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PBIS in the Classroom:

Mastering the Fundamentals

Presented by:
Thomas J. Stacho, Ed.S.

PO Box 219 Newbury, Ohio

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! Provide Evidenced Based Practices to establish a positive and proactive approach to

to classroom behavior management.

! Introduce the IMPACT on Behavior framework to structure school-wide, classroom and

individual student behavior management.

Big Idea: Behavior Is Functionally Related to the Teaching Environment

What is Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS)?

! PBIS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving

important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior.

! The key attributes of PBIS include pro-activity, databased decision-making, and a

problem-solving orientation.

! PBIS is not a curriculum - it is a framework for systems to identify needs, develop

strategies, and evaluate practice toward success.
-Zins & Ponti, 1990

! A key focus of PBIS is building responsive environments that “stack the deck” in favor
of appropriate student behavior and preferred quality of life outcomes.

Key Implementation Features of PBIS

! Common purpose and approach to discipline.
! Clear set of positive expectations and behaviors.
! Procedures for teaching expected behaviors.
! Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior.
! Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviors.
! Procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation

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A quote from Haim Ginott…
I have come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It
is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the
weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or
joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor,
hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be
escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or de-humanized.

How do we make it work?

1. Team Structures
! A Building Leadership Team (BLT) and/or Teacher Based Team (TBT), including
active support from the principal
! Involvement of all staff (and students, families, and community as appropriate)
o Principal involvement essential
o Meets on regular basis
o Analyzes data for intervention planning
o Shares information with staff
o Helps keep PBIS alive throughout school year

2. Data Collection
! Data-driven decision-making. Essential to a Multi-Tier Systems of Support
(MTSS) framework
! Review meaningful data, such as:
! Surveys of staff, students, and parents
! Observations of common areas
! Patterns of disciplinary referral (Who, What, Where, When & Why)
o Type of offence
o Location
o Month or week
o Day of the week
o Time of the day
o Referring staff

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3. Create Clear School Wide/Classroom Behavioral Expectations/Rules
! Specific skills you want students to exhibit and the procedures you want students
to follow in specific settings
! Both should be limited in number (3-5)
! Both should be positively stated
! Both should be aligned with the school’s mission statement & policies
! Both should clarify criteria for successful performance
! Expectations are broadly stated
! Expectations apply to all people in all settings
! Expectations describe the general ways that people will behave
! Rules describe specific behaviors
- Observable - Measurable
! Rules may apply to a limited number of settings
! Rules clarify behaviors for specific settings

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4. Instruction in Expected Behavior
Any organizational and/or behavior expectation

! We can no longer assume:

o Students come into your classroom with the behavioral skills they need

! What do I want my classroom to look like?

! How do I want students to treat me as a person?
! How do I want student to treat one another?
! What kind of information or values do I want to communicate to students about
being an adult, an educator, a woman or a man in today’s society?
! How do I want students to remember me when the last day of school ends and I
am no longer part of their daily lives?
! How can I change my instruction to help pupils develop the skills I am trying to
! Bottom Line = ask yourself if students have the pre-requisite and requisite skills to
succeed based on each of your answers – if not TEACH & Practice
-Tim Lewis
! On-going Direct Instruction
o Specially designed lessons, character education
! Embedding in Other Curriculum
! Booster Trainings
! Keeping it alive throughout the school year
o Visual Displays – posters
o Daily announcements
! Provide initial lesson plans and/or lesson plan format for teachers to begin teaching
! Build on what you have (i.e. character ed.)
! Develop a system for expanding behavior lesson plan ideas throughout the year
! Determine the minimum requirements for teaching behavior (i.e. how intense and
how often)

5. Consistent Encouragement and Correction of Behavior

! Increases the likelihood that desired behaviors will be repeated
! Focuses staff and student attention on desired behaviors
! Fosters a positive school climate

1. acknowledge behavior, not people

2. Include the student in identification of possible acknowledgements
3. Use small acknowledgements frequently
4. Embed acknowledgments in the activity/behavior you want to encourage
5. Ensure that acknowledgments closely follow the behavior you want to encourage
6. Use rewards that are natural to the context, developmentally appropriate and easy
to administer.
7. Use many different acknowledgments (high interest)
8. Use positives 4 times more often than negative consequences.

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IMPACT represents six variables we can manipulate on a daily basis to prevent
inappropriate behavior as well as promote positive, proactive behavior.

I Interact Positively
M Monitor Behavior
P Prepare Effective Instruction
A Arrange/Organize Environment
C Correct Misbehavior Effectively
T Teach Expectations

Interact Positively
! Building Positive Relationship with Students
! Interact in a welcoming manner with every student
! Provide age-appropriate, non-embarrassing positive feedback
! Strive to interact more frequently with every student when s/he is engaged in
positive behavior than when s/he is engaged in negative behavior.
! 4:1 ratio of attention to positive versus negative behavior
! Class-wide motivational systems

Monitor/Observe Behavior
! Without monitoring, even responsible adults will push the limits.
! In the common areas, this involves organizing supervision to insure that:
o A sufficient number of adults are present
o Friendly, respectful behavior is modeled
o The adults are coordinating with and supporting each other
o Students receive consistent information on what is acceptable and not

o Use data to spot long-term trends and set priorities for improvement.
o Circulate, Visual and Auditory Scanning
o Being Active (moving unpredictably, scanning)
o Being Positive (connecting, positive reinforcement)
o Responding to Problems
o Communicating

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Keys to Being an Effective Supervisor in Your School’s Common Areas

#10 BE THERE--Arrive at our assigned location on time everyday, and be there both
physically and mentally.

#9 LOOK and LISTEN—Scan constantly both your assigned location and the general
area for how it looks and sounds.

#8 BE MOBILE—Move continuously throughout your assigned location without

establishing predictable pattern.

#7 KNOW WHAT’S EXPECTED—Know the rules, procedures, and basic civilities that
students are expected to use when entering the setting, while in the setting and
when leaving the setting.

#6 BE PROACTIVE—Interact intentionally within the first 5 minutes with those

students who often have difficulty in that setting. Connect positively by smiling,
making positive comments about appropriate behavior and/or briefly talking about
something that interests the student.

#5 ALWAYS RESPOND—Respond to all misbehavior, even low-level misbehavior,

with good intentions.

#4 RESPOND QUICKLY—Step in at the onset of potential student problems and also

be available to assist a colleague who is dealing with a problem situation.

#3 MAXIMIZE YOUR DELIVERY—Communicate and deliver corrections calmly and

respectfully by getting the student’s attention without creating an audience, talk
quietly and slowly, deliver short and clear directions, keep your cool, be aware of
personal space and don’t glare/stare at the student.

#2 CHOOSE CORRECTIONS WISELY—Assign a mild correction that logically fits the

misbehavior (e.g., verbal reminder for talking too loud, brief delay for running,
positive practice for slamming locker doors, proximity management when students
are starting to get rowdy, and restitution of writing a formal apology for disrespectful

#1 REACH OUT AND CONNECT—Greet all students everyday in a welcoming and

positive manner as they enter the setting (be positive, smile, and call students by
name) and give students specific, descriptive feedback when they follow the

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Prepare Effective Instruction
! Maximize student engagement
! Gain attention
! Perky Pace
! Connect with kids
! Teach with enthusiasm
! Opportunities to Respond (OTRs)

Arrange/Organize the Environment

! Create a Positive Physical Space
! Physical arrangements
! Posted schedule
! Expectations for students
! Expectations for staff
! Arrange and Efficient Daily Schedule
! Use an Attention Signal
! Design Effective Routines and Procedures
! Manage Student Assignments
! Develop and Display Classroom Rules

Correct Misbehavior Effectively

Consequences alone does not change behavior! Explicit Teaching, Monitoring, and
providing Feedback, changes behavior!
Reminders, warnings and consequences can be communicated aloud, in a whisper, or
non-verbally as longs as the procedures has been taught in advance and delivered with
respect and dignity.
Reminders and Warnings
Nonverbal Reminders
! Teacher pause
! Teacher looks at student
! Teacher give a “teacher look” to the student
! Teacher turns and faces the student, with arms at her side
! Teacher walks near the student (proximity)
! Teacher places hand on the student desk
! Teacher points to the work the student is supposed to be doing
! Teacher give a nearby student a positive behavior coupon
! Teacher picks up a clipboard where she keeps track of individual student behavior
! Teacher uses a prearranged hand signal to warn the student
Verbal Reminders
! Teacher says the name of student, either privately or in front of the class
! Teacher states the class rule aloud to the class
! Teacher comments on other student who are behaving appropriately (indirect cuing)
! Teacher tells the student-either privately or publically-that, if he continues, a particular consequence
will occur
! Teacher says to the student “that’s one.” At “three,” the student knows that a particular
consequence will occur
! Teacher lets the class know that the group motivational system (reward) is in jeopardy
! Pre-Correction

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Sample Classroom Consequences
! Teacher asks the student to change seats temporarily or permanently
! Teacher alters student’s class participation points & records misbehavior
! Student is directed to take a time-away from the activity
! Teacher informs students that “time is owed”
! Private meeting is arranged between teacher and student, either after class, lunch, or after school
! Teacher gives a after-school or lunch detention to the student
! Teacher issues a demerit (3 demerits = ?????)
! Teacher removes an individual privilege, such as time spent at freetime/computer/social time, etc.
! Teacher gives a brief, calm, close verbal reprimand stating expected behavior
! Teacher delivers a signal, gesture, look or points to a “behavior poster Teacher assists student with
TEACHING & PRACTICING the expected behavior at the time of the infraction
! Student completes of a self monitoring or reflection/behavior improvement form
! Restitution for the infraction
! Teacher places a warning/referral slip on student’s desk with the understanding that if the student
“behaves” appropriately until a certain time, he can tear up the slip
! Teacher initiates a parental contact

Teach Expectations to students on how to behave responsibly in ALL settings.

For example:
Lesson on school-wide expectations (e.g., Be Safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful)
Lessons on common area expectations, routines, and policies
Lessons on classroom expectations - unique to each classroom
Lessons on essential behaviors such as respect, bullying prevention, school pride, and
possibly even keeping things neat.
Coaching provides a great model of teaching, and re-teaching as needed.
Coaching also provides a great model of inspirational leadership.

The CHAMPS Approach:

C - Conversation: Can students talk to each other during this activity/transition?
H - Help: How can students get questions answered during this activity/transition? How
do they get your attention?
A - Activity: What is the task/objective of this activity/transition? What is the expected
end product? What do you want to accomplish?
M - Movement: Can students move about during this activity/transition?
P - Participation: What does appropriate student behavior for this activity look/sound
like? How do students show that they are participating?
S - Success!

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Entering!the! " enter the room quietly " greet students
Classroom! " greet teacher/students " circulate and scan
" use a conversational (level 2) or " praise compliance
! ‘inside voice’
" keep hands, feet, objects to self
" make reference to schedule
" walk " assist with questions regarding bell
" move directly to desk or assigned work
" hand in homework
" begin bell work activity
" sit quietly & be ready for class
Opening!Activities!! ! !
Tardy/Coming!in! ! !
Late! ! !
Not!Prepared!with! ! !
Materials! ! !
Returning!After!an! ! !
Absence! ! !
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Wrapping!Up!End!of! ! !
Day/Class! ! !
Dismissal! ! !
TeacherLDirected! ! !
Small!Group! ! !
Class!Discussion! ! !
Partners! ! !
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Independent!Work! ! !
Coming!into! ! !
Activity!to!Activity! ! !
Classroom!to! ! !
Special! ! !
Whole!Group!to! ! !
Class!Discussion! ! !

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Create your Classroom Routines

Name: __________________________________________ Date: __________________

Consistency, Consistency, Consistency! The key to success! Establish and stick

with routines that fit your teaching style and your students will be successful! Kids like
predictable situations where they know the routine and know the consequences. Use this
checklist to give you ideas of routines that you may need to teach and practice! You will
create more teaching time for yourself in the long run!

Arrival Routines

_____ Entering the Classroom

What is the expectation for when and how students enter the classroom?
(walking, no talking, hug the teacher, greet at the door, go to seat, etc.)
_____ Backpacks
When and how should students hang up their backpacks? Do they need to get
everything out of it for the day?
_____ Coatroom/Lockers
Is there a limit as to how many people can be in the coatroom/out at lockers at
_____ Chairs
Will students need to get their chair off of a stack? Will they do this before or after
they put away backpacks?
_____ Attendance
How is attendance taken?
_____ Morning Work/Arrival Activity or Assignment
Will there be morning work on the students’ desks/Smart Board/overhead when
they come in? Will they turn it in when they finish or will you go over it as a class?
_____ Tardy/Late Arrivers
What do students who arrive late need to do?

Daily Routines

_____ Lining up/Line Order

How and where will students line up? What will their line order be? How often will
you change line order?
_____ Homework
Where should students put their homework? How will you check homework for
completion? Grade? How will homework be returned to students?
_____ Missed Homework Assignments
How and where do students get homework assignments they missed due to an

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_____ Unfinished Work
What should students do when they have unfinished work? What will the
consequence be for your classroom?
_____ Completed Work Early
What should students do when they complete assignments early? Read? Write?
_____ Asking for Assistance/Getting Teacher Attention
Will students be able to ask other students for help? Ask three before you come to
me? Raise your hand?
_____ Writing Name on Work
Will students need to always write their first and last name? Class Number?
Date? Top right hand corner? On line provided?
_____ Snacks
What will your procedure for snacks be? Will each student bring a snack once a
month for everyone to share? What will you do if people do not have snacks?
Where will snacks be kept until snack time?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Small Group Activities
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction
to small group activities?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Partner Work
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction
to partner work?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Independent Work
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction
to partner work?
_____ Working Independently
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when completing
independent work?
_____ Partner Work
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when completing partner
_____ Working in Small Groups
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working in small
_____ Working at Centers/Stations
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working at
_____ Working in Large Group/Whole Class
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working in large
group/whole class?
_____ Pencil Sharpening
When will students sharpen pencils? How will they know when they can sharpen
_____ Getting More Materials
When and where may students get more materials (paper, scissors, books, etc.)?

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____ Classroom Jobs
Will you have classroom jobs? What jobs will you have? When and how will
students perform jobs?
_____ Agenda/Homework Assignments
When and where will students write down their homework assignments? Will
parents have to sign off on homework?
_____ Lost and Found
Where will lost or found items be put that are from the classroom?
_____ Bathroom
What will your bathroom procedure be? Will you go as a class? Have students
sign out and in? What are the procedures if you have a bathroom in your
_____ Answering Phone/Welcoming Visitors
Who answers the phone? Do you want to have materials available to take a note?
What do you or students do when a visitor arrives?
_____ Individual Students Re-entry From Specialists, Nurse, Counselor, etc.
How do students who come back to class re-enter without disturbing others? Who
do they ask to learn what they should do?
_____ Correction Procedures (Safe Seat, Buddy Room, Office Referral)
What do students do when corrected? What materials are needed? How will you
teach? What do they do to leave? What behaviors do they need to display to re-
enter? Who, when, and how will students discuss their behavior and what they
need to do in the future?
_____ Cell phones, iPODS, and other Electronic Devices
What are your expectations regarding the use of these devices in your classroom?
Make sure that your rules/routines are in alignment with school-wide policies.

Dismissal Routines

_____ Chairs
What will students need to do with their chairs at the end of the day? Stack? Put
on top of desk?
_____ Coatroom/Lockers
When and how will students know they can go to the coatroom/lockers?
_____ Backpacks
When will students get their backpacks? How will they know they have everything
they need for the night?
_____ Homework
How will you assign homework? Remember, the guideline is 10 minutes per grade
level per night.
_____ Leaving the Classroom
Will students all leave at the same time? Will students have to tell you one thing
they learned before they can leave? What will your expectations and routine be?

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Lesson Plan Checklist for Teaching Behavior Expectations

Identify Expectation/Rule/Procedure: _______________________________

I Do We Do You Do

Teacher Input: Teacher/Student Input: Feedback:

How you will How we will practice How you will monitor
introduce/explain/teach your desired and provide feedback
your expectations expectations on student behavior
- T CHARTS (looks like, - Discussion, give - Verbal feedback,
sounds like, right way, examples, or praise and
wrong way, almost, but brainstorming reinforcement from
not perfect descriptions teacher

- Brainstorming and - Role plays, skits, or - Discussion and

give examples charades clarification

- Discussion - Making a video and - Identify area of

taking pictures concern and reteach as
- Teacher needed
demonstrations - Illustrations, cartoons,
posters or expectations - Classification
- Use pictures/videos to activities/additional
illustrate expectations - Class develops and examples
teaches a lesson
- Define/discuss key - Writing and sharing
vocabulary - Animation and/or activities
puppet show
- Other teaching - Self-assessment
activities - Develop and present activities - Do I do
scenarios to fit each these now?
behavior expectation
- Other
- Other student reflection/feedback
input/practice activities activities

Adapted from Mike Booher

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References & Acknowledgements
Best Behavior: Building Positive Behavior Support in Schools. Sprague, J. R. & Golly, A.
(2004). Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services.

Behavioral Response to Intervention: Creating a Continuum of Problem-Solving & Support.

Sprick, R.S., Booher, M., & Garrison, M. (2009). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management Sprick, R.S.,

Garrison, M., & Howard, L. (2009) (2nd ed.). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and Tools for Administrators and

Coaches. Sprick, R.S., Knight, J., Reinke, W., & McKale, T. (2010) Eugene, OR: Pacific
Northwest Publishing.

Discipline In The Secondary Classroom: A Positive Approach To Classroom Management

Sprick, R.S. (2006) (2nd ed.). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies [Video program]. Sprick, R.S., Sprick,
M.S., & Garrison, M. (2002). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Interventions: Evidenced-Based Behavior Strategies for Individual Students (2nd

ed.). Sprick, R.S., & Garrison, M. (2008). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Para Pro: Supporting the Instructional Process. Sprick, R.S., Garrison, M., & Howard,
L. (2000). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program. Crone,

Horner, & Hawken (2004). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

The Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management: 100 Problems, 500 Plans. Sprick,
R.S., & Howard, L. (1995). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

The Tough Kid Book. Rhode, G., Jenson, R.J., & Reavis, H.K. (2010). Eugene, OR: Pacific
Northwest Publishing.

Contact Information: @thomasstacho

Thomas J. Stacho Ed.S.

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