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# Experiment No.

PSYCHROMETRIC MEASUREMENT

## Course Code: ___________________________ Program: _______________________________

Course Title: ____________________________ Date Performed: _________________________
Section: ________________________________ Date Submitted: _________________________
Students: Instructor: ______________________________
1. ____________________________
2. ____________________________
3. ____________________________
4. ____________________________
5. ____________________________

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to demonstrate the measurement of dry bulb and wet bulb temperature using the sling
psychrometer and the psychrometric chart.

## 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:
2.1 Measure the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures of the surrounding atmosphere using the sling
psychrometer.
2.2 Develop professional work ethics, including precision, neatness, safety and ability to follow
instruction.

3. Discussion:

Air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and small amounts of water vapor. Nitrogen makes up 77%, while
oxygen accounts for 23%. Water vapor can account for 0 to 3% under certain conditions. Water vapor is
measured in grains or, in some cases, pounds per pound of dry air. Seven thousand (7,000) grains of water
equal one pound.

Temperature determines the amount of water vapor that air can hold. Hotter temperatures mean that air has
a greater capacity to hold water suspended. Water is condensed out of air as it is cooled. Outside, water
condensation becomes rain. Inside, it becomes condensation on the window glass. Thus, dry air acts
somewhat like a sponge. It absorbs moisture. There are four properties of air that account for its behavior
under varying conditions. These properties are dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point
temperature, and relative humidity.

There are certain amounts of water vapor per pound of dry air. They can be plotted on a psychrometric chart.
Psychro is a Greek term meaning “cold.” A pscychrometer is an instrument for measuring the aquous vapor
in the atmosphere. A difference between a wet bulb thermometer and a dry bulb thermometer is an indication
of the dryness of the air. A psychrometer, then, is a hygrometer, which is a device for measuring water content
in air. A psychrometric chart indicates the different values of temperature and water moisture in air. The dry
bulb temperature is located in one place and the wet bulb in another. If the two are known, it is easy to find
the relative humidity and other factors relating to air being checked.

To obtain the relative humidity of air it is necessary to use two thermometers. One thermometer is a dry bulb;
the other is a wet bulb. The device used to measure relative humidity is the sling psychrometer. It has two
glass-stem thermometers. The wet bulb thermometer is moistened by a wick attached to the bulb. As the
dual thermometers are whirled, air passes over them. The dry and wet bulb temperatures are recorded.
Relative humidity is determined by graphs, slide rules, or similar devices.

A sling psychrometer is an instrument that measures relative humidity (a hygrometer). The sling has two
thermometers, a dry bulb and a wet bulb thermometer, mounted together on a chain. The wet bulb
thermometer is wrapped in muslin that is moistened with distilled water. The user then swings the sling until
the temperatures stabilize, then quickly notes the two temperatures. To interpret the readings and determine
the humidity, a chart is then used for the specific altitude at which the reading was taken. Basically, the drier
the air is, the more moisture evaporates from the moistened muslin-covered thermometer, and the greater
the difference between the two thermometers. If the relative humidity is 100%, then the two temperatures will
be the same.

Slings have been around for years, and are becoming less and less used for many reasons. With the advent
of digital hygrometers, it's just easier to pull out a device and read the screen. Additionally, besides being
cumbersome and time consuming, slings contain mercury, a hazardous material, and must be handled with
care. A sling will typically read 5-10% high due to user error. Some of the mistakes that can be made while
using a sling are:

1. If the sock on the wet bulb thermometer is not clean, the humidity measured from a sling will err on the
high side.

2. If the water used for the wet bulb thermometer is not distilled water, the humidity measured from a sling
will err on the high side.

3. If the sling is not swung around long enough, the humidity measured from a sling will err on the high side.

4. If the thermometer measurements are not read quickly enough after swinging the sling, the humidity
measured from a sling will err on the high side.

5. If the charts used to interpret the results are not for the same altitude where the readings were taken, the
humidity will be incorrect. Additionally, the charts are only available in 100’ increments, and it is often difficult
to determine the exact altitude of the user.

Sling psychrometers are the standard for accurately measuring ambient temperature and humidity. Every
meteorologist should know how to use one correctly.

1. Inspect the cotton wick on the sling psychrometer and make sure that it is in good condition and firmly in
contact with the thermometer bulb. A psychrometer with a yellowed or frayed wick will not give an accurate
reading, and the wick should be replaced. Do not touch the wick with your fingers, because contaminants will
affect the accuracy.Also, check for a separated mercury column.

2. Thoroughly saturate the wick with distilled water. If the water beads up and does not easily soak in, the
wick should be replaced.

3. Face into the wind (if any) and begin swinging the psychrometer at a steady, comfortable pace (about 2
turns per second is good). Be extremely careful that you don't strike the psychrometer on a nearby table,
railing, or other obstruction! Also, keep it far enough from your body that you don't pick up your own body
heat.
4. After about 1 minute, stop and check the wet-bulb temperature, quickly reading it to the nearest 1/10
degree (if you stop too long, the temperature will start to change). Then continue swinging the psychrometer
for another minute or so. Check the wet-bulb temperature again and see whether it has changed from your
previous reading. If it has, continue swinging for another minute and check again. Repeat as necessary. Your
goal is to get the lowest possible reading out of the wet bulb thermometer (assuming that it started out near
the dry air temperature). Important note: make sure that the wick does not become too dry. If it does, you will
need to add another drop or two of distilled water and start over.

5. Carefully but quickly read and record the nal wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures to the nearest 0.1 degree,
interpolating between tick marks as necessary.

6. Use whatever method is available (psychrometric computer, Skew-T diagram, or table) to compute the
dewpoint and relative humidity. Important Tips: Most beginners do not take accurate psychrometer readings
because of the following common mistakes: (1) not ventilating the psychrometer long enough to reach
equilibrium; (2) not getting the wick wet enough, or letting it dry out; (3) holding it too close to the body or
taking too long to read the thermometers; (4) touching the bulb ends with the hands while reading; (5) not
facing into the breeze. Every one of these mistakes usually leads to a wet-bulb temperature reading that is
too warm.

## The Sling Psychrometer

The Psychrometric Chart (Metric Units)
4. Materials and Equipment:

 Sling Psychrometer
 Psychrometric Chart
 Stop watch
 Electronic Distancer

5. Procedure:

1. Check the sling psychrometer to ensure that thermometers are properly secured.

## 2. Wet the wick of the wet bulb thermometer until it is saturated.

3. The instructor should designate the locations (inside the campus) where measurements of wet
bulb and dry bulb temperature are to be performed.

4. To get the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures, whirl the sling psychrometer for about 2 minutes
within the designated locations. Be sure the sling psychrometer will not hit anybody while it is
being whirled. Repeat this procedure for at least three different areas in the designated
locations.\

## 5. Repeat procedure 4 in all the designated locations.

6. Use the psychrometric chart to get the other properties of air required by this experiment.

## 6. Data and Results:

Places: ______________________

Dates: ______________________

Times: _____________________
Location Time Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Relative Specific % Saturation
Temp Temp Humidity Humidity
9:00 am

1:30 pm

6:00 pm

9:00 am

1:30 pm

6:00 pm

9:00 am

1:30 pm

6:00 pm

9:00 am

1:30 pm

6:00 pm

9:00 am

1:30 pm

6:00 pm

Note: Relative Humidity, Specific Humidity, and % saturation can be taken from the psychrometric chart
7. Conclusion and Recommendation