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Erasmus KA2 – ITLP AT EASE

Improving Teaching-Learning Process at an


Entrepreneurial and Sustainable Establishment
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication]
reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be
made of the information contained therein.

SPAIN

LEARNING LANGUAGE WEB PAGES

ENGLISH, SPANISH, FRENCH AND VALENCIAN

www.clicknlearn.net

This is a free learning language web page. Students can have fun whilst they learn with this
website, which enables them to learn four languages: English, French, Spanish and Valencian.

It has external links to other sites to study English and French.

When you click on the English tab a page comes up. On the bottom left- hand side there are
three icons: the site map with all the content (I), home (H) and printable documents (P). In the
centre you have the item “OPEN”. When you click on it, 5 pages are displayed: requirements,
student’s guide, teacher’s guide, project and menu.

The menu item is the navigator or core of the site. When you click on the menu, these years
come up with options to choose from: 1º Second Education year (lexicon, easy, intermediate
and difficult), 2º, 3º, and 4º Secondary Education years (easy, intermediate and difficult), AS-
Level (grammar and culture) and A2-Level ( issues), as well as a drop-down list with content for
each option.

This page doesn’t have adverts. It has games and crosswords, as well as interactive, grammar,
reading, writing, listening and phonemic activities, with right/wrong answer scoring and
checking.

ENGLISH

http://www.isabelperez.com/

This site has been developed and maintained by the Spanish Secondary English teacher Isabel
Pérez Torres. It can be mainly used by secondary students, although the site can also be useful
in other levels (primary and higher education) and languages.

In the last years, this site has been enriched by the collaboration of several teachers who
develop materials in Isabel’s workshops or send her some of their exercises through the web.
So, this site has become a place to share ideas and resources and keeps the site alive.

There are 4 main blocks of materials:

-Methodological materials, related to CALL (Computer-assisted language learning): workshops,


resources, quizzes, multiple-choice questions, etc.
-Materials developed by the students: writings, email projects, etc.

-Specific materials designed and developed by myself and by some teachers attending my
workshops: treasure hunts, the Happy Verby, Gang, Hot Potatoes exercises, grammar,
vocabulary, teaching with songs, webquests, cultural topics, etc.

-Link pages to all kind of selected resources: specific materials, other languages, authentic
materials, CLIL (Content language integrated learning) resources and materials

The site wants to present an eclectic approach and means to integrate all possibilities offered
by the use of the computers in the classroom. The approach is also varied in terms of subjects
and of culture, social and personal values.

Two prizes have been won in relation to this work: Prize to the didactic unit "The Happy Verby
Gang", in 2004, given by the Regional Department of Education, and "The European Label for
innovative projects in language teaching and learning" in 2005.

ENGLISH

http://menuaingles.blogspot.com.es/

This is a blog to learn English, created by Monica, a bilingual teacher of English. It has a lot of
external links to other sites to enable students to access videos, audios, quizzes, grammar and
phonemic activities, articles, etc. It also has lessons in PDF files, and free and paid online
courses.

SPANISH

http://educalab.es/recursos/historico

This is a network of open educational resources created by the Spanish Ministry of Education
and Science. It can be filtered by knowledge area, learning context or level, resource type,
language, addressee, tags and regional government. Teachers and ordinary people can register
on the website and upload resources in order to share them.

SPANISH

http://jueduco.blogspot.com.es/

This blog has loads of activities and games to learn Spanish and other subjects such as
programming and robotics. On the left-hand side all the subjects are displayed in alphabetical
order, and if you click on them a lot of links come up. Some of them take you to games and
clicking on “ir a JueduLand” (GameLand) right on the centre,
http://roble.pntic.mec.es/arum0010/ will come up, which has a lot of online educational and
interactive games.

http://www.wordreference.com/

WordReference is an online translation dictionary with many language pairs, including English-
Spanish, Spanish-English and more; it also has a forum where you can consult doubts and the
conjugation of all verbs among other things.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.mosalingua.frfree&hl=es

MosaLingua is a totally free application for the mobile phone with the purpose of teaching
French.

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wlingua.curso&hl=es

Wlingua is a totally free application for the mobile phone with the purpose of teaching English.

http://www.alfared.org/content/873

This website offers a small collection of very good websites to learn English.

http://www.aulafacil.com/cursos/c60/idiomas

On the homepage you select the language you want to learn (there are 14 different languages)
and when you enter the language you want, you find vocabulary, interactive and printable
exercises and some videos that can help you improve your pronunciation.

https://www.babbel.com/

On the main page you can select the language you want (there are 13 different languages, but
the website won't show lessons for the language in which it is set). When you enter the one
you want, there are interactive exercises through which you learn expressions, vocabulary and
some dialogues to complete. You can also select between beginner and advanced level and
save your progress.

http://www.davidreilly.com/spanish/

In this website you can learn Spanish; there are not interactive exercises, but rather the typical
phrases, the necessary vocabulary and dialogues to practice the language.

https://es.duolingo.com/

It is a free language-learning platform that includes a language-learning website and app, as


well as a digital language proficiency assessment exam. Duolingo offers all its language courses
free of charge.

https://www.busuu.com/

It is a social network for learning languages. It is based on a freemium business model. The
website provides learning units for twelve languages: English, Spanish, German, French,
Chinese, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, and Japanese. Users select one or
more of these languages and work through the self-paced units.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/english/

The BBC offers a lot of resources, especially concerning listening comprehension. At the top of
the website you can see two menus:
- "Courses" is very level-oriented, so you can choose your approximate level and study
grammar or vocabulary.

- "Features" is more listening-oriented, there are audios about many different topics and a
specific section covering English at work.

https://www.ego4u.com/

This is a German website to study English, so sometimes the language they use is a bit
"peculiar". The grammar section is quite comprehensive and a good place to drill grammar
points. There are also some vocabulary and reading sections which can be useful.

GERMANY

OER LANGUAGES
ACHIM, GERMANY

For German learners, the following addresses are recommendable:

1/ WEBLINKS

* www.babbel.com
* www.englisch-hilfen.de (free)
* www.englisch-lernen-online.de (free)

2/ APPS

* duolingo (free)
* Worddive (free up to a point)
* English Tenses (free)

3/ ONLINE DICTIONARIES (free)

* pons.de
* dict.cc
* leo.org

UNITED KINGDOM

MFL OERS- for students:


BBC Bitesize:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/subjects/zhsvr82
Languages online:
http://www.languagesonline.org.uk/Hotpotatoes/Index.h
tm
Linguascope (requires a login, but also has an app):
http://www.linguascope.com/
S-cool:
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/gcse/french
Vocab Express:
https://www.vocabexpress.com/co/

POLAND OER of languages


Video lessons and printables:
https://en.islcollective.com

Gramma:
http://www.really-learn-english.com
www.angielski.edu.pl

Social media:
www.facebook.com
www.twitter.com

Images:
Scoop.it
Pinterest.com
Funny:
www.daytranslations.com

http://www.playbuzz.com

http://www.gocomics.com
http://www.lovethispic.com

Blogs:
http://alove4teaching.blogspot.com
http://oncewelove.blogspot.com

http://askpaulenglish.blogspot.fr

http://www.ladieslearnenglish.com
Quotes:
http://www.lifehack.org

Songs:
http://www.readingandwritingredhead.com

http://www.e-ang.pl/
Dictionaries:
www.diki.pl
WWW.ling.pl
ITALY
Erasmus KA2 Project
Improving the teaching and learning at an entrepreneurial and sustainable establishment

“ITLP at ease” Achim mobility 29 Nov- 05 Dec 2015

Teaching and learning English

www.worldwidewords.org/

Michael Quinion: New words\derivation Investigating the English language


across the globe: this website is about Michael Quinion who writes about
International English from a British viewpoint.

http://www.scoop.it/t/clil-tips-and-materials

Bilingual education resources for content teachers. Most are designed as resources for
native speakers of English and may need language support/scaffolding.
www.scoop.it/t/clil-resources

Learn content curation and learn content marketing.

http://eltnotebook.blogspot.it/

A collection of articles on EFL methodology for teachers at all levels of


experience.

http://www.ccn-clil.eu/clil_criteria_web/index.php

CLIL teaching.

http://ifaketext.com/

is a place where you can generate fake iphone text message screenshots and send and
share them with your friends!

www.Babbel.com

online English courses

it.forvo.com

for learning ESL and teaching ESL.

Mashable.com

Mashable is a leading source for news, information & resources for the Connected
Generation.

Onestopenglish.com

for English teaching lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards

corpus.byu.eu
American English learning

www.natcorp.ox

ext corpus containing 100 million words annotated with parts of speech.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to
systematic deviations from a standard ofrationality or good judgment, and are often
studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

https://www.tes.com/uk/

The largest network of teachers (all subjects) in the world.

http://songmeanings.com/

SongMeanings is a community of thousands of music lovers who contribute song


lyrics.

http://www.funnyvideo.co.uk/

English teaching by means funny english videos.

lyricstraining.com/

LyricsTraining is an easy and fun way to learn and improve your foreign
languages skills, through the music videos and the lyrics of your favorite songs.

http://www.worksheetlibrary.com/

Worksheets for teachers and educators. Really worth a look.

www.rightpronunciation.com/

This site gives you the right pronunciation of important names


belonging to the major languages of the world.
www.nextvista.org

Next Vista for Learning


http://www.insegnalo.it/

Il tuo social learning

learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/

Learning english includes games, songs, stories, various topics, and printable
material.

www.grammarly.com/

The best overall online grammar checker.

https://en.islcollective.com/

EFL printable worksheets, activities and exercises for teaching your next English class

www.learningenglishbritishcouncil.org

http://tewt.org/

http://open-sankore.org/
FINLAND
FINLAND Language OER links:

studyspanish.com
videoele.com
flevideo.com
tv5monde.com
lapressesefrance.fr
dw.com
vitaminde.de
bonjourdefrance.co.uk
podcastsinspanish.org
radiostationsworld.com
languageguide.org
fluentu.org
bbc.co.uk
mooc.org
youtube.com
duolingo (app)
quizlet.com
kahoot.it
dictionary.com

Vocabulary
• Duolingo

• Quizlet

• Dictionaries
Grammar
• bonjourdefrance.co.uk

• studyspanish.com

• vitaminde.de

Listening
• Podcasts e.g. BBC, podcastsinspanish.org, radiostationworld.com

• Songs e.g. earwormslearning.com/freetrial

• Videos e.g. videoele.com, flevideo.com

• Television e.g. Tv5monde, BBC

Reading
• Blogs

• Online newspapers and magazines e.g. lapressedefrance.fr, dw.com


General resources
• Youtube channels (e.g. Learn French with Vincent, Daily English conversations)

• Moocs

• Languageguide.org

• Fluentu.com

WAYS OF LEARNING LANGUAGES ABROAD

LEARNING
LANGUAGES

ABROAD
Erasmus+ 5.3.-11.3.2017
SHORT EXCHANGES
- School projects
(Erasmus+)

- Language
courses (EF,
STS)

- Voluntary work
(EVS)

Easy Hard SHORT EXCHANGES


- School projects
(Erasmus+)

- Language
courses (EF,
STS)

- Voluntary work
(EVS)

Easy
LONG
EXCHANGES
- Exchange year
(ASSE, EF)

- Au pair
(aupairworld
.com,
findaupair.c
om)
SHORT EXCHANGES
- School projects
(Erasmus+)

STUDYING
- Language
courses (EF,
STS)

- Universities -
Volunt
ary work
(EVS)

Easy
LONG
EXCHANGES
- Exchange year
(ASSE, EF)

- Au pair
(aupairworld
.com,
findaupair.c
om)

SHORT EXCHANGES
- School projects
(Erasmus+)

STUDYING
- Language
courses (EF,
STS)

- Universities -
Volunt
ary work
(EVS)

Easy
LONG EXCHANGES
WORKING
- Exchange year
(ASSE, EF)
-
Part-
time
contracts
(Australia)

- Au pair
(aupairworld
.com, -
Full-
time
employee
findaupair.c
om)

SHORT EXCHANGES
- School projects
(Erasmus+)

STUDYING
- Language
courses (EF,
STS)

- Universities -
Volunt
ary work
(EVS)

LEARNING RESOURCES IN YOUR OWN COMMUNITY

TRAVEL! 
SKILLS AND COMPETENCES DEVELOPED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

Faktaa.
FACT
S
AND
FIGU
RES

1 2014
Hidden
Competences

C
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m
p
e
t
e
n
c
e
s

t
h
a
t

a
r
e

r
e
c
o
g
n
i
s
e
d
Employers recognise
only a small amount of
Competences
competences that are
that are
developed through
hidden international experience.

Kansainvälisen liikkuvuuden ja yhteistyön keskus

Centret för internationell mobilitet och internationellt


samarbete Centre for International Mobility
Hidden Competences
Vast amounts of skills and competences
developed through international
experiences go unrecognised.

About the research

International skills and competences, developed through international experiences during


study or practical training, are an asset on the labour market. Or so we assume. But do we

know this?

In 2012–13, the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the think tank Demos Helsinki examined
how employers rated the skills and knowledge acquired through international experi-ences in their
recruitment. We also wanted to gain a better understanding of employers’ views and expectations on
international experiences.
The report from this project – Piilotettu osaaminen (Hidden Competences), available in Finnish –
confirmed the findings from an earlier CIMO report (2005) that employers do not necessarily value
learning mobility experiences. Our new research further studies international experiences in relation to
working life, and it suggests new ways of defining the learning outcomes of international mobility and
co-operation.

This Faktaa – Facts and Figures publication summarises the key findings of the research project in
English. It was edited from the research report by Juha Leppänen at Demos Helsinki and by Mika
Saarinen, Mikko Nupponen and Maija Airas at CIMO.

2 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


What we examined

Employers’ views and expectations on international experiences: how do employers value


international skills and competences in recruitment? What are the skills and competences
associated with international experiences? How are international experiences defined? And what

are the qualities driving working life today and in future?

How we did it

Demos Helsinki and CIMO organised an expert workshop in May 2012, which helped to
identify the gatekeepers and determine the frame of reference for international expertise.

Two gatekeeper workshops (with over 130 participants) in October 2012 enabled us to survey the
influences of megatrends on working life and on changing needs for knowledge.

Experts were interviewed throughout autumn 2012. The views, experiences and observations
voiced in these interviews were used as background material for this research.
Also a survey of students and employers was conducted in October–November 2012, which resulted
in 283 responses from employers and 1,770 responses from students. The data regard-ing employers
was collected by contacting Finnish employers directly, while the student data came from an online
survey. The survey was forwarded through CIMO contacts to educational institutions, who forwarded
the survey via their email lists. The respondents were secondary-level students in vocational
education and training, apprentices and higher education students.

The research and analysis was further made possible by comprehensive questionnaire reports, and
was based on previous research by CIMO, Demos Helsinki and other sources.

Who were involved?

A large number of individuals from education, start-up businesses and cultural fields as well
as representatives from large Finnish companies.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


3
4 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
Learning mobility gets mixed

response in the labour market


1
lysed the research material in more detail. Overall,
employers regarded international experience as a
good thing: 90% had a positive view of it. When

we asked employers what kind of competences they

When we asked Finnish employers at the beginning of valued when recruiting new employees and then

our research project how they rated international asked what kind of competences they thought

experiences in recruitment, only just over half of people acquired through international experiences,

international businesses said they regarded inter- there were many similarities in the answers. Many of

national experiences as important. Among those the key competences employers sought from

employers who did not operate internationally, the


figure was only just over 10%. The percentages were
surprisingly even lower than in CIMO’s 2005 survey.

How can this be? Should not the percentage be


higher and should not the trend be completely the
other way round in our globalising world? More
specifically, are not the international study and
work experiences of students relevant to employ-
ers? Are we not funding the right kind of activities
through the European education schemes?

INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES BUILD

KEY COMPETENCES

Although the initial observations of this research


seemed to indicate that the regard for international
experiences was low and even in decline, a more
encouraging picture began to emerge when we ana-
EUROPE BELIEVES IN LEARNING MOBILITY

International co-operation is commonly accepted as


new staff members were the same as those they an important means of improving the quality and

linked with international experiences. outcomes of education and training. Interna-tional


mobility, in particular, has been regarded as

The obvious conclusion was that international


mobility produces the kind of competences that the
employers are seeking, but they are not able to link
these competences and people’s international
experiences at recruitment. The competences
acquired through study or work periods abroad are International mobility produces
hidden: we are not able to express or recognise them. exactly the kind of competences
This was for us a fundamental finding, which called that the employers are seeking,
for more in-depth analyses, even more so as learning but they are not able to link
mobility has become a major paradigm of European
these competences and people’s
co-operation within education, training and youth.
international experiences at
recruitment.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


5
an effective way of helping young people develop We should better define
personally while also improving their employability. the learning outcomes
This is all the more crucial in a changing world of international mobility
buffeted by megatrends such as changing demo-
in order to make them
graphics, resource scarcity, technological change and
visible.
globalisation. This is also an objective written in a
number of strategy papers, from the Europe 2020
Strategy to the European Commission’s flag-ship
initiative ‘Youth on the Move’. It is also one of the
key actions in the new Erasmus+.

In Finland, international co-operation for higher


education and other educational institutions has in-
creased dramatically over the past decades. Where-
as in 1992–93 only 633 Finnish students went abroad
through the Erasmus exchange programme and 154
students came to Finland, the corre-sponding figures
in 2012–13 were 5,496 outgoing Erasmus students
and at least 7,000 incoming ones (these numbers also
include work placements).

In total every fourth university student and every


seventh student in universities of applied sciences
in Finland has an opportunity to go abroad today.
These figures reflect the rapid development of
international co-operation in general.

The trend has been similar in other countries and in


other education sectors and within youth work.
For example, the volume of international study outcomes of international mobility? How can we
periods of Finnish students in vocational educa-tion make students and others more aware of the skills
and training (VET) has increased by about 45% over acquired during their international experience? This
the last six years. In 2013, a total of 6,332 VET is a challenge to all of us who believe that
students, i.e. every eight student, had a chance to international experiences are useful and valuable.
go abroad on a work placement/study period,
mainly to other European countries.

We should better define the learning outcomes of


international mobility in order to make them more

RETURNS OF LEARNING MOBILITY visible. The attributes traditionally linked to


international mobility (language skills, intercultural
competences, tolerance and broad-mindedness) do

The investments in international mobility over the not describe the outcomes adequately enough. In

past 20 years would not have been made, unless addition to these traditional attributes, we want to

they had been regarded as beneficial. In fact, many add three new skill areas to highlight the hidden

studies confirm that learning mobility improves aspects of international competences: productivity,

students’ language skills and intercultural com- resilience and curiosity.

petences. It’s widely recognised that it also makes


students more tolerant and broad-minded.
Curiosity, in particular, caught people’s attention
and has been discussed in the Finnish media since

The findings of our research raise new questions the publication of the research results. This quality

about the benefits of learning mobility. How can we seems to encapsulate something essential about

make employers better understand the learning competences required in the future labour market.

6 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
7
Tolerance

Language skills Cultural knowledge

TRADITIONAL Competences

developed

through

international

experiences
8 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
A new set of skills and

competences is needed
2
The tale of Nokia’s mobile phone dominance end-ed
in the recent sale of its mobile phone production to
Microsoft. The impact of globalisation on Nokia
illustrates globalisation’s potential as a driver for
The Finnish mobile phone giant Nokia provides an growth, as well as its potential for disruption and
excellent case study of how global changes af-fect even destruction. While there are many reasons
companies and of the impact of megatrends on
business. Nokia started as a strictly national company
for the decline of Nokia after 2008, the inability to
producing a variety of products from wood items to
consumer rubber. During the 1990s, Nokia emerged
as a key player in consumer elec-tronics, specifically
in mobile phones. It developed new products for its
customers through an under-standing of the potential
of technological develop-ment. The globalisation of
markets around the turn of the millennium provided
Nokia with a platform for solidifying its position as a
global market leader.

THE FORTUNES OF NOKIA

Among the multiple reasons for Nokia’s success


during the late 20th and early 21st century, two
deserve to be highlighted. First, significant invest-
ments in education by the state during the 1960s
and onwards provided Nokia with a society full of
talented employees. Second, Nokia understood the
key megatrend of its time: how globalised societies
work and how to build logistics systems to provide
sufficient supply for the rising demand in mobile
phones.
No job in the future will be independent of the im-
pact of global megatrends. The investments made in
education by Western societies helped create
prosperity during the early 21st century. However, in
keep up with changing business drivers is among the our study we found that vast amounts of skills
most significant. Instead of only technological
wizardry, users started to demand usability and
consumer-focused design.

THE WORLD IS INTERDEPENDENT

The story of Nokia is a typical case study of how


companies come face-to-face with changing socie-
ties and megatrends. These megatrends affect not
only our lives, but also the environment in which No job in the future will be
companies and employers hope to succeed. independent of the impact
of global megatrends.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


9
Employers must develop a
better understanding of the
new skills and competences
needed in workplaces.
10 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
Four megatrends that change the way we live and work

1. CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS mean that the people living 3. TECHNOLOGICAL PLANETARISM is best illustrated by the
on our planet are increasingly older, more urban and more fact that in 2012, the users of Facebook would together have
educated. During the 20th century the estimated lifespan been able to form the third largest nation in the world, with over
increased by 30 years, mostly due to improved health care. In 800 million inhabitants. As information technology inno-vations
the 21st century, this megatrend continues to affect countries connect the globe more intensively than ever, all of us are more
around the world. By 2050, one fifth of us will be over 60 years likely to share the same designs and solutions. Con-struction
old, and 70% will live in cities. In the future, people will continue materials, pharmaceuticals, banking solutions and mobility all
to be better educated and, at least in developed countries, look very similar in New York and Tunis. Globally, employees
have more free time. This means that working life and various need to be more adept at understanding common standards
industries as a whole require a better under-standing of their and ways of collaboration often learned through personal
customers’ more diverse and unique needs. Companies and interest rather than through company hierarchies.
the public sector need to provide creative, new solutions in the
shape of new products and services.

2. RESOURCE SCARCITY is something we need to learn


to live with in the coming decades. Less oil, aluminium,
4. FOR A LONG TIME, the term ‘globalisation’ was shorthand
phos-phate and other necessary resources to sustain our
for decreasing production costs by transferring factories to
standard of living have mostly been already extracted or the
developing countries. Now, we’re slowly starting to realise that
cost of future extraction is exceedingly high. As the demand
the global economy works both ways. The financial
for these resources continues to grow, we step into an age
crisis of 2008 and the following euro crises, along with the
where alter-native approaches to both production and
re-industrialisation of the United States, are signs of a more
transportation are needed. This means that consideration
complex and networked economic system in which those
for the consumption of energy and natural resources will
who are able to understand how new markets are formed
become an integral part of everyday working life across all
instead of solely competing in old ones, are the ones who
fields and industries and for all workers, not just for experts.
succeed. Diverse skills, adaptation and curiosity help
workers under-stand how the global arena functions.

A new set of skills and competences is required if we


are to succeed in the global megatrend era.
Examples include companies working in fields where
logistics costs form a key component of the
business, or those who must develop understand-

and competences currently go unrecognised in


working life. This is a major problem for individual
companies as well as for the economy as a whole.
Employers must develop a better understanding of
the new skills and competences needed in work-
places. They must also come to understand the key
role international experiences play in developing
those skills and competences. In the megatrend era,
every job is international.
ings of changing demographics to reach diversify-
ing groups of potential customers.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


11
developed through international experiences have
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES
become commonplace, a new set of skills and com-
petences has emerged and, alongside them, a fresh
SHOULD BE RE-EVALUATED way of understanding international experience.

For companies and public employers in inter-


Traditionally, the competences primarily associated
connected economic structures, this new set of
with international experience were language skills
extended competences can carry greater weight
and cultural understanding. These are specialised
than traditional international skills. However, these
skills that some jobs require more than others.
competences are harder to label or identify than
traditional international skills.

Today, language skills or intercultural abilities are for


many employers an everyday part of working life. As
the competences traditionally thought to be
12 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES HAVE For a large part of the
day, we are international
BECOME COMMONPLACE

in some way or another.

In the 1990s, international experiences were eas-ily


labelled according to structure (education,
employment, trade relations and relations between
countries), but the situation is different in 2014.
Today, an international outlook is part of everyday
life. It includes being active on the Internet, watch-ing
football or downhill skiing, sharing pictures and
videos and stories, or talking with peers online about
various topics, and leisure entertainment. The global
media provides outlets for people to live, read and
experience events across the globe from the comfort
of their home. Experiences, not location, shape our
identities. For a large part of the day, we are
international in some way or another

– we just do not notice that we are, because we are


still used to the old model of viewing international
experiences through structures.

In 2014, the world functions, more than ever before,


through peers, communities and networks. For
instance, the services provided by Kickstarter permit
the financing of startups and projects around the
world through peer groups. Another example is a
website called Etsy that focuses on
handmade or vintage items and has managed to at-
tract over 30 million registered users. Some compa-
nies try to identify these peer groups, because they
are a means of finding new markets and developing
new products. A large part of the world’s popula-tion
is still on the outskirts of this development, but it is
moving closer faster than ever. Cheap mobile Internet
connections have made it possible for large groups to
start making the transition to this new global peer
domain.

International experience
is relevant to all lines
If we wish to live in a functioning, prosperous society
and world, we must harness capabilities developed
of work and all industries. through all kinds of international experi-ences. The
first step is for young people, students, employees
and employers to understand that iden-tifying and
exploiting these valuable capabilities

is strongly linked to an understanding of the new


nature of international co-operation. The second
step is to understand that international experience
is relevant to all lines of work and all industries, and
that valuable activities that can develop one’s
international competences can take place beyond
traditional social structures, such as the school
system.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


13
The most global job on the planet

Agriculture in the 21st century is more globalised than


The changes are due not only to investor activities, but
ever. Consider the case of wheat farmer Kari
also relate to the success or failure of harvests in various
Kokkonen from Nurmijärvi.
parts of the world. Thus, more and more farmers opt for
futures trading, where the growing grains are sold or
purchased in advance at a set price. Depending on the
‘You won’t find a more international profession than timing, the farmer or the buyer can make or break profits.
farming’, Kokkonen says. Food prices have been high all
over the world this year, so the Finnish farmers are not
alone in this. ‘The change has been staggering. A lot has
‘This way, even a small-scale farmer can protect the
happened over the last twenty years’, says the 61-year-old
returns from just a few hectares.’
farmer. Before member-ship in the EU, the price of grain
was determined through government negotiations, and
farmers could sell grain for that set price at any time.
The same scenario applies to fertilisers: the economy
has an impact on the price of phosphorus.

Then came the membership in the EU, which removed the


option of regulating prices within a single country. The real
change, however, came around 2005 when big institutional ‘The price of fertiliser correlates directly with global oil prices. It
investors started to see the appeal of the commodities was not that many years ago when the price of an oil barrel was
exchange. This appeared to be a more stable market than in- 60 euros, now it’s over 100. Purchasing at the right time has a
vestments in portfolio companies, where stock trading fluctu- significant impact, particularly for large farms.’
ated against apparently imaginary values. Because of the new
speculation in commodities, the international and large-scale
game also brought about large variations in food prices.
Kokkonen uses the Internet to follow the prices of oil and
wheat, as well as the news. For instance, he might read
about the coming harvest in Australia. His computer is on
‘The prices seesawed. In 2008, the price of grain was 80 euros every day. Even the computer he uses was purchased off
per ton, now it’s over 200 euros. Occasionally, it will suddenly the Internet, at a cheaper price from Sweden.
fall to 140 euros. That’s a significant fluctuation in prices.
14 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
15
Openness and sharing Transnational culture

Tolerance

Virtual societies

Language skills Cultural knowledge


I
d
e
nt
Social media
if
yi
n
g
gl
o
b
al
pr
o
bl
e
m Games and interaction
Global value chains s
demand

Individuality
Virtual degrees

Competences

developed

through

international

Digi
experiences
tal
syst
ems

G
l
o
b
a
l
16 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
Towards a deeper understanding

of international competences
3
In 2014, globalisation and international activities
are more ubiquitous than ever. If companies can-
not recognise the value of these competences in
their recruitment processes, harness them in their
working culture or link them to their corporate
development strategies, they miss out on crucial
opportunities.

What is it about international experience that makes


it interesting to employers, and what are the
meanings associated with it? Through which types of
activities can we identify these employees today?
Such questions were posed in our expert workshops.
It became clear that the traditional understanding of
skills that are developed through international
experiences must be supplemented by an extensive
set of new competences.
There is a clear discrepancy
between views held by
employers and students on
the value of international
competences in recruitment.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


17
lives. Students overestimate the degree to which
HOW IS INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE
employers value international know-how. In other
words, at least a portion of students may hold
VALUED? misconceptions about what actually matters in the
recruitment market. There is a clear discrepancy
between views held by employers and students on
the value of international competences in recruit-
In CIMO’s previous, 2005 study, international ex- ment.
perience was not considered of major importance to
the recruitment process. And it still is not today. The
data showed that only 36.5% of employers gave
The educational background of student respond-ents
weight to skills and competences developed through
had a clear impact on the extent to which they
international experience. The economic sector also
considered international expertise to benefit their
had little impact on this result. This is a surprising
future employment. The more educated the re-
finding, especially when considering the findings of
spondent, the more benefit was seen to be derived
the first chapter on the impact of globalisation on
from skills and competences developed through
Finnish working life.
international activities.

Still, the research results also suggest that the skills


It is hardly surprising that those employers who are
and competences related to the international expe-
involved in international activities consider
riences do hold some level of importance to em-
international experience to be a more significant re-
ployers, as only 22.3% of employers were entirely
cruitment criterion than those whose activities are
uninterested in them.
limited to Finland or even to local towns or cities. In
the group of internationally active employers,

It is important to note that more than half of the


students (61.2%) saw international skills and
competences to be a personal asset in their working

How international expertise matters in recruitment, %

60 %
46.7 Employers 2005

41.2 41.1 Employers 2012

40 37.0 Students 2012

31.1

28.7

22.3

20

14.7 14.2

7.2 7.4
6.7

0.4 0.4 0.8

Not interested Interested, but it Additional points, Gives advantage Required

is not significant not decisive

18 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


half consider international experience an important
recruitment criterion. The employers who place the
most significance on skills and competences devel-
oped through international experience are those who
have international projects or who co-operate
directly with companies abroad.

WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT RECRUITMENT

CRITERIA FOR EMPLOYERS?

Among the internationally


The recruitment criteria that employers consider to
active employers, half
be highly important are reliability, the ability to
consider international
access and handle information, and problem-solv-
experience an important ing skills. Furthermore, communication skills and co-
recruitment criterion. operative skills are among the most important
criteria in a recruitment situation for employers.

As expected, employers who value international


experience also place greater relative value on
language skills, willingness to travel for work, and
experiences with studying or working abroad. This
result is in line with the data from workshops and
open-ended questions in the survey.

How students estimate the usefulness of international expertise in future working life, %

0.5 %
0.4

37.1
0.3

25.8
24.2
0.2

10.6
0.1

2.4

Useless 2,00 3,00 4,00 Very useful

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


19
Employers who value
international experience
also value networking
ability, creativity and
openness to new
experiences.

20 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


More interestingly, these employers also highly value
networking ability, creativity and open-ness to new How international activities correlate with significance
experiences. As many as 80% of the employers who of international expertise in recruitment, %
consider international experience a highly important
recruitment criterion also value creativity. In
comparison, of the employers that do not rate 100
international experience as an important criterion in
recruitment, only 45% rate creativity as important. International expertise does not have

a significant role in recruitment


88.2

80 International expertise has a

significant role in recruitment

WHAT ARE THE CAPABLITIES DEVELOPED 60

52.3
THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE?
47.7

40
We explored competences developed through
international experiences further by asking em-
ployers and students to name the attributes that 20

they associate them with. They were asked to rate


11.8
the attributes on a generic level only, not through a
specific job description. The results show that the
0
traditional view of international skills is still valid,
Workplace does not Workplace has
including experience of working or studying abroad,
willingness to travel and language skills. have international international

activities activities

An interesting and new observation is that people


also link many other attributes to international
experience. We found that placing value on inter-
national experience in the recruitment process is
associated with appreciation of some surprising
recruitment attributes, such as creativity, network-
ing ability and general interest in new things.

Traditional understanding of international experience Extended understanding of international experience


Language skills Ability to think outside one’s sphere of experience

Wide networks within one’s field Broad networks also in different fields

Understanding of international business New abilities and skills during free time

Ability to work with multiple people Works with diverse groups of people regardless of

language or location

Having lived or studied abroad

Follows global media

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


21
Employers and international competences: which attributes are linked?

PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY

PERSISTENCE

= Of these the following


are valued in recruitment
Empathy

Efficiency
Cultural knowledge

Languages
Ambition

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

CREATIVITY

TOLERANCE

ANALYTICAL ABILITY

CO-OPERATION

Elitism

INTEREST TOWARDS NEW ISSUES

Anxiety

ADAPTABILITY

Laziness

NETWORKING ABILITY

RELIABILITY

SELF-CONFIDENCE

SELF-KNOWLEDGE
1 = no 5 = very strong
2 3 4

connection connection

22 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


Linking international competences

and employer expectations – giving 4 rise to a


new understanding
In other words, even if the employers do not
value international expertise as such, it is still
bundled together with many other skills and
qualities that employers place great value on.

Based on our survey, students associate abilities


developed through international activities with very
similar attributes to employers. This was most This crucial connection is not yet understood in
evident in the answers to the open-ended questions Finnish working life. If international experience
of the survey. For example, a group of students
perceived it ‘as an ability to think outside the box; to
perceive things outside one’s own living environ-
ment and own country’. To this group of students,
international expertise could mean networking
abilities and creativity as well as the ability to adapt
and a willingness to work with people from differ-ent
backgrounds. In this context, it’s a very broad
concept and has to do with cognitive approaches,
attitudes and views on life.

Half of the Finnish employers we surveyed as-


sociated international experience strongly or very
strongly with the following attributes: interest in
new things, empathy, persistence, self-knowledge,
self-confidence and reliability.

More interestingly, Finnish employers also rated


most of these attributes among the most important
recruitment criteria overall. What does this mean?
International experience can be a potent indica-tor
in helping to identify qualities that employers
appreciate.
International experience can
be a potent indicator in
helping to identify qualities
that employers appreciate.

were perceived through a wider frame than is


presently the case, a significantly larger number of
employers would also consider it a much more
important recruitment criterion.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


23
Employers and international competences: extended edition

= very strong

Productivity Curiosity Resilience

Efficiency 0.77 0.03 0.08

Analytical ability 0.67 0.08 0.20

Problem-solving ability 0.58 0.31 0.22

Reliability 0.57 0.13 0.32

Creativity 0.35 0.31 0.28

Tolerance 0.15 0.66 0.09

Interest towards new issues 0.20 0.60 0.45

Cultural knowledge –0.07 0.53 0.06

Co-operation 0.47 0.52 0.22

Adabtability 0.32 0.51 0.38

0.47
Networking ability 0.14 0.17
Communication skills 0.33 0.45 0.24

Languages 0.05 0.40 0.02

Self-awareness 0.30 0.20 0.84

Persistence 0.53 0.20 0.54

Self-confidence 0.37 0.24 0.43

Empathy 0.23 0.31 0.34

Anxiety –0.07 –0.11 0.05

Elitism 0.28 –0.02 –0.11

Ambition 0.34 0.11 0.12

Laziness –0.16 –0.17 0.03

24 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


EXTENDED UNDERSTANDING THROUGH employee. This is expected to be even more so in the
future, when the working environment changes ever
PRODUCTIVITY, RESILIENCE AND CURIOSITY more rapidly and stable careers are increas-ingly
rare. Resilience guarantees that employees are able
to recover and push forward regardless.
International experiences often require reflec-tion,

The new understanding of international com- persistence and adaptive abilities. These help us

petences was further analysed by using factor learn more about ourselves and become more

analysis. The aim was to find independent and resilient individuals.

identifiable ways of understanding international


competences. This was achieved by forming groups of
correlating attributes based on how employ-

ers link them to international competences. Three


factors were identified: productivity, resilience and
curiosity. These three factors form the basis of the
extended understanding of international compe-
tences.

Productivity is a constant buzzword in the econo-


mies and working lives today. When we were able
to recognise the notion of international skills and
competences – understood as efficiency, analyti-cal
ability, problem-solving ability and credibility

– by combining these attributes with our previous


knowledge through workshops and interviews, we
identified this factor as productivity. Obvious value is
attached to it in working life, and the connection to
international experience seems apparent. When
coming across new cultures and situations, students
or employees have to develop and exercise their
ability to efficiently come up with solutions.

The second factor, resilience, was the theme of the


Davos World Economic Forum in 2013. Resilient
employees are able to adapt, know their limits and
strengths, are confident, and are persistent. The
attributes that we grouped under resilience are also
ones that are traditionally associated with a good
Curiosity, the third factor, has always been with us.
For centuries curiosity was seen, at least by people in The extended approach to international skills and
power, as something that should not necessarily be competences still include the traditional language
encouraged. Based on factor analysis, we identi-fied skills, communication skills, intercultural knowl-edge
such attributes as tolerance, interest towards new and tolerance, but productivity, resilience and
issues, intercultural knowledge, co-operation and curiosity augment the traditional view and complete
networking ability as elements of curiosity. Curiosity our picture of how international skills and
also forms the basis for many attributes linked with competences fit into today’s working life.
international experiences: the urge to learn, search
and experience. But in today’s world, curiosity is
born not only through international study periods,
Together, these three factors help us understand
but also by being active in peer groups, enthusiast
what today’s employers perceive as the value of
forums, hobbies and virtual gaming communities. In
international experience. They also form a concrete
a world that is filled with information and
and coherent narrative for the necessity of interna-
possibilities for exchange, curios-ity is essential in
tional skills and competences in modern working life.
providing an arena for harnessing knowledge.
They renew our perspective on international
experiences and on the skills and competences
gained through them.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


25
Employers and international competences: a new understanding

Tolerance

Language skills Cultural knowledge

TRADITIONAL Competences

EXTENDED developed

through

international

experiences

Productivity Curiosity
Resilience

26 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


Curiosity is a defining virtue
for future working life
5
Curiosity embraces tolerance,
interest towards new issues,
intercultural knowledge, co-
operation and networking
The results of our research suggest that employers ability.
view international experience in three additional skills
areas or traits: curiosity, productivity and resilience.
To us, the most interesting of these traits is curiosity –
a fuel of motivation independent of the field of study
or education level of an indi-vidual. While productivity
and resilience have been discussed in the work-life
context, curiosity has not. An employee’s curiosity is
beneficial to all organisa-tions.

Employees with a distinctive curiosity have not been


sought any more avidly than those with international
expertise. We believe that curiosity will continue to
raise its status as a societal strength during this
decade, and that it will also have an impact on the job
market. The world needs people who make future
business successful, and curiosity helps identify what
drives the future. And we have evidence that curiosity
is also linked to international experiences.
there are numer-ous stories about notable individuals in the
19th century who headed to other European countries to
research the wide range of European cultures, or perhaps
to develop profound thoughts and acquire invaluable skills.

2. CURIOSITY IS A DYNAMIC AND REGENERATIVE PRE-


REQUISITE FOR SOCIETY. Because it is not restricted to any
particular field of study, curiosity also provides an answer to the
question of which type of expertise is required in societies that
need structural changes. We do not need more skills – we need
more curiosity.

3. CURIOSITY IS MOTIVATIONAL. A curious person is


interested in new things and is capable of directing his or her
attention to new issues. The relationship between the ability to
redirect attention and the trait of curiosity has begun to be
Three reasons why curiosity is the highlighted in a new motivational study. How the value of
definitive virtue of the current curiosity is measured in business varies. Not all companies
decade: have to deal with the changes brought about by megatrends,
but it’s the tendency of megatrends to influence all activities
that makes them so challenging. No company can operate
without taking them into consideration.

1. CURIOSITY HELPS US TO BENEFIT FROM NEW


INFLU-ENCES AND OPPORTUNITIES. In Finland,

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


27
Even more traditional companies should under-stand
the range of impacts that issues such as resource
scarcity and population movements may have on
their businesses. For instance, understand-ing the
rise of transport costs may help retailers build a
more cost-effective selection of products. Similarly,
knowledge about wheat demand in European mills
may encourage Finnish farmers to search new Curious individuals are
markets and distribution channels. In this case, the interested in what
story of the farmer Kari Kokkonen is a good example. happens globally and how
A small-scale farmer succeeds better when he these global events can
follows the global situation and acts accordingly. have wide-ranging effects.
Understanding global changes can translate directly
into higher hourly wages.

Curious individuals have a better chance of iden-


tifying the impacts megatrends have on their work or
organisations. They do not necessarily recognise all
the megatrends, but they are interested in what
happens globally and how these global events

FROM CREATIVE CLASS TO THE ERA


can have wide-ranging effects. This interest and
curiosity is a central part of a new competitiveness.
OF CURIOSITY
In order for global changes to be understood and
global solutions to be born, we need interested and
curious individuals.
Richard Florida’s best-known book The Rise of the
Creative Class described a pool of experts focused on
particular urban areas who produced, in relative
terms, more innovation, creativity and well-being
than their professional counterparts in other types of
cities. According to Florida’s theory, when you bring
together a diverse pool of talent, high levels of
technological knowledge and the trait of tolerance,

Competiveness in the late 1990s Competiveness in the late 2010s


What is the competition about?

What type of expertise


is needed?

Which actors are essential for


Efficiency, innovations Problem solving, innovations
competitiveness?

How do companies relate to


well-being? Ability to understand systemic change
Ability to multiply and scale models
and design scalable solutions

How is the appeal of areas


and locations born?
Curious class
Creative class

Financing state economy and spreading Solving wicked problems


material well-being in the societies

Technology, tolerance and


skilled people Trust, curiosity and skilled people

28 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


the result is an unrivalled competitive advantage for to do work that has a meaningful impact and final
generating creativity. results. For the curious, interesting stories are those
about the world’s resource economy, Chi-na’s
economic and political rise, the Arab Spring, and the

Initially, the creative class theory was very suc- collapse of the financial markets. Curious people want

cessful, but then started to taper off. Its failure was to work with facing global challenges, not simply

brought about by an elitist and overly utilitarian survive as a nation or as individuals in

approach. The creative class theory highlighted the


concept of an exclusive elite class that generated a
competitive advantage. It is a category that includes
only a select few. Joining the creative class is dif-
ficult. Nowadays, more individuals have become
interested in understanding where they can use their
creativity and what problems they can solve
creatively.

MAKE WAY FOR CURIOSITY

Ten years after the emergence of the creative class,


we have to ask: where to next? The analysis of the
creative class was a manifestation of the significant
economic growth that took place in the western
world during the 20th century and the beginning of
the 21st century. Such growth appears impossible in
2014. We need a group who will carry compa-nies
and employers through drastic global changes. We
need curiosity towards the world’s major themes and
enthusiastic individuals willing to make the relevant
tasks their individual goals.

It appears that we are now witnessing a shift from


the creative class to an era of curiosity. Curious
people want their work, in one way or another, to be
connected to a larger picture of society and progress.
Curiosity involves a combination of the desire of
knowledge workers to be close to creative and
inspiring problem-solving environments and the will
one has told the curious that they are relevant for the
a global competition. In other words, the curious
competiveness and well-being of tomorrow,
employees prioritise success in the global problem-
solving competition.
yet they are professionals who have the ability to
understand the systemic change that will affect
entire fields of business. This group of employees is
We’ve always been curious, but never before has
positioned to create success stories that gain lever-
there been significant societal value in curiosity. In
age from megatrends. International experience is one
the era of control, curiosity was dangerous, but
way we know of to identify them.
today it’s a necessity. Curiosity about megatrends
can be utilised in more or less any contemporary
profession, from that of the agricultural worker to
the computer programmer. It provides tools and
abilities to connect global megatrends to one’s
profession. This is essential to success in the 21st
century.

The huge potential of curiosity is waiting to be ful-


filled. Skills and competences can be better devel-
oped and utilised by empowering inherent curios-ity. We’ve always been
No one has identified curious employees before.
curious, but never before
What we do know is that international experience
has there been significant
appears to correlate with interest in the world. No
societal value in curiosity.

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


29
30 FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES
The way forward 6
We can summarise the results of ‘Hidden Compe-
tences’, the research project of CIMO and Demos
Helsinki, as follows: skills and knowledge that result
from international experiences are the kind of
competences that the labour market needs to be
able to face future challenges successfully. But often
in recruitment we seem to be incapable of What next?
recognising these competences; they are hidden. For
this reason, even ‘international’ employers are not
necessarily able to give credit to competences
acquired through international experiences in their
Along with this research, we invite everybody working
recruitment processes. And those employers who do
with learning mobility to help make these international
not operate internationally in a traditional sense do com-petences visible. At CIMO, we have identified at
not see the benefit of these competences. least the following areas of development:

We must make the competences resulting from


international experiences visible. We need to recog- 1.EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND AUTHORITIES
nise the learning outcomes of international mobility
and describe them better. We should talk about
need to engage in a more thorough dialogue with
broader learning outcomes that will cover other employ-ers in order to make the hidden competences
competences than the traditional language skills, visible and understood.
intercultural competences or tolerance. This wider
concept will also encompass productivity, resilience
and curiosity. 2.EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND AGENCIES

PROMOTING LEARNING MOBILITY need to discuss learning


outcomes, their definitions and descriptions so that we can
present competences acquired through international experi-
ences in a way that speaks to employers and so that we can
improve their relevance in the labour market.
3.STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE need tools
We also believe that it would be helpful to look for
and guidance to help them recognise their hidden
solutions to these challenges in European co-operation.
competences and make them visible.

Further information about the results of the study is


available at: www.cimo.fi/hiddencompetencies

FAKTAA. FACTS AND FIGURES


31
The Centre for International Mobility CIMO provides specialist services to
support international interaction in education, work and culture, and among the
youth. Working under the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, CIMO
administers and implements various exchange, practical training and scholarship
programmes. CIMO is the national agency for the European Union Erasmus+
programme and the contact point for the programmes Creative Europe and Europe
for Citizens.

Among CIMO’s key functions is also to gather, process and distribute infor-mation to
serve its many different customers. The CIMO study, analysis and evaluation team
produces data and information to help to plan and enhance international co-
operation. CIMO compiles statistics on international student mobility and conducts
surveys on the internationalisation of education, youth, culture and working life, and
on current issues of international collaboration.

FAKTAA – Facts and Figures is a series of publications on the key findings of CIMO’s
studies and research projects. The publications are available both in print and as pdf
documents at www.cimo.fi.

Demos Helsinki is the leading independent think tank in Finland. Demos Helsinki
does high-end research projects and futures studies, creates strate-gies and conducts
future-oriented experimental development work with com-panies, cities,
governments and communities. Demos Helsinki was founded by a group of citizens
interested in the future of our societies. The work by Demos Helsinki can be accessed
at www.demoshelsinki.fi/in-english.

Towards

a global-minded Finland.
ISSN 1798-3649 (printed)

ISSN 1798-3657 (pdf)

ISBN 978-951-805-596-2 (printed)

ISBN 978-951-805-597-9 (pdf)

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.

Kopijyvä Oy 05/2014/2500. Graphic design: Liisa Valtonen, photographs: Gorilla