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BC Biology 12 Teacher Resource

Chapter 1 Answers can then determine the impact of the variable on

the outcomes.
Making Connections—Japan Nuclear Power 3. After a hypothesis is formulated, a scientist may test
Plant Crisis the hypothesis by conducting an experiment and make
further observations. The results from the experiment
1. Levels of radioactive isotopes present throughout
are then analyzed and the hypothesis is either
the environment could be measured over time to
supported or rejected.
determine potential sources and magnitudes of
exposure. The atmosphere, sources of water, plants,
Check Your Progress 1.3
and soil could be monitored to track the radioactive
1. Examples include modern agricultural practices that
isotopes available to be inhaled or ingested by humans
increase crop yields but use fertilizers that pollute,
and other organisms.
bioengineered organisms that produce chemicals of
2. Exposure to radioactivity influences all levels of interest but can damage the environment, and gene
biological organization from molecules upward. therapy techniques with unknown long term outcomes.
Radioactivity can alter DNA present in cells which
2. Technology advances the survivability and comfort of
make up tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.
humans as well as other selected organisms. Without
Populations made up of affected organisms combine
technology, humans and others would not have clean
to form a community that is present in an ecosystem
water, vaccinations, available fuel, pharmaceuticals, or
in the Earth’s biosphere. Japan and Canada are part of
other tools that help us modify the world.
this biosphere.

Chapter 1 Features and Case Study

Chapter 1 Check Your Progress Answers
Science in Your Life: Case Study—Alternative
Check Your Progress 1.1 Perspectives on Ways of Knowing
1. The characteristics are: (1) organization; (2) ways to 1. A way of knowing is the means by which a particular
acquire materials and energy; (3) reproduction; culture or society develops and constructs its
(4) responses to stimuli; (5) homeostasis; (6) growth understanding of the world. Knowledge is the product
and development; (7) capacity for adaptation to of this development and construction. Wisdom is the
their environment. deeper understanding gained by exposure to a variety
2. Evolutionary change is the result, of successful of experiences that can validate and/or reshape it.
adaptations to the environment that increase in 2. There are so many ecosystems that exist along the
frequency in a population from one generation to shorelines of British Columbia. These ecosystems are
the next. homes to a variety of different organisms, including
humans. Due to the diversity in the ecosystems,
Check Your Progress 1.2 different people have formed unique communities
1. The control group in an experiment is included to within these areas and speak different languages
determine if the experiment is sensitive to the effect of and dialects.
the variable of interest. The test group experiences the
variable and the control group does not. Chapter 1 Review Questions
2. An experiment can be structured so that one group is
1. c. molecule, cell, tissue, organ
exposed to or includes something that another group
does not experience. This variation in exposure will or 2. a. a cell.
will not produce different outcomes. The experiment 3. a. organ → tissue → cell

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-1

4. b. response to stimuli from the environment always changing. Because
5. a. number of oxygen gas bubbles produced by the there is variation among individuals, populations,
blue-green algae. and species, there is variation in responses to
environmental pressures. Some individuals have had
6. c. the number of squeezes.
adaptations or features to make them more suited to
7. c. to see if the vaccine is effective against the the new environment and these individuals tend to live
rabies virus to produce more offspring than less suited individuals.
8. a. use a larger sample size 22. Life is defined as organisms that have the following
9. b. If fertilizer is applied to a yellow lawn, then the grass basic characteristics: 1. organization; 2. ways to acquire
will turn green. materials and energy; 3. reproduction; 4. responses to
stimuli; 5. homeostasis; 6. growth and development;
10. c. The experimental group is exposed to the factor
7. capacity for adaptation to their environment.
being tested, but the control group is not exposed.
Computers are not living because they cannot acquire
11. b. no pigeon peas were grown in the control pots, and energy on their own and are not self-replicating.
no fertilizer was added.
23. The experimental chemical should be studied in a
12. The petri dish with the most effective antibacterial model species. The experiment should have both
hand sanitizer will have the least amount of a control group (that receives no drug, or the inert
bacterial growth. ingredients used in the drug’s formulation) and a
13. type of antibacterial hand sanitizer treatment group (that receives the drug). Both groups
14. The control group should be exposed to water instead should experience identical conditions and have the
of the antibacterial hand sanitizer. same type of cancer. Data is collected on tumour
development in the treatment group relative to the
15. temperature and length of time for incubation should control group. If the treatment group shows greater
be kept the same tumour reduction than the control group, the drug
16. Example Answer: Four petri dishes were labeled A, B, may then be approved for trials on humans.
C and D. The same amount and type of bacteria were
added to each petri dish filled with agar. All four petri
dishes were inoculated with bacteria. A different brand
Chapter 2 Answers
of antibacterial hand sanitizer was place on each of
three paper disks. The disks were placed on petri dishes
Making Connections
A, B and D. Water was added to the fourth paper disk 1. Protein function depends on the structure of the
and placed on petri dish C. All four petri dishes were protein. If the protein denatures or is made incorrectly,
placed in an incubator. After 24 hours, the amount of it will not be able to carry out its intended function.
bacterial growth on each petri dish was measured. The For example, structural changes in certain proteins
petri dish with the most effective hand sanitizer had have been found to cause diseases such as Creutzfeld-
the least amount of bacterial growth. Jakob disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cystic fibrosis.
17. The type of data could include the amount of bacteria 2. Carbohydrates and fats are used as energy sources
growth on each petri dish. and are broken down through cellular respiration to
18. The study must be repeated several times. generate energy in a form the body can use, ATP. ATP
19. how tall the pea plants grew; height of the pea plants can then be used in a variety of reactions as a source
of energy to move muscles, transport molecules across
20. Answers may include: some pea plants may have
the membrane, conduct nerve impulses, and build
received more water, sunlight, or nutrients; differences
proteins. Energy released as heat from metabolic
in genetic make-up of the pea plants; different types
processes contributes to body heat.
or species of pea plants; different water temperatures;
different amount of soil in each pot; size of pot
pea plants. Chapter 2 Diagnostic Questions
21. Evolution explains the unity of life based on all
1. b. a neutron and a proton
organisms sharing a common ancestor, which is the
first cell or cells that existed almost 4 billion years ago. 2. c. a proton and an electron
Evolution also explains life’s diversity which results 3. d. they become negatively charged ions.

A-2 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

4. b. It loses one electron to become a positively charged 22. Examples of where pH is used in your daily life
ion with a full valence shell. include: Soil pH and Gardening – gardeners might
5. c. KCl have to determine the pH of soil to see if certain plants
can grow in it; Pools and Hot Tubs – pH of the water
6. b. NH3
has to be tested otherwise algae can grow; Baking –
7. b. protons, but different number of neutrons. baking involves a series of chemical reactions that
8. a. mass number. require the ingredients to be at a specific pH; Hair –
use of hair dyes and shampoos require the correct pH
9. c. gained hydrogen ions.
balance to work.
10. c. Acids have a pH of less than 7 and bases have a pH
23. Diagram of the pH scale should show a range from
of more than 7.
1–14. Label pH 1–6.9 as acidic and pH 7.1–14 as basic.
11. a. is basic. pH of 7 is neutral.
12. c. covalent bonds. 24. Diagram of a water molecule should show two
13. d. the unequal sharing of electrons between the atoms hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Due to the
of the molecule. unequal sharing of electrons between the hydrogen and
14. b. cellulose and starch the oxygen, there should be a slight positive
charge on the hydrogen atoms and a slight negative
15. An atom is the smallest part of an element that shows charge on the oxygen atom. There is a covalent bond
the characteristics of the element. between the hydrogen and the oxygen within the
16. The atomic number represents the number of protons water molecule.
in an atom. 25. Water on the surface of the waxed car clump together
17. Diagram of the atom should show the positively into beads because of the hydrogen bonding between
charged protons and the neutrons in the nucleus of the the water molecules. This creates an attractive
atom. The negatively charged electrons are located in cohesive force between the water molecules and is
shells around the dense nucleus. responsible for surface tension. The water cannot
18. make hydrogen bonds with the hydrophobic wax
and thus beads up, sticking to itself rather than
Proton Electron Neutron the car.
Symbol p e n
Electric charge positive negative no charge
+1 -1 0 Chapter 2 Check Your Progress
Location nucleus shells nucleus Answers
Mass 1 0 1
Check your Progress 2.1
19. The chemical formula of a compound shows the
1. Earth’s crust has a different “function” and structure
different types of elements in the compound and how
than living organisms, so it is logical for the elements
many atoms there are of each element. For example,
of which it is composed would be different.
the chemical formula KMnO4 shows that there are
1 potassium atom, 1 manganese atom, and 4 oxygen 2. High levels of radiation can cause burns, harm cells,
atoms in potassium permanganate. and change DNA structure, which can lead to cancer.
However, radiation can be used beneficially to kill
20. An atom has no charge because it has equal numbers
cancer cells. Also radioisotopes are used extensively
of protons and electrons. An ion has a charge because
in medicine to image the body through X rays,
it has either lost or gained electrons. The ion has a full
positron emission tomography, and computerized
valence shell, while the atom does not.
tomography. Radiation can also be used to sterilize
21. A covalent compound results from non-metallic atoms medical equipment.
sharing electrons to form covalent bonds, while an
3. The two are isotopes. Oxygen 16 has 8 protons,
ionic compound results when an ionic bond forms
8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. Oxygen 18 differs by
between a positively charged ion and a negatively
having 10 neutrons (2 more).
charged ion.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-3

Check Your Progress 2.2 the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is
approximately 2:1.
1. Nitrogen gas is a molecule because two atoms of
nitrogen share a covalent bond. Carbon dioxide is a 2. We are able to break the bonds between the glucose
compound because two different elements are bonded molecules in starch but not between the glucose
together. However, carbon dioxide is also a molecule, molecules in cellulose.
because it is the smallest particle of the compound
that retains the properties that are characteristic of Check Your Progress 2.6
carbon dioxide. 1. The two types of lipids in the plasma membrane of
2. Hydrogen tends to form polar covalent bonds because animal cells are phospholipids and cholesterol (which
the larger element to which it is bonded attracts is a steroid).
hydrogen’s electron more strongly, becoming more 2. A double bond tends to make a fatty acid liquid since it
negatively charged than the hydrogen. The hydrogen introduces a “kink” in the chain that prevents the fatty
acquires a slight positive charge. Since the electrons are acid molecules from packing tightly together as a solid.
shared unequally, the charge difference is partial.
Check Your Progress 2.7
Check Your Progress 2.3
1. Working as enzymes, structural molecules, hormones,
1. Water’s high heat capacity: Water holds onto its heat, transport molecules, and membrane channels are
and its temperature falls more slowly than that of other examples of protein functions.
liquids. Because the temperature of water rises and
2. An amino acid is made up of an amino group, an acidic
falls slowly, organisms are better able to maintain their
group, and an R group. The R group varies from having
normal internal temperatures and are protected from
a single carbon to being a complex ring structure.
rapid external temperature changes.
3. Primary – linear sequence of amino acids; secondary –
Water’s high heat of vaporization: Water has a high
orientation of polypeptide chain, coiled or folded,
heat of vaporization because hydrogen bonds must
determined by hydrogen bonding; tertiary – three
be broken before water boils Water’s high heat of
dimensional structure maintained by covalent, ionic,
vaporization gives animals in a hot environment an
or hydrogen bonding; quaternary – structure of two or
efficient way to release excess body heat. When an
more polypeptides joined in a protein.
animal sweats, or when water is applied to it externally,
body heat vaporizes the water, thus cooling the animal.
Check Your Progress 2.8
2. A solution with a pH of 6 contains 1 × 10-6 moles per
litre H+ ions, while a solution with a pH of 8 contains 1. Nucleic acids are made up of chains of nucleotides.
1 × 10-8 moles per litre. 1 × 10-6 is 100 times larger Table 2.2 compares the structure of two types of nucleic
than 1 × 10-8. acids, DNA and RNA.

3. A weakly dissociating acid or base re-forms 2. Energy is stored in ATP in the chemical bonds of the
quickly, enabling it to take up excess hydrogen or phosphate groups.
hydroxide ions.
Chapter 2 Features and Case Study
Check Your Progress 2.4 Answers
1. Organic molecules are considered the molecules of life,
because they contain carbon and hydrogen. Science in Your Life: Bioethics—Blue Gold
2. Hydrolysis reactions involve the addition of a molecule 1. Whether students agree or disagree, their answers
of water across a chemical bond, splitting the molecule should be reasonable and well-reasoned, with their
in two. Dehydration reactions remove a molecule of opinions supported by relevant facts and/or arguments.
water, joining two molecules.
2. Students’ opinions should be supported by pertinent
facts and/or arguments. (Note: In July 2010, the United
Check Your Progress 2.5 Nations agreed to a new resolution declaring access to
1. Carbohydrate molecules are characterized by the safe and clean drinking water a human right).
presence of the atomic grouping H-C-OH, in which

A-4 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

3. Examples could include: turn off the tap when 8. c. the formation of a peptide bond between alanine
brushing your teeth or washing dishes. Take short and lysine
showers. Grow native plants that require less watering. 9. d. the conversion of monosaccharides
Keep a rain barrel to collect water for gardening. into polysaccharides
10. d. carbohydrates
Science in Your Life: Health—A Balanced Diet
11. d. they have twice as many hydrogen atoms as
1. Teen female = 7, teen male = 8.
oxygen atoms
2. Good fats provide energy and have important
12. c. disaccharide
biological roles. Bad fats contribute to plaque
formation, leading to cardiovascular disease. Ideal 13. c. 3
sources include nuts, seeds, oily fish, unsaturated oils. 14. b. double bonds
3. Whole-grain carbohydrates contain more 15. c. the phosphate group
fibre, vitamins, and minerals than processed 16. b. cholesterol
simple carbohydrates.
17. b. speeds up chemical reactions
Science in Your Life: Case Study—History 18. b. keratin
of Biology: Dr. Michael Smith 19. b. insulin
1. Examples of potential ethical issues include creating 20. b. a peptide bond
designer babies, genetically modified foods, 21. a. the R group
biological warfare.
22. b. R group
2. Answers will vary. Examples of a pro position
23. b. amino acids
include curing genetic diseases and create gene
therapies. Examples of con positions include 24. b. 3
creating new organisms that are dangerous and 25. d. hydrogen bonding
unknown consequences.
26. a. the linear sequence of amino acids
3. Answers should include consumer products that have
27. b. folded differently due to the hydrogen bonding and
relied on use of genetic engineering. Possible examples
have a different sequence of amino acids
include genetically modified crops such as canola,
medicines such as insulin that are produced from 28. a. energy is released
genetically modified organisms. Another possibility is 29. d. phosphorus
the development of enzymes that are designed to carry 30. a. nucleotide
out a specific function, but faster and more efficiently
to save costs in an industrial process. Examples include 31. d. a monosaccharide
laundry soap, GMOs, medicine. 32. b. RNA
33. c. nitrogen
Chapter 2 Review Questions 34. a. triglyceride
35. b. a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base and a
1. d. a proton has a positive charge; an electron has a
ribose sugar
negative charge; a neutron has no charge
36. c. the pentose sugar
2. c. They both have the same number of protons, but
different number of electrons. 37. a. uracil

3. d. a buffer 38. a. cytosine and guanine

4. d. 1000 times 39. d. Safety goggles, juice, Benedict’s solution, test tube,
test tube tongs, graduated cylinder, hot plate, beaker,
5. c. covalent; hydrogen
water, rubber gloves
6. b. Polar, water-loving; Nonpolar, water-fearing
40. a. 6 (fatty acid), 7 (glycerol)
7. c. protein and amino acid b. 3 (amino acid)

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-5

c. 2 (glucose), 8 (maltose), 12 (cellulose), 13 (starch), 53. A dipeptide (2 amino acids held together by a peptide
14 (glycogen) bond) and a water molecule will form as a result of
d. 11 (steroid) this reaction.
e. 13 (starch) 54. Nine water molecules are produced when 10 amino
f. 6 (fatty acid), 7 (glycerol) acids are linked together.
g. 12 (cellulose) 55. Lactose is classified as a disaccharide.
h. 2 (glucose) 56. A water molecule is required for this hydrolysis
i. 5 (water) reaction to occur.
j. 10 (phospholipid) 57. A hydrolysis reaction is illustrated.
k. 9 (ATP) 58. When nonpolar molecules, such as oil, come into
l. 3 (amino acid) contact with polar molecules, like water, they do not
m. 14 (glycogen) mix. The oil molecules tend to clump together rather
n. 1 (triglyceride), 4 (dipeptide), 8 (maltose), 9 (ATP), than mix with the water. This is because oil molecules
10 (phospholipid), 12 (cellulose), 13 (starch), are nonpolar and therefore hydrophobic (water-fearing).
14 (glycogen) 59. a. DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in
o. 3 (amino acid), 4 (dipeptide) a protein.
p. 5 (water) b. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar
41. An atom has the same number of protons and and a phosphate group. It is the monomer that
electrons. The positive charges of the protons and makes up a nucleic acid.
the negative charges of the electrons add up to zero, c. A monosaccharide consists of one sugar molecule,
making the atom neutral. while a polysaccharide consists of many sugar
molecules (monosaccharides) put together.
42. The partially negatively charged oxygen of one water
molecule is attracted to the partially positively charged d. A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids held
hydrogen on another water molecule. together by peptide bonds.
e. The secondary structure of a protein is determined
43. The pH of the solution will decrease becoming
by the hydrogen bonding between the different
more acidic.
amino acids.
44. Bond X is a hydrogen bond.
f. Due to the unequal sharing of electrons on a water
45. Bond X forms between the two molecules because the molecule, the water molecule is said to be polar. The
water molecules are polar. negative charge of one water molecule is attracted
46. Three functions of water: 1. acts as a solvent – to the positively charged part of another water
dissolves substances; 2. acts as a lubricant – lubricates molecule. This causes the water molecules to stick
joints; 3. acts as a temperature regulator – regulates together, displaying cohesion.
body temperature. 60. a. A glycerol molecule is only composed of a three-
47. The unequal sharing of electrons accounts for carbon chain, while a fatty acid is a long chain
the polarity. of carbons. Both of these molecules make up
a triglyceride.
48. The partially positive and negative charges on the
molecule allow water to act as a solvent. b. A triglyceride has a glycerol molecule attached to
three fatty acid chains, while a phospholipid has a
49. The body will store the carbohydrates needed for the glycerol molecule attached to two fatty acid chains
race. On the day of the race, glycogen will be converted and a phosphate group.
into glucose so that glucose can be used to produce
c. A peptide bond forms between the carbon of the
ATP during cellular respiration.
carboxyl group and the nitrogen of the amino group
50. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are used in a dipeptide. A hydrogen bond forms between the
to produce a water molecule during the dehydration hydrogen and oxygen or nitrogen of different amino
(synthesis) reaction. acids in the polypeptide chain.
51. The process is a dehydration (synthesis) reaction. d. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds, while
52. Bond X is a peptide bond. saturated fatty acids only have single bonds.

A-6 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

61. a. A large amount of molecules can be produced differently with other amino acids in the polypeptide
with the same monomer. For example, glucose chain, forming different hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds
(a monomer) can form three different polymers and covalent bonds. The interactions of the different
(cellulose, starch and glycogen). amino acids along the polypeptide chain will affect
b. Hydrolysis breaks down a polymer that is no longer the 3D globular shape of the polypeptide and now
needed and its monomers can be used to produce one polypeptide chain will interact with another
other polymers through a dehydration (synthesis) polypeptide chain.
reaction. 69. A polymer is a large molecule formed from the joining
62. A positive test for Benedict’s solution indicates the of smaller repeating unit molecules called monomers.
presence of glucose. Since maltose is made up of Proteins are made up of repeating units of amino
two glucose molecules it should test positive like the acid, while steroids consist of just one component, a
glucose solution. ringed structure.
63. The phospholipid bilayer forms in an aqueous solution 70. A protein will fold a particular way as hydrogen
because the polar (hydrophilic) head is soluble in bonding forms between the different R-groups of the
water, while the non-polar (hydrophobic) tails are amino acids along the polypeptide chain. In addition to
not. The hydrophilic heads will interact with the water this, non-polar hydrophobic R-groups of amino acids
on the outside and inside of the vesicle, while the will move toward the interior of the protein’s 3D shape.
hydrophobic tails interact with each other. The resulting tertiary structure will determine the
64. The molecular structure of a phospholipid consists function of the protein.
of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. The 71. Four biological molecules that would have phosphorus
polar hydrophilic head faces outwards toward the in them are ATP, DNA, RNA, and phospholipid.
watery solutions and the non-polar tails form the 72. With all the different combinations of amino acids
hydrophobic interior. and the different hydrogen bonding that form between
65. The non-polar, hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids the amino acids, thousands of different proteins are
are packed tightly together to form the interior of possible. With a variety in the amino acid sequence,
the cell membrane (plasma membrane) and the this will result in different tertiary structures
hydrophilic heads face outward where they interact (3D structures). The functions of proteins are
with water. The phospholipids bilayer allows only dependent on the protein’s 3D structure.
lipid-soluble substances to pass through it. Cellulose is 73. The sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide
a huge polysaccharide consisting of unbranched chains will affect how one amino acid interacts with another
of glucose molecules. The rigid structure of the plant amino acid in the polypeptide chain. Hydrogen
cell wall owes its physical strength to cellulose. bonds, covalent bonds, and ionic bonds will cause the
66. a. The purpose of partial hydrogenation is to remove polypeptide to fold into a specific shape based on what
double bonds and to replace them with single bonds amino acids interact with one another along the chain.
in the unsaturated fatty acid. This will add more 74. The difference between the alpha helix and the beta
hydrogen atoms to the unsaturated fatty acid. pleated sheet lies in the hydrogen bonding between
b. The content of container would be liquid oil. the amino acids. The coiling of the chain produces an
67. Both starch and glycogen are polysaccharides made alpha helix, while the folding of the chain results in a
up of long chains of glucose molecules. They can be beta pleated sheet.
broken down into individual glucose monomers. 75. If hydrogen bonding was absent, DNA would not be
Glucose can then be used to produce energy for a double stranded molecule because there would not
cellular activities through cellular respiration. be hydrogen bonds holding the nitrogenous bases
68. It is a change in primary structure. The change in between the two strands together.
amino acid sequence might affect the tertiary structure
and quaternary structure because valine now will bond

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-7

76. Does it contain Yes Yes No
phosphorus (phosphorus (phosphorus (amino
Type of Covalent
atoms? is in the is in the acid does
Bond Ionic Bond Bond Hydrogen Bond
sugar- sugar- not have
Description – bond that – bond that – bond that phosphate phosphate phosphorus)
forms in forms forms between backbone) backbone)
compounds within the partially
between a molecules positively Does it contain Yes Yes Yes
positively is due to charged hydrogen (has (has (has
charged sharing of hydrogen bonding? hydrogen hydrogen hydrogen
ion and a electrons of one polar bonding bonding bonding
negatively molecule and between A-T between A-U between the
charged ion the negatively and C-G) and C-G) amino acids)
– results in charged oxygen
the transfer or nitrogen of
80. Structural similarities include: they are
of electrons another polar monosaccharides, hexose, simple sugars,
molecule carbohydrates; they have the same molecular formula;
they exist as ring structures; they have “ose” endings;
they provide energy.
Cellulose Starch Glycogen 81. a. The primary structure of a protein is due to the
Monomer glucose glucose glucose peptide bonding between the adjacent amino acids.
Description no side chains some side many side b. The secondary structure of a protein is due to the
of Structure chains chains
hydrogen bonding between the amino acids.
Plant Cell or plant cell plant cell animal cell
c. The tertiary structure of a protein is due to the
Animal Cell
covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and hydrogen
Function structural energy energy
bonding between the R-groups of the amino acids.
component of storage in storage in
plant cell wall plants animals d. The quaternary structure of a protein is due to the
bonding between 2 or more polypeptides.
78. The absence of side chains in cellulose allows the 82. DNA RNA
linear molecules to be side by side, adding strength
and rigidity for the plant. Glycogen has many branches
and acts as energy storage. The branching of the side
chains allows glycogen to be more soluble and it can be
synthesized and broken down more quickly for energy. Similarities
between DNA single-stranded,
double-stranded, and RNA include: uracil, three
Characteristic DNA RNA Protein thymine, nucleic acid, type of RNA
Is it a polymer? Yes Yes Yes double helix, adenine, guanine, (mRNA,
(consists of (consists of (consists of deoxyribose, cytosine, nucleotide tRNA and
nucleotides) nucleotides) amino acids) replication. subunits, 5-carbon rRNA), ribose,
Does it have Yes Yes Yes sugar (pentose), transcription.
a three phosphate group.
Does it contain Yes Yes Yes
nitrogen (contains (contains (contains
atoms? nitrogen in nitrogen in nitrogen in
the bases) the bases) the amino
group) 83. a. A = proteins; B = cellulose; C = amino acids;
D = glucose; X = hydrolysis

A-8 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

b. Maltose (a disaccharide) would form if two dipeptide (consisting of two amino acids held
units of molecule D (glucose) underwent a together by a peptide bond) would break down into
dehydration reaction. two individual amino acids with the addition of one
c. Two other polymers that would form from glucose water molecule.
(molecule D) are glycogen and starch. b. Diagram of a disaccharide from two molecules
84. Fats produce almost twice the amount of energy for a of glucose would show a dehydration synthesis
given gram of protein and carbohydrate. reaction. Two glucose molecules would come
together and form a disaccharide (maltose) and one
85. The carbons in fatty acids have more electrons around
water molecule.
them. When the fatty acids are oxidized (eg. the
c. Diagram of a triglyceride from one molecule of
electrons are transferred to oxygen), more energy is
glycerol and three fatty acid molecules would show
released than the same process with carbohydrates
a dehydration synthesis reaction. The glycerol would
and proteins.
find to the three fatty acid chains would produce a
86. Different types of oils have different percentage of triglyceride and three water molecules.
unsaturated and saturated fats. Oils tend to consist
93. Header: Organic Compounds
of the “healthier” unsaturated fats rather than the
saturated fats. First column (green boxes): Carbohydrates;
polysaccharides; dissaccharides; monosaccharides
87. Unsaturated fats are derived from plants and are liquid
at room temperature. Second column (yellow boxes): Lipids; triglyceride;
fatty acids; glycerol
88. Answers may vary – biomechanics, molecular
biology, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering, Third column (purple boxes): Proteins; peptides;
neuroscience, immunogenetics, microbiology, amino acids
electrochemistry, geophysics. For example, Fourth column (blue boxes): Nucleic acids; RNA;
biomechanics uses engineering concepts to analyze DNA; nucleotides
structure and function in biological systems.
Fifth column (peach boxes): High-Energy Compounds;
Geophysics uses the concepts of physics (eg. electricity
ATP; nucleotide; phosphate groups
and magnetism) to study the Earth.
89. Scientists can inject radioactive material into a patient
and trace its movement through the digestive system. Chapter 3 Answers
They may want to use the radioisotope carbon-14 to
track the digestion of starch into maltose, and then Making Connections—Tay-Sachs: When Lysosomes
into glucose. By analyzing the path that the carbon Fail to Function
takes, scientists can determine where carbohydrate 1. Peroxisomes, present in animals and plants, have
digestion takes place in the body. Since nitrogen is enzymes that break down fats. In plant leaves,
found in proteins, scientists can use the radioisotope peroxisomes can counteract photosynthesis by
nitrogen-15 to track the digestion of proteins into generating carbon dioxide and using up oxygen.
peptides, and then into amino acids. 2. The cell relies on lysosomes to dispose of faulty
90. a. By restricting the consumption of carbohydrates, the organelles. The cell lacks a mechanism for disposing of
body will not convert excess carbohydrates into fat. faulty lysosomes.
The body will also start to burn body fat instead of
carbohydrates for fuel. This will result in weight loss.
b. Your body would start to burn fats rather than
Chapter 3 Diagnostic Questions
carbohydrates as fuel. 1. a. A red blood cell is larger than a virus.
91. A lack of proteins would not give the body the amino 2. c. the plasma membrane.
acids it needs to build important proteins for the body (eg.
enzymes for metabolic reactions, keratin, collagen, etc.). 3. b. to control all of the cell’s activities

92. a. Diagram of two amino acid molecules from a 4. d. a cell wall.

dipeptide would show a hydrolysis reaction. The

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-9

5. c. water + carbon dioxide + sunlight → oxygen + Chapter 3 Check Your Progress
6. d. C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP
7. d. Mitochondria are found in both plant and animal Check Your Progress 3.1
cells, while the chloroplasts are found only in 1. If humans were just one cell, the surface-area-to-
plant cells. volume ratio would be too small to allow for efficient
8. b. by diffusion. movement of nutrients and oxygen into the cell and
9. A cell is the basic unit of life. wastes out of the cell.
10. A. nuclear envelope 2. The surface-area-to-volume ratio decreases as the cell
increases in size.
B. nucleolus
C. nuclear pore
Check Your Progress 3.2
D. water vacuole
1. The cell wall protects the cell while
E. chloroplast
remaining permeable.
F. mitochondrion
2. The cell wall in plant cells provides structural
G. microtubules
support and protection. The cell membrane (plasma
H. microfilaments
membrane) regulates the movement of molecules
I. cell membrane (plasma membrane) in and out of the cell. The nucleus controls the
J. granum of the chloroplast cell’s activities, while the nucleolus is responsible
K. cell wall for rRNA synthesis and the assembly of ribosomal
L. cytoplasm subunits. The ribosome is the site of protein synthesis.
M. Golgi apparatus (Golgi body) The rough endoplasmic reticulum produces and
transports proteins, while the smooth endoplasmic
N. vesicle
reticulum produces lipids. The Golgi body (Golgi
O. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER)
apparatus) packages and sorts the proteins. Lysosomes
P. rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) in animal cells are responsible for intracellular
Q. ribosomes digestion, while peroxisomes in both plant and animal
11. 1. nucleus; 2. chromosome; 3. mitochondria; cells break down hydrogen peroxide. The mitochondria
4. ribosome; 5. chloroplast; 6. vacuole; 7. endoplasmic produce ATP for the cell, while the chloroplasts capture
reticulum; 8. cell membrane (plasma membrane); light energy to produce chemical energy for the cell.
9. lysosome The cytoskeleton provides shape to the cell and allows
the movement of various cell structures.
12. Students might say that they could not find everyday
examples for every cell structure in the analogy as a 3. The different compartments of the cell allow for
limitation. Many of the cell structures also carry out separation of cellular functions, which increases the
other functions. In short, the cell analogy is helpful, but efficiency of the whole.
it does not fully reveal what each cell component does.
13. DNA and RNA are examples of macromolecules found
Check Your Progress 3.3
in the nucleus. 1. Actin filaments are composed of actin monomers,
microtubules are composed of tubulin monomers, and
14. Answers may vary. When you are travelling through
intermediate filaments are composed of various types
a crowded hallway at school into an empty classroom,
of fibrous polypeptides.
you are going from an area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration. 2. Cilia and flagella have a 9 + 2 pattern of microtubule
doublets, while centrioles have a 9 + 0 pattern of
15. Answers may vary. The diffusion of food aroma
microtubule triplets.
molecules coming from the kitchen as someone
is cooking. 3. The dynein side arms on the microtubule doublets slide
past each other using the energy of ATP.

A-10 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Check Your Progress 3.4 Chapter 3 Features and Case Study
1. Phospholipids compose a bilayer that separates Answers
the inside from the outside of the cell. Steroids in
the bilayer regulate the fluidity of the membrane. Science in Your Life: Scientific Inquiry—Microscopy
Proteins present in the membrane contribute to Today
its structure, the passage of molecules across the
membrane, signaling pathways, cell recognition, and 1. Processing the sample to prepare it for viewing can
enzyme reactions. change its structure and appearance.

2. Channel proteins allow ions to pass through the 2. The image becomes blurred and detail is lost.
cell membrane, while carrier proteins interact with 3. A stream of electrons is used rather than visible light,
molecules or ions to help them pass through the cell which humans see as colour.
membrane. Cell recognition proteins help identify
the cell. Receptor proteins found on the surface Science in Your Life: Case Study—Issues in Biology:
of the cell membrane bind to specific molecules, Osmotic Balance in Salmon
which causes a cellular process to occur. Enzymatic
1. Salmon is a healthy food choice because it is a rich
proteins are responsible for metabolic reactions at the
source of protein, unsaturated fat, omega-3 fatty acids,
cell membrane.
vitamins, and minerals.
2. Human development around estuaries may alter
Check Your Progress 3.5 the ecosystem. Levels of nutrients (e.g., amounts of
1. During diffusion, molecules move from an area of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen, etc.) may be altered in
high concentration to an area of low concentration. the water. Human development may also introduce
Facilitated transport promotes the movement of harmful pollutants (e.g., methyl-mercury or other
these molecules down a concentration gradient heavy metals) into the water. These pollutants could
across a cell membrane (plasma membrane). Carrier bioaccumulate in the tissues of the salmon and
proteins reversibly bind to the molecule and speed up biomagnify if the salmon are eaten by an animal that is
their passage. later eaten by another animal.
2. A hypertonic environment has a lower concentration 3. Salmon that spend their entire life in freshwater
of water and a higher concentration of solutes are physiologically different from anadromous
than a hypotonic environment. Water will move salmon, because they are not adapted to a
by osmosis from the hypotonic environment, saltwater environment. These salmon have higher
where it is present at a higher concentration, concentrations of salts than the surrounding freshwater
to the hypertonic environment across the environment. These salmon tend to excrete dilute
semipermeable membrane. urine, while the anadromous salmon tend to excrete
3. Both move molecules across the cell membrane concentrated urine.
(plasma membrane) and require a carrier molecule.
Facilitated transport does not use energy while Chapter 3 Review Questions
active transport does. Facilitated transport
moves molecules down their concentration 1. a. The cell is the basic unit of life.
gradient, while active transport moves against the 2. b. a cell with a surface-area-to-volume ratio of 3:2
concentration gradient.
3. d. cell structure 12.
4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is selective and
more efficient than ordinary endocytosis. It not only 4. d. organelle 11.
enables uptake of substances by the cell, but also 5. d. 7
provides for the transfer and exchange of substances 6. b. the plasma membrane
between cells.
7. c. cholesterol
8. c. diagram of polypeptide chain

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-11

9. d. it is a double membrane structure that has pores h. III (ribosome) and VIII (rough
and separates the contents of the cytoplasm from endoplasmic reticulum)
the nucleus i. III (ribosome) and VIII (rough
10. b. DNA. endoplasmic reticulum)
11. d. rough endoplasmic reticulum j. IX (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)
k. IX (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)
12. c. rough endoplasmic reticulum.
l. VI (mitochondrion)
13. d. a plastid that has the ability to capture light energy
m. IV (centriole)
and convert it into organic molecules
n. VII (Golgi apparatus; Golgi body)
14. b. peroxisome – fatty acids
o. VIII (rough endoplasmic reticulum)
15. d. mitochondria
p. III (ribosome) and VIII (rough
16. c. membrane-bound vesicles that have endoplasmic reticulum)
hydrolytic enzymes
33. a. to provide movement in the cell as well as movement
17. a. The secretion of peptidase would not occur. outside the cell
18. c. glucose b. to provide structural support for the plant cell
19. d. cellular respiration c. to produce mitotic spindles during cell division
20. c. to produce ATP for active transport of calcium ions d. to produce ribosomal subunits
e. to break down fats and produce bile salts
21. a. cell division.
from cholesterol
22. c. I, II, and III only f. to provide shape and allow movement in the cell
23. a. They both use a carrier protein. g. to modify, package and sort proteins
24. c. pinocytosis. h. to regulate what enters and exits the cell
25. c. exocytosis. 34. to provide support and protection for plant cells
26. c. glycoprotein 35. Cellulose makes up most of cell structure AE (cell wall).
27. d. the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope. 36. Photosynthesis occurs at cell structure
28. c. the number of amino acids entering the cell A (chloroplast).
would decrease. 37. Products of reactions at cell structure D (rough
29. d. only certain substances can move across it. endoplasmic reticulum) are transported to cell
structure AC (Golgi body or Golgi apparatus) in
30. d. the excretion of hydrogen ions in the distal
transport vesicles.
convoluted tubule of the kidneys
38. The functions of cell structure B (central water
31. a. IV (DNA replication)
vacuole) are to control turgor pressure, to maintain
b. V (protein synthesis) the structural integrity of the plant cell, and to exert
c. VII (intracellular digestion) pressure against the cell wall.
d. III (rRNA synthesis) 39. Structure A (chloroplast) and structure AE (cell wall)
e. I (photosynthesis) would be found in a cell of a tulip, but not in a cell of
f. V (protein synthesis) a mouse.
g. II (lipid synthesis) 40. Structure A (chloroplast) would require carbon
32. a. VI (mitochondrion) dioxide, water and light energy to carry out its cellular
b. I (nucleus) process (photosynthesis).
c. II (nucleolus) 41. Centrioles and lysosomes are found in animal cells, but
d. VI (mitochondrion) not in higher plant cells.
e. V (chloroplast) 42. Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and a
f. VII (Golgi apparatus; Golgi body) central vacuole.
g. IX (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)

A-12 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

43. The endoplasmic reticulum produces proteins that 49. Centrioles have a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule
are then sent to the Golgi apparatus (Golgi body) in triplets, while both cilia and flagella have a 9 + 2
transport vesicles. At the Golgi apparatus (Golgi body), pattern of microtubules doublets.
the proteins are then modified, sorted and packaged 50. The cell membrane (plasma membrane) of the
and sent off in secretory vesicles and in lysosomes to macrophage forms a vesicle around the bacterium. The
the cell membrane (plasma membrane). vesicle with the bacterium in it fuses with a lysosome,
44. The cell membrane (plasma membrane) takes in once inside the cytoplasm. The hydrolytic enzymes of
dissolved solutes or bigger macromolecules by the lysosome break down and digest the bacterium.
producing an invagination around the molecules. This 51. When there is not enough water, turgor pressure
forms a vesicle. The vesicle then fuses with a lysosome decreases and the central vacuole shrinks and pulls
in the cytoplasm and the contents of the vesicle are away from the cell wall.
digested by the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome.
52. The products of photosynthesis (oxygen and glucose)
45. Cardiac muscle cells are very active and require are the reactants of cellular respiration; the products
huge amounts of energy. Mitochondria will produce of cellular respiration (carbon dioxide and water) are
enough energy for the muscle cells to function the reactants of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis and
properly. The testes have lots of smooth endoplasmic cellular respiration are complementary reactions.
reticulum because they produce the steroid
53. Microtubules and microfilaments both maintain cell
hormone testosterone.
shape, are involved in cell division, and are protein
46. Without the enzyme catalase, the body could not break fibres in the cytoskeleton.
down toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
54. Carbohydrate chains are exposed on the surface of
gas. The buildup of hydrogen peroxide could be fatal.
the cell membrane (plasma membrane) to serve as
47. chloroplast mitochondrion recognition sites and to facilitate adhesion between
the cells.
55. If the carbohydrate chains were removed from the
glycolipids, the white blood cells would not recognize
the cancer cells.
chloroplast has Similarities 56. The asymmetry gives the two surfaces of the cell
The membrane (plasma membrane) different properties.
chlorophyll, between
thylakoid, chloroplast and 57. The cell must divide in order to be efficient at
has cristae and
grana, and mitochondrion: exchanging materials.
stroma. The both found in
matrix. The 58. The cell with the largest surface area to volume ratio,
chloroplast is plant cells, are
mitochondrion is 3:1, is the most effective at maximizing diffusion.
involved in double-membrane
involved in 59. ATP is required for active transport because it is going
photosynthesis organelles, and
cellular against the concentration gradient. Active transport
and is only contain their
respiration. must overcome the concentration gradient (from low
found in own DNA.
plant cells. to high) and transport the sodium ion in the opposite
direction of its tendency to move.
60. These organisms tend to take in water from the
environment because their body fluids are more
concentrated than the environment. These organisms
adapt by having structures that pump out excess water.
48. Both the rough ER and the smooth ER are membrane- Organisms can excrete dilute urine to get rid of the
bound sacs that transport material around the cell. excess water.
They produce transport vesicles that send materials
to the Golgi apparatus (Golgi body). The rough ER 61. Factors that affect the rate of diffusion: size of
is covered with ribosomes and synthesizes proteins. molecule, temperature, concentration gradient and
In contrast, the smooth ER has no ribosomes and polarity of the molecule.
synthesizes lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and
steroid hormones.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-13

Diffusion Osmosis Transport Active Transport
Energy Required? no no no yes
Protein Carrier no no yes yes
Driving Force concentration gradient concentration gradient concentration gradient ATP hydrolysis
Direction of high concentration to low high concentration to high concentration to low low concentration to high
Movement concentration low concentration concentration concentration
Specificity no no yes yes
Types of Molecules carbon dioxide, oxygen water glucose, amino acids sodium ions, potassium ions

63. The smaller the molecule, the larger the diffusion coefficient.
Observation Will it cross the cell membrane easily? Why? Method of Transport
a. The concentration of the plasma protein No, because fibrinogen is too big to cross the plasma N/A
fibrinogen is higher in the plasma. membrane.
b. The concentration of carbon dioxide is Yes, because carbon dioxide is non-polar and is small Diffusion
higher in the cytoplasm of the liver cell. enough to diffuse across the membrane from high
concentration to low concentration.
c. The concentration of low-density No, because a low-density lipoprotein is a large polar N/A
lipoproteins is higher in the cytoplasm of the molecule. It will not cross the non-polar membrane.
liver cell.
d. The concentration of glucose is higher in Yes, glucose will cross the membrane using a protein Facilitated
the blood plasma. carrier down the concentration gradient. Transport
e. The concentration of oxygen is higher in Yes, oxygen will diffuse across the plasma membrane Diffusion
the blood plasma. from an area of high concentration to an area of low
f. The concentration of iron ions is lower in Yes, the iron ions will move against the concentration Active Transport
the cytoplasm. gradient using a protein carrier.
g. The concentration of water is higher in the Yes, water will diffuse across the plasma membrane Osmosis
cytoplasm of the liver cell. through osmosis from an area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration.

65. Slide #1 has the hypotonic solution and slide #2 has the 71. Water would flow into the cell, causing the water
hypertonic solution. vacuole to swell. This would create turgor pressure and
66. Since the central water vacuole is filled with water and the plasma membrane would push against the rigid
it takes up most of the room in the cell. It pushes the cell wall.
cytoplasm, including the chloroplasts right up against 72. Test tube 1 – isotonic; Test tube 2 – hypertonic; Test
the cell (plasma membrane). tube 3 - hypotonic
67. Water left the Elodea cells. 73. The red blood cells would shrivel up because water
68. When the plant cells were placed in salt water, the would leave the cells. This process is called crenation.
central water vacuole lost water. Chloroplasts that were 74. The red blood cells would swell because water
found around the perimeter of the cell were drawn would move into the cells. The cells would burst due
toward the center of the cell because of the central to cytolysis.
water vacuole now had less water in it. 75. Pancreatic amylase is synthesized at the ribosome. The
69. No, the plant cells did not get smaller, only the water data shows that at time 5 minutes and 10 minutes, the
vacuole did. ribosomes show the largest percentage of amylase.
70. Plasmolysis is shown in Slide 2. 76. ribosomes → ER (endoplasmic reticulum) → Golgi
apparatus (Golgi body) → secretory vesicles

A-14 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

77. Pancreatic amylase is a protein that is going to be b. As the cell gets bigger, the surface-area-to-volume
excreted from the cell. There is a high percentage of ratio gets smaller.
amylase found in secretory vesicles which are bound c. The 3-mm cube has the smallest surface-area-
for the cell membrane (plasma membrane). This data to-volume ratio.
shows large amounts of pancreatic amylase in the 91. Without a properly functioning cell wall, the bacterium
secretory vesicles. is not protected by the outside environment and is
78. It showed that membrane proteins were free to migrate susceptible to attacks by other organisms like viruses.
throughout the cell membrane (plasma membrane).
The cell membrane (plasma membrane) has a fluid
consistency due to the phospholipids.
Chapter 4 Answers
79. The rate of protein movement would increase as Making Connections—Same Genes, Different People
temperature increases. This experiment would
1. DNA stores the information to construct proteins
investigate diffusion and membrane fluidity.
in the cells. Timing and coordination of specific
80. Osmosis was responsible for the potato cells gaining events are necessary for the normal development
and losing water. of an organism, and these events are regulated by a
81. Potato cells were place in a hypotonic solution in test variety of mechanisms involving DNA and protein
tube 2. Water entered the potato cells, increasing the synthesis. The cell membrane and membranes
mass of the cells. of organelles are comprised of many different
82. Potato cores that lost mass were placed in hypertonic proteins, most of which are made within the cell
solution and therefore lost water. Potato cores that itself on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and,
gained mass were placed in hypotonic solution and through the endomembrane system, become part
therefore gained water. of the membranes. Different cell types and different
phenotypes are determined through the different
83. Test tubes 4 and 5 had potato cells placed in proteins made and their activities: enzymatic
hypertonic solutions. interactions, transport proteins, synthesis and
84. A sucrose solution that would be isotonic would be degradation. Some cells will produce more enzymes
about 15% sucrose concentration. and have higher metabolic activity than other cells
85. The Blob would not have an adequate surface area for depending on the type of proteins present in the cell.
exchanging nutrients and wastes and it would not be 2. Genes are expressed in response to some
able to survive for long. With its giant size, it would environmental cues. A message is communicated to
have a small surface area to volume ratio and this the nucleus of the cell, which causes the copying of
would be inadequate for its survival. particular genes that direct the making of particular
86. Graph proteins. Differences in the types and timing of the
expression of proteins will lead to differences in
87. The molarity of the glucose solution is directly
appearance and behavior even for a pair of identical
proportional to the percent change in mass. As the
twins who share identical DNA.
molarity increases, so does the percent change in mass.
88. The selectively permeable membrane does not allow
the sugar molecules to pass through because they are Chapter 4 Diagnostic Questions
too big. Because the right side of the beaker has the
1. b. sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
dilute solution, there are more water molecules on
the right side than the left side of the beaker. Water 2. d. the sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA
diffused from an area of higher concentration (right molecule of an organism.
side) to an area of lower concentration (left side) by 3. a. There are more genes than chromosomes.
the process of osmosis. This results in the rise in the
4. b. DNA controls the production of proteins in the cell.
solution level on the left side of the beaker.
5. a. nucleotide.
89. Graph
6. d. adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
90. a. Both the surface area and volume increase as the cell
gets bigger, but the volume increases at a faster rate. 7. a. genes.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-15

8. a. The gene for albumin has a different sequence of steps or rungs of the ladder are made of the bases A, G,
nitrogenous bases than the gene for melanin. C, and T. Pairs of complementary bases form hydrogen
9. a. a gamete. bonds. Adenine pairs with thymine through two
hydrogen bonds. Guanine pairs with cytosine through
10. d. it cannot be passed on from one generation to
three hydrogen bonds. The two strands are antiparallel.
the next.
11. c. change the arrangement of the genetic material. Check Your Progress 4.2
12. DNA is important because it carries the genetic 1. DNA replication is said to be semi-conservative,
information of an organism and it is passed on from because the original parent strand is retained in the
one generation to the next. next generation. The new cell that results following
13. Genes are found on chromosomes, which are found in cell division contains one original parent strand
the nucleus of a cell. and a newly formed strand. Therefore, half (semi is
14. Environmental factors that can cause a change in DNA Latin for half) of the original DNA is passed to the
base sequences include mutagens, radiation, and drugs. next generation.

15. rabbit 2. In DNA replication, first the DNA molecule unzips and
hydrogen bonds are broken. Second, complementary
16. No, just because there are 10 amino acids different, bases join to both parent strand backbones, and this
doesn’t mean the amino acids are in the exact same synthesis reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA
order for both whales and kangaroos. polymerase. Third, Okazaki fragments formed from
the lagging strand are joined together. Proofreading
Chapter 4 Check Your Progress of the nucleotides then occurs to ensure that the two
double-helix molecules are identical to the original
Answers DNA molecule.
Check Your Progress 4.1 3. The key enzymes are first DNA helicase, which breaks
the hydrogen bonds through hydrolysis reactions.
1. Griffith found that something he called “the
Second, DNA polymerase provides a site for the new
transformation principle” could be carried from one
complementary bases to enter and hydrogen-bond
organism to another and cause a difference in the
together. Third, DNA ligase helps connect the short
phenotype (types of proteins) expressed. Griffith’s
pieces of new DNA formed from the lagging strand.
experiments could not conclude whether it was DNA
Finally, another DNA polymerase proofreads and
or proteins that were being moved from one organism
corrects errors.
to another, but at that time it was thought proteins
were the likely cause of the change in phenotype
because of their much greater structural diversity. Check Your Progress 4.3
Avery was able to show that it was DNA, not proteins, 1. Mature messenger RNA (mRNA), which has been
that caused the phenotype change or transformation. transcribed from DNA and processed in the nucleus,
2. The Hershey Chase experiment used a T phage, carries genetic information out of the nucleus and into
composed of radioactively labelled DNA and capsid the cytoplasm. The sequence of the mRNA determines
coat proteins, to infect E. coli. The radioactive tracers the protein sequence in the form of three-letter codons.
for DNA, but not protein, ended up inside the bacterial Translation of the mRNA into the protein involves the
cells, causing them to become transformed. Since formation of a complex that includes ribosomes and
only the genetic material could have caused this transfer RNA associating with the mRNA. Each three-
transformation, Hershey and Chase concluded that letter codon on the mRNA corresponds to a particular
DNA must be the genetic material. amino acid. During translation, as each codon is read,
a new amino acid is added to a growing polypeptide
3. DNA is a two-stranded molecule with alternating sugar chain until protein synthesis is complete.
phosphates in the backbone strands. The monomer
units are nucleotides consisting of a sugar, phosphate, 2. After RNA transcription occurs, the newly formed
and a base. The overall structure of the molecule is mRNA strand is processed and pieces of the RNA are
like a twisted ladder. The sugar and phosphates are removed. The removed pieces are called introns. The
covalently bonded to form the sides of the ladder. The mature RNA consists of only exons and it is the exons

A-16 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

that are expressed. The mature RNA is capped with to be resistant. Other bacteria associated with plant
guanine at the 5’ end and many adenine nucleotides on roots have been engineered to produce an insect toxin.
the 3’ end and this makes the molecule more stable to Other transgenic bacteria are used for bioremediation.
move into the cytoplasm to the ribosome. The mature Pest-resistant cotton, corn, and potato plants, as well
RNA enters the ribosome and the ribosome moves as human hormone-producing plants have also been
along the mRNA reading the information carried from engineered. Animals such as fish, cows, pigs, and sheep
the nucleus. The three-letter codon message on the have had bovine growth hormone introduced into
mRNA calls up the correct tRNA complex with the their DNA. In gene pharming, desired protein products
complementary anticodon. such as blood clotting proteins are collected from
3. The genetic code is said to be degenerate or redundant, animal milk.
because most amino acids are coded for by more than 2. A transgenic organism has genes from another
one codon. organism introduced into its genes. A cloned organism
is genetically identical to its parent.
Check Your Progress 4.4 3. Two methods of gene therapy include ex vivo and in
1. Gene mutations are caused by errors in replication, by vivo therapy. In ex vivo gene therapy cells are removed
mutagens, and by transposons. Errors in replication from the individual, new desired genes are inserted
occur when one or more bases are substituted, deleted, into the tissue using a vector, and then the tissue is
or inserted. Radiation and certain organic compounds put back into the host. In vivo gene therapy genes
can cause changes in the DNA. Transposons are pieces are introduced into the host directly using a vector
of DNA that can move within the chromosomes and in hopes that the vector will reach target cells and
interfere with the control of the expression of the gene, the introduced DNA will be copied and produce the
creating either too much or too little protein. desired gene product.
2. A point mutation only affects one amino acid and 4. An example of ex vivo gene therapy is treating SCID
is caused by a substitution of a nucleotide base. A (severe combined immunodeficiency), in which a
frameshift mutation is the insertion or deletion of one dysfunctional gene is removed, a virus is used to inject
or more nucleotides in the DNA. When the mRNA the correct gene into affected cells, and the cells are
containing this frameshift mutation is read at the re-inoculated into the patient. An example of in vivo
ribosome, the sequence of codons is shifted and the treatment involves treating cystic fibrosis where an
message is completely different, and so is the resulting adenovirus carrying functional genes is introduced
protein produced. into the patient’s respiratory system using an inhaler.

Check Your Progress 4.5 Check Your Progress 4.7

1. The steps required for producing recombinant DNA 1. Genomics is the study of the complete set of genes
involve a restriction enzyme to cut both the foreign in humans and other organisms and how the genes
DNA and the host DNA,. DNA ligase used to seal interact. Proteomics is the study of the structure,
the recombined DNA strands together, and the function, and interactions of the proteins produced
recombinant DNA being inserted, using a vector, back from the genome within a cell.
into the host. 2. Scientists can study human genes known to be
2. Short tandem repeats or STRs are repeated base pairs associated with certain diseases by inserting them
at a particular chromosomal location. They can be into model organisms with shorter generation times.
used for identification because they are unique for Since the methods of protein synthesis as well as other
each individual. cellular pathways are shared by most organisms, using
model organisms for these studies is possible.
Check Your Progress 4.6 3. Bioinformatics is the use of computer technologies
1. Beneficial applications of transgenic bacteria include and statistics to analyze and correlate huge databases
the production of insulin, human growth hormone of information containing genomic and proteomic
tissue plasminogen activator, and hepatitis B vaccine. data. With this capability, advances in knowledge and
Bacteria that help plants grow have been engineered research can occur much faster.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-17

Chapter 4 Features and Case Study the DNA repair mechanisms found in the nucleus.
Y-chromosomal Adam studies are more complex than
Answers Mitochondrial Eve studies, because the Y chromosome
is much longer than mitochondrial DNA (60 million
Science in Your Life: Scientific Inquiry—Finding the base pairs compared to 16 000) and has a lower
Structure of DNA mutation rate. Information about an ancestral Adam
1. If the DNA segment is 20% adenine, the segment would enable us to trace the migration of populations
should contain 20% thymine, since these bases pair of males.
together. These two bases represent 40% of the DNA.
Therefore, the remaining 60% must contain guanine Science in Your Life: Health—Prevention of Cancer
and cytosine at 30% each. 1. Answers will vary.
2. Students could suggest some of the following: Scientists 2. Tobacco smoke contains harmful chemicals that can
first were able to suggest a copying mechanism for the be transmitted through the body and cause cancer at
DNA ensuring the daughter cell information of would multiple sites.
be identical to the parent cell. Eventually biologists
were able to develop a quick and easy method for 3. Tanning beds increase exposure to UV radiation,
copying very small amounts of DNA called PCR — the which can cause skin cancer.
polymerase chain reaction. This technique allowed 4. Answers will vary. Some students might suggest that
the development of DNA fingerprinting technologies the law intrudes on personal rights and freedoms,
used in criminal investigations and paternity suits. while others might suggest the law helps protect young
Soon after the discovery of DNA structure, scientists people from making mistakes that will follow them for
determined the mechanisms of protein synthesis. the rest of their lives.
With this new knowledge came recombinant DNA
techniques allowing scientists to select for and produce Science in Your Life: Scientific Inquiry—Testing for
particular gene products or proteins, such as insulin, Genetic Disorders
and to genetically engineer desired characteristics into
1. DNA microarrays allow for the detection of DNA
plants and animals. Scientists can now regulate gene
that is being expressed in a cell or organism. Previous
expression, analyze genetic material’s presence, and
techniques just determined that mutant sequences
study the relatedness from species to species.
existed in the genome.
3. The Watson and Crick model provided a mechanism
2. Comparison between diseased tissue gene expression
for DNA replication with the complementary base
and normal tissue can be made.
pairing. If the two strands are separated, there are two
templates for replication. 3. Cells from an individual with heart disease, for
example, would have chromosomal variations that
Science in Your Life: Case Study—Mitochondrial could be detected using genomic microarrays when
they were compared to cells from healthy individuals.
DNA: Our Maternal Heritage
Drugs could then be developed to target these
1. There were probably only a few thousand people chromosomal variations.
in existence around the time of Mitochondrial Eve.
Mitochondrial DNA studies provide a molecular clock
for timing evolutionary events such as the divergence Chapter 4 Review Questions
of populations and migration of individuals to
various continents. 1. b. are nucleic acids.

2. Mutations that accumulate in DNA are like molecular 2. a. adenine and guanine.
clocks. Over time, harmless mutations accrue and 3. c. C-A-T-G-T-A-C
are passed down through generations. By comparing 4. c. T-A-G
mutations from enough people, researchers can
5. a. uracil
construct family trees with roots that reach back to
the earliest modern humans. Mitochondrial DNA is 6. b. replication
subject to damage from chemical reaction byproducts 7. a. ribosome.
in the mitochondria. In addition, the mtDNA also lacks

A-18 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

8. b. The primary structure of Molecule 2 would 41. a. I and II only
be different. 42. c. The genetically engineered bacteria may out-
9. a. adenine pairs with thymine by forming two compete the native species of bacteria that already exist
hydrogen bonds in the environment.
10. a. a gene. 43. base sequence on DNA → amino acid sequence →
11. c. to carry specific amino acids to the ribosome tertiary structure of a protein → protein function →
expression of a trait
12. b. the nucleolus.
44. a. I
13. b. to read the codons on the mRNA
b. II, III and IV
14. b. histidine
c. I
15. c. anticodon d. I, II, III and IV
16. a. CAG e. I
17. c. mRNA nucleotide bases. f. I
18. b. 4 g. II
19. a. insulin h. III
i. IV
20. b. peptide bonds
j. I, II, III and IV
21. d. The sequence of amino acids may be different during
protein synthesis. 45.
22. c. helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the DNA RNA
complementary DNA strands Subunit Nucleotide Nucleotide
23. d. 3 → 5 → 1 → 2 → 4 (sugar, phosphate, (sugar,
base) phosphate, base)
24. b. leucine
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
25. d. 75 nucleotides (3 codons/amino acids × 24 amino
acids = 72 + 1 stop codon = 75 nucleotides)
Nitrogenous bases Thymine, Uracil, Adenine,
26. a. a plasmid. Adenine, Cytosine Cytosine and
27. a. they reproduce quickly. and Guanine Guanine

28. c. restriction enzyme and DNA ligase Number of Strands Double-stranded Single-stranded
(2 strands) (1 strand)
29. d. to introduce foreign DNA into the bacterial DNA
30. b. Humans can use it to produce Hepatitis B vaccine. Base Pairings Adenine with Adenine with
Thymine Uracil
31. d. recombinant DNA technology. Cytosine with Cytosine with
32. d. splicing pieces of DNA from one organism into the Guanine Guanine
DNA of another organism Process that Produces Replication Transcription
this Nucleic Acid
33. d. to cut out specific base-pair sequences out of a
DNA molecule 46. The process illustrated is semi-conservative replication.
34. a. to produce large amounts of human hormones 47. The enzymes involved in replication are helicase, DNA
35. b. is used to produce large amounts of a targeted polymerase and DNA ligase.
sequence of DNA. 48. In Step X, the enzyme helicase unwinds the
36. b. Silk fibres will be produced in the goat’s milk. double-stranded DNA by breaking the hydrogen
bonds between the nitrogenous bases. In Step Y,
37. d. a transgenic organism.
complementary base pairing occurs (eg. adenine
38. c. genetic engineering. binds with thymine and cytosine binds with guanine).
39. b. help treat cancer. Nucleotides present in the nucleus are joined to the
40. b. Cold temperatures can influence the expression DNA molecule by DNA polymerase.
of genes. 49. Replication occurs in the nucleus.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-19

50. a. adenine 64. a. Comparative genomics is used to identify similarities
b. thymine between human DNA and DNA of other organisms.
c. deoxyribose sugar It allows scientists to insert a suspected human gene
associated with a disease into another organism to
d. phosphate group
confirm that this gene is the cause of the disease.
51. ATP and RNA
b. Functional genomics help scientists understand
52. Structure 3 is ribose in the other two nucleotides the function of various genes and their expression.
instead of deoxyribose. This information can be used in the treatment of
53. Double hydrogen bonds form between structures a disease.
1 and 2 (the nitrogenous bases) and covalent c. Proteomics is used to study the structure, function
bonds form between the deoxyribose sugar and the and interaction of cellular proteins in different
phosphate group. cell types. This is essential to the discovery of
54. The combination of structures 2, 3, and 4 or the better drugs.
combination of structures 1, 3, and 4 make up d. Bioinformatics is the use of computer technologies
a nucleotide. to find significant patterns to help study proteomics,
structural genomics, functional genomics and
55. There are a variety of base sequences on the DNA
comparative genomics.
molecule that would code for this amino acid
sequence. This is because there is more than one codon 65.
that will code for one amino acid. DNA GCA ATG TCA GTT
56. The substitution of one amino acid for another is called
a gene mutation.
57. A change in a single amino acid could cause a change mRNA CGU UAC AGU CAA
in the primary structure of a protein. This therefore
could change the tertiary structure of the protein tRNA GCA AUG UCA GUU
and its function. Since the function of the protein
is dependent on its shape, a change in the tertiary Amino
arginine tyrosine serine glutamine
structure could mean that the protein would no longer
be able to carry out its function properly.
66. The base pairs of DNA (A/T and G/C) and RNA (A/U
58. The red blood cell’s shape has now changed due to the and G/C) need to be highly specific so that replication,
change in amino acid sequence. The change in amino transcription and translation are accurate when they
acid sequence would affect the tertiary structure of the are carried out. The copying of the genetic code and the
hemoglobin therefore affects its function to effectively making the correct proteins depend on the specificity
carry oxygen around the body. of the base pairings. If specificity of the base pairing is
59. Sickle cell disease still persists in the human population compromised, then potential mutations could occur
because it provides those people with resistance against more often.
malaria. There is a benefit to having the disease. 67. If the DNA base sequence changed from GCA to ACA,
60. Percentages would be higher in malaria-endemic there would be a different amino acid substituted into
areas because people who have sickle cell anemia the polypeptide chain. The amino acid sequence would
are resistant to malaria. These people would have an now be “cysteine”-tyrosine-serine-glutamine.
advantage over people who did not have resistance 68. The shape of the protein could now change because
to malaria. the amino acid sequence (primary structure) is now
61. A deletion mutation occurred. different. Since the primary sequence is changed, the
tertiary sequence could potentially be altered as well.
62. The gene would code for a different amino acid.
69. There would be 64 combinations.
63. a. Gel electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting would be
used to determine whether the suspect had indeed 70. The farmer thinks cloning is a better option because
illegally killed the protected sheep. he gets to choose the cow that has the desirable traits
b. If the bands on the gel matched up between the two and reproduce more identical copies of that cow in a
samples, then the meat came from the same animal. shorter amount of time.

A-20 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

71. a. The cows in a cloned herd would be identical to each 73. The data suggest that these four species of flowers may
other because they have the same genetic makeup. be related because the sequences of amino acids are the
The cows from a non-cloned herd would have some same, with the exception of one amino acid.
genetic variation. 74. Species W and Species Y are most closely related.
b. The cloned herd would have the desirable traits that
75. Take segments of DNA from each of the four flowers
the farmer wants because it is identical to the best
and run them on gel electrophoresis. Compare
cow in the herd. Cloning would help improve the
the patterns on the gel to see they show similar
overall quality of the herd.
DNA patterns.
c. If a disease was introduced and all the cows were
76. The mutation would produce no change because the
genetically identical, they may all be susceptible to
DNA sequence would still code for valine. The amino
the disease and could die.
acid sequence would not change.
d. Some other desirable traits that the farmer may
want include: a cow that is healthy and resistant to 77. a. 4, 639, 221 bases
disease; a dairy cow that can produce larger amounts b. 3866 bases/second
of high quality milk; a cow that is well-adapted for 78. The Human Genome Project (HGP) was important
extreme climates; a cow that is fertile. to determine the location of all the genes in the
e. There would be genetic variation in the offspring human genome. This allowed scientists to identify the
because the normal cow would contribute different location of defective genes that caused diseases. The
genes each time an offspring is produced. defective genes could be replaced with normal genes to
f. A problem with breeding cloned cows with one cure diseases.
another would be that these cows would more likely 79. The benefit of knowing the location and sequence of
develop diseases. bases in a gene is being able to identify defective genes
72. and using gene therapy to replace these defective genes
with normal functioning genes.
80. Scientists must be careful in using only certain
enzymes because a normal gene could be removed
Species by accident and this would cause the person to
sequence GUC ACA GGA CAU
W not produce a protein that might be needed for
amino valine threonine glycine histidine
acids normal functioning.
81. Some ethical issues could include: Should humans get
to play God by deciding who gets to live or not? How
sequence do we determine which diseases are more important
mRNA CAG TGC CCG GCA than others? Who decides how much this is going cost?
sequence GUC ACG GGC CGU 82. You could change this by counting all the characters
amino valine threonine glycine arginine
in the entire novel to determine the exact number of
characters in the entire book.
83. The assumption that you are making is that that all
DNA books the size of your novel will contain the exact same
sequence number of characters and therefore bases. Some books
Species that are the same size have more or less characters.
sequence GUA ACG GGC CAC
amino valine threonine glycine histidine 84. Restriction enzymes are used to produce the DNA
acids fragments placed in the well for gel electrophoresis.
85. An electric current is used to separate DNA fragments
DNA on the basis of size.
86. Species C is most closely related to the unknown
Species species because it has four matching bands on the gel.
sequence GUU ACG GCA CAU
amino valine threonine alanine histidine 87. If plants are closely related, then they should have
acids similar genetic makeup and DNA segments. The
sequence physical characteristics of plants may vary and can

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-21

be influenced by environmental factors. Therefore 8. Structure B and structure D act as catalysts.
these physical characteristics will not be accurate 9. Structure C undergoes a change in shape.
at indicating the degree of the relationship between
10. Examples of enzymes include: DNA polymerase, RNA
different species.
polymerase, ligase, restriction enzymes.
88. In ex vivo gene therapy, bone marrow stem cells are
11. Enzymes are important in the digestion of food.
removed from the body and an RNA retrovirus is used
Without enzymes, you would be unable to digest
to insert a normal gene into the bone marrow stem
your food.
cells. The viral recombinant DNA carries the normal
gene into the genome and the genetically engineered 12. a. All enzymes are classified as proteins, but not all
cells are returned to the human body. In vivo gene proteins are enzymes.
therapy is used to treat cystic fibrosis patients. The gene b. Enzymes are molecules, not organisms and cannot
needed to cure cystic fibrosis is delivered to the lower be killed. Heat causes the enzyme to denature,
respiratory tract using an adenovirus vector found in therefore changing its active site and this causes a
an aerosol spray. loss in function.
89. Answer will depend on what topic the student picks. c. The enzyme has an active site to which the
For example, using restriction enzymes, the insulin substrate binds.
gene from a human chromosome is inserted into a d. Enzymes undergo a conformational change once
vector, a circular piece of bacterial DNA from E. coli. it forms the enzyme-substrate complex, but once
The bacteria that received the gene now can produce it releases its products, it changes back to its
large amounts of the protein insulin. Insulin is then original shape.
collected for use by people with diabetes. e. Enzymes can denature with a change in pH,
90. Research high temperature or exposure to a heavy metal.
Enzymes will not denature due to the depletion of
91. Research
the substrate.
f. Once an enzyme binds with the substrate, it forms
Chapter 5 Answers an enzyme-substrate complex which causes the
reaction to proceed further.
Making Connections—Lactose Intolerance g. Enzymes are not used up in the course of a chemical
1. The role of an enzyme is to lower the energy of reaction. They are unchanged by the reaction and
activation to speed up a chemical reaction. will be used again for the next reaction.
2. Factors that influence the rate of enzyme activity h. The reaction should use a double-headed arrow
include substrate concentration, temperature, to show that the reaction could go either both
pH, enzyme activation, enzyme inhibitors, and directions: reactant 1 + reactant 2 ↔ product 1 +
enzyme cofactors. product 2

Chapter 5 Diagnostic Questions Chapter 5 Check Your Progress

1. b. proteins.
2. b. ribosomes. Check Your Progress 5.1
3. c. lysosomes. 1. The reaction is likely to be endergonic, because it
4. b. plasmid requires an input of energy to occur.

5. b. It speeds up chemical reactions. 2. ATP with its three phosphate groups is analogous
to a charged battery which can provide energy via a
6. d. An increase in temperature causes the reactants to coupled reaction when one phosphate is cleaved off.
move more quickly, therefore increasing the number of ADP that s produced is like a discharged battery which
collisions between the reactants. requires an input of energy to become ATP again.
7. a. Structure A = substrate; b. Structure B = enzyme;
c. Structure C = enzyme-substrate complex;
d. Structure E = products

A-22 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Check Your Progress 5.2 regenerative medicine. For example, if an example is
“malfunctioning,” new compatible tissues or organs
1. Enzymes are needed to reduce the activation energy
could be developed from a person’s original stem cells,
of biochemical reactions, thus allowing reactions to
thus ensuring compatibility.
occur under conditions of the cell. A cell can convert
an enzyme from an inactive form to an active form by
the addition or removal of phosphate groups. Cellular Chapter 5 Review Questions
enzymes are subject to feedback inhibition. The
presence of cofactors and enzymes in the cell regulates 1. d. by temporarily combining with the substrates
enzyme activity. 2. d. there has to be a perfect fit between the enzyme’s
2. Denaturing changes the shape of the enzyme and active site and the substrate.
its active site, altering the fit of the reactant with 3. b. a triglyceride.
the enzyme.
4. a. The amount of glycerol and fatty acids produced in
3. How well the enzyme interacts with the reactants and 10 minutes at different pH levels.
the rate at which the product is formed is determined
5. d. changing the temperature from 37°C to 15°C
by its three-dimensional shape and its active site.
6. c. an inhibitor.
Check Your Progress 5.3 7. c. maltase.
1. Removal of the thyroid gland would mean that there 8. c. amino acids.
would be a decrease in associated hormones, T3 ,T4, 9. b. maltose.
and calcitonin. Since T3 and T4 aid in the metabolism
10. b. step 2
of glucose, this process would decrease. Likewise, if
there was a decrease in calcitonin production from the 11. a. enzymes and hydrolysis.
thyroid gland, there would be a decrease in calcium 12. c. size of the substrate
uptake in the bones from the bloodstream.
13. c. The disaccharide would break down slower or not
2. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland are T3 and at all.
T4. Calcitonin is also produced by the thyroid.
14. a. Cellulose would not fit into the active site of
the catalyst.
Chapter 5 Features and Case Study 15. c. Each enzyme works best within a particular
Answers pH range.
16. a. pepsin
Science In Your Life: Case Study—Gamers Solve
17. b. It would decrease.
Protein Structures
18. c. The shape of amylase was altered with the increasing
1. Some students may state that games such as Foldit
pH level.
are an effective use of money because they provide an
alternative point of view for understanding protein 19. c. 7
structures, which could ultimately aid in treatments. 20. d. Trypsin is less active at a pH of 10 than at a pH of 7.
Other students may state that gaming has no place in 21. c. 7.5
developing treatments, as they are too abstract and
22. a. pepsin
do not simulate the way molecules and physiology
work in the real world. Accept all supported and 23. d. to measure the amount of oxygen produced per unit
supportable answers. time and therefore catalase activity
2. Students may consider a variety of answers here. 24. b. The liver cells had a greater amount of catalase than
This may include genetic sequencing and genetic the potato cells.
engineering, which could allow scientist to decode 25. b. Catalase denatured when it was exposed to
the DNA sequence for a particular protein. Money high temperatures.
therefore could be spent on researching how to
26. a. diagram of an amino acid
manipulate the DNA to develop successful disease
treatments. Alternatively, money could be spent on 27. b. I and III only

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-23

28. a. threonine the small intestine, it can then be absorbed into the
29. b. Isoleucine inhibits enzyme #1 from reacting with blood stream and take action.
threonine and therefore prevents the production of 39. The graph should look like a hill, where the peak of the
a-ketobutyrate. graph is at 37°C.
30. d. the rate of production of α-keto-β-methylvalerate 40. Trypsin was most effective at 37°C.
would decrease 41. No protein was digested at 70°C and 100°C because
31. Each condition would show a constant reaction rate. The trypsin denatured and therefore could not function
graph for Scenario 1 would be a straight line graph with a properly. Without trypsin, proteins could not be
positive slope and the lowest slope. The graph for Scenario digested into peptides.
2 would be a straight line graph with a steeper positive 42. Trypsin is a hydrolytic enzyme.
slope than Graph 1. The graph for Scenario 3 would have
43. The substrate for trypsin is a protein or
a straight line graph that has a positive slope. Graph 3 has
polypeptide chain.
the steepest slope compared to Graphs 1 and 2. As the
concentration of the substrates increases, eventually the 44. The products of trypsin are peptides.
observed slope would reach a maximum value. 45. Hydrolysis must have occurred to produce the results
32. The substrate, sucrose, binds to the active site of the seen in the test tubes.
enzyme, sucrase. This forms an enzyme-substrate 46. Water was the other reactant needed for the digestion
complex. Water is needed during this hydrolysis of proteins to occur.
reaction to break the bond between glucose and
47. Trypsin is very specific to its substrate and will only act
fructose that make up the disaccharide sucrose. The
on proteins, not sucrose. Sucrose was not broken down
products (two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose)
because it did not fit into the active site of trypsin.
are released from the enzyme.
48. Design an experiment.
33. The products of this reaction are glucose and fructose.
34. With the increase in temperature, this will cause
denaturation of the enzymes in bacteria and this will Chapter 6 Answers
cause the bacteria to die.
Making Connections—Metabolic Demands on Athletes
35. An enzyme works best at a body temperature of 37°C.
With a fever and an increase in temperature, this 1. Aerobic respiration in the cell uses oxygen to break
will cause a decrease in enzyme activity. The high down glucose to form ATP. Without oxygen—that is,
temperature will denature the enzyme and alter the under anaerobic conditions—glucose is broken down
shape of the enzyme. Substrates will no longer be to pyruvate (and then to lactate in animals and bacteria
able to bind to the active site and the enzyme will not or to alcohol and carbon dioxide in plants and yeast)
be able to do its job. The function of the enzyme is with much less ATP production.
dependent on its shape, therefore a denatured enzyme 2. As glucose is broken down in a controlled series of
will not be able to carry out any chemical reactions in reactions in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, its stored
the body. Death may result due to a fever. chemical energy is released. Approximately 30% of this
36. Since cyanide is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome energy is used to make ATP and the rest is lost as heat.
oxidase, it will prevent the enzyme from functioning 3. The amino acids in proteins are deaminated in the liver
properly. Cyanide prevents the transfer of electrons to and the resulting carbon skeletons can enter glycolysis,
oxygen. Cytochrome oxidase will not be able to accept be converted to acetyl groups, or enter the citric acid
electrons and therefore not be able to produce enough cycle. The point at which the carbon skeleton enters the
ATP for the cells. pathway depends on the length of the R group, because
37. Iodine would move into the thyroid gland by active this determines the length of the carbon chain that
transport from low concentration to high remains after deamination. Fats are broken down to
concentration. glycerol and fatty acids. The glycerol can be converted
to pyruvate and enter glycolysis to be converted to
38. The modified cellulose will start to dissolve at a specific
acetyl CoA. The fatty acids are broken down to acetyl
pH in the small intestine. It is not affected by the low
CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle.
pH of the stomach. Once the medication dissolves in

A-24 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Chapter 6 Diagnostic Questions 19. The runners do not have enough oxygen for their cells
to produce ATP. Heavy breathing occurs to get as much
1. b. step 2 only. oxygen into the body as possible because the cells are
deprived of oxygen and are not getting enough oxygen
2. a. ATP.
fast enough.
3. d. in the phosphate bonds
4. c. animal and plant cells
Chapter 6 Check Your Progress
5. d. cellular respiration.
6. d. carbon dioxide
7. a. the absence of oxygen. Check Your Progress 6.1
8. b. viruses 1. NAD+ and FAD serve as coenzymes for the enzymes
involved in cellular respiration. Both molecules receive
9. a. to produce ATP
electrons and are reduced to either NADH or FADH2.
10. c. so that it is in a form that cells can use These reduced molecules carry electrons to the electron
11. c. active transport of potassium ions transport chain within the mitochondria.
12. a. Cellular respiration does not consist of just one step 2. Glycolysis is an anaerobic process. It does not require
as the equation implies. It consists of many phases O2 to proceed. The preparatory reaction, the citric acid
with many steps. cycle, and the electron transport chain all rely on the
b. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are presence of O2 to proceed.
complementary to each other. The reactants 3. The complete breakdown of glucose occurs in four
of photosynthesis are the products of cellular phases. Glycolysis in the cytoplasm produces pyruvate,
respiration. The products of photosynthesis are the which enters mitochondria if oxygen is available. The
reactants of cellular respiration. preparatory reaction and the citric acid cycle that
c. Plants carry out both photosynthesis and cellular follow occur inside the mitochondria in the fluid-filled
respiration because they have both chloroplasts space called the matrix. Also inside mitochondria,
and mitochondria. on the membrane that forms the cristae, the electron
d. Not all the energy is captured in ATP, some of the transport chain receives the electrons that were
energy is lost as heat. Biological systems cannot removed from glucose forming NADH or FADH2. The
break the laws of thermodynamics. result of glucose breakdown is a maximum of 30 to 32
ATP, depending on the particular cell.
13. 1. cristae (inner membrane); 2. outer membrane;
3. intermembrane space; 4. matrix
Check Your Progress 6.2
14. Diagram should show that oxidation and reduction
take place at the same time and that they are opposite 1. Glucose must be activated by the investment of 2ATP
of each other. As one gains electrons (reduced), the before the cascade of reactions oxidizing glyceraldehyde-
other loses electrons (oxidized). 3-phosphate to pyruvate (forming 4ATP) can occur.

15. Respiration is the exchange of gases. It is a process that 2. For each molecule of glucose the inputs are 2 ATP and
provides blood cells with oxygen. 2 NAD+. The outputs are two molecules of
pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ADP, and 4 ATP. There is a net
16. Organisms respire to get energy. It is a process in which
gain of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate.
the oxygen is necessary to convert the energy stored in
carbon-containing molecules into ATP.
Check Your Progress 6.3
17. You need to constantly breathe to provide a constant
1. When muscles are working hard, in a burst of activity,
supply of oxygen to our cells in order to produce
they can deplete the oxygen in the tissues to the point
sufficient ATP for metabolic activities.
that fermentation begins.
18. When the muscle cells in your body work vigorously
2. During fermentation pyruvate accepts electrons from
during a run or heavy exercise, they carry out
NADH formed during glycolysis, producing lactate
fermentation. Fermentation supplies the body
or alcohol and carbon dioxide. The oxidized NAD+ is
with ATP when oxygen is scarce, but the process is
then available to pick up more electrons (and hydrogen
inefficient when compared to aerobic respiration.
ions) from glycolysis.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-25

Check Your Progress 6.4 3. In some cells the NADH formed outside the
mitochondria during glycolysis cannot easily cross into
1. Glycolysis is anaerobic and the metabolic pathways
the mitochondria. Instead NADH delivers its electrons
within the mitochondria are aerobic. Glycolysis provides
to the electron transport chain using a process that
pyruvate, which is the reactant for the preparatory
costs one ATP per 2 electrons. Since 2 NADH are
reaction and the citric acid cycle occurring in the
formed during glycolysis, the total ATP count is
mitochondria. In glycolysis ATP is produced by
reduced from 6 to 4. Also in the electron transport
substrate-level ATP synthesis. In the mitochondria most
chain reactions, the actual yield per NADH varies from
ATP are produced by chemiosmosis.
2 to 3 ATP and the yield from FADH2 varies from 1 to
2. Some ATP are generated directly by various early 2 ATP. The amounts in the final column of the table
stages of cellular respiration, specifically 2 ATP above are theoretical maximum yields.
from glycolysis and 2 ATP from the citric acid
cycle. The remaining ATP are generated from the
electron carriers NADH and FADH2 in the electron Chapter 6 Features and
transport chain (ETC). As a general rule, 2 to 3 ATP Case Studies Answers
are generated from each NADH and 1–2 ATP are
generated by FADH2. This is because FADH2 enters the Science in Your Life: Health—Metabolic Fate of Pizza
electron transport chain at a lower energy than NADH.
1. The cheeseburger and fries would be digested into
The number of molecules of NADH, FADH2, and ATP molecules of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. The fat
produced by each stage of cellular respiration are: enters the pathway at two points: glycerol at glycolysis
Glycolysis: 2 ATP plus 2 NADH and 2-carbon pieces of the fatty acids enter the citric
Preparatory Reaction: 2 NADH acid cycle. The amino acids in protein can enter at
Citric Acid Cycle: 2 ATP, plus 6 NADH glycolysis, be converted to acetyl CoA, and enter the
and 2 FADH2 citric acid cycle or enter at another point in the citric
Electron Transport Chain: 4–6 ATP from 2 NADH acid cycle. Carbohydrates broken down, converted to
of glycolysis (2 NADH glucose, and enter glycolysis.
× 3 = 4-6)
2. Water is used in the hydrolysis reactions involved
6 ATP from the 2 NADH of prep reaction
in the breakdown of fat, protein, and carbohydrate
(2 NADH × 3 = 6 ATP)
into components that then enter the reactions of
18 ATP from the citric
cellular respiration.
acid cycle (6 NADH × 3
= 18 ATP)
4 ATP from the citric acid cycle (2 FADH2 × 2 = 4 ATP) Chapter 6 Review Questions
See the following chart: 1. a. is transformed into heat.
Glycolysis 2 NADH 2 ATP 2. c. in the cytoplasm.
Preparatory 2 NADH 3. c. C.
4. d. Acetyl CoA goes through a series
Citric Acid 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP of reactions that extract electrons and
Cycle hydrogen ions.
Electron 2 NADH from glycolysis 5. a. A and B
Transport (2 NADH × 2 = 4 ATP max) 4–6 ATP
6. c. C.
Chain 2 NADH from prep reaction
26-28 ATP 7. a. It reduces two NAD+ for every
(2 NADH × 3 = 6 ATP max) 6 ATP
6 NADH from citric cycle actual yield glucose molecule.
(6 NADH × 3 = 18 ATP max) 18 ATP
8. c. 20 ATP.
2 FADH2 from citric cycle
(2 FADH2 × 2 = 4 ATP max) 4 ATP 9. c. FAD – is a reducing agent in the citric
acid cycle
Theoretical maximum yield is 2 + 2 + [4 to 6] + 6 + 18 + 4 = 36–38 ATP
Total actual ATP generated by cellular respiration = 30-32 ATP 10. a. They are coenzymes that
accept electrons.

A-26 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

11. c. II and III only 24.
12. a. O2 Electron
13. c. produces a large quantity of reducing power in the Preparatory Citric Acid Transport
Glycolysis Reaction Cycle Chain
form of NADH and FADH2
Location cytoplasm matrix of matrix of inner
14. c. to aerobically degrade pyruvate to carbon dioxide in the Cell mitochondria mitochondria membrane
and water with the generation of two ATP molecules of the
15. d. They occur in the matrix of the mitochondrion and mitochondria
produce carbon dioxide. Net ATP 2 ATP 2 ATP 26–28 ATP
16. a. the hydrogen ion gradient across the inner
Products 2 ATP 2 NADH + H+ 2ATP 26–28 ATP
mitochondrial membrane.
2 pyruvate 2 CO2 4 CO2 H2O
17. d. NADH 2 NADH + H+ 2 Acetyl CoA 6 NADH + H+
18. c. II and III only
Aerobic or anaerobic aerobic aerobic aerobic
19. c. to convert ADP to ATP. Anaerobic
20. c. II and III only
25. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) consists of the
21. d. I, II and III nitrogenous base adenine, a ribose sugar and three
22. d. NADH will donate high-energy electrons to the phosphate groups. Energy is stored in the high-energy
electron transport chain bonds between the phosphate groups. When ATP
23. a. preparatory reaction, citric acid cycle, electron breaks down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and
transport chain a molecule of inorganic phosphate, stored energy is
released. This energy is used for biological functions
b. glycolysis and fermentation
such as protein synthesis.
c. glycolysis, citric acid cycle, fermentation
26. The products of cellular respiration have less chemical
d. preparatory reaction, citric acid cycle,
potential energy than the reactants because most of
alcoholic fermentation
the chemical energy is lost to heat. Biological systems
e. glycolysis, fermentation cannot break the laws of thermodynamics.
f. electron transport chain
27. Organisms use oxidation and reduction reactions to
g. ATP synthase produce energy. Most metabolic reactions result in the
h. preparatory reaction, citric acid cycle release of electrons that need to be captured, or require
i. glycolysis, citric acid cycle a donation of electrons for the reaction to proceed.
j. citric acid cycle 28. Oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. Reduction of
k. electron transport chain oxygen to water.
l. citric acid cycle, preparatory reaction 29. Aerobic exercise requires oxygen in order to produce
m. electron transport chain ATP through cellular respiration. By doing aerobic
n. preparatory reaction exercise, you are actually putting your body into
o. fermentation an anaerobic condition, forcing you to breathe
more rapidly, more deeply to supply the body with
p. electron transport chain
the needed oxygen in order to generate the ATP
q. electron transport chain
needed by the muscles. If you are still breathing
r. electron transport chain rapidly after the exercise is over, your body is still in
s. glycolysis (in the cytoplasm) anaerobic condition.
t. fermentation 30. The inner mitochondrial membrane of the
u. ATP synthase in the inner mitochondrial membrane mitochondrion contains most the components of
v. electron transport chain, inner the electron transport chain. The cristae increase the
mitochondrial membrane inner mitochondrial membrane surface area of the
w. electron transport chain mitochondrion to allow increased ATP production.
x. citric acid cycle (in the matrix)
y. electron transport chain

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-27

31. ATP yields for the different phases of cellular molecules are produced by the end of the reaction. This
respiration: glycolysis = 2 ATP; citric acid cycle = 2 gives a net gain of 2 ATP in glycolysis.
ATP; electron transport chain = 26–28 ATP 38. Coenzyme A, FAD and NAD+ are important
32. a. Glycolysis is the breakdown of on glucose molecule components of cellular respiration. They are needed
to 2 molecules of pyruvate. It produces 2 NADH for the production of ATP. Without these coenzymes,
and 2 ATP. ATP is produced by substrate-level there would be minimum production of ATP and the
ATP synthesis. person would show signs of fatigue due to low levels of
b. The citric acid cycle involves the acetyl group ATP production. Fatigue is a muscular issue and the
attached to CoA breaking down to 2 molecules muscles are perhaps the most demanding cells of the
of CO2. This occurs twice for each molecule of body in terms of the amount of ATP required. If the
glucose. The citric acid cycle produces 2ATP, 4 CO2, production of ATP is compromised by a lack of these
6 NADH + H+ and 2 FADH2. ATP is produced by derivatives, then fatigue is inevitable.
substrate-level ATP synthesis. 39. Flow Chart
c. The electron transport chain oxidizes NADH or 40. The purpose of fermentation is to regenerate NAD+ so
FADH2 and creates a H+ gradient. The enzyme ATP that it returns to glycolysis to pick up more electrons to
synthase uses this H+ gradient to produce ATP keep glycolysis going.
via chemiosmosis.
41. Fermentation in Muscles Fermentation in Yeast
d. In anaerobic conditions, cells use glycolysis to
produce 2 ATP in a process called fermentation.
In lactate fermentation, pyruvate is converted into
lactate and oxidizes NADH to NAD+. In alcoholic pyruvate is
fermentation, pyruvate is converted into alcohol pyruvate is converted into
(ethanol) and carbon dioxide is produced. This converted into carbon dioxide
reaction regenerates NAD+. lactic acid; occurs both and ethanol;
in some bacteria are anaerobic occurs in yeast,
33. Aerobic cellular respiration has oxygen as a final
and in animal processes (in plants and
electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. The
muscle cells; Lactic the absence of some bacteria;
electron transport chain allows for the production
acid fermentation oxygen); glucose Alcoholic
of more ATP (26–28 ATP) through chemiosmosis
→ glucose is converted into fermentation
compared to substrate-level ATP production during
→ glycolysis cellular energy → glucose
fermentation (2 ATP).
(pyruvate) → lactic (ATP); reducing → glycolysis
34. NAD+ is the oxidized form and acts as an electron agent is
acid + 2 ATP. (pyruvic acid) →
acceptor. NADH + H+ is the reduced form and is a NADH + H+ carbon dioxide +
major carrier of hydrogen atoms and free energy in
alcohol + 2 ATP.
the cell.
35. Substrate-level ATP synthesis uses an enzyme to
add a phosphate group to ADP to produce ATP.
Chemiosmosis uses a hydrogen ion gradient to
produce ATP. Substrate-level ATP synthesis occurs in
42. Flow Chart of Fermentation: glucose → 2 molecules
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, while chemiosmosis
of G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) → BPG
as a result of the formation of a H+ gradient across the
(1,3-bisphosphoglycerate) → 2 molecules of pyruvate
membrane as electrons are moved through the electron
→ 2 molecules of lactate or 2 molecules of alcohol and
transport chain.
2 molecules of carbon dioxide; 2ATP (net gain) and
36. NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and FADH2 is 2NAD+ → 2 NADH
the reduced form of FAD. For every two electrons that
43. The citric acid cycle turns twice because two acetyl
NADH donates to the electron transport chain, 2-3
CoA molecules enter the cycle per glucose molecule.
ATP are produced. For every two electrons that FADH2
donates, 1-2 ATP are produced. 44. Pyruvate is converted to a C2 acetyl group attached to
coenzyme A before it enters the citric acid cycle.
37. It takes 2 ATP molecules to activate glucose at the
beginning of glycolysis and then produces 4 ATP

A-28 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

45. The citric acid cycle is significant because the 50. The ATP synthase complex allows hydrogen ions to
breakdown of the intermediates through the citric diffuse across the inner mitochondrial membrane. As a
acid cycle frees up high-energy electrons that can be result of this flow, potential energy is released and the
donated to electron transport chain, which in turn ATP synthase produces ATP from ADP and P using
generates a hydrogen ion gradient that is coupled to that energy.
ATP synthesis. 51. Since all these organisms thrive in anaerobic
46. a. During substrate-level ATP synthesis, an enzyme conditions, they all carry out fermentation to
passes a high-energy phosphate to ADP and ATP produce ATP.
is formed. 52. The carbohydrates will be stored as glycogen in the
b. As oxidation occurs, hydrogen atoms (H+ and muscle cells. On the day of the race, glycogen will
e-) are removed from the carbon-containing be converted to glucose. In the presence of oxygen,
intermediates and donated to NAD+, and this forms the mitochondria in the muscle cells break down the
NADH + H+. glucose to produce ATP for the muscle cells during
c. As oxidation occurs, hydrogen atoms (H+ and the race.
e–) are removed from the carbon-containing 53. During a marathon, the mitochondria are producing
intermediates and donated to FAD, and this ATP for the body through aerobic respiration. A
forms FADH2. marathon runner has trained to deal with running
d. Each acetyl group received from the preparatory for a long time where the muscles have to maintain
reaction is oxidized through a series of reactions to their oxygen levels to be able to continue for a long
produce two carbon dioxide molecules. period of time. The marathon runner’s muscles would
47. Carbon monoxide will block electron transfer from steal oxygen available from the blood to keep the
NADH to oxygen. If the electron transport chain muscles functioning and to prevent lactic acid build
stops, then no ATP will be produced for cellular up. During a sprint, where the muscle cells in the body
function. Absence of ATP will not allow metabolic are working vigorously, the muscle cells would tend
activities to occur and cells will die as a result. Carbon to carry out fermentation when oxygen is scarce. The
monoxide will bind more readily to hemoglobin than sprinter would be using all his energy to run very fast,
does oxygen. You can’t use oxygen in the muscles such that any oxygen delivery to the muscles will be
(particularly the heart) if it is not being delivered by overwhelmed. These are muscles that work well in an
the blood. oxygen-deprivation state, but would collapse if the
runner had to continue his pace, or even if the runner
48. The electron transport chain consists of a series of
had to slow his pace, but kept on running. Lactic acid
protein complexes located in the inner membrane
would build up in the muscle cells and cramps would
of the mitochondria. The protein carriers accept
set in. The short distance runners train so that they
high-energy electrons and pass them along from one
finish the race just before the race finishes the muscles.
protein to another. As this occurs, hydrogen ions
are pumped from the matrix to the intermembrane 54. As the electron transport chain would be compromised
space. As hydrogen ions flow from the intermembrane in the presence of rotenone, a H+ gradient would not
space into the matrix down the concentration be formed across the membrane and the ATP synthesis
gradient, the ATP synthase complex produces ATP via chemiosmosis would be compromised. The amount
through chemiosmosis. of ATP produced through glycolysis and the citric
acid cycle would be insufficient to maintain the cell/
49. As the high-energy electrons are passed from one
electron carrier to the next, energy is captured through
the pumping of the hydrogen ions across the inner 55. The faster fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA
mitochondrial membrane, forming a potential energy and enter the citric acid cycle, the greater the rate of
gradient. As hydrogen ions flow through the ATP respiration. These compounds may convert fatty acids
synthase complex from one side of the membrane to to acetyl CoA more rapidly.
the other, the potential energy released is captured in 56. The gas bubbles are carbon dioxide.
the formation of ATP.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-29

57. If there was sufficient oxygen present in the apple juice, 67. Chemiosmosis Analogy: When the gates (=ATP
and there probably was if only after several minutes, synthase) of a dam (=inner mitochondrial membrane)
the bubbles could still be carbon dioxide derived from are opened, water (=H+ ions) flows through the dam
aerobic respiration. down the slope. The potential energy stored in the
58. The process was aerobic. water is used to do work, in the mitochondrial case, to
generate energy (=ATP).
59. The rate of bubble production would increase if there
was more yeast present. 68. Research

60. NAD+ and FAD are analogous to electron shuttle buses 69. Skeletal muscle cells and liver cells have different
in that hey pick up electrons and carry the high energy net energy yield because there is the difference in
electrons to the electron transport chain and drop the requirement for intermediates from the citric
them off. acid cycle.

61. Blocking ATP synthase prevents the flow of H+ 70. Graph should show a hill-shaped figure, peaking
across the membrane, preventing the chemiosmotic at 35°C.
production of ATP. The cell will die due to the 71. The maximum rate of cellular respiration occurred at
insufficiency of ATP. 35°C.
62. Graphic Organizer
63. A rechargeable battery is a form of recycling. Like Chapter 7 Answers
plugging a rechargeable battery into a recharger, the
ATP synthase complex uses energy available from the Making Connections—Colours of Fall
flow of H+ across the membrane to combine ADP 1. The pigments that provide the maximum efficiency for
with P to forge ATP. The energy is stored in the third a plant as it conducts photosynthesis are chlorophyll a
phosphate bond … once used, converting ATP to ADP and b.
+ P and releasing energy to drive other processes,
2. Leaves appear green in the spring and summer and
the ADP and P are recycled through the ATP
then turn to red or yellow in the fall because green
synthase complex.
chlorophyll is present in large quantities in the summer,
64. ATP is produced when a phosphate is added to ADP: masking the other pigments. In the fall it degrades and
ADP + P → ATP. ATP is broken down into ADP by the red to yellow carotenoids become visible.
removing a phosphate group: ATP → ADP + P
65. The electron transport chain is analogous to a flight of
stairs. As the object bounces down the stairs, it loses
Chapter 7 Diagnostic Questions
potential energy. The object may hit some things on the 1. a. is reflected.
way down and cause the things to move off the stairs
or over to the wall. Free (potential) energy available to 2. c. autotrophic.
do work, can move things like hydrogen ions. Similarly, 3. b. to convert light energy into chemical energy
in the electron transport chain, high-energy electrons 4. c. mitochondria and chloroplasts.
give off a small amount of energy with each step as they
5. c. in plant cells and animal cells.
pass electrons from one protein to the next. The energy
released is used to produce ATP. 6. a. in plant cells, some bacteria and some protists.
66. a. There is an increase in free energy at the beginning 7. b. chlorophyll
of glycolysis due to the investment of the initial two 8. b. chlorophyll
ATP molecules. Glucose needs to be phosphorylated
9. b. withdraw energy.
to make it more reactive.
10. d. have the ability to synthesize carbohydrates.
b. The drop in free energy represents the energy
transferred to ATP, NADH and FADH2. 11. c. water and carbon dioxide
c. The citric acid cycle is where the greatest free energy 12. d. the stomata.
is released. 13. b. visible light
14. b. sucrose

A-30 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

15. c. glucose 20. Energy is required for life because it fuels all the
16. a. Plants live on land and in the water. metabolic processes in the body.
b. Not all plants are photosynthetic. A small 21. Plants are important to us because they provide us with
portion of plants lack chlorophyll and therefore oxygen and they are a source of food.
are not photosynthetic. An example includes 22. Each protein (person) in the electron transport chain
Rafflesia arnoldii. (bucket brigade) passes energized electrons (bucket of
c. Plants do not grow best in green light. Plants do water) to the next protein. At each step in the electron
not absorb green light. Plants reflect green light and transport chain, the electrons lose energy (just like
therefore do not use it for photosynthesis. some water might have spilled out of the bucket as the
d. Photosynthesis consists of a series of many step-by- bucket is passed down the human assembly line). If the
step reactions called metabolic pathways. fire was on the top floor of the a three storey building,
e. Plants produce their own food by photosynthesis the only way to raise the water up to that level is for
through their leaves. Plants take up water and one of the brigade to put in energy to carry it up, like
minerals through their roots. the input of light energy in photosynthesis.
f. Plants, protists, and some bacteria 23. Euglena would be found by the hole where light
can photosynthesize. is available in the experimental tube, and evenly
g. Plants need oxygen to break down glucose and distributed throughout the control test tube without
release energy stored in those molecules through the hole.
cellular respiration.
h. Plants take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and Chapter 7 Check Your
take in oxygen for cellular respiration.
Progress Answers
i. Plants respire all day and night.
j. Plants appear green because the chlorophyll reflects Check Your Progress 7.1
green light.
1. The primary source of energy for carbohydrate
17. a. outer membrane production in plants is the sun.
b. grana 2. Chloroplasts are a double-membrane bound organelle.
c. thylakoid space (lumen) They have two major parts: the grana and the stroma.
d. inner membrane  The grana are stacks of thylakoids, hollow pancake-like
e. stroma structures (a granum looks like a stack of pancakes).
f. thylakoid membrane The flattened thylakoids are membranous disks that
contain light-capturing photosynthetic pigments such
18. The shorter days and the cooler temperatures in the as chlorophylls a and b. The stroma is the fluid-filled
fall slow down the tree’s metabolism. The leaves change space within the chloroplast surrounding the grana.
colours in the fall because the reduced production of It is in the stroma that CO2 is enzymatically reduced
chlorophyll allows the other pigments to dominate. to carbohydrate.
Leaves of the deciduous plants are susceptible to
freezing damage and thus can be disposed of prior to 3. The overall equation for photosynthesis:
winter. As chlorophyll contains magnesium, a relatively 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
rare commodity that the plant has acquired through with the input of sunlight and the presence
expensive active transport, the recycling of chlorophyll of chlorophyll.
is economically advantageous and the plant does so. 4. Light reactions require the input of light energy. They
Other pigments are composed of carbon, hydrogen, occur on the membrane of the thylakoid and result in
and oxygen only. These are very cheap and disposable the generation of NADPH and ATP, which function
commodities for plants and thus not necessary to be in the Calvin cycle. The reactions of the Calvin cycle
recycled prior to leaf fall. (dark reactions) do not require the input of light
19. Visible light is composed of the colours of the rainbow. energy. The Calvin cycle reactions fix and reduce CO2
Visible light is a portion of the electromagnetic to produce energy-rich carbohydrates.
spectrum that has sufficient energy to excite atoms/
molecules without causing ionization.

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-31

Check Your Progress 7.2 2. C4 photosynthesis is advantageous in hot, dry
conditions because it allows stomata to close during
1. Leaves appear green because they transmit or reflect
the day so there is less loss of water without affecting a
and do not absorb the wavelengths of light that humans
plant’s ability to fix CO2.
see as green.
2. In the noncyclic electron pathway, the excited electron
Check Your Progress 7.5
from photosystem II passes down an electron transport
chain to photosystem I, producing ATP. The excited 1. reactants Photosynthesis products
electron from photosystem I is passed to NADP+, 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
making NADPH.
3. The photosystems, electron transport chain, and Looking at the equation, the reactants of
the ATP synthase complex are all embedded in the photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration,
thylakoid membrane. and the reverse.
4. The H+ ion gradient across a thylakoid membrane Similarities: Both are metabolic pathways involving a
is referred to as a storage of energy because H+ series of enzymatically-catalyzed steps. Both have an
ions present in the thylakoid space are at a higher electron transport chain located within membranes
concentration than in the stroma. This inequality and generate ATP through chemiosmosis. Both
in positive charges creates an electrochemical processes have a set of cyclic reactions located within
gradient. The tendency is for the H+ ions to move the fluid interior of their respective organelles.
down this electrochemical gradient (away from the Differences: The organelle for photosynthesis is the
high concentration of H+ ions). As they move from chloroplast, while the organelle for cellular respiration
the thylakoid space to the stroma through the ATP is the mitochondrion. In photosynthesis, the electron
synthase complex, they release the “stored” energy to carrier is NADPH + H+, during cellular respiration,
fuel ATP synthesis. NADH is the electron carrier.
2. Although it appears that the two equations are the
Check Your Progress 7.3 reverse of each other on a macroscopic scale, at the
1. Carbon dioxide is fixed when it is attached to the five- molecular level there are different enzymes and
carbon molecule RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) metabolites in each reaction. A plant cell must contain
by the enzyme RuBP carboxylase. It is then reduced both chloroplasts and mitochondria.
to a carbohydrate in a two-step process. It is energized
by ATP and then reduced by NADPH to G3P Chapter 7 Features and
Case Studies Answers
2. It takes three turns of the Calvin cycle to produce one
G3P molecule. That is, three incoming carbon atoms Science in Your Life: Case Study—
in CO2 produce one G3P molecule. For every three Our Heritage with Plants
turns of the Calvin cycle, five molecules of G3P are
1. Student answers will vary. Students need to explain
used to re-form three molecules of RuBP, and the cycle
their thinking behind their decision to support,
continues. Notice that 5 × 3 (carbons in G3P) = 3 × 5
partially support, or not support Indigenous property
(carbons in RuBP).
rights. In explaining their position they should include
3. G3P is an important molecule in plant metabolism compelling reasons and examples. They should
because it can be converted to glucose, sucrose, starch, distinguish between fact and opinion. They should
cellulose, fatty acids, and amino acids. provide a concluding statement. For more detail on
research possibilities see the section Differentiated
Check Your Progress 7.4 Instruction Section 3.4.
1. Plants that use a method of photosynthesis other
than C3 photosynthesis include sugar cane, corn, and
succulents such as cacti.

A-32 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

Science in Your Life: Case Study— 7. d. number of gas bubbles produced on the surface of
Understanding the Process of Photosynthesis: the Cabomba leaves.
An Experimental Journey Through History 8. a. It is a reduced molecule.
1. Students will have to do research to find out about Van 9. b. A = water; B = carbon dioxide; C = oxygen
Helmont’s experiment. He used a willow tree grown 10. c. glucose
in a pot to determine where plants get their mass:
11. b. in the stroma
from soil or water. He determined the mass of the soil
and the mass of the willow tree. He watered the tree 12. d. three carbon dioxide molecules are attached to three
and recorded the mass of the water. After 5 years he molecules of RuBP
reweighed the mass of the soil and it was essentially 13. d. I, II, and III
unchanged. However, the plant’s mass had increased
14. b. oxygen
by about 74 kg. He attributed the increased mass of
the wood, bark, and roots to water—a logical (albeit 15. a. Calvin cycle
incorrect) inference, given that scientists did not know 16. d. to supply electrons for the reduction of carbon
of the existence of carbon dioxide at the time. dioxide in the Calvin cycle.
2. (The modelling activity on BLM 7-13 Modelling the 17. a. chlorophyll a
Source of Oxygen is an alternative way of approaching 18. d. Electron carriers responsible for the light-dependent
this question.) reactions are embedded in the outer membranes of
Ruben and Kamen used the radioactive isotope 18O the chloroplast.
to determine the chemical source of oxygen produced
19. d. I, II, and III
during photosynthesis. When water labelled with the
radioactive isotope 18O was consumed by plants, the 20. d. carbon dioxide.
oxygen-18 isotope turned up in the O2 produced in 21. c. the reduction of 3PG molecules in the Calvin cycle.
photosynthesis, not in the glucose molecule, C6H12O6. 22. b. NADP+
They used two groups of plants. The first group of
23. a. cytoplasm
plants was given radioactive 18O labeled H2O and
unlabelled CO2. The second group of plants was 24. a. reduced to G3P during the Calvin cycle
given 18O labeled CO2 and unlabeled H2O. When b. provides energy to allow for reduction during the
they analyzed their results they found that the oxygen Calvin cycle
released from the first group of plants was radioactive, c. is the product of the reduction of carbon dioxide
but not the second. This experiment confirmed during the Calvin cycle that can be used for the
that water is the source of the oxygen produced production of glucose
by photosynthesis. d. is attached to carbon dioxide during the Calvin cycle
Group 1 e. donates electrons and releases oxygen during the
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 noncyclic electron pathway
Group 2 f. accepts electrons and hydrogen ions and becomes
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 NADPH during the noncyclic electron pathway
g. forms ATP during chemiosmosis
Chapter 7 Review Questions h. provides electrons for reduction during the
Calvin cycle
1. b. oxygen i. provides energy to drive the photosynthetic process
2. b. water is oxidized and carbon dioxide is reduced. OR to excite pigment molecules such that electrons
are released from the reaction centre
3. d. green
j. absorbs solar energy
4. d. NADPH
25. a. thylakoid
5. c. II and III only b. thylakoid, photosystem I, photosystem II
6. d. converted to cellulose by dehydration reaction and c. grana
becomes the structural component of plant cell walls. d. thylakoid (membrane)

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-33

e. thylakoid (membrane) 33. The role of NADP+ is to carry hydrogen atoms from
f. thylakoid space the light reactions to the Calvin cycle.
g. stroma 34. Water provides electrons to photosystem II.
h. portions of the non-cyclic electron transport path 35. Two events that are linked to chemiosmosis:
i. thylakoid, photosystem I, photosystem II, ADP + P → ATP; flow of hydrogen ions from
chlorophyll, accessory pigments the thylakoid space to the stroma via the ATP
j. stroma synthase complex
26. a. noncyclic electron pathway 36. When hydrogen ions flow from the thylakoid
b. Calvin cycle – reduction of carbon dioxide space to the stroma down the concentration
gradient through ATP synthase, ATP is produced
c. Calvin cycle – reduction of carbon dioxide
through chemiosmosis.
d. light reactions
37. Photosystem I is involved in both the cyclic and the
e. Calvin cycle – fixation of carbon dioxide
noncyclic pathways, while photosystem II is only
27. Diagram involved in the noncyclic pathway.
Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
Function To store energy To release energy
To synthesize glucose To break down glucose
Location in the Cell Chloroplast Mitochondrion
Type of Cell Plant Cell Plant Cell and Animal Cell
Mesophyll, bundle sheath, algal cells, cyanobacterium Fungal cells, most protists
Reactants Low-energy reactants High-energy reactants
Carbon Dioxide and Water Glucose and Oxygen
Products High-energy products ATP, Carbon Dioxide and Water
Glucose and Oxygen
Equation light energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 C6H12O6 + 6O2
→ 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Electron Transport Chain Yes Yes
Electron Carriers NADPH NADH, FADH2
ATP Synthesis by Yes Yes
Conditions Takes place only in the presence of light Takes place all the time in light or dark
Energy Energy added in the production of glucose Energy released from glucose

29. A photosystem consists of a pigment complex to 38. Without light, the light reaction (which is dependent
absorb solar energy, an electron donor to provide on light) cannot produce NADPH for the Calvin cycle.
electrons to the transport chain, an electron acceptor Without NADPH, BPG cannot be converted to G3P
within the thylakoid membrane, and molecules of and the cycle will stop.
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. 39. Flow Chart
30. NADH and NADPH both donate the high-energy 40. Photosystem II: Light absorption - absorbs light energy
electrons to the electron transport chain. and enters the reaction center of Photosystem II,
31. Reduction: CO2 → C6H12O6; Oxidation H2O → O2 exciting the reaction centre chlorophylls to a higher
32. The light reactions produce oxygen, electrons for energy level; Electron capture - the electron is captured
reduction during the Calvin cycle, a H+ gradient by the electron acceptor; Splitting of water and
across the thylakoid membrane to generate ATP releasing oxygen - Water (H2O) is split and its electrons
by chemiosmosis. replace those lost by the chlorophyll. Oxygen (O2) is
released as a waste product. Photosystem I: Electron

A-34 MHR TR • BC Biology 12 Answer Key

transport chain – electrons are passed through the 44. Both C3 and C4 plants use the Calvin cycle. In terms of
chain to Photosystem I; the chain provides energy the leaf anatomy, the C3 plants have mesophyll, while
from the production of ATP needed in the Calvin the C4 plants have mesophyll and bundle sheath cells.
cycle; Light absorption - Chlorophyll in photosystem C3 plants include wheat, rice, and oats, while C4 plants
I absorbs light energy, and the reaction centre include sugarcane and corn. Photorespiration does not
chlorophylls of Photosystem I release electrons to the occur in C4 plants, but does occur in C3 plants.
transport chain. These electrons are replaced by those 45. Possible hypothesis: If the water plant is exposed to
already in the chain from photosystem II; Conversion light, then it will produce a gas.
of NADP+ to NADPH – the excited electrons oxidize
46. A control could be a plant that is not exposed to any
light (or kept in the dark).
41. The electron transport chain passes electrons from one
47. Oxygen gas would be found in the greatest amount in
carrier to the next in both the mitochondrion and the
the bubbles.
chloroplast. The energy that is released is used to move
hydrogen ions from the stroma into the thylakoid 48. Graph
space in the chloroplast, but from the matrix into the 49. Pigments in spinach leaves absorb blue and violet light,
intermembrane space in the mitochondrion. In both and light in the red and orange parts of the spectrum,
cases, the H+ gradient across the membrane is used to more efficiently than all other light colours.
generate ATP via chemiosmosis.
50. a. The oxygen-18 from the carbon dioxide would
42. appear in the G3P molecule.
Light- b. The oxygen-18 from the water molecule would
Light-dependent independent appear in the oxygen molecule.
Reaction Reaction c. The carbon-14 from the carbon dioxide would
Light Used for splitting water Not required appear in the G3P molecule.
during reaction
d. The hydrogen-3 from the water would appear in the
Location in the Thylakoid membranes Stroma
G3P molecule.
Raw Materials Water Carbon dioxide, 51. The plant was most likely placed in bright light from
ATP and electrons 0 min to 23 min. Photosynthesis was most likely
for reduction occurring because carbon dioxide was consumed.
Products Hydrogen ions, ATP and Carbohydrates 52. The plant was most likely placed in complete darkness
electrons between 23 min to 60 min. The amount of carbon
43. a. Light-dependent Reaction: produces oxygen gas and dioxide was slowly increasing most likely due to
converts ADP and NADP+ to ATP and NADPH; cellular respiration.
occurs in the thylakoid; involves photosystem 53. The process that caused the change in carbon dioxide
I and photosystem II; photons are absorbed by levels was cellular respiration. Cellular respiration
photosynthetic pigments of photosystems; photon produces carbon dioxide (which is indicated by the
energy drives the transfer of electrons from slight increase in carbon dioxide levels in the graph).
chlorophyll to an acceptor molecule which donates 54. There were four pigments in the sample of
them to a transport system in the membrane spinach leaves.
b. Light-independent Reaction (Calvin cycle): uses
55. The pigment that was most soluble was carotene.
ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reaction
to reduce CO2 to high-energy sugars; takes place 56. Chlorophyll b travelled the shortest distance.
in the stroma; ATP deliver energy and NADPH 57. Spinach leaves contain 4 different pigments that are
delivers electrons to the stroma of the chloroplasts; soluble in ethanol but have different solubilities.
RuBP is needed to capture the carbon
58. Experiment

BC Biology 12 Answer Key • MHR TR A-35