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Administrative Theory: Public Administration

Introduction: Public Administration is a newly appear discipline compare to other Social


science’s discipline. It has gained extensive importance since emergence of administrative
state. In ancient Greek, Roman and Indian political system gave more importance to the
concept of Administration. In the administrative system Kautilys’s “Arthasathra “ contributed
in large scale. It deals every feature of the state and its relation to subjects.

Meaning: It is a type of Cooperative human effort .This type has high degree of rationality. It is
the management of affairs and carries out public policies. It can define as the activities of
groups co-operating to achieve common goals and to look after the people. It is an academic
discipline and a multidisciplinary field that involves other academics areas and a process of
management. Function and role of Public Administration is very important in today’s modern
state and developing countries

Purpose of PA (Public Administration).

To promote a superior understanding of government, its relationships with the society it


governs, encourage public policies and the deeper human requisites of the citizenry . It is the
bureaucracy of government and is the act of implementing public policies.

Following thinkers view while defining Public Administration:-

According to L.D. White Administration was a process common to all group effort, public or
private, military or civil, large scale or small scale. Public administration is centrally concerned
with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of
officials. According to Woodrow Wilson Public administration is the systematic application of
law.

Simon,” Public administration is the activities of the executives’ branches of the state, national
and local governments.”

Gullick,” Public administration is that part of the science of administration which has to do with
government and concerns itself primarily with the executive branch”.

Marshal E.Dimock ,” Administration is concerned with “what” and “How” of the government.
What is the subject matter and how is the technique of management.

Waldo,” Public administration is the art and science of management as applied to affairs of the
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state.”
Characteristics of Public administration:-

i) Public Administration is related with the activities of the state and carries out public
policies.

ii) It is politically neutral.

iii) It perceives the aspirations of the people as formulated and expressed in law.

Public Administration has been used 2 senses:-Wider sense and narrow sense

In the wider sense it includes all the activities of the government whether falling in the sphere
of legislature, executive or judicial branch of the government.

In the narrow sense, Public administration is concerned with the activities of the executive
branch only.

Nature of public administration: 2 divergent view regarding the nature of the public
administration:-

• Integral view

• Managerial view

Integral view:-

According to Integral view, Public administration is a sum total of all the activities. The activities
like manual, Clerical, managerial etc. which are taken on to realize the objective of the
organization. This view includes the activities of all the person help in administration. These
activities include managerial, technical, manual and clerical. The activities of all persons from
top to bottom constitute the administration.

They are of differ significance to the running of administrative machinery. This view of public
administration was adopted by Prof. L.D. White. According to L.D. White Public administration
consist of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment of public policy.

Managerial view: - According to managerial view the works of only those persons who are
involved in the performance of managerial functions in an organization constitute
administration.

In this view the administration has the functions of planning, programming and organizes all
activities in an organization to fulfill the desired ends. The managerial view takes into account

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the activities of fewer people at the top. The managerial activities of people involved in
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling constitute public
administration.

Scope of Public administration:

 It judges the major assets and flaws to an administration. It is used to


support communities and the government.

 The public administration must have specific policies to serve and protect the public.

 The scope of public administration deals in many ways:-

 Public administration is an organizational effort. It needed a close relation to


people. They have good relation between people and agencies of administrative in
every administrative system.

 The scope of public administration is related to many ways in a democratic


political system

3 important perspectives about the scope of administration:-

i) Narrow perspective: The main exponent of Narrow perspective is Luther Gulick. Scope
of public administration narrow and is consider PA as posdcord view according to
Gulick. PA (Public Administration) is anxious with those aspects of administration
which are related to executive branch.

ii) Broad perspective: The main exponent of Broad perspective is Professor Woodrow
Wilson, L.D White. Public administration covers all 3 government branches
(Legislative, Executive and Judicial) and their interrelationship according to Professor
Woodrow and L.D. Public administration is part of political process.

iii) Prevailing view: The scope of PA divided into 2 parts according to prevailing view:-

Administrative theory and applied administration

Importance of Public Administration: It is the instrument of change in the society


and for executing laws. It plays vital role in people life.

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Woodrow Wilson vision of public administration:

In 1913-1921, Woodrow Wilson was the twenty eighth president of united state of America. He
is the father of American public administration. He is one of the most important first political
leaders. He stated that a Public administration is the clearest part of the government. Wilson
clarified that the studies conduct in field of public administration.

According to him administration lies in outside the proper sphere of politics. Public
administration is a part of a political life only. He also suggested that administration should be
politics free. Wilson defines public administration as detailed and systematic execution of
public law. He suggested the distinction between politics and administration. He carefully
studied the administrative practices and characterized public administration as a field of
business

Evolution of the discipline and its present status

Public administration is a mixture of theory and practices. Political science has been considered
as the mother of discipline of public administration. The Discipline of management has been
view as the counterpart of Public administration.

As a discipline public administration studies and analyses the procedure of government. The
discipline has been differing between the realms of political science and management for most
period of its evolution. There are 5 stages in the chronology of Public administration as a
discipline.

They are:-

Politics administration dichotomy (1887-1926) - stage 1

Principle of administration (1927-1937) - stage 2

Era of challenge (1938-1947) - Stage 3

Crises of identity (1948-1970) - Stage 4

Public policy perspective (1971 onwards) - stage 5

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New Public Administration: The emergence of New Public administration is one more stage in
the evolution of Public administration. Emergence of NPA (New Public Administration) can be
finding back to the late 1960s. New Public Administration is an anti-positivist, anti- technical or
anti hierarchical reaction against traditional public administration. It finds its origins to the 1st
Minnow brook conference. The conference of brook was held in 1968 under the patronage of
Dwight Waldo.

NPA (New Public Administration) theory must be dealing with following issues:-

• Democratic Citizenship

• Public Interest

• Public Policy

• Services to citizens

Features of NPA:

i) New Public Administration recommended three anti goals. Hence its literature is called
anti-positivists.

ii) 3 anti goals of NPA these are: rejecting a definition of public administration as value
free, rejecting a rationalist and rejecting politics administration dichotomy.

iii) Change and Administrative Responsiveness.

iv) Though NPA (New Public Administration) brought public administration closer to
political science.

v) Felix and Lloyd Nigro observe that NPA has seriously push the traditional concepts and
improve the subject by communicate a wider perspective by linking it closely to the
society.

Public choice or Public choice theory has been described ` as the use of the economic tools to
deal with political science traditional problems. The content of public approach includes the
study of political behavior. In present times the concept of New Public Administration has lost
its importance.

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Challenges of Globalization: Globalization has a principal characteristic feature of the new
millennium. In today’s society Globalization has become inescapable. It is a new contemporary
stage of development of capitalism over the world.
Globalization constitutes 4 major challenges that will have to address by governments, civil
society and other policy actors.

i) The first challenge is to confirm that the benefits of globalization expand to all countries.

ii) The second challenge is to deal with fear that globalization lead to instability.

iii) The 3rd challenge is to address the very real fear in the industrial world that increased
global competition

iv) The 4th challenge is that globalization and all of the complicated problems related to it
must have not been used as excuses.

Good governance means focusing on the organization’s purpose. It is an aim to close the gap
between policy development and implementation, democracy and efficiency, democracy and
the rule of law, political science and public administration. Since time of Wilson these gap
started to grow in 1887.

Features of good governance:-

 Good governance promotes equity, participation, pluralism,


transparency, accountability and the rule of law.

 In Partnership with our clients it is the basic principle of our efforts to build up
public administration.

 To achieve good governance, the government shall be on a mission to follow


clarity, conviction, compassion and consistency in governance.

 Governance is considered democratic to the degree in the community of nations.

 In Partnership with our clients it is the basic principle of our efforts to build up
public administration.

 The greatest threat to good governance comes from poverty, corruption and violence.

There are 5 good governance principles

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• Legitimacy and Voice

• Direction

• Performance

• Accountability

• Fairness

New Public Management (NPM) is the label given to a series of reform from the 1980s
onwards. It is the outcome of modern times.

Various factors behind the emergence of NEW Public Administration:-

 Knowledge Revolution

 Technological revolution and communication revolution.

 Increased competition nationally and internationally in providing goods and services.

 International dimensions:

 Increasing globalization

 Increasing hold of WTO over national governments and their policies

 Emergence of MNCs on the world scene on a huge scale.

Goal of NPM:

i) Improve Efficiency and effectiveness in public sector organization

ii) Improve responsibilities to stakeholders, improve quality of public services. NPM is


public sector management theory that assumed that private sector management
practices are better than management practices in public sector.

Feature of NPM:- New Public Management aims at management and not policy: It views Public
administration from the managerial angle. It applies management solutions to concerns,

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problem and issues of PA. It deal with converting public bureaucracies into agencies. It uses
quasi market.

NPM Focusses on achieving 3 essentials efficiency, economy and effectiveness and focuses on
management not an administration. Management is more participative in nature and
administration suggests certain degree of superiority, hierarchy, control etc.

NPM Seeks to adopt various techniques and practices used by private sector management
example:ZBB ( Zero Based Budgeting), TQM (Total Quality Management), HRM( Human
Resource Management) , OR( Operational research technique, Social accounting, MBO(
Management by accounting) etc.

2. Scientific Management and the Scientific Management Movement

Scientific management is the process of approaching various concept of organization in a


scientific manner using scientific tools (such as research, management and analysis). The
scientific management theory is one of the most essential theories of traditional Public
administration. This theory is formulated by Frederick Winslow Taylor, an engineer by
profession and the father of scientific management approach. Frederick Winslow Taylor viewed
each and everything and its concept scientifically. Frederick Winslow Taylor theory helped
cover the way for modern management and approaches and techniques.

Principles of Winslow Taylor scientific management were:-

• Standardization of work methods

• Equal division of work and responsibility between management and workers.

• Scientific selection of workers and their progressive development.

• Mutual collaboration of workers and management.

Scientific Management Movement: Taylor pointed out that management was a true
science and declares that management comprised a number of principles that could be
relevant in all types’ organization. He became famous in his books –

 A piece rate system (1885)

 Shop management (1903)

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 The art of cutting metals (1906)

 The principles of scientific management (1911)

In 100 of companies Frederick Winslow Taylor followers were called as advisors. In 1905, he
was called to deliver a seminar in the house of lords committee related to theory and soon
scientific management become a movement .Scientific management determined many
industrial problems. It has various effects on industrial practices in the United States
spreading to Sweden, Germany, France, England, and other European countries

Criticisms on Scientific management are as follows:-

 The scientific management viewed man as a machine and this is degrading view.

 The management thinkers charged that Taylor’s scientific management was impersonal.

 An employee is motivated by high wages accordingly to Taylorism.

 The scientific management as the Physiological organization theory described by


the Herberts simon and March.

Classical theory: The Classical theory Approach is also called as the Administrative
Management approach and structural theory approach. It deals with recommended
management or business and formal organization’s structure. This theory pronounces most by
Henri Fayol, Luther Gulick, L.F. Urwick, J.D Mooney, A.C. Reilly, M.P. Follett and R. Shelton.
The most important concern of classical theory is formulation of certain universal principles of
organization.

Henri Fayol: He was a French mining engineer and a director of mines. He also developed a
general theory of business administration. Henri believed that there was a single
administrative science. He was the founder of managerial approach. Henri Fayol 14 principles
of management:-

I. Division of work

II. Authority

III. Discipline

IV. Unity of Command

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V. Unity of direction

VI. Subordination of Individual interest to general interest

VII. Centralization and Decentralization

VIII. Remuneration
IX. Scalar Chain

X. Order

XI. Equity

XII. Stability of tenure

XIII. Initiative

XIV. Esprit de corps.

Usage of the 14 management principles applications:-

 Change and Organization

 Decision Making

 Skills can be used to improve the basic effectiveness of a manager.

 Understand the management can be seen as a variety of activities.

Weber's bureaucratic model: Max Weber was a German Sociologists and is assigned with
laying down the 1st proper theory of bureaucracy. He is one of the most important thinkers and
also the contributors to administrative theory. Max Weber model of Bureaucracy brought a
pattern shift in the field. Bureaucracy refers to hierarchical organization. Max Weber gave the
ideal type model of bureaucracy. In bureaucracy, functions and power are divided as per
formal rules and regulation. According to Marx Weber, bureaucracy is important form of
organization and it was legitimate authority.

Weber differentiated between 3 kinds of legitimacy- traditional, rational-legal and


charismatic. He never defined the bureaucracy.

According to Marx Weber, the components of authority are:-

 An Individuals or a body of individuals who rule

 An individual or a body of individuals who are ruled.

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 The will of the rulers to influence conduct of the ruled.

 Evidence of the influence of the rulers in terms of objective degree of command.

Weber types of authority:

 Charismatic authority

 Traditional authority

 Legal rational authority

Weber’s Model Bureaucracy criticism:

a. Red tape or over formalism: All the time officials following rules and files take long time
to travel from one place to another.

b. Unresponsive to popular demand and desires.

c. Bureaucracy is self perpetuating: When staff increases no increase in work lead to tax
payer paying more money for nothing.

d. Self aggrandizement: Ministers are responsible in a democracy because for their


bureaucracy’s functioning in their ministry.

e. Departmentalism or empire building: Bureaucracy encourages the evil work of


government into a number of self dependent sections

f. Bureaucracy loves tradition and stands for conservatism: Develops an negative


psychology that reproduce non transparency and stoppage to information.

Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard):

Chester I. Barnard was the author of book “Function of the Executive”. It was issued in 1938
and presents a theory of cooperation and organization, study of the function and the methods
of operation of executives in formal organizations. He looked at organizations as systems of
cooperation of human activity. The theory of authority and the theory of incentives are two of
Bernard theories are particularly interesting. The book function of Executives is complex and
main objective of book is to discuss the function of the executive. These theories are seen in
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the context of a communication system and that’s should be based in 7 essential rules:-

I. The channels of communication should be defined.

II. Channel of communication should know by everyone.

III. Everyone should have access to the formal channels of communication.

IV. Ability of persons serving as communication centers should be adequate

V. Line of communication should be as short.

VI. The line of communication shouldn’t be interrupted when organizing is functioning.

VII. Every communication should be authenticated.

Simon’s decision-making theory

Herbert A. Simon an American political scientist, economist, sociologist developed a model of


decision making. He is the great contributor of administrative theory. He is one of the most
essential researchers in human decision making.

Stages in decision making: The decision making model consisted of 3 steps: intelligence, design
and choice.

Intelligence: This is the first step towards the decision making process. In this phase the
decision maker identifies the problem or opportunity. Intelligence phase consist of finding,
identifying, and formulating the problem that calls for decision. Intelligence phase of decision
making process involves:

a) Problem searching

b) Problem formulation

Design Phase: Where we develop alternatives is the design phase. In this phase, design is
the process of designing solution outlines for the problem. We should state our objective
during the design phase for the decision we are to make. Design phase invent, develop and
analyzed possible courses of action.

Choice phase: In this phase we evaluate the alternatives that we developed in the
design phase and choose one of them. Decision is the end product of choice phase that
we can carry out. In the choice phase possible solutions are compared against one
another and selecting a course of action from those available. Using quantitative tools
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the best solution may be identified.

Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor).

Participative management known as employee involvement or participative decision


making. It refers to the process of involving employees or employee’s representatives at
all levels of decision making process.

Participating management consists of the following steps:-

 Involvement of subordinates in the establishment of the overall objectives.

 Active involvement of the subordinates during finalization of goals for his node.

Through the process of participative management one can see psychological,


social, economical as well as rational as well as organizational aspect of worker
with more autonomy.

Decision making is the essence of management. The problems of decision making are difficult
of all the problems in management. It is selection of course of action from amongst
alternatives.

Decision making is the act of determining in one’s mind upon an opinion or course of action
according to Weber’s dictionary. Decision making is the selection of one behavior alternative
from two or more possible alternatives according to Terry.

It includes all the reflection that go into identifying a problem. It reaches a conclusion and then
taking action. To achieve goal decision are made and no decisions stands alone.

Traditional theories of Leadership: This theories include:-

 Trait approaches such as the Great man theory. It emphasized personal


characteristics of the leader.

 Leader style such as the Ohio and Michigan State studies in the 1960s. It
emphasize leader behavioral

 Contingency approach such as ‘Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Theory.

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Process and techniques of decision-making: The decision making process involves the
following steps:-

• Gather all the facts and understand their causes.

• Define the problem

• Identify limiting factors.

• Develop potential alternatives

• Consider and compare the pros and cons of each option- consult if necessary – it
probably will be.

• Analyze the alternatives

• Select the best alternative

• Implement the decision

• Establish a control and evaluation system.

There are seven techniques of decision making:-

 Operation Research: It is the application of methods of science too complex


problems arising in the management of large system. To make objective decisions it
helps the decision maker. It is a particular way of stating the problems, team, task
force and mathematical reasoning.

 Models: It is the central concept in the application of operation research and are
suitable device for testing hypothesis. Mathematical models is very important in the
calculation

 Simulation: Simulation technique is used to test the feasibility and it is the


quantitative technique.

 Linear programming

 Game theory

Motivation theories:

According to Michael Jucius motivation is “as the act of stimulating someone to get desired
course of action to push the right button to get a desired reaction.”

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According to Dubin Motivation is complex of forces starting and keeping a person work at work
in an organization.

Likert views motivation as the core of management. Different theories at different points of
time came to say ‘What’ motivates a person (content theories) and ‘How ‘is he motivated
(process theories).

Theories of administration: There are two types of theories of administration organization:-

a) Universal Design theory

b) Situational Design Theory

Universal theory believes on the one vest way of structuring the organization and
scientific management, classical theory and Bureaucratic theory are the theories
included in this section.

Situational Design theory highlights the human aspect of the organization. Behavioral
approach, system approach, Structural functional approach, human relations theory and
others are the several sub streams in situational design theory.

Organization theories

The main theories which search to study the organization are:-

1) Classical theory

2) Neo classical theory

3) Bureaucratic theory

4) Systems theory

5) Contingency theory

Contingency theory is class of behavioral theory and also known as situational theory.
The theory of contingency declares that there is no best way to organize a corporation.
Alternatively, the optimal course of action is dependent on internal and external
situation. The theory focuses on external determinants of organization behavior. The
theory also declares that there is no good way to lead a company or to make a decision.

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Important contingencies for companies that need to be strengthened:-

• Technology

 Suppliers and distributors

 Consumers interest groups

 Customers and competitors

 Government

 Unions

Mains ideas underlying contingency theory:-

Organizations are open systems.

To satisfy and balance internal needs organization needs careful management.


Management must be concerned with achieving alignments and good fits. In different
types of environments different types of organization are needed.

According to Richard Scott, contingency theory defined as the best way to organize
depends on the nature of the environment in which the organization must relate to.

Types of organization:-

 Formal organization

 Informal organization

Organizational Structure types:-

• Pre- bureaucratic structures

• Bureaucratic structures

• Post bureaucratic structures

• Functional structure

• Divisional structure

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• Matrix structure

Pre bureaucratic structure is common in smaller organization. To solve simple task pre
bureaucratic structure is best and the strategic leaders make all key decision. It is useful
for new business as it enable the founder to control growth and development.

Bureaucratic structures have a degree of standardization and are good for large scale
organization.

The Weberian characteristic of bureaucracy:-

 Clear defined roles and responsibilities

 A hierarchical structure

 Respect for merit.

Post Bureaucratic: In the organizational literature post bureaucratic used in 2 senses: first is
generic sense and second is specific sense.

Post Bureaucratic term used in generic sense to describe a range of ideas developed since the
1980s. Smaller group of theorists have developed the theory of post bureaucratic organization.

Forms of organization:

1) Ministry: It is a specialized organization. The ministry is used to the office of the


minister, cabinet and prime minister, president or chancellor. It is headed by a political
executive. Administrators are the permanent executives. The administrators taken care
to day to day activities. It is headed by politician. Ministry is the way of organizing
business related to specific area.

2) Department: It is a part of a larger organization with a specific responsibility.

Common types of departmentalization:

 Functional departmentalization

 Product departmentalization

 Customer departmentalization

 Geographic departmentalization.

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3) Corporation: It is a business organization and a legal entity. The arrangement of buying
and selling goods, earning money is found in areas where the economic development
views as challenge.

4) Company: It is a legal entity, government Business Company and an organizational


arrangement created for managing functions. According to market factors it performs
market function.

Ad hoc and advisory bodies: They do not form part of the formal organizational structure of the
government. When there is acute need for resolution of a certain function then the
departments of Ad-hoc are created. In the process of implementation of public policies they are
co-opted to assist the public organization. Advisory bodies are generated in regard to different
functional areas.

Headquarters and Field relationships

Headquarters reference to an establishment and it act as the head and the field
establishment acts as hands.

It is meant to direct, supervise and monitor the implementation of public policy.


Headquarters and field establishment have a clear communication. From the higher
authority HQ receive instruction regarding policy.

Regulatory Authority:

These are establishment which are generated by government .It provides


transparency and facilities for all those organizations or institutions which are
carrying out business at particular time. These bodies are remarkable in the time
of Liberalization, privatization and globalization.

Example:

Securities and Exchange Board of India, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

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Accountability and control: Accountability considered as a kind of management control and it
is mention to the legal views of responsibility. In Accountability public agencies and their
workers answer to the citizens. They answer to the citizen directly and indirectly for use of
their powers, authority and resources. It is also view as hierarchical views of responsibility. It
helps to enforce the responsibility of civil servants. Control (a process of ensuring the actual
activities conform to established Standards) helps managers to monitor the success of
managers. Accountability also mentions to specific location of responsibility invest in a person.
Accountability conduct as a standard in public life and a universal democratic principle.

Types of accountability:

Internal control

External control

Concepts of accountability and control: A political concept representative government and


political responsibility are combined.

Citizen and Administration: In the lives of citizens the following modes of interaction between
the citizens and administration give a good picture of administration role. In the following
modes today the citizens may interact with the PA (Public administration) agencies:-

1. As Regulatees: The citizens are regulated by the many authorities of government.


Therefore, citizens regulates in their interaction with the administration. A many
authorities of government like the police, licensing department, custom and exercise
department, Income tax department etc. regulate the citizen.

2. As clients: A citizens try to obtain different goods and services supply by the
government as a clients. The citizens and administration interaction is most common
in this.

Example:- for water supply etc. citizen can approach the municipal corporation .

3. As participants: Participation of people is a basic main point of democracy in the


process of governance. Committee system, seeking advice from the civil society
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groups related to policy making and implementation and community policing etc.
are employed to make citizens active participants.
4. As litigants: If the citizens have some injustice against the agencies of the state they
file their litigations. Litigations can file to ordinary courts of law, tribunals and Lok
Adalats etc. depending upon the case.

Role of media: Media is a medium of connection between citizens and the state. Media means
different medium of mass communication such as news channel, journals, magazines,
newspaper etc. Through media policies of state and view of public are publicize. It holds the
permanent and political executive accountable to the people through its meeting or assembly
for debates, polls and discussions etc.

Interest groups: It refers to effectively any voluntary association and applies to huge
arrangement of diverse organization. This includes corporations, charitable organizations,
neighborhood associations, civil rights groups, professional and trade associations.

2 types of Interest groups:-

 Sectional Interest groups

 Promotional Interest groups

Sectional Interests groups work for interests of a particular section.

Example: writers association or teachers association etc.

Promotional Interest groups work only for public good.

Example: Group against child labour etc. They help in holding the government and
administration accountable. People have confidence in them.

Voluntary organizations

Voluntary organizations sometimes called voluntary association or union. It is a group of


individuals who enter into an agreement to form organization as volunteers.

Example: Trade associations, learned societies, trade unions and professional associations,
environmental groups and various other types of groups.

There are 3 types of voluntary organization:-


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1) Service oriented voluntary organization

2) Mutual Aid Voluntary organization

3) Resources and Coordination providing voluntary organizations.

Service oriented voluntary organization give fixed services like care of old age people, orphans
etc.

Mutual Aid Voluntary organizations collectively help each other.

Example: self help group

Resources and Coordination providing voluntary organizations provide skill and information
related to public purpose.

Example: Micro finance institutions etc.

Citizens Charter is charters that try to make administration people friendly and incorporates the
following in it to impose the above:

 Responsibility of an agency.

 Standard while performing these responsibilities.

 Mechanism for grievance redressals.

 It should possess 6 major principles for a successful citizens charter:-

 Setting the standards, Information and openness, Choice and consultation,


putting things right, value for money, courtesy and helpfulness.

Right to information is the act of parliament of India. It is a citizen’s right to know regarding
administration and its performance. The Right to Information department headed by central
level by the chief Information Officer.

Administrative Law:
Meaning

Administrative law deals with the powers and functions of the administrative authorities.
Administrative law governs the activities of administrative agencies of the government. It is the

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body of law built up around administrative actions and decisions. Administrative law is
considered a branch of public law.

It deals with following aspects:-

Powers and the composition of administrative authorities, fixes the limits of the powers of
these authorities, prescribes the procedure to be followed by these authorities.

In Administrative Law, Delegated Legislation is law made by an Executive authority under


powers given to the them by primary legislation.

Advantages of Delegated Legislation:-

It saves time for legislature and it allows for flexibility. It can be used on an Experimental basis
and expert legislation.

Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative

a) According to achievement various roles are distributed rather than ascription. That’s
why the bureaucracy has merit as the standard basis of recruitment.

b) The broader structure of the society is functionally specific. This has the direct result
that bureaucracy has high degree of internal specialization

Administration and politics in different countries

The United state of America, The Great Britain, France, Japan, China and India are the countries
selected for discussion purpose.

Current status of Comparative Public Administration: Now, the comparative public


administration focuses on nongovernmental structures, international bureaucracies and post
bureaucratic structures such as the nongovernmental organizations and Public private
partnership.

Now the important concerns of comparative public administration are new challenges like sub
nationalism, ethnicity, balkanization etc.

Riggsian models and their critique

Riggs classified societies into agricultural and industrial societies. He developed some models to
study the administrative sub system of the developing countries. Riggs gave the “Agraria-

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industria” model in 1956. Models were developing to study the political and administrative
transitions.

Feature of agraria were described as follows:-

 Ascriptive, particularistic and diffuse patterns were principle in such societies.

 Limited social and spatial mobility

 Relatively simple and stable occupational differentiation

 Existence of differential stratification system.

Development Dynamics: Scientific study of development forces that produce


movement/change inside a group system called the development Dynamics.

Concept of development: Development is a compound concept and a process of obtaining a


comfort growth. Development is ever changing. According to Riggs development is a process
of increasing autonomy. The concept of development must incorporate the following elements
according to planners in India:-

1) Social Justice is basic to development. It gives the base, foundation, principle, and goal
of development.

2) Development has to be participative exercise.

3) Self reliance important characteristics of development. It states that in the development


process developing countries will be able to participate.

4) Scarcity of natural resources calls for maintains their balance.

Antidevelopment thesis: ADT began in 1950’s and 60’s. ADT is not against development.
They were against the western theory of development in developing countries. The
application of western development ideas, theories on the development programmes
and projects of 3rd world countries are object by ADT (Anti development Thesis). The
cultural, social, political and economical framework in African, Asian and American
countries are different from each other as well as from western world. This is the main
contention. The theories of development and ideas of western countries have been on
the economic growth aspect.
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The anti development theorists (ADT) indicated that the western concepts should be
explodes.

Bureaucracy and development: In process of development bureaucracy as an form of


organization expected to play essential role. The 2 components of development
philosophy are bureaucracy and development. The Concept of development
administration had occurred in U.S.A. Bureaucracy is a fit agency for stability and
conservation. It is a power group.

Impact of liberalization on administration in developing countries

Liberalization refers to relaxation of government controls in the region of economic and


social policy. Reorientation of the economies in the direction of market principles are
the primary objective of liberalization. Impact of liberalization has been viewed from
different aspect.

Personnel Administration:

Principle of public administration:-

 The primary purpose of school is education.

 Same basic interest to the people who have instituted the schools.

Importance of human resource development: It aims to supply with right position with
right kind of people.HRD is a set of systematic activities designed by an organization. To
meet current and future job demands it provides members with the necessary skills.

Objectives: - Develop Human resources of the company continuously for better


performance, provide opportunity for development of different level of employees,
achieve excellence in every aspect of working life.

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Function: Providing skill input to apprentices and trainees, conducting sessions and
workshops.

• Challenges for Human Resource Development

• Changing workforce demographics, competing in global economy and


eliminating the skill gap.

Public policy: Public policy refers to the policy. It is formulated and implemented for
benefit of the public. It can be described as the scenario within which actions of
government are taken on to achieve its goals. Public policy contains detailed description
of formulation. Good policies take country to great heights.

Process of policy formulation: Public policy provides the direction and strategies for
administrative activities. To explain the policy formation process a number of models have
been put forth. Few models are the elite model, the rational model and the system model.

Types of public policy:-

1) Sustained Public policy

2) Regulatory Public policy

3) Distributive Public Policy

4) Redistributive public policy

5) Capitalization Public policy.

6) Constituent Public policy

7) Technical Public policy

Models of policy-making and their critique:

1) Institutional Model

2) System Model

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3) Rational Model

4) Bounded Rationality Model

5) Incrementalism Model

6) Game theory

7) Optimal Normative Model

8) Elite Model

9) Group Theory

10) Market Exchange Model

Techniques of Administrative Improvement:

Organization and Methods: It is obtained from pioneers of scientific management. The


basic steps involved organization and Methods are:

 Choose the area that requires attention.

 Analyze the existing scenario and recommend


improvement opportunities.

 Apply the chosen solution.

Management aid tools:

Network analysis: - It is a social network analysis and understands the structure of intra and
inter organizational relationship.

MIS: MIS means Management Information Systems. It is clear or distinct from regular
information Systems and emergence of Executive Information System.

PERT (Performance Evaluation and Review Technique)

It is comparatively new planning and control system. These are planned to help top
management with planning, problem solving, research, decision making and control of
organizational processes.

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Disadvantage:-

 Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is not easily scalable for
smaller projects.

 The lack of time frame on most PERT/CPM charts makes it harder to show status.

 When the PERT charts become unmanageable they are no longer used to manage
the project.

CPM: CPM means Critical Path Method. It is an algorithm for scheduling a group of project
activities. It is a project modeling technique. CPM developed by Morgan R.Walker in the late
1950s. Critical Path Method used with all forms of projects including aerospace and defense,
construction, software development, product development, research projects and plant
maintenance.

Advantages of CPM:-

• It helps in scheduling, monitoring and controlling projects.

• It is widely used in industry and can define multiple, equally critical paths.

• CPM (Critical Path Method) Determines the project duration, which minimized the sum
of direct and indirect costs.

• The activities and their outcomes can be shown as a network.

Disadvantage:-

• It can be complicated and complexity increases for larger projects.

• The critical path is not always clear and needs to be calculated carefully.

Basic technique:-

 The essential technique for using Critical Path Method (CPM) is to build a model of
the project. It includes the following:-

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 A list of all activities required to complete the project.

 The time that each activity will take to complete.

 The dependencies between the activities.

Financial Administration: It involves all activities of finance and taxation, auditing and
budgeting, central agencies for accounting, tax administration, custody, collection and payment
of funds. It is a dynamic process which falls into 5 defined divisions namely:

• Preparation of budgets

• Getting these approximate passed by the Legislature called Legislature of the Budget.

• Execution of the Budget

• Treasury management

• Rendering of the accounts by the executive and the audit of these accounts.

Public Debt: Public debt is the money and Interest that the government has to pay back to the
public when it borrowed from it or the govt. of a country meets its expenditure out of its
income and its income consist of what is called public debt.

Classification of Public debt:-

 Reproductive and Unreproductive debt.

 Voluntary and compulsory debt.

 Internal and external debt

 Long term and short term debt.

3 possible ways of Fiscal policy in the public domain:-

i) Neutral Fiscal policy

ii) Expansionary Fiscal policy

iii) Contractionary fiscal policy.

Budget: Utility and importance of a budget:-

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1. As a tool of financial control of the legislature over the executive.

2. As a tool of administration for carrying out its functions as per specified


and approved budget.

3. Budget helps getting 5 year plan into action.

Types and forms of Budgets:-

1. Short term –annual-long term Budget

2. Surplus-Balanced-Deficit

3. Cash Budget-Revenue Budget

4. Lumpsum Budget

5. Line-item Budget

6. Performance Budget

7. PPBS (Planning Programming Budgeting System)

8. Zero Based Budgeting

Budgetary process: In India the Budgetary process involves the following operations:-

i) Preparation of the budget

ii) Legislative authorization of the enactment of the budget

iii) Execution of the budget

iv) Accounting

v) Audit

Accounting means keeping systematic record of financial transactions and is an essential


means of exercising financial control.

Audit is the development of the nineteenth century. Audit means an examination of accounts
with a view to determine correctness of these accounts. It is a union subject. The audit

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function is performed by the CAG under the government of India act 1935 appointed by the
President.

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