation (i) the slip gauge length
Two piles of slip gauges of equal heights are then placed on the surface plate on either sides
d 2  d1 of tapered ring gauge. A depth micrometer is then used to determine the distance from the top
2 d d  face of the gauge blocks to the surface of the precision ball. Then, a bigger ball of radius r2 is
L=  1 2  …(ii)
tan  / 2  2  placed in the hole near the big end of taper, and the distance from the top face of the gauge blocks
to the surface of the bigger precision ball is determined with the depth micrometer. From Figure.
Thus, initially the length of the slip gauges is calculated by the above equation and the
rollers are placed just in contact with the slip gauges.

Checking the angle of taper using rollers, micrometer and slip gauges.
r2  r2 The slip gauge combination (h) required to set an angle () is given by,

centre distance of balls (01  02 )
r2  r1 r2  r1 h = L sin 
 
h2  r2  h1  r1 h2  h1  r2  r1
The effect of error in spacing of roller centres (dL) or error in combination of slip gauges
(dh), on angular setting accuracy can be obtained by partial differentiation of the above equation.

Measuring of included angle of an internal dovetail Now, h = L sin 


dh dL
Therefore,  sin  .  L cos 
Dovetail slides are widely used in machine tool construction. The sloping sides of dovetail d d
slide act as guide and prevent the lifting of the female mating part during sliding operation.
i.e., dh = sin . dL + L cos . d
i.e., dh – sin  dL = L cos . d
This angle can be measured by using two rollers of equal size, slip gauges and a
dh sin dL
micrometer. The two rollers of equal diameters are placed, one each at the two corners and i.e., d  
L cos  L cos 
distance l1 is measured across the rollers with a micrometer. Then the rollers are placed on two
dh dL
sets of equal size slip gauge blocks and the distance l2 is measured. It should be noted that the i.e., d   .tan 
L cos  L
rollers do not extend above the top surface of dovetail. Let the height of slip gauges be h, then
 dh dL 
l l i.e.,  tan    
tan   2 1 .  L cos  L 
2
But L sin  = h
h
 dh dL 
Therefore, d  tan    
Measuring External Dovetail Slide  h L 

Figure shows an external dovetail slide with angle of dovetail . To check the width of
opening  as shown in figure, two rollers of equal diameter d are placed one each in the two
corners. Then the length l is obtained by trail and error with the help of slip gauges or end bars if l
I greater than 250 mm. Then the width ‘’ can be calculated by the relation:

 = l + d + d cot /2
Uhe use of sine bar for measurement of taper plug gauge.

Figure

Figure illustrates the use Now, d1 = 10.25 mm, d2 = 6.07 mm, h1 = 30.13 mm and h2 = 10.08 mm
of sine bar for measurement of angle of a taper plug gauge.
O1 A O1 A
sin  / 2  
The sine bar is set up on a surface plate to the nominal angle of the taper plug gauge and O1O2 BD  O1B  O2 D
clamped to an angle plate. Taper plug gauge is placed on the sine bar and prevented from d1 d 2

slogging down by a stop plate. The axis of the taper plug gauge is aligned with the bar axis. A dial 2 2 d1  d 2
 
gauge, supported in a stand is set at one end of the plug gauge and moved to the other end, and d1  d  2h1  d1  2h2  d 2
h1    h2  2 
the difference in the readings is noted. 2  2
d1  d 2
Therefore sin /2 =
Let ‘dx’ be the difference in the readings of the dial gauge over a distance ‘x’. Let ‘h’ be the 2  h1  h2    d1  d 2 
height of the combination of the slip gauges used and ‘L’, distance between the roller centres.
4.18
Sin /2 =
h 35.92
Then, nominal angle  = sin-1   and variation in the angle,
L
and /2 = 6.6826o,  = 13.3652o
 dx  To calculate minimum diameter (d) of internal taper:
d  sin 1  
 x 
From triangle O2DE

Therefore, actual angle of the taper plug gauge, d2


d /2
O1E
sin  / 2   2
O2 D d
h  dx  h2  2
=   d = sin    s in 1   2
L  x 
d d
For lead angle, above 41/2 degree the compensation for rake and compression must be
and minimum diameter of taper = 4.43 mm. taken in to account.

Reason for using three wire.

a) Generally three wires are used to measure a screw thread with a hand micrometer and
only two wires when using a floating carriage machine for same purpose.
The use of three wires for measurement, when using a hand micrometers in essential,
because two wires on one side help in aligning the micrometer square to the thread and the third
placed on the other side is essential for taking the readings
UNIT – III
In a floating carriage machine the alignment is inherent and thus the purpose in served with two
FORM MEASUREMENT wires only.

The elements to be taken into account while measuring the Screw threads to determine the b) A screw is never placed on centers to measure its major diameter whereas for measuring
accuracy the effective or minor diameters it in placed on the centers

Major diameter, Minor diameter, Effective diameter, pitch, thread form While measuring the major diameter, the micrometer "Sine error" which are likely to be
introduced if the thread on the centers and the micrometer are misaligned. Therefore for
Following in relation to screw threads. measuring major diameter, the screw thread should not be placed on the centers. In the
measurement of effective diameter and minor diameter, VECS are used and with the help of wires
1. Periodic Errors : or three only a negligible error can be introduced by such misalignment.
Periodic errors are those which vary at regular intervals.
2. Druken thread : The pitch of a screw thread.

If the periodic error occur every revolution, then the thread is known as Drunkeh Thread. The pitch of a thread is d as the distance between corresponding points on the adjacent
thread forms, measured parallel to the thread axis. In the same plane and on the same side of the
Standards do not specify tolerance on pitch axis.

The error in pitch have the effective of virtually increasing the effective diameter of an Course thread .
external thread and decreasing that of an internal thread, and the simplest way of controlling
them in to fix a limit for main equivalent in terms of the effective diameter. When the lead relative to the diameter is large, the thread is known as course thread.

The effect of the lead angle on a three wire measurement for an effective diameter of a screw The two corrections applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the method of wires
it the later case wire lies parallel to the helix at the radius of the point of contact. The points of
contact on opposite flanks will lies on opposite gides of the mean axial plane. As a result of this, Which are generally plug gauges with the help of which adjustable thread ring gauges,
the wire lies slightly farther from the thread axis than what has been assured and a correction has thread snap gauges and other thread comparator are set for checking size of master or basic
to be applied to the effective diameter as measured and calculate. This correction is different for gauge.
difference effective diameter being measured.
The various forms of thread gauges
A general formula for calculating rake correction is,
1. Plug screw gauges
Cos x / 2 l2 A 2 (l  A sin x/2+A 2Sin2 x) 2. Ring screw gauges
C Cot x/2 =
22 d 3. Caliper gauge
4. Screw thread gauge
C= Rake Correction
X/2 = Half the included angle the thread The various method of specifying the pitch of a gear
d= Diameter of wire
A= Constant = d/T+d Three different methods for specifying the pitch of a gear are

T = Diameter under the wire. 1. base pitch 2. circular pitch 3. Diameter pitch.
This correction is always subtracted from the measured diameter.
In all the above, only base pitch is directly measured and the other two are computed (or)
Compression correction. calculated.

As the micrometer exerts some force on the wire while measuring the effective diameter of Base pitch = circular pitch x Cosine of pressure angle.
the thread, some degree of compression takes place and as a result the diameter observed in less.
This correction in, therefore, added to the value of diameter obtained. This correction is more The base pitch of a spur gear is so important
pronounced on fine thread and those whose inclined angle is small, example B, A threads. For
measuring forces up to about 350gm, the correction in with in 0.0025mm for thread diameter Base pitch is of importance in the case of interchangeable gears as all gears generated from
down to about 3.5mm and only 0.04mm at 1mm diameter. For larger threads, for the some the same basic rack have the same base pitch.
measuring force, the compression correction in less and can be ignored.
E2 / 3 The case of involutes gears the Chordal thickness, merits and demerits
Compression correction = 0.01 1/ 3 mm
E
E = Measuring force in Newton’s. Chordal Thickness :

It is the Chordal tooth thickness at the base circle. It is denoted by "M".


 90 
The classification of Thread gauges. M = mT sin  
------------------ the tools. It is usual to measure Chordal thickness between those points of a tooth that lie on the
pitch circles and redial distance from those points to the tip of the teeth. If this dimension is "M",
The base pitch is an important gear tooth parameter, but can not easily be gauged as can the then the arc length M' is given by
chordal thickness or the constant Chord elements. However, it can be measured.
Expected order of accuracy in a gear tooth Vernier
The tooth thickness in the case of a simple spur gear.
The expected order of accuracy in a gear tooth vernier is in the vicinity of 0.05mm.
The tooth thickness is d as the length of the are of the pitch circle between opposite facts of
the same tooth. The various methods for determining the gear tooth thickness

Some special features of a gear tooth Vernier Caliper. Various methods available for a gear tooth thickness measurement are the following.

A gear tooth vernier has a length measuring Caliper and also has a vernier depth gauge to 1. The Chordal thickness
fix the depth at which the length in to be measured. 2. The constant Chord
3. The base tangent
Accuracy of gear tooth vernier in the vanity of 0.05mm. 4. Measurement over rollers.
Out of these, the first three utilize the vernier gear tooth.
A gear tooth vernier actually measure the d tooth thickness.
The gear manufacturing methods.
The gear tooth Vernier measures the Chordal thickness which is not a tooth thickness as per
definition It "M" is the Chordal thickness, then the thickness or actual tooth thickness (M') in Gears are generally made by one of the following two methods.
computed by
1. Reproducing method
A gear tooth Vernier may be set to one of two possible pains of dimensions for measuring tooth 2. Generating method
thickness. Which of the settings has the widest application and why
The sources of error in manufacturing of gears
A gear tooth Vernier may be set to measure the tooth thickness in two ways.
1. To measure tooth chordal thickness at pitch line. 1. Error in the manufactured certify tool
2. To measure the Chordal thickness as constant chord. Out of the above two ways, the following 2. Error in positioning the tool in relation to the work
reasons 3. Error in the relative motion of tool and blank during the generating operation.

a) The depth form the tip of the tooth (ie "n") at which the measurement in taken is independent The Classification of gears.
of the number of teeth in the gear. Also the measured dimensions, ie constant chart (m) in
independent of the number of teeth 1) High speed gears
"AARH" as applied to surface texture
Sampling length :
Sampling length is the length over which the surface texture in measured. Sampling Average Arithmetic Roughness Height. Its significance is same as C.L.A. or Ra value. The
lengths are given in the appropriate Indian and other countries National Standards. term is mostly used in Oil Industry Piping material.
Primary texture : This refers to the roughness of a surface, as opposed to its waviness
(secondary texture) Real surface :

It is the surface limiting the body and separating it from the surrounding surface.

Geometrical Surface :
The function and operating of stylus - type surface texture measuring instrument.
It is the Surface prescribed by the design or by the process of manufacture neglecting the
Stylus is a fine point, usually diamond, drawn over the surface. The reference plane is errors of form and surface roughness.
usually generated by a shoe or skied following the crest of the surface. Straight line or radius
attachments may also be fitted. Movement of the diamond stylus are amplified electronically and Effective Surface :
traced on a moving chart. An integrating meter also can be used in indicate the Ra value direct.
It is the close representation of real surface obtained by instrumental means.
Disadvantages of the stylus type of instrument.
Surface texture :
Its bulk, complexity, relative fragility, high initial COSA limitation to a section of surface.
Repetitive or random deviations form the normal surface which form the pattern of the
Statement of roughness. surface. Surface texture include roughness, waveness, lay and flows.

The roughness statement should include the following information’s. Flows :

1. Range of "Ra" value (or) "N" values Flows are irregularities which occurs at one place or at relatively infrequent or widely
2. Sampling length varying intervals in a surface like scratches, cracks, random blemishes etc.
3. Direction of lay
4. Production process The methods of measuring surface finish

Surface finish differs from surface integrity 1. Surface Inspection (or) comparison method
2. Direct Instrument
Surface finish refers to the quality finish or roughness over the surface while surface a) Touch Inspection
integrity refers to the continuity of the plane, that h, there should be no discontinuity of the plane b) Visual Inspection
outer edges of the blade and stock. visualized. The helix will be a curve in the case of drunken thread and not a bright line as shown
in fig.
The reversal method used to test the squareness error of an engineer's square.
True Thread
In the several method for testing the squareness of an engineer in square, a double edged Drunken Thread
straight edge is arranged vertical. The square in placed on either side of the straight edge, keeping
Pitch
in base at equal distance in bulk the cases. Then, the slips are so adjusted which can be just
inserted between the straight -edge and the square at the top of other side. If the straight edge is
not exactly vertical than the till of the straight edge will add to the squareness error when the Helix angle
square is on one side and subtract from it on the other side. The mean of the apparent errors on
both sides then gives the true squareness error. II x Mean Dia
It is very difficult to determine such errors and moreover they do not have any great effect on
The reversal method in very accurate. The straight edge need not be exactly vertical and the working unless the thread is of very large size.
provided each edge is straight, it need not be parallel, the parallelism error must be checked and
allowed for. Pitch Errors in Screw Threads : Generally the threads are generated by a point cutting tool. In this
case, for pitch to be correct, the ratio of the linear velocity of tool and angular velocity of the work
The various error in threads, and their effects. must be correct and this ratio must be maintained constant, otherwise pitch errors will occur. If
there is some error in pitch, then the total length of thread engaged will be either too great or too
Errors in threads : In the case of plain shafts and holes, there is only one dimension which has to small, the total pitch error in overall length of the thread being called the cumulative pitch error.
be considered (i.e diameter) and errors on this dimension if exceed the permissible tolerance, will Various pitch errors can be classified as,
justify the rejection of part. While in the case of screw threads there are at least five important
elements which require consideration and error in any one of these can cause rejection of the 1. Progressive pitch Error : This error occurs when the tool work velocity ratios incorrect
thread. In routine production all of these five elements (major diameter, minor diameter, effective though it may be constant. It can also be due to pitch errors in the lead screw of the lathe or other
diameter, pitch and angle of the thread form) must be checked and methods of gauging must be generating machine.
able to cover all these elements.
The other possibility is by using an incorrect gear or an approximate gear train between work
Errors on the major and minor diameters will cause interference with the mating thread. Due to and lead screw e.g while metric threads are cut with an inch pitch lead screw and a translatory
errors in these elements, the root section and wall thickness will be less, also the flank contact will gear is not available. A graph between the cumulative pitch error and the length thread is
be reduced and ultimately the component will be weak in strength. Errors on the effective generally a straight line in case of progressive pitch error.
diameter will also result in weakening of the assembly due to interference between the blanks.
2. periodic Pitch Error : this repeats itself at regular intervals along the thread. In this case,
Similarly pitch and angle errors are also not desirable as they cause a progressive lightening successive portions of the thread are either longer or shorter than the mean. This type of error
and interference or assembly. These two errors have a special significance as they can be precisely occurs when the tool work velocity ratio is not constant. This type of error also results when a
related to the effective diameter. thread is cut from a lead screw which lacks squareness in the abutment causing the lead screw to
In ∆ABC
ABC = θ = half the angle of thread
Cot θ = BC / AC = (ςEd/2)/( θ p/2), or ςEd = ςp cot θ
Increase in effective diameter = ςp X cot θ.

Since cot 55/2 = 1.921 (for Whitworth), its effect is nearly doubled when the equivalent increase
3. Irregular Errors : These arise from distributes in the machining setup variations in the in effective diameter is calculated.
cutting properties of material etc. thus they have no specifics causes and correspondingly no
specific characteristics also.. these errors could be summarized as follows. Similarly the effect of pitch error will be reduce the effective diameter of the screw.

Erratic Pitch : This is the irregular error in pitch and varies irregularly in magnitude over different Angle Errors : Angle errors on threads may be either due to errors on one or both flanks. Any
lengths of thread. error in angle of thread results in interface between the bolt and nut and to accommodate it, the
effective diameter of nut has to be increased. Thus like pitch errors, the angle errors also increase
Progressive Error : When the pitch of a screw is uniform, but is shorter or longer than its nominal the virtual effective diameter of a bolt and decrease that of a nut. Assuming that one of the pairs is
value, it is said to have progressive errors. correct, it is possible to satisfactorily assemble the thread pairs by modifying the effective
diameter. The effective diameter of an incorrect bolt must be decreased to permit a correct mating
Periodic Error : If the errors vary in magnitude and recur at regular intervals, when measured thread to make and similarly the effective diameter of an incorrect nut must be increased.
from thread to thread along the screw are referred to as periodic errors.
If (ςθ1+ ςθ2) be equivalent to the errors in the adjoining flank angles of any thread, then the
Effect of pitch errors : corresponding correction = Cp((ςθ1+ ςθ2 )

An error in pitch virtually increases the effective diameter of a bolt or screw and decreases the Where C = 0.0100 for unified thread = 0.0105 for Whitworth thread = 0.0091 for British associated
effective diameter of a nut. The meaning of the virtual change in effective diameter is that if any threads = 0.0115 for ISO metric thread p = basic pitch of thread, (ςθ1+ ςθ2 ) = sum of errors in
screw is perfect except for pitch error. It will not screw easily into a perfect ring gauge of same adjacent flank angles in degrees (regardless of signs of the errors)
nominal size until its effective diameter is reduced.
Diameter Errors : Errors of major, minor and pitch diameter and their mutual non-concentricity
For White worth thread, if sp is the error in pitch then the virtual increase (decrease) in the give rise to interference and strain in the joint. More forces is required for fitting.
effective diameter of the thread in case of bolt (nut) is given by the relation.
Measurement of Various elements of thread : The methods discussed here are from the point of
Virtual change in effective diameter = 1.921 X ςp. Similarly errors in flank angles also require a view of measurement of gauges, but they can obviously be applied to precise work, threading
corresponding reduction in the effective diameter if the screw is to fit a perfect ring gauge of the tools, taps and hobs etc. we will be dealing with the measurement of most important six elements
same nominal size. i.e major, minor and effective diameters, pitch angle and form of thread.
This instrument was designed by N.P.L to estimate some deficiencies inherent in the normal hand the cast. It may be mentioned that taking out of sulphur cast is easier than the plaster. Oiling is not
micrometer. It uses constant measuring pressure and with this machine the error due to pitch necessary in case of sulphur cast.
error in the micrometer threads avoided. In order to that all measurements be made at the same
pressure, a fiducial indicator is used in place of the all measurements machine there is no Measurement of minor diameter in screw threads.
provision for mounting the work piece between the centers and it is to be held in hand. This is so
because, generally the centers of the work piece are not true with its diameter. This machine is Measurement of Minor diameter : This is also measured by a comparative process using small
used as a comparator in order to avoid any pitch errors of micrometers, zero error setting etc. a Vee-pieces which make contact with root of the thread. The Vee pieces are available in several
calibrated setting cylinder is used as the setting standard. sizes having suitable radii at the edges. The included angle of the root of the thread. To measure
the minor diameter by Vee pieces is suitable for only Whitworth and B.A threads which have a
The advantage of using cylinder as setting standard and not slip gauges etc. is that it gives definite radius at the root of the thread. For other threads, the minor diameter is measured by the
greater similarity of contact at the anvils. The diameter of the setting cylinder must be nearly same projector or microscope.
as the major diameter. The cylinder is held and the reading of the micrometer is noted down. This
is then replaced by threaded work piece and again micrometer reading is noted for the same The measurement is carried out on a floating carriage diameter measuring machine in which
reading of fiducial indicator. Thus, if the size cylinder is approaching that of major or diameter, the threaded work piece is mounted between centers and a bench micrometer is constrained to
then for a given reading the micrometer thread is used over a short length of travel and any pitch move at right angles to the axis of the center by a Vee ball side. The method of the application of
errors it contains are virtually eliminated. vee pieces in the machine is shown diagrammatically in fig. the dimension of vee piece play no
important function as they are interposed between the micrometer faces and the cylindrical
If D1 =diameter of setting cylinder standard reading is taken.
R1 =reading of micrometer on setting cylinder
R2 =Micrometer reading on thread, then major diameter = D1 +(R – R1) It is important while taking readings, to ensure that the micrometer be located at right angles to
the axis of the screw being measured. The selected vee are placed head is then advanced until the
In order to determine the amount of taper, the readings should be taken at various positions pointer of the indicator is opposite the zero marl, and note being made of the reading of the
along the thread and to detect the ovality, two or three readings must be taken at one plane in micrometer is taken.
angular positions.
If reading on setting cylinder with Vee pieces in position = R1 and reading on thread = R2 and
Major diameter of internal threads: The measurement of the elements of an internal threads is diameter of setting cylinder = D1 then minor diameter = D1 +(R2 – R1).
more cumbersome. Since it is difficult to approach the elements of internal thread, an indirect
approach is followed by making a cast of the thread. The main art thus lies in obtaining a perfect Readings may be taken at various positions in order to determine the taper ovality.
cast, because once good cast is available the various elements can be measured as for external
threads.
other. On the fixed carriage the centers are supported in two brackets fitted on either end. The Thread micrometer method : the thread micrometer resembles the ordinary micrometer, but it
distance between the two centers the second carriage is adjusted depending upon the length of the has special contacts to suit the end screw thread form that is to be checked. In this micrometer, the
thread job. After job is fitted between the centers the second carriage is adjusted in correct position end of the spindle is pointed to the Vee thread form with a corresponding vee recess in the fixed
to take measurements and is located in position. The third carriage is then moved till the fiducial anvil. When measuring threads only, the angle of the point and the side of vee-anvil i.e the flanks
indicator is against the set point. The readings are noted from the thimble head. It is now obvious of the threads should come into contact with the screw thread.
that the axes of the indicator is specially designed for this class of this work and has only one
index line. Against which the pointer is always to be set. This ensures constant measuring
pressure for all readings. Sufficient friction is provided by the conical pegs to restrain the
movement of carriage along the line of centers. The upper carriage is free to float on balls and
enables micrometer readings to be taken on a diameter without restraint. Square ness of the
micrometer to the line centers can be adjusted by rotating the pegs in the first carriage which is
made eccentric in its mounting.

Above the micrometer carriage, two supports are provided for supporting the wires and vee
pieces for measurement of effective diameter etc.
If correctly adjusted, this micrometer gives the pitch diameter.
Minor diameter of internal threads : minor diameter of internal threads can be measured
conveniently by the following methods. This value should agree with that obtained by measurement by outside diameter and pitch
from the following relation.
i) Using taper parallels : The taper parallels are pairs of wedges having radiuses and parallel
outer edges. The diameter across their outer edges can be changes by sliding them over each other Pitch dia = D-0.6403p (in case of Whitworth thread) where 0.6403p = depth of thread, D = outside
shown in fig. the taper parallels are inserted inside the thread and adjusted until firm contact is dia p = pitch.
established with the minor diameter. The diameter over the outer edges is measured with a
micrometer. This method is suitable for smaller diameter threads. Limitations of thread micrometer : The micrometer must be set to a standard thread plug. If not
done so in the first instance, there will be error due to helix angle of the thread being measured.
ii) Using rollers : For threads bigger than 10mm diameter, precision rollers are inserted inside the When setting the instrument to a standard plug gauge it will be observed that the reading is not
thread and proper slip gauge inserted between the rollers as shown in fig. exactly zero, as previously inferred, when the spindle and anvil are brought together.

So that firm contact is obtained. The minor diameter is


then the length of slip gauges plus twice the diameter of
One-wire method of measuring effective diameter of screw threads.

One wire method : In this method, one wire is placed between two threads at one side and on the
other side anvil of the measuring micrometer contacts the crests as shown in fig. First the
micrometer reading is noted on a standard gauge whose dimension is nearly same as to be
obtained by this method. Actual measurement over wire on one side and threads on other side =
size of gauge ± difference in two micrometer readings.

This method is used for measuring effective diameter of counter pitch threads, and during
manufacture of threads.

The difficulty with his method is that the micrometer axis may not remain exactly at right angles Two wire method can be carried out only on the diameter measuring machine described for
to the thread axis. measuring the minor diameter, because alignment is not possible by 2 wires and can be provided
only by the floating carriage machine. In the case of three wore method, 2 wires on one side help
Two wire method : The effective diameter of a screw thread may be ascertained by placing two in aligning the micrometer square to the thread while the third placed on the readings.
wires or rods of identical diameter between the flanks of the thread, as shown in fig. and
measuring the distance over the outside of these wires. The effective diameter E is then calculated
as
E = T + P, where

T = Dimension under the wires = M -2d


M =Dimension over the wires, d = diameter of each wire

The wires used are made of hardened steel to sustain the wear and tear in use. These are given
a high degree of accuracy and finish by lapping to suit different pitches.

Dimension T can also we determined by placing wires over a standard cylinder of diameter
greater that the diameter under the wires and noting the reading R1 and then taking reading with
wires over the gauge, say R2 then = S-(R1-R2)
A simplified diagram of this measuring machine is shown in fig. as already pointed out the
P = It is a value which depends upon the dia of wire and pitch of the thread. machine ensures that the axis of the micrometer is maintained at 90 to the axis of the screw under
If P = pitch of the thread, then test. The lower slide (wrongly indicated as lower side ) is capable of movement parallel with the
axis of thread while the top slide moves at 90 to thread axis.

1
BC  pitch  12 p
2
d cosecx/2
OP 
2
d (cosecx/2-1)
PA 
2
P
PQ  QC cot x / 2  cot x / 2
4
p cotx/2 d (cosecx/2-1)
AQ  PQ  AP  
4 2
AQ is half the value of P
p x  x 
P value =2AQ= cot  d  cos ec  1
2 2  2 
to one or more of the quantities appearing in the formulas.

Effect of lead angle on measurement by 3 wire method. If the lead angle is large (as with
warms; quick traversing lead screw, etc) then error in measurement is about 0.0125mm when lead
angle is 4.5 for 60 single thread series.

For lead angles above 4.5 compensation for rake and compression must also be considered.

There is no recommendation for B.S.W threads.

Rake correction in U.S Standard.


cot x / 2  x S2 x x
E  m  x 1  cos ec  cos cot 
2n  2 2 2 2
M = distance over wires, E=effective diameter, r=radius of the wires, d=diameter of wires, h=height
of the center of the wire rod from the effective diameter, x=angle of thread. Where x/2 = half the included angle of threads, E = effective diameter, M=actually measured
diameter over wires, n=number of threads/inch, d=diameter of wire, s=tangent of the helix angle in
From fig. AD = AB cosec x/2 = r cosec x/2 thread.
CD = H/2 cotx/2 = cotx/2
h=AD-CD Best size wire: The wire is of such diameter that it makes contact with the flanks of the thread on
r=cosecx/2 – p/4 cotx/2 the effective diameter or pitch line. Actually effective diameter can be measured with any
distance over wires = M=E+2h+2r diameter wire which makes contact on the true flank of the thread. Bu the values so obtains will
=E+2(r cosec x/2 – p/4 cot x/2) + 2r differ from those obtained with best size wires if there is any error in angle or form of thread. It is
=E+2(1+ cosec x/2 – p/2 cot x/2) recommended that for this condition the wire touches the flank at mean diameter line within ± 1/5
M=E+d(r cosec x/2 – p/ cot x/2 of flank length (refer solved problem) with best size wire, any error on the measured value of
simple effective diameter due to error in thread form or angle is minimized.
i) In case of Whitworth thread :
It can be shown that size of best wire diameter
x=55, depth of thread =0.64p, so that, E=D-0.64p and cosecx/2=2.1657, cotx/2=1.921
p
d
2 cos x / 2
M=E+d(1+cosecx/2)-p/2cotx/2=D-0.64p+d(1+2.1657)-p/2(1.921) = D+3.1657d – 1.605p
With best size wire, P value = d (cosecx/2+1)cotx/2
M=D+3.1657d-1.6p, where D=outside dia
 1  sin x / 2  cos 2 x / 2  p 1  sin x / 2
d   d (1  sin x / 2)  .
 sin x / 2  2 cos x / 2
ii) In case of metric thread:

cot x / 2
E  (M  d ) sec h   d cos ecx / 2
2n
Z = J1 + J2 i.e, constants for the end gauge pieces.
Where E=effective diameter, M=measurement over the wires, d=diameter of the wires, h=half the
angle of taper, x/2=half the included angle of the thread form, n=number of threads per inch. The assembled slips are set in a holder with a slip equal to half the pitch, bench one end piece to
compensate for the helix angle.
Effective Diameter measurement threads.

Thread comparator : In this case a pair of a ball tips engage the flanks of the threads in the work
and measure the effective diameter only.

The ball tip on the right is fixed at the end of a measuring jaw attached to a floating head in the
sliding brackets (B). the floating head has extension in contact with the spindle of the dial
indicator and the movement of floating head towards the indicator is constrained by a spring.
(The set up in fig does not show the ball tips)

The instrument is set to a reference standard, with the dial pointer a zero. To use the gauge, the The reference gauge thus assembled is ready for setting the comparator. Ball tips must be of
floating head is retracted to insert the ball tips in the internal threads of the work, and released to suitable size for the thread. The size is not critical provided the ball point first the thread so as to
allow the tips to engage the flanks of the thread under the pressure of the spring. The dial bear o the flack near the mean pitch line.
indicator then shows the deviation from the nominal size to which the gauge is set. The
instrument may be used on work in the machine, or on the working bench. The fixed head (A) For threads from 4 to 7 t.p.i a ball of 0.095 inch dia is used, from 7 to 12 t.p.i 0.060 inch diameter
carrying the left hand ball tip is adjusted by a fine screw to set gauge to the reference standard. and from 12 to 20 t.p.i. 0.035 inch diameter balls are used. A pair of V-jaws, 55 or 60 covers all
The reference standard is built up from slip gauges as shown in fig. the two end pieces have V- pitches from 4 to 20 t.p.i. The method of calculating the value of S from the effective diameter
jaws of an angle of vee corresponding to the thread i.e 60 degree or 55 degree. excluded the radius OY at the creset and root of the thread, as the form is considered to extend to
the apex of the vee. In some cases it may be necessary to accept the major diameter as it may be
the basic dimension of the thread, and the form at the root of the thread must then be taken into
account.
P

The dimension J1 are marked on the pieces, and are the depths from the face to the apex points of For metric threads, S=D+0.2165p-Z; for whitworth threads, S=D+0.3202p-Z.
The standard type of projector is used, consisting of a projector lamp, a condenser lens or The included angle can be determined by two ball method.
collimator, the projection lens and the screen.
The measurement of pitch of screw threads.

The screw thread to be examined is placed in the parallel beam of light between the condenser Measurement of pitch : The accuracy of pitch in any form of thread is very important. Therefore it
lens and the projector lens. is very important to able to measure this element of thread to high degree of accuracy, at least
double that of the effective diameter measurement. The measurement must be made in such a way
The modern projectors are quipped with work holding pictures, the projection lamp and the
that other features or dimensions e.g diameter and thread angle do not influence the result.
lenses situated on top of the cabinet, and the screen at the front. The light rays from the lens are
directed downwards into the cabinet, and hence to the screen by a system of prisms and mirrors,
bringing every thing within the reach of the operator.
External Threads :
The enlarged image of the thread form appears on the ground –glass screen on which is
mounted the template or drawing of the form made to scale equal to the magnification of the lens. 1. For less accurate methods, the zees pitch or lead measuring instrument may be used. It
This way the two forms (i.e ideal and projected) are compared. utilizes contact members having two ball points which are applied to the effective surface of the
thread. These points are aligned parallel to the thread axis either by a thread pin at the back or a
special back rest having a plane face parallel to the thread axis. The instrument is adjusted to zero
before making a measurement, with the aid of a special micrometer gauge supplied for the
purpose, or buying a standard plug gauge. Upon applying the instrument to the thread it registers
the pitch deviation from the standard measurement. The scale of the indicator has a range of ±
0.1mm and each division reads to 0.01mm. The measuring accuracy of the indicator is ± 0.003mm.

2. The pitch of external threads can be measured by using screw pitch or profile gauge. Such a
gauge consists of series of thread forms with varying pitch. The one which coincides perfectly
with the thread under test gives the pitch. The accuracy of measurement depends on the method
One of the difficult I projecting screw thread is the fact that form is specified on an axial plane. So of sighting used to judge the perfect ness.
we must consider the correction for it.
3. A more accurate method is the microscope method. Screw threads can be inspected and
Referring to fig. the normal pitch p is less than the axial pitch P and is given by the relation; p = P their profile angles and linear pitches checked with the aid of a goniometric microscope. The parts
cosθ; where θ is the helix angle. to be gauged are usually held between centers and illuminated from below, their silhouettes
appearing in the field of the viewing eyepiece. Effective pitch diameters can also be measured by
Referring to fig.
this method.
IfA = half the included angle of thread on the axial plane.
The method of measuring pitch is shown in fig. the microscope has two reticules that can be

0.5 P 0.5 P cos   0.5 p 


tan A  ; tan X   or tan X  
B B  B 
A comparatively simple, method of testing the pitch of a screw thread with the cooke tool room
microscope fitted with its projection screen is as follows.

The screw to be checked is mounted in a cradle under the microscope objective and the
necessary adjustments made to project the sharp enlarged image of the thread on the screen. The
appropriate thread form on the microscope thread template is then brought into coincocide with
the projected image, as shown in fig. and a reading of the lon-gitudinal table micrometer screw
taken; this can be done to an accuracy of 0.0025mm. The table is then moved by means of the
micrometer screw until the image of the next thread on the screen under inspection fills the It may be mentioned that is small hand wheel below the micrometer actuates screw for the
template profile and the reading of the micrometer again taken. The difference between the purpose of moving the indicator in relation to the slide so as to bring the stylus opposite to the
readings gives the measured pitch of the screw. The procedure is repeated for each in individual screw to be tested in any position between the centers. The total travel of the micrometer is 25mm.
thread in order to find the separate pitch error, if any. Finally, the difference between the initial
and last readings of the micrometer when divided by the number of threads that have been As the pitch of the micrometer screw is checked accurately when the machine is inspected and a
measured enables the “mean pitch” of the screw to be estimated. curve of errors is provided, it is possible to attain a high standard of precision in measuring
screws. The pitch errors are extremely small, being of the order of 0.002mm for a thread. A test
screw is also supplied with the machine and a chart of itch error for this screw.

The metric pitch measuring machine operates on a similar principle to the pitter machine. It is
robust in construction and sensitive in measurement, revealing pitch accuracies of 0.0025mm for
all thread forms. In this machine refer fig. a micrometer head is provided on the headstock which
is fixed on the base. The rotation of micrometer head produces movement of the longitudinal
carriage along the bed of the base.

For still more accurate purpose it is necessary to employ a special screw pitch measuring
machine by which the actual pitch error of individual threads can be measured. The Pitter and
Matrix are typical examples of pitch measuring machines.

The Pitter screw measuring machine employs various stylus points to suit screw threads that
are to be checked. The screw under measurement is held stationary between centers on the
machine. The indicator unit, carrying the stylus which bears on the flanks of each thread
successively, is carried on a slide which is mounted on balls. The slide is actuated by means of a
micrometer. The act of rotating the micrometer spindle causes the slide to move in relation to the
the fiducial line; the second carriage is then locked. The stylus, by virtue of an ingenious mounting 25 (Each 0.002mm numbered every fifth division pitch multiples of
E
device, is capable of free movement riding up and down the thread flanks on linear movement of 20 0.025mm)
the screw thread by rotation of micrometer head. The stylus is now traversed along the thread,
pitch by pitch, reading being taken each time the indicator is set to zero. The micrometer can be Dial C is for British association, metric or non-standard pitches. Dial E is for metric machines
fitted with a series of graduated dials that can be changes quickly. With the proper dial for the only. The provision of a dial marked to suit a particular pitch simplifies pitch measuring, a
pitch that is to be measure the readings of the error obtained from the displacement of the lines on division on the dial is opposite the zero mark for nominal pitch each thread. Any variation of the
the disc which is graduated in (0.002 mm) divisions. It is after making this test, to the turn to first division from the zero may then be read directly to 0.0001” on either side of the zero line.
thread and repeat the readings, and the micrometer should read zero again. Stylus points are available to suit any particular thread. Care should be taken to make the stylus
point touch the thread at or near the pitch line. The stylus holder is pivoted to allow the stylus
point to follow in and out of the threads, as the carriage is moved along, and is adjustable for
pressure.

Expression for the best size wire.

The best size wire is one, in which case the wire makes contact with the thread flank. i.e the
contact points of the wires should be, on the pitch line or effective diameter. In other words, OP is
perpendicular to the flank position of the thread. Let half the included angle of thread be x.

Additional description of pitch measuring machines: To correct any error pitch of the
micrometer screw a compensator bar is provided.

The instrument is checked periodically with a master reference screw which is placed between
centers and measured for the pitch over full range of micrometer. In this case variation in the Then in ∆OAP, sin POA
reading is taken to indicate errors in the micrometer screw, and the compensator bar modified AP AP
accordingly. SinPOA  , or sin (90  -x)=
OP OP
AP AP
The micrometer screw has 40 t.p.i and with a graduated dial of 250 divisions numbered every OP    AP sec x
sin(90   x) cos x
10 divisions, the instrument is read as on ordinary micrometer calibrated to 0.0001inch. the
micrometer dial may be replaced by any one of the five alternative dials to simplify the Since AP = r, and wire diameter = 2r=2AP sec x
measurement of the threads of certain pitches. Each of the dials is marked with a number of As AP lies on the pitch line, AP=p/4 (where p = pitch of the thread)
divisions to suit a range of pitches as follows. 2p p
dp  sec x  sec x
4 2
cosx/2cotx/2 l 2 2
C= A (1  A sin x / 2  A2 sin 2 X / 2)
2 2 d
Best wire size is d
p x Where C = Rake correction, X/2 = Half the included angle of thread, l=Lead of thread,
d sec
2 2 D = diameter of wire A= Constant
here x=included angle of the thread d
Constant 
p T+d
 47 30  p 1
= sec     0.5465 p
2  2  2 0.9150
Where T = Diameter under the wires.
1
(a) upper limit/lower limit:
5
This correction is always subtracted from the measured diameter.
1
flank length   BF
5
ii) Compression Correction: As the micrometer exerts some force on the wires while measuring
Refer fig please note that point B could not be shown in fig. Actually B lies on line OF such that AB the effective diameter of threads, some degree of comparison takes place and as a result the
┴OF. Point C lies on inter section of line AD and OF). diameter observed is less. This correction, is therefore added to the value of diameter obtained.
This correction is more pronounced on fine threads and those whose included angle is small e.g
B,A threads, for measuring forces upto about 350gm. The correction is within 0.0025mm for thread
diameter down to about 3.5mm and only 0.005mm at 1 mm diameter for larger threads, for the
some measuring force, the compression is less and can be ignored.

Formula for determining compression correction is


E 2/3
=0.001 1/3 mm.
E
BF = CE + BC + EF = CE + 2BC Various errors in gears.
BC = (OA sin x/2) tan x/2
= [(0.1808p + 0.2682p). sin 23 45] X tan 23 45 = 0.0378p Gear errors. Various possible types of error on spur, helical, bevel and worm gears are described
below:
Hence upper limit for best wire size = 0.5465p + 0.0378p = 0.5843p and lower limit for best wire
size = 0.5465p – 0.0378p = 0.5087p.
(i) Adjacent pitch error Actual pitch – design pitch.
(ii) Cumulative pitch error Actual length between corresponding flanks of teeth not adjacent
Two corrections applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the method of wires
to each other-design length.
(iii) Profile error The maximum distance of any point on the tooth profile form and
The two corrections applied are : i) Rake correction, and ii) Compression correction.
normal to the design profile when the two coincide at the
reference circle.
(Refer Fig.15.3a). tooth thickness is measured, it forms an important item to be controlled. Concentricity of the
(vi) The tooth to tooth The range of variation in composite error – double the blanks is also essential and the side faces should be true to the bore. On very precise gears details
minimum centre flank distance between a gear and a master like tip radius, shape of root provided and surface finish are also measured.
gear when rotated through a distance corresponding to the pitch
of the teeth (Refer Fig. 15.13a) Concentricity of teeth is an important item and should be checked to ensure that the set up and
(vii)The total composite The range of variation in error-double flank. The minimum equipment is in good order. If teeth are not concentric then fluctuating velocity will be noticed on
centre distance between gear and a master gear when the gear is the pitch line while transmitting motion. This also leads to inaccuracy of parts when being used
rotated through one revolution (Refer Fig.15.13b) for indexing purposes. Tooth concentricity can be checked by (i) mounting the gear between the
(viii) The tooth thickness error Actual tooth thickness measured along the surface of the reference bench centres, placing a standard roller in each tooth space and then using a dial indicator, (ii)
cylinder – design tooth thickness. using a projector in which case the teeth are brought against a stop and each image of tooth on
(ix) Cyclic error An error occurring during each revolution of the element under screen should coincide with a line on the screen (iii) using a gear testing fixture fitted with a
consideration. spring loaded slide and dial indicator, in which case the spring exerts a constant pressure on the
(x) Periodic error An error occurring at regular intervals not necessarily mating teeth and the movement of the dial indicator, in which case the spring exerts a constant
corresponding to one revolution of the component. pressure on the mating teeth and the movement of the dial indicator gives the measure of the
(xi) Run out It is the total range of reading of a fixed indicator with the contact eccentricity of teeth.
point applied to a surface rotated, without axial movement about
Good alignment of each tooth on a gear is essential, as otherwise the load will not be distributed
a fixed axis.
evenly over its face. If teeth of a gear be machined poorly, it is quite probable that the load may be
(xii) Radial run out It is the run – out measured along a perpendicular to the axis of
carried by one edge only introducing high bearing stresses. Tooth alignment can be checked by
ration.
placing a standard roller in the tooth space and checking for parallelism off a surface plat. In the
(xiii) Eccentricity It is half the radial run-out.
other method, the teeth on one gear are lightly marked with Prussian blue and mounted in a
(xiv) Axial run-out (wobble) It is the run- out measured parallel to the axis of rotation, at a
testing machine having a master gear. The contacts made on the mating gear give good idea of
specified distance from the axis.
tooth alignment.
(xv) Undulation A periodical departure of the actual tooth surface from the design
surface (Refer Fig. 15.13b). Hardness of gear tooth should be tested to ensure that heat treatment is proper and that the
(xvi) Undulation height The normal distance between two surface from the design surface desired harness due to provision of adequate thickness and grain size have been attained.
(Refer Fig. 15.13c)
(xvii) Wave length of an The distance between two undulation adjacent crests of an The method employed for measuring and testing of gears depends upon various factors,
undulation (Refer Fig. 15.13c) such as the precision of gears, method of manufacturing equipment available etc.
(xviii) Tooth alignment error The distance of any point on a tooth trace from the design tooth
trace passing through a selected reference point on that tooth The accuracy of any gear mainly depends upon the cutter accuracy and the setting of the
(Refer Fig.15.13c) machine. Thus for most of the gears, optical projection and rolling tests will suffice. But in
manufacture of high precision gear, it is necessary to determine the accuracy of individual
The presence of these errors caused interference in efficient elements e.g., tooth thickness, pitch of teeth and form of teeth etc.
Operation of gears. These result in non-smooth and noisy Accuracy of measurement. While the accuracy of measuring of gear depends upon the measuring
performance under operational conditions. How ever this method is of great understanding of the as shown in Fig.15.8.
subject to student. Nevertheless it may be stressed that all errors in pitch profile cause variations
in the uniformity of rotary motion and the errors in tooth alignment or helix angle result in the
concentration at small areas instead of being distributed uniformly.

The analytical inspection of the gears consists in determination of the following teeth
elements in which the errors are caused due to manufacturing errors.
The machine could also be used to carried out more complex tests by suitable modification in
(A) Profile. (B) Spacing. (C) Pitch (D) Run out or eccentricity or concentricity. (E) its operation, e.g., by locking the movable carriage at the running centre distance of the gears, and
Thickness of tooth (F) Lead. (G) Backlash. by fixing the master gear, the black flash can be determined by setting a dial gauge at the pitch
line of the production gear. It is also possible to check the gears for smooth running at this setting
The functional type of inspection consists of carrying out the running test of gear with and this is very essential for gears. This is judged by the noise produced.
another gear which is more accurate and is known as control gear or master gear, to determine
composite vibration, noise level, or variation in action. If a pair of gears work together at the For these tests, if master gear is not available, then any two mating gears are mounted on
designed speed and under load with little noise, they are considered satisfactory for many the spindle and they are tested twice at relative angular positions of 1800 to each other so that any
purposes. If drive is noisy, then individual elements have to be measured. However master gear compensating errors in one angular position in gears are also revealed.
has to be measured on elemental basis only.
Measurement of tooth thickness by gear tooth Vernier method.
Rolling Tests
Measurement of tooth thickness. The permissible error or the tolerance on thickness of
This is the most commonly used test under production conditions. This consumes much tooth is the variation of actual thickness of tooth from its theoretical value. The tooth thickness is
less time and gives quite accurate results. In rolling test, the gear to be tested is actually compared generally measured at pitch circle and is therefore, the pitch line thickness o tooth. It may be
with a hardened and ground master gear. This test is generally performed on a most commonly mentioned that the tooth thickness is d as the length of an arc, which is difficult to measure
used machine Parson Gear Tester. This test reveals any errors in tooth form, pitch and directly. In most of the cases, it is sufficient to measure the chordal thickness i.e., the chord joining
concentricity if pitch line, When two gears are in mesh with each other, then any of the above the intersection of the tooth profile with the pitch circle,. Also the difference between chordal
errors will cause the variation of centre distance. This fact is utilized for testing the errors in gear tooth thickness and circular tooth thickness is very small for gear of small pitch. The thickness
by this machine. measurement is the most important measurement because most of the gears manufactured may
not undergo checking of all other parameters, but thickness measurement is a must for all gears.
There are various methods of measuring the gear tooth thickness.
It essentially consists of a base. Two carriages, one fixed and the other movable are
mounted on the base. The position of the fixed carriage can be adjusted in order to accommodate (i) Measurement of tooth thickness by gear tooth venire caliper. (ii) Constant chord
a wide range of diameters. While in use, this fixed carriage is locked in one position. The method. (iii) Base tangent method. (iv) Measurement by dimension over pins.
movable carriage is spring loaded towards the fixed carriage. Two spindles are mounted in a
parallel plane on each carriage and these are made to suit the bore of the gears. The tooth thickness can be very conveniently measured by a gear tooth venire. Since the
AEB. Also the distance d adjusted on instrument is slightly greater than the addendum CE, w is these formulae apply when backlash is ignores. On mating gears having equal tooth thickness
therefore called chordal thickness and d is called the chordal addendum. and without addendum modifications, the circular tooth thickness equals half the circular pitch
minus half the backlash.

Gear Tooth Caliper.

It is used to measure the thickness of gear teeth at the pitch line or chordal thickness of
teeth and the distance from the top of a tooth to the chord. The thickness of a tooth at pitch line
and the distance from the top of a tooth to the chord. The thickness of a tooth at pitch line and the
addendum is measured by an adjustable tongue, each of which is adjusted independently by
In Fig.15.14, w = AB = 2AD adjusting screw on graduated bars. The effect of zero errors should be taken into consideration.

Now, AOD =  = 3600/4N, where N is the number of teeth,


W = 2AD = 2xAO Sin  = 2R Sin 360/4N (N = pitch circle radius)

P.C.D 2R N .m.
Module m =  , R 
No. of teeth N 2

Nm  360   90  This method is simple and inexpensive. However it needs


 w2 Sin    N .m.Sin   ---- (1) different setting for a variation in number of teeth for a given pitch and accuracy is limited by the
2  4N  N
least count of instrument. Since the wear during use is jaws, the caliper has to be calibrated at
Also from Fig 15.14, d = OC –OD regular intervals to maintain the accuracy of measurement.
But OC = OE + addendum = R + m = (Nm/2) + m
Nm  90  The constant chord method and Base pitch method of measuring gear tooth thickness.
and OD  RCos  Cos  
2 N
Constant Chord Method. In the above method, it is seen that both the chordal thickness and
Nm Nm chodral addendum are dependent upon the number of teeth. Hence for measuring a large
 90  Nm  2  90  
d  m Cos    1   Cos    --- (2) number of gears for se, each having different number of teeth would involve separate calculations.
2 2 N 2  N  N 
Thus the procedure becomes laborious and time – consuming one.

Any error in the outside diameter of the gear must be allowed for when measuring tooth
The constant chord method does away with these difficulties. Constant chord of a gear is
thickness.
measured where the tooth flanks touch the flanks of the basic rack. Are straight and inclined to
their centre line at the pressure angle as shown in Fig. 15.16.
In the case of helical gears, the above expressions have to be modified to take into account
its pitch circle. Now, since the gear tooth and rack space are in contact in the symmetrical position measured along a common generator.
at the points of contact of the flanks, the chord is constant at this position irrespective of the gear
of the system in mesh with rack. This is the property utilized in the constant chord method of the 2 RB
Base circumference =
gear measurement.  Basepitch  2 RB / N

The measurement of tooth thickness at constant chord simplified the problem for all If  is the pressure angle, then
number of teeth. If an involutes tooth is considered symmetrically in close mesh with a basic rack  cos    P.C .D./ 2  cos 
form, then it will be observed that regardless of the number of teeth for a given size of tooth (same RB = P.C.R.
 Basepitch  (2 N )   P  C  D  / 2   cos 
module), the contact always occurs at two fixed point A and B. AB is known as constant chord.
The constant chord is d as the chord joining those points, on opposite faces of the tooth, which   m cos 
make contact with the mating teeth when the centre line of the tooth lie on the line of the gear This is the distance between tangents to the curved portions of any two adjacent teeth and
centers. The value of AB and its depth from the tip, where it occurs can be calculated can be measured either with a height gauge or on an enlarged projected image of the teeth. This
mathematically and then verified by an instrument, The advantage of the constant chord method principle is utilized in ‘David Brown’ tangent comparator and it is the most commonly used
is that for all number of teeth (of same module) value of constant for all gears of the meshing method.
system. Secondly it readily lends itself to a form of comparator which is more sensitive than the
gear tooth venire.

1  P C  D 
In Fig 15.16, PD = PF = are PF = ¼  circular pitch =   1/ 4    m
4 N

Since line AP is the line of action, i.e.it is tangential to the base circle,
ÐCAP=Φ
in right angled ΔAPD,=PDcosΦ=  π/4  mcosΦ
in triangle PAC,AC=APcosΦ=  π/4  mcos 2 Φ
c=constant chord=2AC=  π/2  mcos 2Φ

where  is the pressure angle (from Fig.15.16)


For helical gear, constant chord = (  / 2 ) m cos 2  n

Where mn = normal module i.e. module of cutter used and  n=normal pressure angle. Base pitch measuring instrument. This instrument has three tips. One is the fixed measuring tip,
π  π  other one is the sensitive tip whose position can be adjusted by a screw and the further movement
mcosΦsinΦ=m 1- cosΦsinΦ   4 
4  4 ....... of it is transmitted through a leverage system to the dial indicator.; and the third tip is the
Now PC = m -
  π  supplementary adjustable stop which is meant for the stability of the instrument and its position
 1  2
 AngleofarcBD   S    2  tan    
 2 N
 BD = Angle of arc BD Rb
 1  2 
 S  2   N  2  tan      RP cos  becauseRb  RP cos  
  
mN  1  2  mN 
 cos   S     tan     becauseRP 
2  2 N  2 
 S  
 Nm cos     tan    
 N 2N 
Base tangent method.
As already d, length of arc BD = distance between two opposed involutes and thus it is.
The Base Tangent Method. (‘David Brown’ tangent comparator). In this method, the span of a
convenient number of teeth is measured with the help of the tangent comparator. This uses a   S
 Nm cos   tan     
single venires caliper and has, therefore the following advantages over gear tooth venires scales:  2 N N 

(i) The measurements do not depend on two venires readings, each being function of the It may be noted that when backlash allowance is specified normal to the tooth flanks this
other. must be simply subtracted from this derived value.
(ii) The measurement is not made with an edge of the measuring jaw with the face.
Tables are also available which directly give this value for the given values of S,N and m.
Consider a straight generator (edge) ABC being rolled back and forth along a base circle
(Fig.15.19). Its ends thus sweep out opposed involutes A2 AA1 and C2 CC1 respectively. Thus the This distance is first calculated and then set in the ‘David Brown’ tangent comparator
measurements made across these opposed involutes by span gauging will be constant (i.e. AC = (Fig.1521) with the help of slip gauges. The instrument essentially consists of a fixed anvil and a
A1C1=A2 C2 = A0 C0) and equal to the are length of the base circle between the origins of involutes. movable anvil. There is a micrometer on the moving anvil side and this has a very limited
movement on either side of the setting. The distance is adjusted by setting the fixed anvil at
Further the position of the measuring faces is unimportant as long as they are parallel and on an desired place with the help of looking ring and setting tubes.
opposed pair of the true involutes. As the tooth from is most likely to conform to a true involutes
at the pitch point of the gear, it is always preferable to choose a number of teeth such that the Composite Method of Gear Checking.
measurements is made approximately at the pitch circle of the gear.
Composite testing of gears consists in measuring the variation in centre distance when a
The value of the distance between two opposed involutes, or the dimension over parallel faces is gear is rolled in tight mesh (double flank contact) with a specified or mast gear. In composite gear
equal to the distance round the base circle between the points where the corresponding tooth checking two types of checking’s are made :
flanks cut i.e. ABC in fig.15.19. It can be derived mathematically as follows:
(a) Total Composite Variation, (b) Tooth to Tooth Composite Variation.
Here factor F  M  0.25 D maintaining the gears in mesh by spring pressure. Movement of the sliding carriage as the gears
are rotated are indicated by a dial indicator, and these variations are a measure of any
Master Gears. Master irregularities in the form of a waxed circular chart and records made of the gear variation in
gears are made Tooth or Tooth with sufficient accuracy of mech.
Class or Grade of Total Composite
accuracy Composite Errors in capable of
Gear Error in Microns
Microns
being used as the basis for
comparing the accuracy of
1 4+0.32F 2+0.16F
other gears. 2 6+0.30F 3+0.224F These are
mostly used in 3 10+0.08F 4+0.32 F composite
errors 4 16+1.25F 6+0.45 F determination
in which the 5 25+2.0 F 9+0.56 F master gears
6 40+3.2 F 12+0.90F
are rotated in close mesh
7 56+4.5 F 16+1.25F
(double flank) 8 71+5.6 F 22+1.8F or in single
contact with 9 90+7.1 F 28+2.24F the gears under
test. These can 10 112+9.0F 36+2.8F also be used
for calibration 11 140+11.2F 45+3.55F of gear
12 180+14.0F 56+4.50F
checking instruments Fig. shows a gear tester for testing spur gears. (Testers are available for bevel, helical and worm
used in shop- floor Master gears also)The gears are mounted on the two mandrels, so that they are free to rotate without
gears are generally of two types; i.e. Master gears type A used for checking precision gears of measurable clearance. The left spindle can be moved along the table and clamped in any desired
accuracy class up to 7and type B master gears used for checking gears from 8 to 12. Master gears position. The right mandrel slide is free to move, running on steel balls, against sprint pressure
are made from chromium –manganese tool steel or good quality gauge steel and are hardened to and it has a limited movement. The two mandrels can be adjusted so that their axial distance is
62HRC These are properly stabilized to relieve internal stresses. The master gears should preferably equal to the designed gear. Centre distance. The spring pressure can be regulated. There are also
have lower module values because with coarse pitches the master gear would have either a very screws for limiting the movement of the sliding carriage. A scale is attached to one carriage and a
few teeth or else it will be quite big making it difficult to handle besides high-production cost. vernier to the other; this enables centre distances to be measured to within 0.025mm. The dial
indicator on the right contacts the right end of the sliding carriage and therefore indicates any
radial variations of the gear under test as the gears are rotated.

When the waxed paper recorder is fitted, the chart makes a revolution for each one of the
gears mounted on the sliding carriage. As the char moves or rotates, the line traced records the
movements of the floating carriage, a circle is drawn at the same time as the record. The figures
shown in Fig. 15.28 are reproduction of a few typical charts with a reduced scale and the radial
errors magnified about 50 times. The gear shown by No.1 record is a fully satisfactory one, that at
No.2 is a moderate gear at No.3 is an unsatisfactory one.
carrying a gear and a plain disc having diameter equal to the nominal pitch diameter of the gear. Module range(DP) 0.2-20
One shaft has a rotary joint between the gear and its associated pitch disc. An indicator is used to Helix angle range 0-90º
measure angular variation between the gear and disc on this shaft. In use, the two discs are Max gear width 150mm
brought into frictional contact so that one can drive the other without slip. This method is not Additional vertical probe travel 150mm
popular because it requires these manufacture of two very accurate pitch discs for every gear pair Setting accuracy of base circle 1μm
of different size. Present day’s single – flank mesh testers do not require different pitch discs. The Adjustable error magnification
two shafts carrying the gears are fitted with radial gratings having angular band of accurately Of electronic printer 100x,200x,500x,1000x,2000x

spaced clear radial lines (one line for one minute of arc). When two such gratings (inclined at very Steady Centre Attachment
small angle ) rotate in close proximity, interference bands known as Moire fringes are formed Center distance 20-570mm
moving in radial direction which generate electric pulses. These pulse trains are continuously Throat depth 300mm
phase –compared to provide a detailed chart record of gear transmission errors.
Calculation of the dimension of the maximum chord over four teeth when the gear under
inspection has the following specifications:

No. of teeth = 32; module =4, Pressure angle = 20º


Shift of the tool into the gear to provide back flash = 0.25mm.

Solution. In this case the cutting tool is moving into the blank by o.25mm more, so the tooth
thickness will get reduced. Hence, the correction needed on one side of tooth is
 0.25 tan   0.25 tan 20 0  0.6010mm

and distance over 4 teeth for theoretical gear is


  S
cos   tan     
 2 N N 
   20   3
N.m.  32  4  cos 20  tan 20   
 180 2  32 32 
 42.42
And distance for the actual gear
=42.42-2  0.0190=42.382mm.
  / 2.m cos    / 2  3  cos 200  4.426mm

From Fig.15.34,P>C>D.=mN=AC=3  31=93mm

360
  5.80 ,  5.8 / 2  2.9 0 , andangleCBA  900
And 2  31
CB  AC cos   93  cos 2.9  92.87

 Dimension over pin =92.87+4.426=97.296mm.

roll. By its rolling, the light arm attached to its end provides a magnified movement on a smoked
glass plate. This vertical movement coupled with the horizontal movement produces a trace on
the glass magnified in vertical direction and there being no magnification in horizontal direction.
The smoke glass trace is the, further projected at 50or 100 magnification for examination. This
instrument is comparatively cheap one and gives reliable results.

Construction and working principle of Tomlinson Surface meter. The Taylor-Hobson Talysurf.

The Tomlinson Surface Meter. This instrument was designed by Dr. Tomlinson. This instrument The talysurf is an electronic instrument working on carrier modulating principle. This
uses mechanical –cum-optical means for magnification (Fig.11.8). instrument also gives the same information as the previous one records the static displacement of
the stylus and is dynamic instrument like profilometer.
The diamond stylus on the surface finish recorder is held by spring pressure against the
surface of a lapped steel cylinder. The stylus is also attached to the body of the instrument by a The measuring head of this instrument consists of a diamond stylus of about 0.002mm tip
lead spring and its height is adjustable to enable the diamond to be positioned conveniently. The radius and skid or shoe which is drawn across the surface by means of a motorized driving unit
lapped cylinder is supported on one side by the stylus and on the other side by two fixed rollers as (gearbox), which provides three motorized speeds giving respectively  20and  100 horizontal
shown in Fig. 11. magnification and a speed suitable for average reading. A natural position in which the pick-up
can be traversed manually is also provided. In this case the arm carrying the stylus forms an
The stylus is restrained from all motions except the vertical one by the tensions in coil and armature which pivots about the centre piece of E- shaped stamping as shown in Fig. 11.9 On two
leaf spring. The tensile forces in these two springs also keep the lapped steel cylinder in position legs of (outer pole pieces ) the E-shaped stamping there are coils carrying an a.c. current. These
between the stylus and a pair of fixed rollers. A light spring steel arm is attached to the horizontal two coils with other two resistances form an oscillator.; As the armature. Is pivoted about the
lapped steel cylinder and it carries at its tip a diamond scriber which bears against a smoked glass. central leg any movement of the stylus causes the air gap to vary and thus the amplitude of the
2. Root Mean Square Value (R.M.S. Value). This measure was in use previously and now – a-
days superseded by Centre Line Average measure, as latter has the properties of bring easily
measured. R.M. S. blue is d as the square lot of the mean of the squares the ordinates of the surface
measured from a mean line.

Referring to Fig. 11.14, be selected length L is divided to n equal parts. Ordinates corrected
at the points 1,2, 3,4,………,n, whose heights are (by)
h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 ,......., hn
The demodulated output is caused to operate a pen recorder to produce a permanent
record and a meter to give a numerical assessment directly. In recorder of this statement the
marking medium is an electric discharge through a specially treated paper which blackens at the
point of the stylus, so this has no distortion due to drag and the record strictly rectilinear one.
Now-a-days microprocessors have made available complete statistical multi-trace systems
measuring several places over a given area and can provide standard deviations and average over
area-type readings and complete surface characterization. These systems lend themselves to
research applications where specialized programming can achieve auto correlation, power
spectrum analysis and peak curvature.

Various methods of analysis of surface traces.


h1  h22  h32  ......  hn2
Analysis of Surface Traces. thenhr ,m, s . 
n
A numerical assessment is assigned to indicate the degree of smoothness (roughness) a
number of ways. In practice three roughness measures have shown themselves to be particularly
useful.
(1) Carry out the straightness test already described on all the lines AB,BC,AC etc., and
But of find C.L.A. value like this will be laborious job. Also by this method, spacing chosen tabulate the readings up to the cumulative error column.
may be such that important ordinates are likely to be missed. (2) Let a plane passing through the points A,B and D be assumed to be an arbitrary plane,
relative to which the heights of all other points may be determined. For it, the ends of lines AB,
Things can be much simplified by using a plain meter which can find out the area of any AD and BD are corrected to zero and thus the height of points A, B and D are zero.
curve. Referring to Fig. 11.15, let us say that somehow or other the mean line is exactly known. (3) The height of point I is determined relative to the arbitrary plane ABD=000. As I is the mid-
The C.L.A. value point of line AC also, all the points on AC can be fixed relative to the arbitrary plane by
assuming A=0 and correcting Ion AC to coincide with the mid-point. A hint could be taken
A  A2  A3  ....... A here that Cis twice as far from A as the mid-point, the correction for C will be double that of I.
= 1 
L L (4) Point C is now fixed relative to the arbitrary plane and points Band Dare set at zero, all
One has to take care of units carefully to find the C.L.A. value in micron. intermediate points on BC and DC can be corrected accordingly.
(5) The positions of Hand G, E and F are known, so it is now possible to fit in lines HG and EF.
How to determine Mean Line. For it first the mean line is estimated by eye-judgement. Then total This also provides a check on previous evaluation since the mid-point of these lines should
area above and below the assumed mean line are measured and a correction is applied to the coincide with the known position of mid-point I.
assumed mean line to get the correct mean line. Error [(  A (above) -  A (below)]/L is applied to
the assumed mean line to get the correct, mean line. Thus in Fig.11.16,x’y’ is assumed mean line.

( A1 A3  A5  A7 )  ( A2  A4  A6  A8 )
Thencorrection  and this correction added to the assumed line
L
algebraically gives the actual mean line. The C.L.A. value can be found out as described
previously.
“Talysurf” has got built in arrangement for integrating the areas and the average value is
directly given.

C.L.A. value does not give any idea regarding the greatest extent and the nature of the
surface irregularities It is likely to give identical values for surface of vastly different In this way, the height of all the points on the surface
characteristics. So this is the main disadvantage of C.L.A value, but when the characteristics of a relative to the arbitrary plane ABD are known.
be made. The calculation for a final correction to determine for a final correction to determine the
minimum separation of a pair of parallel planes which just contain all the points on the surface is
made by graphical method as given below.

The various points on the surface have been determined with reference to ABD as reference
plane as described previously. Two points on opposite sides having maximum positive and
maximum negative values are selected and jointed together by a line xx. Let these points in Fig.7.6
be R and. Draw a line yy parallel to xx to represent the plane ABD as shown in fig 7.6 set of to 3. Rotating on centres. (Refer Fig.7.36). Some parts, (such as shafts ) may be inspected for
scale the height of all points relative to YY by taking projections from all the points on the surface. roundness while mounted on centres. In this case, reliability is dependent on many factors like
angles of centres, alignment of centres, roundness and surface condition of the centres and centre
holes, and run out of piece. Out-of-straightness of the part will cause a doubling run out effect and
In fig 7.6, Projections from all points have not been shown for the sake of clarity. Next by appear to be roundness error.
inspection, draw a closest pair of parallel lines zz, which will contain all of the points. It may be
noted that one line will have two points on it, and the other line, one point only. The distance Any or all of these factors may combine, creating a high degree of uncertainty as to exact nature of
between these two lines is a measure of the error in flatness. Although it is not exact value but for the error.
practical purpose it gives sufficiently accurate results.
For workshop purpose, the V-block method is quite accurate as it is capable of indicating
The optical flatness testing method for very flat and polished surface has already been normal requirements of accuracy. However for very precise job where more reliable and more
discussed in the chapter of interferometry. accurate results are desired, the second method is recommended which is quicker and also
eliminates the effects of angle of the block and the number of lobes on part, but of course, is a very
Devices used for measurement of roundness. costly one.

Devices for measurement of roundness. The most commonly used devices for measurement of
roundness are:

(1) Diametral. (2) Circumferential confining gauge – shaft is confined in a ring gauge and rotated
against a set indicator probe. (3) Rotating on centres. (4) V-Block.(5) Three-point probe (120º
spacing )Accurate spindle.
(a) Part fixed, exterior spindle with probe rotates, (b) probe fixed, Part rotates with spindle.

1.Diametral Method. In this method, the measuring plungers are located 180º apart and the 4. Assessment using a V-block. The set up employed for assessing the circularity error (lobing) by
diameter is measured at several places. This method is suitable only when the specimen is using a V-block is shown in Fig.7.37, i.e., the vee-block is placed on a surface plate and the work to
elliptical or has an even number of lobes. Diametral check does not necessarily disclose effective be checked is placed upon it. A sensitive dial indicator is firmly fixed in a stand and its feeler
size or roundness. This method is unreliable in determining roundness. made to rest against the surface of the work. The work is rotated to measure the rise and fall of the
(a)The error of circularity measured on a V-block is greatly affected by the following factors:
(i) Angle of V-block very much influences in the determination of circularity error, i.e. if the
circularity error is say ∆e, then it is possible that the indicator shows no variation, or same as ∆e,
or twice ∆e ,or thrice ∆e, or some other value for each position of the instrument when V-blocks of
different, angles are used, This is because of the fact that as the angle of V changes the place where
the work- piece rests also changes, Ultimately it will be noted that the same work – piece rests at
higher place in V-block of smaller angle and at lower place in V-block of larger angle and thus the
indicator will show different readings for same work-piece kept in same position on different
angle V-blocks.

(ii) Position of the instrument, i.e. whether measured from top or bottom.
(iii) Number of lobes on the rotating part (e.g., elliptical, triangular, quadrilateral, pentagonal
etc.)
(b) The instrument’s position should be in the same vertical plane as the point of contact of the
part with the V-block. If the error is measured at a point far from the V-block, The error of
circularity will be influenced by the radial run out of the part.
(c) A leaf spring should always be kept below the indicator plunger and the surface of the part,
otherwise readings are likely to be affected by minute undulations of the surface, such as surface
roughness.
We will place this work –piece on different angle V-blocks first with major axis placed
along the direction of dial movement and then with minor axis along the direction of dial –
movement. This is so because the work-piece has two number of lobes.

It is obvious that with different angle of V-blocks, dial indicator shows different readings
In the same way, it will be found that when work-piece is tested on the 108º V-block, the 7. Lead. Lead is the distance through which a screw advances axially in one complete revolution.
circularity error measurement when measured from top=1.38∆ and 0.62∆ if measured from For a single start thread. It can also be d as a distance measured radically between the major
bottom. The corresponding values for 90º and 60º V-block will be ∆, ∆ and 0, 2∆ respectively. and minor diameters.
8. Depth of thread. It is the distance between the crest and root of the thread measured
Thus for an elliptical work-piece which has got 2 numbers of lobes, the ratio of circularity perpendicular to the axis of the thread. It can also be d as a distance measured radially
error measurement by dial indicator on different V-blocks and the actual error is as given below between the major and minor diameters.
9. Thread Angle (included angle). It is the angle included between the flanks or slopes of a
Measured value of error of circularity thread measured in an axial plane.
such values of the constant k=
Actual value of error of circularity 10. Flank angle. The angle made by the flank of a thread with the perpendicular to the thread axis
is called flank angle. It is equal to half the thread angle.
can be determined for different shapes of work –pieces, i.e. having different number of lobes. 11. Lead Angle. On a straight thread, lead angle is the angle made by the helix of the thread at the
pitch line with plane perpendicular to the axis.
V-Block. (a) Fixed angle. Depending on the number of lobes on a part, the following angles of V- 12. Helix Angle. On a straight thread, the helix angle is the angle made by the helix of the thread at
blocks are recommended for measurement of correct roundness by V-block method. the pitch line with the axis.
13. Major diameter. It is the diameter of an imaginary c0-axial cylinder which would touch the
Lobes Angle of V-block crests of an external thread or roots of an internal thread. It is also called as external diameter,
Three-point out of roundness 60º core diameter, outside diameter or full diameter of external threads.
14. Minot diameter (Core diameter or root diameter). It is the diameter of an imaginary co-axial
Five – lobed part 180º cylinder which would touch the roots of an external thread or crests of an internal thread.
Seven – lobed part 128º 34 15. Effective diameter (pitch diameter). It is the diameter of an imaginary co-axial which intersects
the flanks of the threads such that the width of the threads (metal) and widths of the spaces
(b) Adjustable V-Block. It is usually difficult to ascertain the number of lobes of a part and between the threads are equal, each being half the pitch.
have large number of fixed angle V-Blocks. V-block which can be adjusted to correct angle to 16. Virus effective diameter (functional diameter). The functional diameter of an external thread is
show out-of roundness is better choice. the pitch diameter of the enveloping thread of perfect thread elements having full depth of
engagement but clear at crests and roots, and of specified length.
V-Block method is limited in the determination of roundness of part because it is suitable only
when the number of lobes is known and is uniformly arranged, which is never the case. When added to (for external threads) the pitch diameter, the cumulative effects of deviations
from specified profile for a specified length of engagement gives the functional diameter.
Various terms used in screw threads.
Various methods of radius measurement.
Screw thread terminology.
To find out the Radius of Circle of any job having a portion of a Circle:

1. Screw Thread. A screw thread is a continuous helical groove of specified cross-section This method requires the use of surface plate, Vernier Caliper, C-clamp and two pins of equal
produced on the external or internal surface of a cylinder or a cone. size. This method could be best applied to jobs like cap of a bearing. The job is first clamped to
2
 d
or R2     (R  h)2
2
d2
=  R2  h2  2Rh
4
2
Let ‘O’ be the assumed centre of the circle. Then in rt. d OAB. In figure  d
or 2Rh =    h2
 2
2
OB2 = OA2 + AB2  d 2
2 2 2   h d2 h
2
 d  d   1 d 
or  R+    R     R=     .
 2h 8h 2
 2  2  2 
d2 d (1  d)2
or R 2   Rd  R  2  Rd  ii) When he edges are rounded up. When the edges of the cavity are rounded up, then the radius
4 2 4
of curvature can be measured by a depth micrometer and slip gages. The width of the depth
1
or 2Rd= (1  d)2 micrometer base is measured with the help of slip gauges. Let is be d, then it is placed in the cavity
4
ill it fully rests in the cavity, its frame touching all the sides of cavity (fig). The measuring tip is
(1-d)2 (1  d)2
and R =  then lowered down till it touches the base. The reading is then noted on the thimble and let it be h.
4  2d 8d
now the case is similar to previous one and the radius of curvature R can be found out be the same
formula.
To find out the Radius of a Concave surface

i) When the edges are well-d


ii) When the edges are rounded up.
iii) When the edges are well-d, his method is applicable to those parts which have large radius
to curvature. This required the use of a surface plate, angle plate, height gauge, depth
micrometer, slip gauges and a C-clamp.

The part to be tested is kept one surface plate and with the help of a depth micrometer the
maximum depth of the cavity is determined. Let is be h. Next the part is kept in such a way that
Other method to note down d and h is by using a heavy steel block, a steel ball and slip
cavity is resting against an angle plate and the part is then clamped in this position. The hole is
gauges as shown in figure in this method, the steel ball is placed in the cavity and the heavy steel
then measured from edge to edge with a height gauge having a sharp scribing arm. Let the
block also put into the cavity. The space between the block and ball is filled up by a suitable length
maximum dreading, i.e. diameter of the hold be d (fig).
of slip gauges so that L lock is just touching the sides of cavity.

Here length of block is d and length of slip gauges and diameter of ball constitute h. The
formula for finding the radius of curvature remains the same.
(i) Straight edge
(ii) Spirit level
(iii) Auto-collimator

Measurement of straightness

(i) By using a spirit level. The most convenient method of testing straightness of a surface of
any length to a high degree of accuracy is by using spirit level or auto-collimator.

This instrument is best sited of measuring sauce finish of deep bores.

Straightness and the various methods of measurement of straightness.

The tolerance on the straightness of a line is d as the maximum deviation in relation to the
reference straight line going the two extremities of the line under examination.
A straight line is drawn on the surface whose straightness is to be checked. A sensitive
A line is said to be straight over a given length, if the distance of its points from two planes spirit level. Fitted with two feet at a convenient distance apart is moved along this line in steps
perpendicular to each other and parallel to the generation direction of the line remains within the equal to the pitch distance between centre lines of the feet. For each position, the reading is noted.
specified tolerance limits. Variations in the bubble position represent angular variations in the surface and these are
converted into differences in high of the feet above or below the starting point.
The straightness error of a line is d as the distance ‘e’ between two lines drawn parallel to (ii) Auto collimator method. The main principle of this method is same as that of the spirit level
the mean true line and enveloping the actual contour by passing through the highest and lowest method. In this method a block fitted with feet at convenient distance apart and carrying a plane
points on the measured line as shown in figure. reflector is moved along the surface in steps equal to the pitch of the feet. Angular variations at
each position are used to plot the graph of errors.

When testing vertical surface an optical square may be interposed so that auto collimator
can be used in the horizontal position. This is usually more convenient that arrange the instrument
with its axis vertical.

A particular feature of this method is that it can be used for vertical side of horizontal slide
ways where the level cannot be used.

(ii) Straight edge method. This is simplest method of testing straightness of a surface. A straight
edge of know accuracy is applied to the surface to be tested and degree of contact is determined
Let the distance between the slip values be divided into 5 numbers of equal parts. The gap at each A sensitive dial indicator is firmly fixed in a stand and its feeler made to rest against the
 0.1 surface of the work. The work is rotated about the diameter to be checked the dial indicator
point will, therefore, vary by 0.02mm   now we can determine the value of pile of slip
 5  records any variation in dimensions due to out-of-roundness.
required for exact contact at each position. Eg. At the first position it is 10 mm; at the second
position it will be 10.02 mm; at the third it will be 10.04 mm and so on. Insert the lip gauges of This method converts the diameter measurement to a chordal-height variation, and
appropriate value at each marked position. If there is no error, the slip will make contact with both presents a new set of measurement peculiarities which are dependent upon the included angle of
the surfaces exactly at the marked positions. If however, there are errors in straightness, the slips the V-block and the number of lobes present on the circumstance of the work piece to be
will not fit exactly at their marked positions, but will be displaced one way or other along the measured.
straight edge by amounts proportional to the errors.
Plotting Polar Graph

The ideal about the actual shape of the work piece can be obtained by actually plotting the
polar graph. Equally spaced 12 markings (at angles of 30) are made on the face of the work piece
to be measured. The work piece is properly cleaned and then placed on the V-block against a rigid
block with a steel ball in between as shown in figure the dial indicator is placed just above the
work piece so that it touches the work piece nearly at the centre of the V-block. The work piece is
then rotated such the marking on the work piece is below the indicating plunger. The readings of
This is very sensitive method of measurement and can be made as sensitive as desired by the dial indicator are noted down for all the markings. This procedure is repeated three times to
choosing a small wedge angle and large number of measuring positions. Care must be taken to see take the average value.
that the slips do not wring to the surface otherwise the whole sensitivity will be lost.
For plotting the polar graph, a suitable scale is chosen depending upon the maximum value
Various methods of measurement of roundness. of the reading. Then a circle of diameter nearly four times the maximum reading of the dial
indicator is drawn and divided into twelve equal numbers of angular divisions as shown in figure.
The most commonly used methods of measurement of roundness are : Inside the outer circle, another concentric circle of suitable diameter is drawn. Then the values of
the indicator are plotted in radial direction taking the smaller circles as the reference circle in order
1.Using V block and Dial indicator that both the positive and negative readings are plotted with the prepared graph.
2.Roundness measuring machine
3.Bench center method

1. V-block and dial indicator method. A very simple and most commonly used method of
measuring out of roundness is by using a V block and dial indicator. The set up employed for this
purpose is as shown in figure.
where, k is a constant, value of which depends upon the shape of the workpiece and angle
of V-block (as indicated in table). Measuring instruments. Spirit level, gauge block to suit the guide ways of the lathe bed.

For determining the number of lobes (for selecting the constant value k from the table, the Procedure. The gauge block with the spirit level is placed on the bed ways on the front position,
work piece is first tested in a 60 V-block and then in a 90 V-block). The number of lobes is then back position and in the cross wise direction. The position of the bubble in the spirit level is
equal to the number of times the indicator pointer deflects during rotation of the work piece checked and the readings are taken.
through 360 the reason for testing the work piece part is rotated on a V-block of angle 60, no
change in reading is indicated, whereas if the same part is rotated on a 90 V-block, two maximum Permissible error. Front guide ways 0.02 mm/meter convex only. Rear guide ways, 0.01 to 0.02
and two minimum readings are indicated on the indicator. convexity. Bed level in cross-wise direction  0.02 meters. Straightness of slide ways (for machines
more than 3m turning length only measurement s taken by measuring taught wire and
microscope or long straight edge). Tailstock guide ways parallel with movement of carriage
0.02mm/m. no twist is permitted.

The error in level may be corrected by setting wedges at suitable points under the support feel or
pads of the machine.

3. Straightness of saddle in horizontal plane.


Work on an axis against a fixed indicator can be use to obtain results of less precision. In
this type the work is placed on a circular table with its centre set, as from a fixed base, is placed Measuring instruments. Cylindrical test mandrill (600 mm
with its plunger in contact with the edge of the disc. long), dial indicator.
This method is more accurate a record of the exact profile of the job is made automatically
and thus the waviness is also superimposed upon the profile of the job. A permanent polar chart Procedure. The mandrel is held between centres. The dial indicator is mounted on the
record is usually provided and the method leads itself to standardization. The sophisticated saddle. The spindle of the dial indicator is allowed to touch the mandrel. The saddle is then
machines have the provision to check concentricity roundness, alignment, squareness, parallelism moved longitudinally along the length of the mandrel. Readings are taken at different places
and flatness. Permissible error. 0.02 mm over length of mandrel.

2. Bench centre method. In this method bench centres and a precision mechanical (dial gauge), air
or electronic indicator may be used to measure out of roundness of a work piece on a radial basis.
The accuracy of the result is, however, effected by shape and angle of centres and the centre holes,
Permissible error 0.02 mm over 600 mm length of mandrel (tail stock centre is to lie higher only).

8. True running of locating cylinder of main spindle.


5.True running of taper socket in main spindle.
Measuring instrument. Dial gauge.
Instruments required. Test mandrel with taper shank and 300 mm long cylindrical measuring
part, dial gauge. Procedure. The dial gauge is mounted on the bed, touching at a point on main spindle.

Procedure. The test mandrel is held with its taper shank in a head stock spindle socket. The dial The main spindle is rotated by hand and readings of dial gauge are taken.
gauge is mounted on the saddle. The dial gauge spindle is made touch with the mandrel. The
saddle is then traveled longitudinally along the bed ways and readings are taken at the points A Permissible error -0.01 mm.
and B as shown in figure.

Permissible error. Position A, 0.01 mm, position B 0.02 mm.


6. Parallelism of main spindle to saddle movement. 9. True running of head stock centre.
Measuring instrument. Dial indicator.
(a) Ina a vertical plane (b) In horizontal plane
Procedure : Tailstock sleeve is fed outwards. The dial gauge is mounted on the saddle. Its spindle
Measuring instruments. Test mandrel with taper shank and 300 mm long cylindrical measuring is touched to the sleeve at one end and then saddle is moved to and fro, it is checked in H.P. and
part, dial gauge. V.P. also.

Procedure. The dial gauge is mounted on the saddle. The dial gauge spindle is made to touch the Permissible error. (a) 0.01/100 mm (Tailstock sleeve inclined towards tool pressure only). (b)
mandrel and the saddle is moved to and fro. It is checked in vertical as well as in horizontal plane. 0.01/100 mm (Tailstock sleeve rising towards free end only).

Permissible errors. (a) 0.02/300 mm mandrel rising towards free and only. (b) 0.02/300 mm
mandrel inclined at fee end towards tool pressure only.

10. Parallelism of tail stock sleeve taper socket to saddle movement (a) in V.P (b) in H.P.
(a) 0.03/300 mm (mandrel rising towards free and only) mm length of traverse.
(b) 0.03/300 mm (mandrel inclined towards tool pressure only)

Various alignment test on a milling machine.

Alignment tests on milling machine.


(1) Flatness of work table.
(a) in longitudinal direction
(b) in transverse direction.
(4) Parallelism of the cross (transverse) movement of the worktable to the main spindle.
Measuring instruments spirit level. (a) in a vertical plane
Procedure. A spirit level is placed directly on the table at points about 25 to 30 cm apart, at A B C (b) in horizontal plane
for longitudinal tests and D E and F for the transverse test. instruments. Dial gauge, test mandrel with taper shank.
Procedure. The table is set in its mean position. The mandrel is held in the spindle. A dial gauge
The readings are noted. field to the table is adjusted so that its spindle touches the surface of the mandrel. The table is
Permissible error. moved cross-wise and the error is measured in the vertical plane and also in the horizontal plane.

Direction A – B – C  0.04 mm Permissible error. 0.02 for the overall traverse movement of the work table.
Direction D – E – F  0.04 mm

(2) Parallelism of the work table surface to the main spindle.

Measuring instrument. Dial indicator test mandrel 300 mm long, spirit level.

Procedure. The table is adjusted in the horizontal plane by a spirit level and is then set in its mean
position longitudinally. The mandrel is fixed in the spindle taper. A dial gauge is set on the
machine table, and the feeler adjusted to touch the lower surface of the mandrel. The dial gauge
readings at (A) and (B) are observed, the stand of the dial gauge being moved while the machine (5) rue running of internal taper of the main spindle.
table remains stationery.
Instrument 300mm long test mandrel, dial gauge
Permissible error. 0.02/300 mm.
Procedure. The test mandrel with its taper shank is held in the main spindle. Dial gauge is kept
scanning the periphery of the mandrel. Spindle is rotated and dial gauge readings are noted at
different points say A and B as shown.
(8) Parallelism between the main spindle and guiding surface of the
overhanging arm.

(6) Squareness of the centre T-slot of worktable with main spindle.

Instruments. Dial gauge, special bracket.

Procedure. To check the perpendicularity of the locating slot and the axis of the main spindle. The
table should be arranged in the middle position of its longitudinal arranged in the middle position
of its longitudinal movement, and a bracket with a tenon at least 150 mm long inserted in the Instruments. Dial gauge, mandrel
locating slot, as shown in figure. Procedure. The overhanging arm is clamped in its extreme extended position. The dial gauge is
fixed to the arbor support.

The feeler of the dial gauge is adjusted to touch the top or ride of the test mandrel. The
arbor support can then be moved along the overhanging arm and the deviations from parallelism
observed on the dial gauge.

Tests on shaping machine.

The use of shaping machine is to create flat surfaces accurately. Therefore, the chief
A dial gauge should be fixed in the spindle taper, the feeler being adjusted to touch the requirements of the shaping machine are that it should cut straight, parallel and face flat.
vertical face of the bracket. Observe the reading on the dial gauge when the bracket is near one
end of the table, the swing over the dial gauge and move the bracket so that the corresponding The important alignment tests on shaping machine are described below:
readings can be taken near the other end of the table.
1. Straightness and flatness of the table.
The straightness and flatness of the table is the fundamental requirement of the shaping
machine to produce accurate work pieces.

Instruments. Spirit level, gauge block.

Procedure. The table is brought in the central position. The spirit level is placed over the gauge
block at several points on the table parallel to and perpendicular to the direction of the table
Instrument. Dial gauge, straight edge. The various tests performed on pillar drilling machine are:
Instruments. Straight edge, two gauge blocks; feeler gauges.
Procedure. The ram is brought to the end of its edge. The dial gauge is placed on the table top
in the direction of movement of the ram. The ram is then moved backward and forward and 1. Flatness of clamping surface of base. The test is performed by placing a straight edge on two
reading are taken. gauge block on the base plate in various positions and the error is noted down by inserting feeler
gauges.
Permissible error. 0.015 per 300 mm.
Permissible error. The error should not exceed 0.1/1000mm clamping surface and the surface
4. Trueness and parallelism of vertical ways of column. should be concave only.

Instruments. Dial gauge. 2. Flatness of clamping surface of table

Procedure. The table is brought to its lowest position. The dial gauge is placed on the table so The test is performed in the same manner as test (1), but not on the label. The permissible error
that its feeler will touch the vertical ways of the column as shown in figure. is also same.

The table is then moved up and if the side ways are perfectly parallel and leveled straight, the
dial gauge touching to it will not shows any

5. The accuracy, squareness, and parallelism of T-slots on the label.

Instrument. Dial indicator, angle plate.

Procedure. The angle is inserted in the slot lengthwise and the dial gauge is set in the adjacent
parallel slot as shown in the figure the dial gauge is adjusted so that its feeler just touches the
angle plate. The reading is adjusted to zero and then the dial indicator is moved through the slot
lengthwise and the deflection is noted.
Permissible error. The error should not exceed 0.03/100mm for machines with taper up to Morse
No.2 and 0.04/300mm for machines with taper larger than Morse No.2.

6. Parallelism of the spindle axis with its vertical movements.

Instruments. Test mandrel, dial gauge.

The test is performed by placing the frame level (with graduations from 0.03 to 0.05 mm) on Procedure. This test is performed into two planes (A) and (B) at right angles to each other. The test
guide column and table and the error is noted by noting the difference between the readings of the mandrel is fitted into the taper hole of the spindle and the dial gauge is fixed on the table with its
two levels. feeler touching the mandrel. The spindle is adjusted in the middle position of its travel. The
spindle is moved in upper and lower directions of the middle position of its travel. The spindle is
moved in upper and lower directions of the middle position with slow vertical feed mechanism
Permissible error. The error should not exceed 0.25/1000mm guide column for (a) and the guide and the readings of the dial gauge are noted down.
column should be inclined at the upper end towards the front, and 0.15/1000mm for (b).

For testing the perpendicularity of drill guide to the base plate the test is similar as above, the only
difference being that the frame level is to be placed on the base instead of a table.

4. Perpendicularity of spindle sleeve with base plate.

This test is performed in both the place as specified in test (3) and in the similar manner. The
only difference is that the frame levels are to be placed on spindle sleeve and base plate.

Permissible error. The error (i.e. the difference between the readings of the two levels) should not Possible error. For plane (A) and (B) both 0.03/100 mm, 0.05/300mm.
exceed 0.25/1000mm for plane (a) and the sleeve should be inclined towards column only, and
0.15/100mm for plane (b). 7. Squareness of clamping surface of table to its axis.
Permissible error. The permissible error should not exceed 0.05/300am diameter.

8. Squareness of the spindle axis with table.

Instruments. Straight edge, dial gauge. UNIT – IV


Procedure. This test is performed by placed the straight edge in position AA’ and BB’. The work LASER AND ADVANCES IN METROLOGY
table is arranged in the middle of its vertical travel. The dial gauge is mounted in the tapered hole
of the spindle and its feeler is made to touch the straight edge first at A and readings are taken. Interferometer and types of interferometer.
Then the spindle is rotated by 180 so that the feeler touches at point A’ and again the reading is
taken. The difference of these two reading is the error in squareness of spindle axis with table. Interferometer is optical instruments used for measuring flatness and determining the lengths of
Similar readings are taken by placing the straight edge is position BB’. slip gauges by direct reference to the wavelength of light.

Types :

1. NPL flatness interferometer


2. Michelson interferometer
3. Laser interferometer
4. Zesis gauge block interferometer

Common source of light used for interferometer.

Permissible error: The permissible errors are 0.08/300mm with lower end of spindle inclined a) Mercury 198
towards column only for set up AA’ and 0.05/300mm for set up BB’. b) Cad minus
c) Krypton 86
d) Helium
e) Hydrogen
f) Laser mixed radiations
The alignment test is carried out to check the grade of manufacturing accuracy of the machine The line of single for viewing the bands should be nearly perpendicular to the reference
tool. surface of the optical flat. It viewing angle varies by 5 degree, then no error in product. However,
when the viewing angle in bigger, then the actual fringes will be read less and errors of around
Various geometrical checks made on machine tools. 15%, 40% and 100% may occur with viewing angles eg 30 degree, 45 degree and 60 degree
respectively.
1. Straightness of guide ways and slide ways of machine tools.
2. Flatness of machine tables and slide ways. Monochromatic light in used for interferometer work
3. Parallelism equidistance and alignment of the Slide ways.
4. True running and alignment of shaft and spindle. As the white light contains a whole spectrum of wavelengths and since the pitch of the
5. The pitch error or load of lead screw interference fringes will be different for each, the interference fringes formed will be mixture of all
6. Pitch errors of gears. and it becomes very difficult to distinguish the various dark and light fringes. The whole pattern
looks quite blurred and as the an gap between optical flat and the surface to be tested increases, it
7. Distinguish between a geometrical test and practical test on a machine tool. becomes absolutely impossible to distinguish the dark and light fringes at any one point.

The alignment test is carried out to check the grade of manufacturing accuracy of the machine In the case of monochromatic light, the spread of wave length is very small and thus fringes
tool. are formed at considerable separations of optical flat and surface. The interference fringle pattern
in much more clearly d.
Performance test consist of checking the accuracy of the finished component.
Advantages of light std. of wavelength
Alignment test consist of checking the relationship between various machine elements when the
machine tool is idle. Light standard s the length in terms of a std. which is not only constant, but also,
reproducible anywhere in the world. This is the major criterion for any standard. It does not
Performance test consists of preparing the actual test jobs on the machine and checking the accuracy depend on reference to some particular and possibly whether able piece of metal. It become
of the jobs produced. possible because at constant pressure and temperature, each pure color of light from a vaporizing
element has a particular and constant wavelength, and with the adventure nuclear physics, it was
Necessary conditions for interference of light waves possible to obtain pure isotopes of various elements, serving as very pure mono chromatic light
source.
The following conditions should be satisfied. To observe the phenomenon of sustained or
continuous interference of light waves, Advantages of using laser beam in interferometer

1. Two sources of light should be coherent, ie. The laser provides a source of wherence and truly mono chromatic light. Non-laser light is
in coherent and does not exactly follow the sinusoidal wave, but is subject to small random
a) The two sources of light should continuously emit waves of same wave length or frequency. variations. The property of wherence in laser beam enables it to be projected in a narrow pencil of
5. The development of fiber - optics wave - guider. It is a three dimensional measurements for various components. These machines have precise
6. Material structuring within micrometers. movement is x-y-z co-ordinates which can be easily controlled and measured. Each slide in three
directions is equipped with a precision linear measurement transducer which gives digital display
"Flatness' as applied to metrology and sense positive and negative direction.

Flatness is the minimum distance between the two parallel planes that cover all the Position accuracy.
irregularities of the surface.
It is s as difference between positions read out of machine along an individual axis and value of
State the characteristic of the surface a reference length measuring system. Three parameters are needed for position accuracy. Position
accuracy of x axis, y axis and z axis are measured.
The surface must be reflective in order to respond to interferometer measurement.
Axial length measuring accuracy and volumetric length measuring accuracy.
Advantages of laser as a light source in interfermetric measurement
Axial length measuring accuracy:
The light emitted in coherent and highly monochromatic enabling interference fringes to be
It Is d as difference between the reference length of gauges aligned with a machine axis and the
produced over long distances as opposed to short distances with a conventional discharge lamp.
corresponding measurement results from the machine.
The light is of an intensity which enables the fringes produced to be readily detected by suitable
photo-cells, and the signal - to - noise ratio in such that counting speeds up to a million cycles per
Volumetric length measuring accuracy:
second are possible. Further, the light in produced as a narrow parallel beam which eases the
problem of producing the optical components in an interferometer system.
It is s as difference between the reference length of gauges, freely in space and the corresponding
measured results from the machine.
Fundamental difference between a flatness interferometer and light interferometer

Types of co-ordinate measuring machine.


The fundamental difference between a flatness interferometer and light interferometer is
that the later incorporates a constant deviation prism which splits the light into number of parallel
Cantilever type : easy to load and unload, but mechanical error may occur due to sag or
beams each hawing a difference and closely d wavelength of known value.
deflection.
Light sources are used in interferometer
Bridge type : More difficult to load but mechanical errors are less.
Mercury, mercury 198, cadmium, krypton, krypton86, thallium, sodium, Helicem, neon, Gas laser.
Horizontal bore mill : It is used for large and heavy work pieces.
Interferometer
Vertical bore mill : It is very slow to operate but highly accurate.
It is an optical instrument used for measuring flatness and determining the length of slip
VI. No need of GO / NOGO gauges
Measurement of diameter, center distance, and length can be measured as follows. VII. Reduction of scrap and good part rejection.

i) Measurement of plane and spatial curves Mention the disadvantages of CMM.


ii) Minimize CNC programme
i) Data communications I. The table and probe may not be perfect alignment
ii) Digital input and output command II. The stylus may have run out
iii) Interface to CAD software III. The stylus moving in z-axis may have some perpendicularity errors
IV. Stylus while moving in x and y direction may not be square to each other
Machine vision. V. There may be errors in digital system

Machine vision can be d as a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis Mention the application of CMM.
capabilities of the human system with electronic and electromechanical techniques.
I. CMM’s to find application in automobile, machine tool, electronics, space and many other
Four basic types of machine vision system large companies
II. These are best suited for the test and inspection of test equipment, gauges and tools
i) Image formation III. For aircraft and space vehicles of hundred percent inspections is carried out by using CMM
ii) Processing of image IV. CMM can be used for determining dimensional accuracy of the component
iii) Analyzing the image V. CMM can also be used for sorting tasks to achieve optimum pacing of components within
iv) Interpretation of image tolerance limit.

Advantages of machine vision system.


Past process metrology incorporated CNC machines
i) Reduction of tooling and fixture cash
ii) Elimination of need for precise part location The process of measuring the work pieces during machining and automatically updating the
iii) Integrated automation of dimensional verification machine tool offsets in the control system to maintain the dimensional quality of the work piece
iv) Defect detection machined without any manual intervention is called post process metrology. The post process
metrology set up can reduce the cost and time of production.
Gray scale analysis.
Features of a flexible inspection system.
In these techniques, discrete areas or windows are formed around only the portions of the
image to be inspected. For determining if brackets are present, high intensity lighting is positions i)A powerful computer serves as a real time processor to handle part dimensional data and as a
so that a bracket, when the bracket is missing no shadow will be cash. When the bracket is present, multi programming system to perform such tasks as manufacturing process control.
a large number of darker pixels can be observed in the window due to the cast shadow then when
a bracket is missing. A contrast threshold between the dark and light pixel value area can be set. ii)The terminal provides interactive communications with personal computer where the
surface texture of part. Such a system is non-contact 3-D surface measurement system and provide Measuring machine
image of the surface. The images are processed on a PC using vertical scanning interferometer and
vision analysis software to produce 2D-profuile, 3-D plots and counter plots Length bar measuring machine, new all measuring machine, universal measuring machine,
optical projection comparator, microscopes, optimeter, co-ordinate measuring machine, optical
It generates statistics for average roughness, average profile height, reduced peak height, cares probe, and etc.
roughness depth, reduced valley depth and a number of other parameters. It also determines the
depth, spacing and angle of groove in a hared surface optical probe of a cylinder bore can be Co-ordinate measuring machine (CMM)
rotated 360 degrees and moved vertically along the cylinder wall.
Computerization in manufacturing has become so common that the introduction of
Three important field of machine vision system. computerized co-ordinate machiners has revolutionized quality control in metal working.

1. Inspection : It is the ability of an automated vision system to recognize well d pattern and if A Co-ordinate measuring machine consists, in essence of a mean of moving a probe within
these pattern match these stored in the system, makes machine vision ideal for inspection of raw a 3-D rectangular Co-ordinate systems. This probe provides on electrical signal when contact with
materials, parts, assemblies etc. the manufactured component in established, enabling the special Co-ordinates of selected contact
points to be accurately recorded.
2.Part Identification : It is the ability of part recognition provides positive identifications of an
object for decision making purposes. Advantages of Co-ordinate measuring machines.

3.Guidance and control : Machine vision systems are used to provide sensor feedback for real Flexibility :
time guidance and control ranging from visual serving of industrial robots and weld seam CMM are flexible in that use, in the sense that they are not designed for any single or
tracking to calculation of geometric off sets for part processing and assembly operations. particular task. Speed of measurement.

Application of machine vision system. Component alignment and the establishment of appropriate reference points are very time
consuming with conventional inspection techniques, these procedures are greatly simplified with
I. This can be used to replace, machine for applications like welding, machining to maintain computer assisted / controlled CMM's.
relationship between tool and work.
II. Machine vision systems are used for printed circuit board Improved accuracy:
III. These are used for weld seam tracking, robot guidance and control, inspection of
microelectronic devices and tooling, on line inspection in machining operation, online All measurements on a CMM are taken from a common geometrically fixed measuring
inspection of a assembling maintaining high speed packaging. system, eliminating the introduction of errors that can result from set up changes.
IV. This is for the recognition of object from its image
Reduced operator influence:
V. Achieve 100% accuracy.
The use of digital readouts eliminates the subjective interpretation of reading common with
Steps involved in producing software for engineering metrology dial or vernier type measuring devices. Further more, operator "feel" ins avoided with tough-
D, E, F, and G in Fig.
It is a measuring equipment, where the lever in amplified by using light beam.
If the machine is filled with a circular table, the note may be bored from the centre of the
circle, and the only dimension required will be the diameter of the pitch circle H of the holes and 1. Vertical optimeter
the angular spacing between them is 60 degree. It is recommended that the central note J in 2. Horizontal optimeter
provided for setting purpose, which in known as a reference note and simplifies checking of the 3. Tool maker's microscope
jig after manufacture. For checking the chord K should be given as this proves useful whatever
method of boring in employed. Accuracy specification in CMM

Electronic gauging. There are two type of accuracies d in connection with CMM

It is a transducer equipment using non-contracting sensors or probes to cover many a. Geometrical accuracy :
engineering problems of precision measurement. The operation relies on the electrical
capacitance, between the sensor and test surface, and one, two or six channels can be provided. It is determined by independent measurement because they make major contribution to
overall accuracy of machine. It concerns the straightness, squareness of axis, and position
Component checked by Electronic gauging system. accuracy.

This is essentially a differential measurement one sensor monitoring a shaft position which b. Total Measuring accuracy:
will provide a changing datum should the shaft be warped. The second sensor responds to the
combined eccentricities due to the shaft and the disc. The measuring instrument, can be arranged It is determined by utilising the entire machine system as applied to master gauges. It
to read the differences between these two quantities. concerns with the axis measuring accuracy and volumetric length measuring accuracy.

CMM Machine vision system.

CMM- Co-ordinate measuring machine It can be utilised to measure length and diameters It can be d as a means of simulating the image recognizion and analysis capabilities of the
of both plain and the readed work tapers and the pitch of the screw the reads to a high degree of human eye\brain system with electronic and electro-mechanical techniques.
accuracy.
Human vision system.
Optical projection comparator (or) machine
In human vision system, eye senses the image and brain analysis the information and takes
It is a measuring instrument, which projects an enlarged image or shadow of the action on the basis of analysis.
components being measured on the screen, where it is compared to a master drawing. By this
device, complicated shaped parts can be easily checked. Basic steps in machine vision system
The machine vision system could be used for Inspection, part identification, guidance and control.
Laser techniques are used for measurement of dimensions in the following ways.
Inspection
a. Scanning laser gauges.
b. Photo diode array imaging
The ability of an automated vision system to recognise well d patterns and determine if
c. Diffraction pattern system.
third pattern match those stored in the system makes machine vision ideal for inspection of raw
d. Laser triangulation sensors
material, parts assemblies and etc.
e. Interferometers.
f. Holography
Application of machine vision system.
Advantages and disadvantages of analog image sensors
Machine vision system can be used to replace human vision for applications like welding,
machining to ensure correct relationship in maintained between tool and workpiece, assembly of Advantages :
parts to analys the position of parts so that other parts can be correctly aligned for insertion or
some other form of mating. Resolution, low lighting, contrast, sensitivity, capability to preprocess cost.

Disadvantages :
It is frequency used for printed circuit board inspection to ensure minimum conductor
width and spacing between conductor and many other features. These are used for weld seam Poor linearity image drift and image burn.
tracking, robot guidance and control, inspection of micro-electronic devices and tooling, on-line
inspection in machining operation, on-line inspection in machining operation, on-line inspection
of assemblies, monitoring high speed packaging equipment etc. Working principle and the steps involved machine vision system.

Application of computer in metrology. The machine vision system involves following four basic steps.

Computers can be advantageously applied in the field of engg. metrology for tasks like Image formation
processing of acquired data, control of calibration equipment, in co-ordinate measuring machine, Processing of image in a form suitable for analysis by computer
etc. Defining and analysing the characteristics of image
Interpretation of image and decision making.
Computer find extensive applications in the field of roundness measurement, form and We will now discuss these four steps in more details.
surface texture measurement.
Image formation. For formation of image suitable light source is required. It may consist of
Advantages of computer for processing of acquired data and control incandescent light, fluorescent tube, fiber-optic bundle, arc lamp, or strobe light. Laser beam is
used for triangulation system for measuring distance. Polarised or ultraviolet light is used to
I. A particular measurement sequence is strictly adhered to since computer accepts the reduce glare or increase contrast. It is important that light source is placed correctly since it
information in a sequential manner and also provides necessary guidance to operator in this
values will require over 65000-8 bit storage locations for analysis, at a speed of 30 images per
An image sensor like vidicon camera, CCD or CID camera is used to generate the electronic second. The data processing requirements can thus be visualised. It is, therefore, essential that
signal representing the image. The image sensor collects light from the scene through a lens and some means be used to reduce the amount of data to be processed. Various techniques in this
using a photosensitive target, converts it into electronic signal. Most image sensors generate direction are :
signals representing two-dimensional arrays (scans of the entire image).
a) Windowing. This technique is used to concentrate the processing in the desired area of interest
Vidicon Camera used in closed – circuit television systems can be used for machine vision and ignoring other non-interested part of image. An electronic mask is created around a small
systems. IN it, an image is formed by focussing the income light through a series of lenses onto area of an image to be studied.
the photoconductive face plate of the vidicon tube. An electron beam within the tube scans the ph Thus only the pixels that are not blocked out will be analysed by the computer.
to conductive surface and produces an analog output voltage proportional to the variations in
light intensity for each scan line of the original scene. a) Image Restoration. This involves preparation of an image in more suitable form during
the pre-processing stage by removing the degradation suffered. The image may be degraded
It provides a great deal of information of a scene at very fast speeds. However they tend to (blurring of lines/ boundaries; poor contrast between image regions, presence of background
distort the image due to their construction and are subject to image burn-in on the photo noise, etc.) due to motion of camera / object during image formation, poor illumination /poor
conductive surface. These are also susceptible to damage by shock and vibration. placement, variation in sensor response, poor contrast on surface, etc.).

Solid State Cameras. These are commonly used in machine vision systems. These employ The quality may be improved, ( i ) by improving the contrast by constant brightness
charge coupled device (CCD) or change injected device (CID) image sensors. They contain matrix addition,( ii ) by increasing the relative contrast between high and low intensity elements by
or linear array of small, accurately spaced photo sensitive elements fabricated on silicon chips making light pixels lighter and dark pixels darker (contrast stretching ) or ( iii ) by fourier domain
using integrated circuit technology, Each detector converts the light falling on it, through the processing.
camera lens, into analog electrical signal corresponding to light intensity. The entire image is thus
broken down into an array of individual picture elements (pixels). Other techniques to reduce processing are edge detection and run length encoding. In
former technique, the edges are clearly found and d and rather than storing the entire image, only
Typical matrix array solid state cameras may have 256 x 256 detector elements per array. the edges are stored. In run-length encoding, each line of the image is scanned, and transition
Solid-state cameras are smaller, rugged and their sensors do not wear out with use. They exhibit points form black to white or vice versa are noted, along with the number of pixels between
less image distortion because of accurate placement of the photodetectors. CCD and CID differ transitions. These data are then stored instead of the original image, and serve as the starting
primarily in how the voltages are extracted from the sensors. point for image analysis.

ii) Image processing : The series of voltage levels available on detectors representing light iii) Image Analysis. Digital image of the object formed is analysed in the central processing
intensities over the area of the image need processing for presentation to the microcomputer in a unit of the system to draw conclusions and make decisions. Analysis is done by describing and
format suitable for analysis. A camera may typically from an image 30 times per sec i.e. At 33 m measuring the properties of several image features which may belong to either regions of the
sec intervals. At each time interval the entire image has to be captured and forzen for processing image or the image as a whole. Process of image interpretation starts with analysis of simple
by an image processor. An analog to digital converter is used to convert analog voltage of each features and then more complicated features are added to it completely. Analysis is carried for
detector into digital value. describing the position of the object, its geometric configuration, distribution of light intensity
 Computer adheres to a given criteria rigorously and thus all the qualifying requirements and
The object orientation can be determined by the methods of equivalent ellipse (by ability of operator in accepting / rejecting a reading need to be told to computer clearly
calculating an ellipse of same area as the image of object in two- dimensional plane, and without any ambiguity.
orientation of object being d by the major axis of the ellipse), the connecting of three points  Sometimes a number may be entered incorrectly due to transposing error or key-bounce.
(defining orientation by measuring the apparent relative position of three points of image), light  Strict control is needed over the use, amendment and copying of programme tapes to ensure
intensity distribution (determining orientation based on relative light intensity), structured light that unauthorised modifications are not made.
method (in which the workpiece is illuminated by the structured light and the three dimensional  Checking procedure to ensure correct loading of program from tape needs to be followed.
shape and the orientation of the part are determined by the way in which the pattern is distored  Measurement process gets remote from the operator.
by the part).  It is difficult to locate the source of problem by normal operator.
 While the effects of drifts, environment influences are hidden or not noticed; but operator
Image can be interpreted by analysis of the fundamental geometric properties of two- may not get that confidence.
dimensional images. Usually parts tend to have distinct shapes that can be recognized on the  While human eye and memory are extremely good at detecting drifts and averaging high
basis of elementary features. For complex three-dimensional objects, additional geometric frequency noise on signals, careful programming has to be undertaken to give a computer a
properties need to be determined, including descriptions of various image segments (process similar facility.
being known as feature extraction). In this method the boundary locations are determined and the
image is segment into distinct regions and their geometric properties determined. Then these Co – ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) – Principle.
image regions are organised in a structure describing their relationship.
These machine have precise movements in x-y-z coordinates which can be easily controlled
An image can also be interpreted on the basis of difference in intensity of light in different and measured. Each slide in three directions is equipped with a precision linear measurement
regions. Analysis of subtle changes in shadings over the image can add a great deal of transducer which gives digital display and sense +vd/ -ve direction. These are manufactured in
information about the three-dimensional nature of the object. both manual and computer-controlled models and come in a wide range of sizes to accommodate
a variety of applications. The measuring head incorporates a probe tip, which can be of different
Advantages and Limitations of computer in processing kinds like taper tip, ball tip etc. Various type of CMMs are shown in Fig. 17.11. The cantilever
type is easiest to load and unload, but is most susceptible to mechanical error because of sag or
The advantages of using computer for processing of acquired data and control are as under : deflection in y -axis beam. Bridge type is more difficult to load but less sensitive to mechanical
errors. Horizontal boring mill type is best sited for large heavy workpieces. Vertical bore mill
 A particular measurement sequence is strictly adhered to since computer accepts the type is highly accurate but usually slower to operate. A floating bridge type machine is also
information in a sequential manner and also provides necessary guidance to operator in this available in which the complete bridge can slide in y-direction on the slides. It has the
regard. compromises of both cantilever and bridge type, and is thus fast to operate, simple in alignment,
 Inspection time is reduced considerably and rugged construction affords consistent accuracy.
 The calculation of final result in available immediately on completion of the last
measurement. For measuring the distance between two holes, the workpiece is clamped to the worktable
 Rejected readings can be repeated straight away, before the set up is disturbed. and aligned with the machine's three mutually perpendicular x, y and z measuring slides. The
 Scope for copying and calculation errors is virtually eliminated. tapered-probe tip is then seated in first datum hole and the probe position digital readout is set to
R-0 machines having motions of their measuring head in R, 0 and direction are used for machines without excessive weight, all the moving members, the bridge structure, Z- axis
inspecting parts that are basically spherical. carriage, and Z – column are made of hollow box contraction.

As it is impossible to manufacture a mechanically perfect machine it is important to be able Principles of kinematic design are used in the three master guide ways and probe location.
to analysee the geometry errors associated with each individual CMM and determine their effects Even whole machine with its massive granite worktable is supported on a three-point suspension.
on the machine's measurement accuracy. The result of such analyses can be used to compensate
for these effects and thus provide a high degree of accuracy that could not otherwise be achieved. A map of systematic errors in machine is build up and fed into the computer system so that
error compensation is built up into the software.
The prime advantage of co-ordinate measuring machine is the quicker inspection coupled
with accurate measurements. All machines are provided with their own computers with interactive dialogue facility and
friendly software.
The co-ordinate measuring machine with mechanical gauge makes use of two-axis X and Y
positioning tables to bring the work to the probe that engages the holes to be inspected. Thermocouples are incorporated throughout the machine and interfaced with the computer
to be used for compensation of temperature gradients and thus provide increased accuracy and
Some machines are equipped with an optical comparator as well as travel dial indicator. repeatability.

Present day co-ordinate measuring machines are three-axis digital read-out type and work With the advent of three-axis programming, computers enable CMM to measure three-
up with an accuracy of 10 microns and resolution of 5 microns. These utilise a measuring element dimensionally object from variable datums.
called inductory data element which uses inductive coupling between conductors separated by a
small air gap. As this element is not subjected to wear, it does not develop inaccuracy. It does not The real benefit of today's CMM is its total flexibility and programmability, which makes it
require reference standards or any other external device for its operation. The workpiece is capable of handling virtually any measuring requirement within its physical size limit, thus
aligned by a probe and by a switching adjustment on the worktable. rendering dedicated or specially designed gauging unnecessary.

Many machines utilize More fringe concept for measurement. Design improvements allied to a rapid growth in software for 3 and 4 axis movements
enable CMMS to measure straight line relationships between basic features, i.e., hole centre
Some coordinate measuring machines are available with accessories like optical viewing distances, etc. and also a variety of form measurements, such as turbine blades, cam profiles etc.
screen, (optical comparator), microscope attachment for the inspection of thin, soft, or delicate
workpieces, and automatic print out. Some machines, it addition to measuring in three axes, are Accuracy Specification for Co-ordinate Measuring Machines.
also designed to permit the checking of angularity, roundness, taper, and concentricity. Provision
of rotary table makes such co-ordinate measuring machine more versatile because setting of a part Two types of accuracies are d in connection with coordinate measuring machines; viz
need not be changed and all areas can be approached due to positioning of rotary table. The geometrical accuracy (determined by independent measurement because they make major
errors likely to occur in multiple set-ups are thus avoided. contribution to overall accuracy of machine)and ii) total measuring accuracy (determined by
utilising the entire measuring machine system as applied to master gauges ).
Some co-ordinate measuring machines utilise electronic indicator probe (mounted on the
full travel of each axis. Straightness is d as the distance A (deviation bandwidth) between the two probe type. Modes include free floating manual, driven manual, and direct computer
parallel lines containing the two graphs (Refer Fig. 17.13). controlled. Probe types are passive, switching, proportional and nulling. The CMM is
tested in the mode and with the probe that is commonly used.
Squareness of axes: It is d as deviation from 90o of the straightness bandwidth lines of two 3.Since environmental effects have great influence, explicit specification on environmental
orthogonal axis movements. Three measurement parameters (squareness between x and y axes, conditions for the accuracy testing, including thermal parameters, vibrations and relative
between y and z axes, and between x and z axes). Measurement is effected against a suitable humidity are required.
squareness reference, e.g. Laser beam, taking at least 10 measurements over full travel of each axis.
Squareness is then d as the deviation from 90o of the angle between the straightness bandwidth It is usually difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between any particular
lines of two axes and is given as an absolute value in arc seconds (Refer Fig. 17 .14). environmental specification and the effect in machine's performance. Thus it is better to what
level of environmental enfluence is acceptable, and maintain those conditions.
Position accuracy : It is d as difference between position readout of machine along an
individual axis and value of a reference length measuring system. Following three measurement The thermal effects dominate the environmental influences affecting a CMM. The sources
parameters are needed for position accuracy. Position accuracy of x axis, of y axis, and of z axis. of thermally induced errors include deviations of surrounding air temperature from 20oC,
Measurement is effected along one measuring line for each machine axis located approximately at temperature gradients, radiant energy (e.g. Sunlight), utility air temperature, and self-heating in
centre of measuring travel of remaining two axes. For this purpose, a suitable reference length machines with drive motors. Thermal effects may take the form of differential expansion between
measuring system, e.g. Laser interferometer, is aligned to each machine axis within a permissible the workpiece and the machine scale system, drift between a workpiece origin and the machine
deviation of 1 arc minute (minimum 20 points measured over full travel of each axis). Fig. 17.15 scale system origin, and distortion of the machine structure leading to significant changes in the
shows a typical deviation record in which position accuracy F is d as the distance between the two calibration and adjustment of the machine. The dominant effect of vibration is to degrade the
parallel lines containing the two graphs for the two directions. repeatability of a machine. If the indicated relative motion between the machine table and the ram
exceeds 50% of the working tolerance for repeatability, the vibration environment is deemed
Axial Length Measuring Accuracy : It is d as difference between the reference length of gauges, unacceptable.
freely oriented in space, and the corresponding measured results from the machine. Three
reference gauges are measured, their lengths corresponding to approximately 1/3, 1/2 and ¾ of full It is important that suitable performance tests capable of testing the machine as a complete
travel of respective axis (upto a maximum of 1000 mm). Length measuring accuracy G is d as the system are performed. It may be mentioned that use of parametric testing (straightness,
absolute value of the difference between the calibrated length of the gauge block and the actual squareness, angular motion) does not test the system performance test is carried out by measuring
measured value. a mechanical artifact which provides some similarity between the machine testing and actual
measurement of workpieces. Such testing must sample throughout the work zone. For
Volumetric Length Measuring Accuracy : It is d as difference between the reference length of performance test, linear displacement accuracy is checked by a step bar or a laser interferometer.
gauges, freely oriented in space, and the corresponding measured results from the machine. These measurements are made along three orthogonal lines through the centre of the work zone to
Three reference gauges are measured, their lengths corresponding to approximately 1/3, ½ and ¾ provide a thorough sampling of many combinations of x, y, and z errors that occur throughout the
of the full travel of the longest axes (upto maximum of 100 mm). Volumetric length measuring work zone of a machine.
accuracy M is d as the absolute value of the difference between the calibrated length of the gauge Using the socketed ball bar provides a means of sweeping out the surface of a (nearly)
block and the actual measured values. perfect hemispheres with a physical object (ball). The CMM is used to measure the location of the
centre of this ball at many locations on the hemisphere. The actual measurement data is compared
Performance of CMM.
schematic diagram of such a machine. Such a machine is adaptable for computer control. Laser Because of low coefficient of expansion of granite, it is chosen for building the machine
interferometers are provided as scales. A cooling system is incorporated to reduce the base. The base is supported on three pneumatic isolators. The metrology frame is built of steel
temperature rise when the machine is in operation. The workpiece (gauge) is mounted on the because temperature controlled oil shower is included.
table which moves to provide the x-measurement. y-motion is obtained by movement of the large
carriage (carrying probe on z-slide) across the bridge. z slide mounted on y-carriage moves For stability of the laser ( which depends on the stability of the medium in the pathways ),
vertically up and down. Axes movement is controlled by stepping motors attached to lead- helium at a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure ( Maintained at constant value by a
screws. The three carriages are mounted upon double-V ways, the x and y slides with roller regulator ) is provided in path ways. The effect of helium pressure change on the laser
bearings and the z-slide with plain ways. wavelength is taken into account.

Fig. 17.16 shows a typical y-z measuring machine. The axi-symmetric part is centered upon y-axis and z-axis slides ride on and are guided by hydrostatic bearings. A portion of each
the rotary table or the "c" axis. The rotary table is mounted on the horizontal (y) slide. The bearing is evacuated and the evacuated section acts like a vacuum chuck to hold the bearing
electronic gauge stylus is typically a ball-tipped, single axis, linear varible displacement against the way (similar to preloading the bearing). The balance of the bearings are externally
transducer (LVDT) carried and positioned by the vertical (z) slide. The axis of the LVDT is compensated to enhance the stiffness. The slide drive system (Fig. 17.19) can be considered as a
typically mounted at a 45 degree angle with respect to the y and z axes. A correction is provided rack and pinion drive without gear teeth. The capstan is connected directly to the drive motor.
for the cosine error introduced when the direction of travel of LVDT is not normal to the part The steel traction bar is squeezed between the capstan and the idler roller. One end of the traction
surface. bar is fastened to the slide with spherical bearing. A coil spring supports the weight of the bar at
the opposite end. Both the capstan and the idler are supported on hydrostatic bearings.
Displacement accuracy is achieved by laser interferometers operating in helium shielded
pathways. The interferometers are located in strict accordance with the Abbe principle, i.e., the This type of drive system has minimum cost, minimum heat generation, maximum
extension of the laser interferometer axis passes through the centre of the stylus ball at its null stiffness, minimum sliding friction, maximum linearity of displacement, no backlash, high
position (the centre of stylus ball being "functional point"). Refer Fig. 17.17. reliability, compactness and minimum influence on slide straightness.

On the y-axis slide, two laser interferometers suitably separated are provided. The The thermal environment of the measuring machine and the part is controlled by
difference in readings between these two lasers is used as a servo input to drive a piezoelectric showering adequate quantity of oil controlled at 25oC. The shower is carefully sculptured to
crystal that supports one end of the y-axis table, thereby correcting the angular motion or pitch of maintain machine temperature and to minimise splash. The primary advantages of liquid shower
the table. are its greater heat removal capability and the fact it is easily directed to the critical areas of the
machine and workpiece surfaces. Liquids also have higher heat capacity than gases and
Straightness accuracy is achieved by mounting straight edges parallel to each slide to accordingly it is possible to remove heat with corresponding lower temperature differences.
measure and correct for slide way straightness errors. For instance any error in the straightness of
travel of z-slide will cause unwanted movement in the y direction. The LVDT gauge head that Principle and working of Michelson interferometer.
contacts the straight edge detects this movement and corrects it by zero shifting the y-slide.
Similarly when nonstraighness of y-slide travel is detected, the z-axis is zero shifted in the proper Michelson Interferometer. This is the oldest type of interferometer, which has subsequently been
direction to correct the travel. modified in several respects and lot of sophistication introduced. However, Michelson using this
interferometer, established exact relationship between meter and red wavelengths of cadmium
Splitter (which is a plain parallel plate having a semi-transparent layer of silver at its back) frequency circular polarized laser beam. On reaching the polarizing beam splitter, the beam splits
which splits the light into two rays of equal intensity at right angles. One ray is transmitted to into two components. The reflected beam being vertically polarized light and the transmitted
Mirror M1 and other is reflected through beam splitter to Mirror M2. From both these mirrors, the beam being horizontally polarized light. These two beams referred to as reference are and
rays are reflected back and these reunite at the semi-reflecting surface from where they are measurement are respectively travel to their retro reflectors and are then reflected back towards
transmitted to the eye as shown in Fig. 6.06. the beam splitter.

Mirror M2 is fixed and the reflected ray from M1 serves as reference beam, Mirror M1 is movable,
i.e., it is attached to the object whose dimension is to be measured.

If both mirrors are at same distance from beam splitter, then light will arrive in phase and
observer will see bright spot due to constructive interference. If movable mirror shifts by quarter
wavelength, then beam will return to observer 180 out of phase and darkness will be observed
due to destructive interference.

Each half wavelength of mirror travel produces a change in the measured optical path of one
wavelength and the reflected beam from the moving mirror shifts through 360 phase change.
When the reference beam reflected from the fixed mirror and the beam reflected from the moving
mirror rejoin at the beam splitter, they alternately reinforce and cancel each other as the mirror
moves. Thus each cycle of intensity at the eye represents /s of mirror travel.

The recombined beam at beam splitter consists of two superimposed beams of different
It may be noted that when monochromatic light source is used then fringes can be seen over a polarization; one component vertically polarized having traveled around reference arm and other
range of path difference that may vary from a few to a million wavelengths, depending on the component horizontally polarized having traveled around the measurement arm. These two
source. However, when white light is used, then fringes can be seen only if both ray paths are beams being differently polarized do not interface. The recombined beam then passes through a
exactly equal to a freq. wavelengths in total length in glass and air. The lengths themselves are not quarter wave plate which causes the two beams to interfere with one another to produce a beam
important, but only their differences affect fringe formation. So when white light source is used of plane polarized light. The angular orientation of the plane of this polarized light depends on the
then a compensator plate is introduced in the path of mirror M1 so that exactly the same amount of phase difference between the light in the two returned beams.
glass is introduced in each of the paths. (In the path of mirror M2, the glass was coming due to
rays passing through beam splitter back surface). The various sophistications which have The direction of plane of polarization spin is dependent on the direction of movement of the
undergone to improve the Michelson’s basic apparatus are: moving retro reflector. The beam after quarter wave plate is split into three polarization sensitive
detectors. As the plane of polarized light spins, each detector produces a sinusoidal output wave
(i) Use of laser as the light source, which means that the measurements can be made over form. The polarization sensitivity of the detectors can be set so that their outputs have relative
longer distances; and also the beam laser compared to other monochromatic sources has phases of 0, 90, and 180. The outputs of there detectors can be used to distinguish the direction
exact and pure wavelength thus enabling highly accurate measurements. of movement and also the distance moved by the moving retro reflector attached to the surface
to be able to count the fringes, the following must be taken care of:
Interferometer is now an established and well developed technique for high accuracy and high
resolution measurement.

Twyman – Green Specialization of Michelson Interferometer.

In the Michelson interferometer shown in Fig. 6.18, the rays actually describe a cone, giving rise to
various types of fringe patterns which may be hard to interpret.

Twynman-Green modified Michelson interferometer utilizes a pin-hole source diaphragm and


collimating lenses. In this way, all rays are rendered parallel to the central rays and thus all rays
describe the same path . All modern tow-beam interferometers are based on this arrangement. The
mirrors M1 and M2 are arranged perpendicular to the optical axis. If mirror M1 is kept fixed, and
M2 is moved slowly exactly parallel to itself, the observer will note periodic changes in the
intensity of the field being viewed, from bright to dark for every /2 movement of the mirror. In
fact intensity variation is found to be sinusoidal. It may also be noted that if one of the mirrors is
even slightly inclined to the optical axis then parallel fringes will be seen moving parallel to
themselves by just one fringe for every \2 (half the wavelength of the light source used) mirror
motion. Usually it is quite difficult to count such fringes by eye. However, photo detectors
connected to high speed counters can do this job very accurately (accuracy of one part in million
being obtainable). It is possible to calibrate the output of counter directly ion terms of the linear
movement of the mirror M2, but several conditions must be met to achieve these results.

(i) It has been indicated that mirror should travel exactly parallel to itself and no machines have
ways sufficiently straight to maintain uniform fringe fields. The recent trend is to use corner-cube
reflectors which are not all sensitive to their own orientation and return the reflected ray exactly
parallel to the incident beam.

(ii) It is observed that the wavelength of light source is modified by the refractive index of air
which is dependent on pressure, temperature and humidity of air (wavelength is fixed only in
vacuum). The slight changes in wavelength may be immaterial in case of flatness or from
measuring systems, but not in fringe counting and gauge block interferometers. So pressure,
250 mm due to poor signal to noise ratio. mixes out of phase light beams of the same frequency, the a.c. system mixes beams of two
different frequencies thus permitting the distance information to be carried on a.c. waveform. Use
Construction and working of AC interferometer is made of the fact that the AC amplifiers are insensitive to d.c. variation of a.c. inputs.

This article is based on a similar article appearing in magazine “Machine Design” Vol. 47 No.4. Two frequency Zee man laser generates light of two slightly different frequencies with opposite
The measuring capacity in interferometers with lamp as source of light is limited because it is not circular polarizations. These beams get split up by beam splitter B1; one part travels towards B2
possible to maintain the sharpness of interference fringes beyond certain distance due to the size and from there to external cube corner where the displacement is to be measured. It may be noted
of the lamp. Laser interferometer uses A..C. laser as the light source and thus enables the that mirror is not employed here like Michelson Interferometer, because mirror alignment is a
measurements to be made over longer distance because it is possible to maintain the quality of critical procedures. Thus interferometer, instead, uses cube-corner reflectors (retro reflectors)
point interference fringes over long distances when lamp is replaced by a laser source. It must be which reflect light parallel to its angle of incidence regardless of retro reflector alignment
understood that white light emitted by a lamp is combination of waves at different frequencies but accuracy. Beam splitter B2 optically separates the frequency f1 which alone is sent to the movable
laser generates a continuous train of light waves, resulting into high coherence. Laser represents a cube-corner reflector. The second frequency f2 (optically separated) from B2 is sent to a fixed
source of intensely monochromatic optical energy, which can be collimated into a directional reflector which then rejoins f1 at the beam splitter B2 to produce alternate light and dark
beam, Also laser beam wavelength is exact and pure for highly accurate measurements. It utilizes interference flicker at about 2 Mega cycles per second. Now if the movable reflector (external cube
the principles of both optical techniques and digital electronics; and is a highly accurate and corner) moves, then the returning beam frequency will be Doppler-shifted slightly up or down by
versatile measuring system that can cope with industrial environments. In case of AC laser ∆f1. Thus the light beams moving towards photo-detector P2 have frequencies f2 and (f1 ± ∆f1) and
interferometer (ACLI) position information is carried as phase deviation rather than as a signal P2 changes these frequencies into electrical signal. (Photocells convert light-intensity variations
amplitude deviation, thus giving a much improved signal to noise ratio over amplitude into voltage pulses which can be processed by electronic instruments to give the amount and
modulation, because the noise sources that affect signal amplitude have little effect on phase. In direction of position change).
this way, ACLI is much more tolerant of environmental factors that attenuate the intensity of a
Photo detector P1 receives signal from beam splitter B1 and changes the reference beam
laser beam, such as dust, smoke, air turbulence etc. It requires no warm-up time or standby
frequencies f1 and f2, into electrical signal. An A..C. amplifier A1 separates frequency difference
power.
signal [(f2- (f1 ± ∆f1). The pulse converter extracts ∆f1, one cycle per half wavelength of motion. The
up-down pulses from the pulse converter are counted electronically and displayed in analog or
Thus ACLI has the following advantages: high repeatability and resolution of displacement
digital form on the indicator. It may be noted that output in case of ACLI is in the form of pulses,
measurement (0.1m), high accuracy,, long-range optical path (60m), easy installation, and no
whereas in d.c. systems, the output is in the form of a sinusoidal wave, the amplitude (intensity) of
change in performance due to ageing or wear and tear. A single laser source can be used for as
which depends upon laser aging, air turbulence or air pollutant and thus the change of amplitude
many as six simultaneous measurements in different axes. However, it is very much expensive;
leads to improper triggering and counting errors (Refer Fig. 6.32).
since the basic instrument measures physical displacement in terms of wavelength instead of
traditional units, conversion instrumentation is required for conventional read out. Highest
possible accuracy is obtainable only by compensating changes in air pressure and temperature
which affect wavelength of the laser beam.
operation of AC Interferometer.
Simple d.c. fringe counting techniques suffer from problems of intensity level changes in source frequencies in the measuring beam are separated by a polarization-sensitive beam splitter so that
and also on account of motion of source or object. Fringe contrast changes and d.c. level shifts the measuring mirror receives light of frequency f1 only, whereas the light that strikes the
result in miscounting of the fringes. Heterodyne interferometer is an a.c. device and the problems reference consists exclusively of frequency f2. With the measuring mirror at rest, detector 2 also
of d.c. fringe counting techniques are overcome. In this type of interferometer, a zeeman laser senses the laser differential frequency of f1-f2 = 640MHz. If the measuring mirror is being displaced
source emits two closely spaced orthogonal polarization frequencies separated by around 1 MHz. at a speed v, the partial beam of frequency f1 reflected by it is subjected to a Doppler shift df1;
A beam splitter placed in front of laser source separates off part of the signal where df1 = (2v)1.

from both polarizations which are mixed on detector D1 to provide a reference beat f1-f2. The
transmitted component travels up to polarizing beam splitter where it is splitter. Part of it travels
to reference fixed arm and other to measurement arm connected with target movement. The two
signals are recombined at the polarizing beam splitter and detected by detector D2. If target is
stationary, the detected beam is f1-f2. When it moves, then detected beat is f1-f2 ∆f. The reference
and Doppler-shifted beats are counted by two independent counters and subtracted to give ∆f.
Integration of the count over time t measures 2d/. Accordingly, detector 2 now receives a measuring frequency of f1-f2 ± df1 (+ df1 or – df1) depending
on the direction of movement of the measuring mirror. The reference frequency f1-f2 and the
Dual-frequency Laser Interferometer. measuring frequency f1-f2 ± df1 are compared with each other by an electronic counting chain. The
result is the frequency shift ± df1 due to the Doppler effect, a measure of the wanted displacement
This instrument is used to measure displacement, high-precision measurement of lengths, of the measuring mirror. In a fast, non-hysteric comparator, the
the delay line. The orange-red line of krypton 86 isotope, produced under specified conditions, and at a
temperature of 63.3 K temperature of nitrogen triple point, is the new basic international standard
This system can be used for both incremental displacement and angle measurements. Due to of length-meter being d as exactly 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of this source, measured in vacuum.
large counting range it is possible to attain a resolution of 2.nm in 10 m measuring range. Means
are also provided to compensate for the influence of ambient temperature, material temperature, vi) Thallium. As 95% of its light is emitted at one green wavelength, it can be used over a
atmospheric pressure and atmospheric humidity fluctuations. reasonable path difference without the use of my filter.
vii) Sodium. It is used only in applications where interference path difference does not exceed a
Different light sources used for interferometer and their characteristics. few hundred wavelengths. Usually yellow sodium light is used which contains two
separate but closely spaced lines of equal intensity; and because of this the interference
A wide variety of light sources is available for interferometer work but the selection of fringes wash out fad because of this the interference fringes wash out for higher path
proper source for any application depends on the requirements of results to be obtained by difference.
interferometer, cost and convenience. For simple applications like testing of surface geometry, viii) Helium. Orange line of helium is used where path difference is not great.
where the difference between interfering paths is of the order of a few wavelengths only, tungsten ix) Neon. As conventional neon lamp has too many closely spaced lines (in red part of the
lamp with a filter, transmitting only a narrow band of wavelengths would be adequate. spectrum) and not sharply d, it does not find many applications. Neon in gas laser,
however, has assumed a uniquely important role.
However, sophisticated applications require the use of light sources such as mercury 198, x) Gas lasers. In metrology work gas lasers which produce highly monochromatic and intense
cadmium, krypton 86, thallium, sodium, helium, and neon and gas lasers. In these sources, the light (1000 times more intense than others) are used to great advantage, enabling
discharge lamp is charged with one particular element and contains means to vaporize them. The interference fringes to be observed with enormous path differences, up to 100 million
atoms of these elements are excited electrically so that they emit radiation at certain discrete wavelengths. (It may be noted that high-power, intermittently operating ruby laser is not of
wavelengths. interest in metrology). Gas lasers are produced by exciting (by an electric discharge or a
high-frequency field) a mixture of neon and helium
Characteristics of various light source are summarized below:
i) Mercury. It is les expensive source having high intensity, and green line can be easily
isolated with filters. Since natural mercury contains several isotopes, each isotope emits
light whose wavelength is very slightly different from each other. As a result, natural
mercury light source radiates a mixture of wavelengths which can be treated as UNIT – V
monochromatic only for short path difference.
ii) Mercury 198. It is a pure isotope produced by neutron bombardment of gold. It is MEASUREMENT OF POWER, FLOW AND TEMPERATURE RELATED
considered to be one of the best sources of very sharply d wavelengths, and fringes are PROPERTIES
visible with path difference up to 500 mm. Light is emitted when mercury 198 is excited by
microwave produced electric field. It is the international secondary standard of
wavelength. Force.
iii) Cadmium. This is the only natural material producing a spectral line (red) almost
completely symmetrical, having useful path difference of about 200 mm. Cadmium 114 is The mechanical quantity which changes or tends to change the motion or shape of a body
Force applied to the elastic member of the cell results in a proportional displacement or strain is 5.Mechanical torsion meter
sensed by calibrated mechanical or electromechanical means.
Basic principle of Mechanical torsion meter.
Principle of working of load cells.
When a shaft is connected between a driving engine and driven load, a twist occurs on the
Force applied to the elastic member of the cell results in a proportional displacement or strain is shaft between its ends. This angle of twist is measured and calibrated in terms of torque.
sensed by calibrated mechanical or electromechanical means.
Types of strain gauges.
Devices used to measure force
1.Unbonded strain gauge
1. Scale and balance 2.Bonded strain gauge
a. Equal arm balance 3.Fine wire strain gauge
b. Unequal arm balance 4.Metal foil strain gauge
c. Pendulum scale 5.Piezo-resistive strain gauge

2. Elastic force meter – Proving ring unbonded strain gauge.

3. Load cell These strain gauges are not directly bonded on to the surface of the structure under study.
a. Strain gauge load cell Hence they are termed as unbonded strain gauges.
b. Hydraulic load cell
c. Pneumatic load cell bonded strain gauge.

Basic principle of elastic force meter. These strain gauges are directly bonded on to the surface of the structure under study.
Hence they are termed as unbonded strain gauges.
When a steel ring is subjected to a force across it’s diameter, it deflects. This deflection is
proportional to applied force when calibrated.
Gauge factor.
Basic principle of equal arm balance.
It is the ratio of change in resistance to the change in length.
It works on the principle of moment comparison. The beam of the equal arm balance is in
Few materials used in binding of strain gauges.
equilibrium when clockwise rotating moment is equal to anticlockwise rotating moment.

1.Ceramic cement
Basic principle of hydraulic load cell.
2.Epoxy resin
3.Nitrocellulose.
The arrangement of strain gauges in the shape of rose is referred to as a strain gauge rosette. 1. Their accuracy is between  2% to  5% of the scale.
2. Simple, robust, inexpensive.
Purpose of temperature measurement
Basic principle of resistance thermometers
1. It is one of the most common and important measurements.
2. In process industries which involve chemical operations. When an electric conductor is subjected to temperature change the resistance of the
3. In studying the temperature of molten metal in foundries. conductor changes. This change in resistance of the conductor becomes a measure of the change in
temperature when calibrated.
Instruments used to measure temperature.
Advantages of thermistors
1. Bimettalic thermometers
2. Resistance thermometers 1. Fairly good operating range (100C to 300C).
3. Thermistors 2. Have ability to withstand electrical and mechanical stresses.
4. Thermocouples
5. Pyrometer Metal used for thermocouple wire.

Thermistor 1. Chromel - constantan


2. Iron – constantan
It is a bulk semiconductor resistance temperature sensor. 3. Chromel – Alumel
4. Copper – constantan
5. Platinum – Rhodium
Two distinct instruments commonly referred to as pyrometers.
Quantity meter and flow meter.
1. Total radiation Pyrometers.
2. Optical pyrometers. Quantity meter measures the rate of flow by measuring the total quantity of fluid over a
period of time and dividing it by the time considered.
Applications of bimetallic thermometer. Flow meter measures the actual flow rate.

1. Bimetallic thermometer is used in control devices. Advantages of venturimeter.


2. Used for process applications such as refineries, oil burners, tyre vulcanizers, etc.
1. Low head loss about 10% of differential pressure head.
Principle of pressure thermometer 2. High co-efficient of discharge.
3. Capable of measuring high flow rates in pipes having very large diameter.
When liquids, gases or vapours are heated they expand and when they are cooled they 4. Characteristics are well established so they are extensively used in process and other industries.
Three definitions
 “Any instrument used for measuring high temperatures by means of the radiation emitted Atmospheric pressure is typically about 100 kPa at sea level, but is variable with altitude and
by a hot object” weather. If the absolute pressure of a fluid stays constant, the gauge pressure of the same fluid
 “A thermometer designed to measure high temperatures” will vary as atmospheric pressure changes. For example, when a car drives up a mountain, the tire
 “A device measuring the temperature of an object by means of the quantity and character pressure goes up. Some standard values of atmospheric pressure such as 101.325 kPa or 100 kPa
of the energy which it radiates” have been d, and some instruments use one of these standard values as a constant zero reference
instead of the actual variable ambient air pressure. This impairs the accuracy of these instruments,
Types of pyrometers especially when used at high altitudes.

There are two types of pyrometers Use of the atmosphere as reference is usually signified by a (g) after the pressure unit e.g. 30 psi g,
which means that the pressure measured is the total pressure minus atmospheric pressure. There
(i)Optical Pyrometer are two types of gauge reference pressure: vented gauge (vg) and sealed gauge (sg).
34. What are the different units of pressure
1892 introduced by Lechatelier, which it measured radiation from dull red to white hot Used for
measuring kiln and furnace temperature Pressure Units
pound-force
Today an optical pyrometer is used in which the color of an electrically heated filament is matched technical
per
visually to that of the emitted radiation. Based on the principle of using the human eye to match pascal bar atmosphere atmosphere torr
square inch
the brightness of the hot object to that calibrated inside the instrument (Pa) (bar) (at) (atm) (Torr)
(psi)

It is made from a small magnifying optical device. Filters that reduce wavelength to 0.65-0.66 and 1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m2 10−5 1.0197×10−5 9.8692×10−6 7.5006×10−3 145.04×10−6
other filters reduce intensity. These restrictions prevent the device from measuring object that are 1 bar 100,000 ≡ 106 dyn/cm2 1.0197 0.98692 750.06 14.5037744
glowing (700 C)
1 at 98,066.5 0.980665 ≡ 1 kgf/cm2 0.96784 735.56 14.223

(ii)Radiation Pyrometer 1 atm 101,325 1.01325 1.0332 ≡ 1 atm 760 14.696


≡ 1 Torr;
Non-contact temperature sensors measure temperature from the amount of thermal 1 torr 133.322 1.3332×10 −3
1.3595×10 −3
1.3158×10 −3
19.337×10−3
≈ 1 mmHg
electromagnetic radiation received from a spot on the object of measureMeasures the rate energy
1 psi 6.894×103 68.948×10−3 70.307×10−3 68.046×10−3 51.715 ≡ 1 lbf/in2
emission per area unit.

Absolute, gauge and differential pressures - zero reference Static and dynamic pressures

Although pressure is an absolute quantity, everyday pressure measurements, such as for tire Static pressure is uniform in all directions, so pressure measurements are independent of direction
pressure, are usually made relative to ambient air pressure. In other cases measurements are made in an immovable (static) fluid. Flow, however, applies additional pressure on surfaces
WG.XG = W1 W1 – W2 W2
Need of calibrating a pressure gauge

Pressure gauges are either direct- or indirect-reading. Hydrostatic and elastic gauges measure
pressure are directly influenced by force exerted on the surface by incident particle flux, and are (b) Use of Pendulum Scale
called direct reading gauges. Thermal and ionization gauges read pressure indirectly by
measuring a gas property that changes in a predictable manner with gas density. Indirect This uses the Principle of multiple leverage. The input, a direct force or a force Proportional
measurements are susceptible to more errors than direct measurements. to weight is transmitted from a suitable agency and applied to the lord rod. As the load is applied,
the sectors rotate about A (Figure) moving the counter weights outward. This movement increases
the counterweight effective moment until the load and balance moments are equalized. Motion of
Various direct methods of measurement of force. the equalizer bar is converted to indicator movement by a rack and pinion.

Force is very basic engineering parameter the measurement of which can be done in many
ways as follows:

(i) Direct Methods: Involves a direct comparison with a known gravitational force on a
standard mass, say by a balance.
(ii) Indirect Methods: Involves the measurement of effect of force on a body, such as
acceleration of a body of known ma subjected to force.

(i) Direct Methods

(a) Use of Analytical Balance

Analytical balance consists of an arm that rotates about a pivot. Two forces W1 W2 (or)
weights are added at the two ends as shown in figure.
V.GF
e= (1  2  3  4 )
4
V.GF F
e= (l   )
2 AE

(c) Use of Cantilever Elastic member

In a cantilever beam, if the point of application of load is known, the bending moment
(b) Use of Elastic Loaded Members caused by it can be interpreted as force applied.

This uses the principle of finding strain produced in a body to measure the force applied.
For measuring displacement, strain gauges are mounted as shown in figure. The body is subjected
to a force and the gauges measure the strain so produced.

It is established that due to force, F, deflection of a cantilever at a length ‘l’ from the point of
application of force, is given as
W I3

3 EI
Fl where E – Young’s modulus of beam material,
From basic mechanics of materials, force F produces a displacement  
AE bd3
I – Moment of inertia of beam section =
12
Where From bending equation,

l – Length of the specimen Moment at section x Mx   x x z (z-section modulus)


A – Cross-sectional area
R2, R4 measure compressive strain.

Indirect methods of measurement of force (i) Using proving Rings (ii) Using load cells. Maximum deflection is typically of the order of 1% of the outside diameter of the ring. Proving
rings are normally used for force measurement within the range of 2 kN to 2 mN.
(i) Use of proving Rings
(ii) Use of Load Cell
Proving rings are steel rings used for calibration of material testing machines in situations
where, due to their bulkness, dead weight standards cannot be used. Force transducers intended for weighing purposes are called load cells. Instead of using total
deflection as a measure of load, strain gauge load cells measure load in terms of unit strains. A
P ring is a circular ring of rectangular section and may support tensile or comprehensive force load cell utilizes an elastic member as the primary transducer and strain gauges as secondary
across its diameter. transducer. Figure shows one such load cell arrangement.

 the change in radius in the direction of force, is given by

3
K   4  F.d
   
16  2   EI

where d is the outer diameter of the ring and

K is stiffness.

Deflection of the ring is measured using a precision micrometer. To get precise measurements,
one edge of the micrometer is mounted on a vibrating reed which is plucked to obtain a vibratory
motion. The micrometer contact is then moved forward until a noticeable damping of the
vibration is observed.

Working of a DC Dynamometer for the measurement of torque.


If F – Load applied and a d.c. motor. It then measures the torque and power input to the machine, for example, a pump
2NT 2NFr that absorbs power.
Power dissipated P  
60 60
r - Lever arm Its good performance at low speeds and ease of control makes it an efficient means of torque
N – Speed of flywheel (rpm) measurement.
Torque T = F.r

The capacity of Prony brake is limited because: Working of a eddy current or inductor dynamometer for the measurement of torque.

1. Due to wear of wooden blocks, friction coefficient varies. So, unsuitable for large powers Eddy Current or Inductor Dynamometers:
when used for long periods.
This is an example for absorption type dynamometers.
2.To limit temperature rise, cooling is to be ensured. Principle: When a conducting material moves through a magnetic flux field, voltage is generated,
which causes current to flow. If the conductor is a wire forming a part of a complete circuit will be
D.C. Dynamometer caused to flow through that circuit, and with some form of commutating device a form of a.c. or
d.c. generator may result.
D.C. dynamometer is usable as an absorption as well as transmission dynamometer. So, it
finds its use in I.C. Engines, steam turbines and pumps. A d.c. dynamometer is basically a d.c.
motor with a provision to run it as a d.c. generator where the input mechanical energy, after
conversion to electrical energy, can either be dissipated through a resistance grid or recovered for
use. When used as an absorption dynamometer it acts as d.c. generator. (figure) Cradling in
trunnion bearings permits the determination of reaction torque.

An eddy current dynamometer is shown in figure. It consists of a metal disc or wheel


which is rotated in the flux of a magnetic field. The field if produced by field elements or coils
Temperature measuring instruments may be classified on the basis of: This causes the pointer to deflect. A scale is provided which has been calibrated to show the
temperature directly.
1. Nature of change produced in the temperature sensing elements.
2. Electrical and non-electrical operation principle. This kind of spiral is mostly used in devices measuring ambient temperature and air-
3. Temperature range of the instrument. conditioning thermostats.
Classification based on the Nature of Change Produced.
Advantages of Bimetallic Thermometers
1. Glass thermometers
2. Pressure gauge thermometers 1. Simple
3. Differential expansion thermometers 2. Inexpensive
4. Electrical resistance thermometers 3. Accuracy of  0.5% to 2%
5. Thermo couples
6. Optical pyrometers
7. Radiation pyrometers
8. Fusion pyrometers
9. Calorimetric pyrometers

Based on Electrical and non-electrical Principles

1. Primarily electrical or electronic in nature


2. Not primarily electrical or electronic in nature.

Bimetallic Thermometers:

Principle Involved : These use the principles of metallic expansion when temperature changes.

A bimetallic strip is shown in figure which is straight initially. When temperature changes,
its shape also changes into an arc.

Limitations

1. Not usable above 400C because of possibility of warping


Principles Involved : When heat is applied to the junction of two dissimilar metals, an e.m.f. is
generated. (Figure)

The e.m.f. produced E can be written as,


E = k. 
Where  - Difference in temperature of two junctions

The temperature vs resistance relation is given by


 l 1
R  R0 e   
 T T0 
This means that the e.m.f. produced is directly proportional to the temperature difference.
So, if the conjunction is maintained at constant temperature the thermocouple reading will be a Where R – Resistance at temperature TK
direct measure of temperature. (figure) R0 - resistance at temperature T0K
B – Constant (3400 K to 4600 K)
ii) Thermistors:
i) Orifice Meter: i) Rotameter:

Let a1 – Area at section I-I A rotameter is a variable area type flow meter. It consists of a vertical tapered tube with a
a0 – Area of orifice float which is free to move within the tube. The fluid goes from the bottom to the top. When no
Cd – Discharge coefficient fluid flows, the float rests at the bottom of the tube. The float is made of such a diameter that it
completely blocks the inlet. When flow starts in the pipeline and fluid reaches the float, the
Cd  a1  a0 buoyant effect of fluid makes the float lighter. The float passage remains closed until the pressure
Then, Flow rate Q 
A 21  a2o of the flowing material plus the buoyance effect exceeds the downward pressure due to the float
weight. Thus, depending on flow, the float assumes a position. Thus the float gives the reading of
flow rate.

ii) Venturimeter:

This is just like an orifice meter. It has three distinct parts, namely convergent cone, throat
and divergent cone. A manometer measures the pressure difference between two sections as
shown in figure.
ii) Pitot Tube:
Let a1 - Area at the inlet (1-1)
Principle: “Transformation of kinetic energy of a liquid into potential energy in the form of a static
A2 - Area at the section (2-2)
head”.
x - Pressure head difference
Cd - Discharge coefficient
Figure shows a pitot tube installed in a pipeline where it acts like a probe. The tube consists of two
concentric tubes, the inner tube with its open ends ‘faces’ the liquid.
Cd  a1  a2 2 g x
Then, Q =
a 21  a2 2
its wall. The pressure in the outer tube is the static pressure in the line. Total pressure is sum of temperature change, provision should be made for adjusting the zero setting. Temperature
static pressure and the pressure due to the impact of fluid. changes during the measuring process cause errors of about ¼ % per 10F change.

If P - Pressure at inlet (Stagnation pressure) Pneumatic load cells


Ps - Static pressure
 - Density, then Pneumatic load cells are quite similar to hydraulic cells in that the applied load is balanced
by a pressure acting over a resisting area, with the pressure becoming a measure of the applied
Velocity v = 2 / (P  P0 ), from which flow rate is determined. load. However, in addition to using air rather than liquid as the pressurized medium, these cells
differ from the hydraulic ones in several other important respects.
Hydraulic and Pneumatic systems for the measurement of force.
Pneumatic load cells commonly use diaphragms of a flexible maternal rather than pistons
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems: and they are designed to regulate the balancing pressure automatically. A typical arrangement is
shown in figure.
If a force is applied to one side of a piston or diaphragm, and a pressure, either hydraulic or
pneumatic, is applied to the other side, some particular value of pressure will be necessary to
exactly balance the force. Hydraulic and pneumatic load cells are based on this principle.
For hydraulic systems, conventional piston and cylinder arrangements may be used.
However, the friction between piston and cylinder wall and required pickings and seals is
unpredictable, and thus good accuracy is difficult to stain. Use of the floating piston with a
diaphragm-type seal practically dominates this variable.

Air pressure is supplied to one side of the diaphragm and allowed to escape through a
position – controlling bleed valve. The pressure under the diaphragm, therefore, is controlled both
by source pressure and bleed valve position. The diaphragm seeks the position that will result in
just the proper air pressure to support the load, assuming that the supply pressure is great enough
so that its value multiplied by the effective area will at least support the load.

We see that as the load changes magnitude, the measuring diaphragm must change its
position slightly. Unless care is used in the design, a nonlinearity may results, the cause of which
Figure shows a hydraulic cell in section. This cell is similar to the type used in some may be made clear by referring to figure.
materials-testing machines. The piston does not actually contact a cylinder wall in the normal
sense, but a thin elastic diaphragm, or bride ring, of steel is used as the positive seal, which allows
small piston movement. Mechanical stops prevent the seal from being overstrained.
As the diaphragm moves, the portion between the load plate and the fixed housing will serves primarily as a pressure indicator, with the pressure providing the measure of temperature.
alter position as shown. If it is assumed that the diaphragm is of a perfectly flexible material, In both cases, of course, both pressure and volume change.
incapable of transmitting any but tensile forces, then the division of vertical load components
transferred to housing and load plate will occur at points A or A’, depending on diaphragm
position. We see then tat the effective area will change, depending on the geometry of this portion
of the diaphragm. If a complete semicircular roll is provided, as shown in figure (b) this effect will
be minimized.

Since simple pneumatic cells may tend to be dynamically unstable, most commercial types
provide some form of viscous damper to minimize this tendency. Also additional chambers and
diaphragms may be added to provide for tare adjustment. Single-unit capacities to 80,000 Ibf (356
kN) may be obtained, and by use of paralleled units practically any total load or force may be
measured. Errors as small as 0.1% of full scale may be expected.

Working of pressure thermometers with a neat sketch.

Pressure Thermometers:

Figure shows the essentials of the practical pressure thermometer. The necessary parts are
bulb A, tube B, pressure – sensing gage C, and some sort of filling medium. Pressure
thermometers are called liquid-filled, gas – filled, or vapor filled, depending on whether the filling Ideally the tube or capillary should serve simply as a connecting link between the bulb and
medium is completely liquid, completely gaseous, or a combination of a liquid and its vapour. A the indicator. When liquid or gas-filled systems are used, the tube and its filling are also
primary advantage of these thermometers is that they can provide sufficient force output to temperature – sensitive, and any difference from calibration conditions along the tube introduces
permit the direct of recording and controlling devices. The pressure-type temperature – sensing output error. This error is reduced by increasing the ratio of bulb volume to tube volume.
system is usually less costly than other systems. Tubes as log as 200ft may be used successfully. Unfortunately, increasing bulb size reduces the time response of a system, which may introduce
problems of another nature. On the other hand, reducing tube size, within reason, does not
degrade response particularly because, in any case, flow rate is negligible. Another source of error
tht should not be overlooked is any pressure gradient resulting from difference in elevation of
bulb and indicator not accounted for by calibration.

Temperature along the tube is not a factor for vapour-pressure systems, however, so long
as a free liquid surface exists in the bulb. In this case, Dalton’s law for vapours applies, which
states that if both phases (liquid and vapour) are present, only one pressure is possible for a given
temperature. This is an important advantage of the vapour-pressure system. In many cases,
coefficients. Such materials are usually some combination of metallic oxides of cobalt, manganese, R0 = the resistance at a reference temperature T0
and nickel. These devices are called thermistors. A and B = temperature coefficients of resistance depending on material.

One important difference between these two kinds of material is that, whereas the Over a limited temperature interval (perhaps 50C for platinum) a linear approximation to
resistance change in the RTD is small and positive (increasing temperature causes increased the resistance variation may be quite acceptable.
resistance), that of the thermistor is relatively large and usually negative. In addition, the RTD
type provides nearly a linear temperature – resistance relation, whereas that of the thermistor is R(T) = R0 (1+ A(T – T0))
nonlinear. Still another important difference lies in the temperature ranges over which each may
be used. The practical operating range for the thermistor lies between approximately - 100 C to But for the highest accuracy, a high – order polynomial fit is required.
275C (-150F to 500F). The range for the resistance thermometer is much greater, being from
about - 260C to 1000C (-435 F to 1800F). Finally, the metal resistance elements are more time The resistance element is most often a metal wire wrapped around an electrically insulating
stable than the semiconductor oxides; hence they provide better reproducibility with lower support of glass, ceramic or mica. The latter may have a variety of configurations, ranging from a
hysteresis. simple flat strip, as shown in figure to intricate “bird-cage” arrangement (3). The mounted element
is then provided with a protective enclosure. When permanent installations are made and when
Resistance Thermometers (RTDs) additional protection from corrosion or mechanical abuse is required, a well or socket may be
used, such as shown in figure.
Evidence of the importance and reliability of the resistance thermometer may be had by
recalling that the International Temperature Scale of 1990 specifies a platinum resistance
thermometer as the interpolation standard over the range from -259.35C to 961.78C (-484.52F to
1763.20F).

Certain properties are desirable in material used for resistance thermometer elements. The
material should have a resistivity permitting fabrication in convenient sizes without excessive
bulk, which would degrade time response. In addition, its thermal coefficient of resistivity should
be high and as constant as possible, thereby providing an approximately linear output of
reasonable magnitude.

The material should be corrosion – resistant and should not undergo phase changes in the
temperature range of corrosion – resistant and should not undergo phase changes in the
temperature range of interest. Finally, it should be available in a condition providing reproducible
and consistent results. In regard to this last requirement, it has been found that to produce More recently, thin films of metal-glass slurry have been used as resistance elements. These
precision resistance thermometers, great care must be exercised in minimizing residual strains, films are deposited onto a ceramic substrate and laser trimmed. Film RTDs are less expensive than
requiring careful heat treatment subsequent to forming. the wire RTDs and have a larger resistance for a given size; however, they are also somewhat less
As is generally the case in such matters, no materials is universally acceptable for stable (4). Resistance elements similar in construction to foil strain gages are available as well. The
measure. Pyrometer was originally coined to denote a device capable of measuring temperatures independent of the type of gas being measured, and can be designed to have a very linear
of objects above incandescence (i.e. objects bright to the human eye). calibration. They have poor dynamic response.

Principle of operation Piston Gauges


A pyrometer has an optical system and detector. The optical system focuses the thermal radiation
onto the detector. The output signal of the detector (Temperature T) is related to the thermal Piston-type gauges counterbalance the pressure of a fluid with a solid weight or a spring. Another
radiation or irradiance j* of the target object through the Stefan–Boltzmann law, the constant of name for piston gauge is deadweight tester. For example, dead-weight testers used for calibration
proportionality σ, called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and the emissivity ε of the object. or tire-pressure gauges.
This output is used to infer the object's temperature. Thus, there is no need for direct contact
between the pyrometer and the object, as there is with thermocouple and Resistance temperature Liquid column
detector (RTDs).
The difference in fluid height in a liquid column manometer is proportional to the pressure
Applications difference.
Pyrometer are suited especially to the measurement of moving objects or any surfaces that can not Liquid column gauges consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to
be reached or can not be touched. different pressures. The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure
In Industry: Temperature is a fundamental parameter in metallurgical furnace operations. differential between the two ends of the tube. A very simple version is a U-shaped tube half-full of
Reliable and continuous measurement of the melt temperature is essential for effective control of liquid, one side of which is connected to the region of interest while the reference pressure (which
the operation. Smelting rates can be maximized, slag can be produced at the optimum might be the atmospheric pressure or a vacuum) is applied to the other. The difference in liquid
temperature, fuel consumption is minimized and refractory life may also be lengthened. level represents the applied pressure. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height h and
Thermocouples were the traditional devices used for this purpose, but they are unsuitable for density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation, P = hgρ. Therefore the pressure difference
continuous measurement because they rapidly dissolve. between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure P0 in a U-tube manometer can be
found by solving Pa − P0 = hgρ. If the fluid being measured is significantly dense, hydrostatic
Over-the-bath Pyrometer: Continuous pyrometric measurement from above the bath surface is
corrections may have to be made for the height between the moving surface of the manometer
still employed, but is known to give poor results because of emissivity variations, interference by
working fluid and the location where the pressure measurement is desired.
gases and particulate matter in the intervening atmosphere, and dust accumulation on the optics.
Based on the use and structure following type of manometers are used
1. Simple Manometer
2. Micromanometer
Tuyère Pyrometer: The Tuyère Pyrometer is an optical instrument for temperature measurement
3. Differential manometer
through the tuyeres which are normally used for feeding air or reactants into the bath of the
4. Inverted differential manometer
furnace.

McLeod gauge
Different types of pressure measuring instruments

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer
Many instruments have been invented to measure pressure, with different advantages and
can be determined by using calibration. The deformation of a thin diaphragm is dependent on the
Aneroid Gauges difference in pressure between its two faces. The reference face can be open to atmosphere to
measure gauge pressure, open to a second port to measure differential pressure, or can be sealed
Aneroid gauges are based on a metallic pressure sensing element which flexes elastically under against a vacuum or other fixed reference pressure to measure absolute pressure. The deformation
the effect of a pressure difference across the element. "Aneroid" means "without fluid," and the can be measured using mechanical, optical or capacitive techniques. Ceramic and metallic
term originally distinguished these gauges from the hydrostatic gauges described above. diaphragms are used.
However, aneroid gauges can be used to measure the pressure of a liquid as well as a gas, and
they are not the only type of gauge that can operate without fluid. For this reason, they are often Useful range: above 10-2 Torr (roughly 1 Pa)
called mechanical gauges in modern language. Aneroid gauges are not dependent on the type of
gas being measured, unlike thermal and ionization gauges, and are less likely to contaminate the For absolute measurements, welded pressure capsules with diaphragms on either side are often
system than hydrostatic gauges. The pressure sensing element may be a Bourdon tube, a used.
diaphragm, a capsule, or a set of bellows, which will change shape in response to the pressure of Shape:
the region in question. The deflection of the pressure sensing element may be read by a linkage  Flat
connected to a needle, or it may be read by a secondary transducer. The most common secondary  corrugated
transducers in modern vacuum gauges measure a change in capacitance due to the mechanical  flattened tube
deflection. Gauges that rely on a change in capacitances are often referred to as Baratron gauges.  capsule

Bourdon Gauges Bellows Gauges

A Bourdon gauge uses a coiled tube, which, as it expands due to pressure increase causes a In gauges intended to sense small pressures or pressure differences, or require that an absolute
rotation of an arm connected to the tube. In 1849 the Bourdon tube pressure gauge was patented pressure be measured, the gear train and needle may be driven by an enclosed and sealed bellows
in France by Eugene Bourdon. chamber, called an aneroid, which means "without liquid". (Early barometers used a column of
The pressure sensing element is a closed coiled tube connected to the chamber or pipe in which liquid such as water or the liquid metal mercury suspended by a vacuum.) This bellows
pressure is to be sensed. As the gauge pressure increases the tube will tend to uncoil, while a configuration is used in aneroid barometers (barometers with an indicating needle and dial card),
reduced gauge pressure will cause the tube to coil more tightly. This motion is transferred through altimeters, altitude recording barographs, and the altitude telemetry instruments used in weather
a linkage to a gear train connected to an indicating needle. The needle is presented in front of a balloon radiosondes. These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven
card face inscribed with the pressure indications associated with particular needle deflections. In a by the external pressure. Other sensitive aircraft instruments such as air speed indicators and rate
barometer, the Bourdon tube is sealed at both ends and the absolute pressure of the ambient of climb indicators (variometers) have connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber
atmosphere is sensed. Differential Bourdon gauges use two Bourdon tubes and a mechanical and to an external enclosing chamber.
linkage that compares the readings.

In the following illustrations the transparent cover face of the pictured combination pressure and **************
vacuum gauge has been removed and the mechanism removed from the case. This particular
gauge is a combination vacuum and pressure gauge used for automotive diagnosis: