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1. AC GENERATOR 2

2. EDDY CURRENTS 3

3. ALTERNATING CURRENT AND VOLTAGE 4

4. ALTERNATING CURRENT THROUGH 7

DIFFERENT CIRCUITS

5. PARALLEL AC CIRCUIT 11

6. ADMITTANCE, SUSCEPTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE 13

7. POWER IN AN AC CIRCUIT 13

8. POWER FACTOR 15

9. WATTLESS CURRENT 16

10. TRANSFORMERS 16

SOLVED EXAMPLES 18 - 21

EXERCISE - I 22 - 23

EXERCISE - II 24 - 25

EXERCISE - III 26 - 33

ANSWER KEY 34 - 35

1

AC

ALTERNATING CURRENT

1. AC GENERATOR

One method to induce an emf or current in a loop is through a change in the loop’s orientation or a

change in its effective area. As the coil rotates in a magnetic field B, the effective area of the loop (the

face perpendicular to the field) is A cos Ѳ, where Ѳ is the angle between A and B. This method of

producing a flux change is the principle of operation of a simple ac generator. An ac generator converts

mechanical energy into electrical energy.

AC Generator

The basic elements of an ac generator are shown in figure. It consists of a coil mounted on a rotor shaft.

The axis of rotation of the coil is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The coil (called

armature) is mechanically rotated in the uniform magnetic field by some external means. The rotation of

the coil causes the magnetic flux through it to change, so an emf is induced in the coil. The ends of the coil

are connected to an external circuit by means of slip rings and brushes.

When the coil is rotated with a constant angular speed ω, the angle Ѳ between the magnetic field vector

B and the area vector A of the coil at any instant t is Ѳ = ω t (assuming Ѳ = 0º at t = 0). As a result, the

effective area of the coil exposed to the magnetic field lines changes with time, the flux at any time t is

ΦB = BA cos Φ = BA cos ω t

From Faraday’s law, the induced emf for the rotating coil of N turns is then,

Є=-N dΦ B

=-NBA

d

(cos ω t)

dt dt

Thus, the instantaneous value of the emf is

Є = NBA ω sin ω t ...(i)

where NBA ω is the maximum value of the emf, which occurs when sin ω t = ±1. If we denote NBA ω as

Є 0, then Є = Є 0 sin ω t ...(ii)

Since the value of the sine function varies between +1 and -1, the sign, or polarity of the emf changes

with time. The emf has its extreme value when Ѳ = 90º or Ѳ = 270º, as the

change of flux is greatest at these points.

The direction of the current changes periodically and therefore the current is called alternating current

(AC). Since ω = 2πv,

Є = Є 0sin 2π v t ...(iii)

where v is the frequency of revolution of the generator’s coil.

Note that Eq. (ii) and (iii) give the instantaneous value of the emf and Є varies between + Є 0 and - Є 0

periodically.

2

AC

In commercial generators, the mechanical energy required for rotation of the armature is provided by

water falling from a height, for example, from dams. These are called hydro-electric generators.

Alternatively, water is heated to produce steam using coal or other sources. The steam at high pressure

produces the rotation of the armature. These are called thermal generators. Instead of coal, if a nuclear

fuel is used, we get nuclear power generators. Modern day generators produce electric power as high

as 500 MW, i.e., one can light up 5 million 100 W bulbs! In most generators, the coils are held stationary

and it is the electromagnets which are rotated. The frequency of rotation is 50 Hz in India.

In certain countries such as USA, it is 60 Hz.

2. EDDY CURRENTS

We have studied the electric currents induced in well defined

paths in conductors like circular loops. Even when bulk pieces

of conductors are subjected to changing magnetic flux, induced

currents are produced in them. However, their flow patterns

resemble swirling eddies in water. This effect was discovered

by physicist Foucault (1819-1868)

and these currents are called eddy currents.

allowed to swing like a simple pendulum between the pole pieces

of a strong magnet. It is found that the motion is damped and in

a little while the plate comes to a halt in the magnetic field.

Magnetic flux associated with the plate keeps on changing as

the plate moves in and out of the region between magnetic poles.

The flux change induces eddy currents in the plate. Directions

of eddy currents are opposite when the plate swings into the

region between the poles and when it swings out of the region.

Eddy currents are undesirable since they heat up the core and

dissipate electrical energy in the form of heat. Eddy currents are

minimized by using laminations of metal to make a metal core.

The laminations are separated by an insulating material like

lacquer. Eddy currents

are used to advantage in certain applications like:

3

AC

(i) Magnetic braking in trains: Strong electromagnets are situated above the rails in some electrically

powered trains. When the electromagnets are activated, the eddy currents induced in the rails oppose

the motion of the train. As there are no mechanical linkages, the braking effect is smooth.

(ii) Electromagnetic damping: Certain galvanometers have a fixed core made of nonmagnetic metallic

material. When the coil oscillates, the eddy currents generated in the core oppose the motion and

bring the coil to rest quickly.

(iii) Induction furnace: Induction furnace can be used to produce high temperatures and can be utilised

to prepare alloys, by melting the constituent metals. A high frequency alternating current is passed

through a coil which surrounds the metals to be melted. The eddy currents generated in the metals

produce high temperatures sufficient to melt it.

(iv) Electric power meters: The shiny metal disc in the electric power meter (analogue type) rotates due

to the eddy currents. Electric currents are induced in the disc by magnetic fields produced by

sinusoidally varying currents in a coil.

You can observe the rotating shiny disc in the power meter of your house.

An alternating current or voltage is the variation of current or voltage respectively whose magnitude and

direction vary periodically and continuously with time. For current or voltage to be alternating (i) magnitude

should be constant (ii) alternate half cycle is positive and half negative. The simplest type of alternating

current I and voltage V have a sinusoidal variation whose instantaneous value is given by

I = I0 sin (ωt + φ)

V = V0 sin (ω t + φ)

where φ is initial phase

Graphs of some of the alternating current and voltage cases:

Where I0 and V0 denote the peak values of the current and e.m.f. respectively and is the angular

2π

frequency. The time period T of alternating current is given by T =

ω

1 ω

The frequency f, of alternating current is given by f = =

T 2π

4

AC

Average value of alternating current: The average value of current over time t is defined as

t

∫ i dt

0

Iavg = t where i is instantaneous value of the current.

∫ dt

0

For sinusoidal variation of current and voltages

T

∫i sin(ω t + Ѳ)dt

0

0

Case I: Average value over complete cycle = =0

T

∫ dt

0

Similarly Vavg = 0

Case II: Average value over half cycle

T/2

∫ i0sin(ω t + Ѳ)dt

2I0

iavg = 0

=

T/2 π

∫ dt

0

2 V0

Similarly Vavg =

π

Ex. 1 A electric heater draws 2.5 A from a 220-V, 60- Hz power supply, find

(a) the average current

(b) the average of the square of the current

(c) the current amplitude

(d) the supply voltage amplitude.

Sol. (a) The average of sinusoidal AC values over any whole number of cycles is zero.

(b) RMS value of current = Irms = 2.5 A

So, (I 2 ) = (I ) 2 = 6.25A 2

av rms

Im

(c)Irms =

2

So , Current amplitude = 2I rms = 2(2.5A) = 3.5 A

Vm

(d)V rms =220V =

2

So, Supply voltage amplitude

Since the average value over a time period of sinusoidal alternating current or voltage is zero, a D.C.

ammeter or voltmeter does not show any deflection for alternating current circuits. Therefore alternating

current ammeter or voltmeters are used which measure the average or effective values of the current and

voltage and are based on ‘measuring’ the root mean square values of current and voltage. The root mean

square value of an alternating current is that steady current which when passed through a resistor will

produce the same amount of heat as the actual alternating current shall develop when passed for the

same time. It is denoted by Irms

5

AC

The magnitude of I rms is given by

Average power in alternating current circuit over time t is defined as

t

∫ Vi dt

0

Pavg = t

∫ dt

0

Let V = V0 sin ω t

i = i0 sin (ω t - φ)

Average power over a cycle

T

∫ V0i0sin ω t-sin(ωt-φ)dt

Pavg= 0

T

∫ dt

0

T

2 1

V0i0 (sin ω tcosφ --

∫ 2

sin 2 ω tsin φ) dt

0

=

T

1

= 2 V0i0 cos Φ = Vrms · irms cos Φ

The term cos Φ is known as power factor.

It is said to be leading if current leads voltage, lagging if current lags voltage. Thus, a power factor of 0.5

lagging means current lags the voltage by 60° (as cos-10.5 = 60°). The product of Vrms and irms gives the

apparent power. While the true power is obtained by multiplying the apparent power by the power

factor cos Φ. Thus,

Apparent power = Vrms × irms

and True power = apparent power × power factor

For Φ= 0°, the current and voltage are in phase. The power is thus, maximum (= Vrms × irms). For

Φ = 90°, the power is zero. The current is then stated wattless. Such a case will arise when resistance in

the circuit is zero. The circuit is purely inductive or capacitive. The case is similar to that of a frictionless

pendulum, where the total work done by gravity upon the pendulum in a cycle is zero.

6

AC

4. ALTERNATING CURRENT THROUGH DIFFERENT CIRCUITS

4.1 Purely Resistive Circuit

If V = V0 sin (ω t) V ω=0

V V0

R

i

I= = sin (ω t)=I sin0 (ω t)

R R

Both voltage and current are in same phase.

Instantaneous Power dissipated = P = VI

= V0I0 sin2 (ω t)

Average power dissipated over a cycle

T

V

1 V0 I0 V0 I0

= P=T ∫ Pdt= 2 =

2 2

I or V

0 O

t

=> P = Vrms . Irms.

4.2 Purely Inductive Circuit

t

I

Let V = V0 sin ω t

dI

V –L =0

dt

Φ = 90°

I = I0 sin (ω t - π/2) Φ=0

V0 V=V

i

L

I0 =

ωL = Vrms = (ω L)Irms

Therefore, in purely inductive circuit

(i) the current lags behind the voltage in phase by π/2 , and

(ii) the quantity ω L is a measure of the effective opposition offered to the flow of an alternating current

by an inductor. It is denoted by XL and is called inductive reactance :

XL = ωL

XL XL

ω or f L

Thus inductance offers larger opposition to a.c. of higher frequency than to a.c. of lower frequency. Also

the average power consumed by an purely inductive circuit in a cycle is zero :

P = 0 As Φ= 90°

Since the current flows without any power loss, it is called wattless current. During one quarter cycle,

when the current increases, energy is stored in the inductance in the form of magnetic energy and during

the next quarter, when the current decreases, this energy is transferred back to the source. An inductance

coil with a high value of reactance and low resistance has got the property of opposing alternating current

without any significant power loss. Such a coil is called a choke coil.

7

AC

4.3 Purely Capacitive Circuit

If V = V0 sin ω t, Q = CV = CV0 sin (ω t) i

dq d

I= = (CV0 sin ω t) = ω CV0 cos ω t Φ=0

dt dt V C

As I = I0 sin (ω t +π/2)

V~ C

t

I

=> Vrms =

1 )Irms

where I0= ( ω C)V0 (

ωC

(i) the current leads the voltage in phase by π /2,

(ii) the quantity (1/ ω C) is a measure of the effective opposition offered to the flow of an alternating

current by capacitor. It is denoted by XC and is called capacitive reactance.

XC = 1/ ω C

C = constant ω = constant

XC XC

ω or f C

As XC Proportional to 1/ ω, a capacitor offers smaller opposition to AC of higher frequency than to AC of lower

frequency. The average power is zero. During one quarter cycle, energy is stored in the capacitor in the

form of electrostatic field, and this energy is delivered back to the source during the next quarter cycle.

4.4 The LR Series Circuit

VR

R VS

~V S

VL

L VL

IS

VR

If VR ,VL and VS are the r.m.s. voltages across R, L and the AC source respectively. Then

VS = VR2 V+ L

2

=I Ssource current.

The total opposition to the current is called impedance and it is denoted by Z.

VS

Z= = R

2

+

2

XL = R

2 2

+ ω

2

L

IS

The phase angle Φ by which the applied voltage leads the current is

(ωL)

( XL ) –1

Φ = tan-1 =tan

R R

8

AC

Ex. 2 An alternating voltage of 220 volt r.m.s. at a frequency of 40 cycles/second is supplied to a circuit

containing a pure inductance of 0.01 H and a pure resistance of 6 ohms in series. Calculate (i) the

current, (ii) potential difference across the resistance, (iii) Potential difference across the inductance, (iv)

the time lag.

Sol. The impedance of L-R series circuit is given by

Z = [R2 + (ω L)2]1/2 = [(R)2 + (2 πfL)2]1/2

= [62 + (2 × 3.14 × 40 × 0.01)2]1/2 = 6.504 ohm

(i) R. M. S. value of current

є rms 220 volt

I rms = = =33.83 amp

Z 6.504ohm

(ii) The potential difference across the resistance is given by

VR = Irms × R = 33.83 × 6 = 202.83 volts

(iii) Potential difference across inductance is given by

VL = Irms × (ω L) = 33.83 × (2 × 3.14 × 0.01) = 96.83 volts

ωL

(iv) Phase angle Φ = Tan-1

R

So, Φ = Tan-1 (0.4189) = 2215◦ 46'

Φ Φ 1 22 ◦ 46'

Now time lag = =T= = = =0.01579 second

360 360 f 360 ◦ 40

4.5 The RC Series Circuit

9

AC

4.6 The LCR Series Circuit

For LCR series circuit,

VL

R VR

VS ~ VS

VL

L φ

C VC VC VR IS

2 2

R (VL –V C)

2

1

2

L –X C)

2

= R

2

+ ωL -

ωC

)

(

1

)

φ = tan-1 ( XL --- XC

) = tan

-1 ωC

R R

Ex. 4 A resistance R, and inductance L and a capacitor C all are connected in series with an a.c. supply. The

resistance of R is 16 ohm and for a given frequency, the inductive reactance of L is 24 ohm and capacitive

reactance of C is 12 ohm. If the current in the circuit is 5 amp, find

(a) the potential difference across R, L and C

(b) the impedance of the circuit

(c) the voltage of a.c. supply

(d) phase angle

Sol. (a) Potential difference across resistance

VR = iR = 5 × 16 = 80 volt

Potential difference across inductance

VL = i × (ωL) = 5 × 24 = 120 volt

Potential difference across condenser

VC = i × (1/C) = 5 × 12 = 60 volt

1 2

2

ω L - )

= (16)

2

+(24 -12) 2 = 20 ohm

r = IZ = 5 × 20 = 100 volt

R

(0.75)=36°46’

16

10

AC

4.6.1 Resonance in LCR series circuit

1

At a particular angular frequency ω 0 of the source, when XL = XC or ω 0L = , the impedance of

ω0C

circuit becomes minimum and equal to R and, therefore, the current will be maximum. The circuit is then

said to be in resonance. The resonant angular frequency ω 0 and frequency v0 are given by

1 1

ω0 = , v0 =

LC 2π LC

The variation of r.m.s. current with the frequency of the applied voltage is shown in the figure. If the

applied voltage consists of a number of frequency components, the current will be large for the component

having frequency v0.

ω0 L

The Q factor of an LCR series circuit is given by Q=

R

Irms

A direct current flows uniformly throughout the cross-section of

the conductor. An alternating current, on the other hand, flows

mainly along the surface of the conductor. This effect is known

as skin effect. The reason is that when a.c. flows through a

conductor, the flux changes in the inner part of the conductor

are higher. vo v

5. PARALLEL AC CIRCUIT

Let us consider an alternating source connected across an inductance L in parallel with a capacitor C. The

resistance in series with the inductance is R and with the capacitor is zero.

Let the instantaneous value of emf applied be V and the corresponding current is i, iL and iC. Then,

i = iL + iC

j2

1

is known as admittance (Y). Therefore,

Z

2 3 2

1 R-j ω L R+ j (ω CR + ω LC - ω L)

Y= = + j ω C=

+ L

Z 2 2 2 2 2 2

R ω R + ω L

The magnitude of the admittance,

+ ω CR + ω L C - ω L)

2 3 2 2

R

Y=|Y|=

R2 ω + 2L

2

2 3

ω CR + ωL2C - ω L= 0

1 2

R

ω=

L2

LC

It gives the condition of resonance and the corresponding frequency,

11

AC

ω 1 1 -R2

F= =

2π 2 π LC L2

is known as resonance frequency. At resonance frequency admittance is minimum or the impedance is

maximum. Thus, the parallel circuit does not allow this frequency from the source to pass in the circuit.

Due to this reason the circuit with such a frequency is know as rejecter circuit.

1

If R = 0, resonance frequency is same as resonance frequency in series circuit.

2 π LC

At resonance, the reactive component of Y is real. The reciprocal of the admittance is called the parallel

resistor or the dynamic resistance. The dynamic resistance is thus, reciprocal of the real part of the

admittance.

2 2

R2 +ω L

Dynamic resistance =

R

2

1 R

Substituting ω =

2

- 2

LC L

L

we have, dynamic resistance =

CR

V0 V0CR

.’. peak current through the supply = =

L/CR L

V0

The peak current through capacitor = = ω 0 CV

. The ratio of the peak current through capacitor

1/C ω

and through the supply is known as Q-factor.

V0ω C ωL

Thus, Q-factor = =

V 0CR /L R

This is basically the measure of current magnification. The rejector circuit at resonance exhibits current

ωL

magnification of , similar to the voltage magnification of the same ratio exhibited by the series acceptor

R

circuit at resonance.

At resonance the current through the supply and voltage are in phase, while the current through the

capacitor leads the voltage by 90°.

Ex. 5 For the circuit shown in figure. Current in inductance is 0.8 A while in capacitance is 0.6A. What is the

current drawn from the source.

Sol. In this ac circuit є = є0sin ω t is applied across an inductance and capacitance in parallel, current in

inductance will lag the applied voltage while across the capacitor will lead,

V π

and so, IL= sin (ω t - ) = - 0.8cos ω t

XL 2

=

V

IC = sin (ω t +π ) 0.6cos ω t

XC 2

So the current drawn from the source,

I = IL + IC = -0.2cos ω t, i.e., |I0| = 0.2 A

12

AC

6. ADMITTANCE, SUSCEPTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE

6.1 Admittance

(a) The reciprocal of the impedance of an ac circuit is called admittance. It is represented by Y .

1

.’. Admittance =

Impedance

1

Y=

Z

(b) The unit of admittance is (ohm)-1 or mho.

6.2 Susceptance

(a) The reciprocal of the reactance of an ac circuit is called susceptance. It is represented by S.

1

.’. Susceptance =

Reactance

1

or S =

X

(b) The unit of susceptance is (ohm)-1 or mho.

(c) The susceptance of a coil of inductance L is called inductive susceptance. It is equal to the

reciprocal of inductive reactance.

1

.’. Inductive susceptance =

Inductive reactance

(d) The susceptance of a capacitor of capacitance C is called capacitive susceptance. It is equal to

the reciprocal of capacitive reactance.

1

.’. Capacitive susceptance =

Capacitive reactance

1 1

SC= = =ωC mho

XC 1/ ω C

6.3 Conductance

(a) The reciprocal of resistance of a circuit is called conductance. It is represented by G.

1

.’. Conductance =

Resistance

1

or G=

R

(b) The unit of conductivity is also (ohm)-1 or mho.

7. POWER IN AN AC CIRCUIT

In an electric circuit the rate of dissipation of power or the work done by the current in one second

is called power of the circuit. It is equal to the product of the current and the voltage (or emf)

Thus,

electrical power = (current in the circuit) × (voltage in the circuit)

Unit of power is watt or joule/s.

1joule

1 Watt =

1second

1 horse power = 746 watt

There is a phase difference between the voltage (emf) and the current, i.e., they are not in phase.

Thus the power in an ac circuit also depends upon the phase difference between the voltage and the

current.

There are three terms used for power in an ac circuit.

(a) Instantaneous power,

(b) Average power,

(c) Virtual power

13

AC

7.1 Instantaneous power

(a) The power in an ac circuit at an instant is called instantaneous power.

(b) Suppose in a circuit E = E0 sin ω t and I = I0 sin (ω t - φ) ampere.

(c) Instantaneous power

Pinst = EI

= (E0 sin ω t) [I0 sin (ω t - φ)]

= E0 I0 sin2 ω t cos φ - E0I0 cos ω t sin ω t sin φ

= (E0 sin ω t) [(I0 cos φ) sin ω t] + (E0 sin ω t) [(I0 sin φ) sin (ω t - π /2)]

(d) Instantaneous power has two parts

(e) Its value may be positive, negative or zero.

7.2 Average power

(a) The average of instantaneous power in an ac circuit over a full cycle is called average power.

(b) Pav =P inst

1

E0 I0 cos φ - 0

=2

1

Because sin2 ω t =2

and sin ω t =cos ω t = 0

1 E0 I0

.’. Pav = E0 I0 cos φ = cos φ

2 2 2

= Erms Irms cos φ

7.3 Alternating Voltage applied to a resistor

Power supplied to a resistor

Although average values of voltage as well as current for full cycle are zero, average power consumed

or dissipated in resistor R given by Joule's Law is not zero.

Instantaneous Power dissipated in resistor,

P = I2 R = (I02 sin2 ω t) = I02 R sin2 ω t ...(3)

Average power in a cycle,

P = average of (I2R) = average of (I02 R sin2 ω t)

= I02 R (average of sin2 ω t) ...(4)

As sin2 ω t 1

= 2 (1 - cos 2 ω t), we get

= 1 (1 - average of cos 2 ω t)

Average of sin2 ω t ...(5)

2

Average of cos 2 ωt for full cycle = <cos 2 ωt>

T )

1

= ∫cos 2 ω tdt= T

(

1 ( sin2 ω t

2ω

) 0

T0

1

= [sin2 ω T -0]

2ωT

π

[sin 2 x T x T- 0]

1

= = 0

2Tω

.’. <cos 2ωt> =0 ...(6)

14

AC

Substituting the value of eqn. (vi) in eqn. (v), we get

= 2 (1 - 0) = 2

Using the value of eqn. (7) in eqn. (4), we have

2

= 1 Io R

P 2

.’.Effective power or average power,

2

P= ( ) I0

R i.e., P = I2rms R ...(8)

2

Ex.6 In an ac circuit the phase difference between the current and the voltage is π /2. If the current in the circuit

is 1A (rms) and voltage 100 volt (rms), then the power dissipated in the circuit will be -

Sol. Power dissipated in the circuit = Erms Irms cos φ but φ = π /2

cos φ /2 = 0

Power dissipated = 0

8. POWER FACTOR

The factor cos φ present in the relation for average power of an ac circuit is called power factor

P ac P av

so cos φ =

E= Irms rms Pv

Thus, ratio of average power and virtual power in the circuit is equal to power factor.

Power factor is also equal to the ratio of the resistance and the impedance of the ac circuit.

R

Thus, cos φ =

Z

Power factor depends upon the nature of the components used in the circuit.

If a pure resistor is connected in the ac circuit then

φ = 0, cos φ = 1

E I E 20

.’. Pav = 0 0 = =Erms Irms

2 2R

Thus the power loss is maximum and electrical energy is converted in the form of heat.

If a pure inductor or a capacitor are connected in the ac circuit, then

φ = ± 90º, cos φ = 0

.’. Pav = 0 (minimum)

Thus there is no loss of power.

If a resistor and an inductor or a capacitor are connected in an ac circuit, then

φ ≠ 0 or ± 90º

Thus φ is in between 0 & 90º.

If the components L, C and R are connected in series in an ac circuit, then

X (ω L -1/ ω L) R

tan φ = = and cos φ =

R R Z

R

= [R 2 .’. Power factor

+ (ω L-1/2ω

] /C) ]1/2

R

cos φ =

Z

Power factor is a unitless quantity.

If there is only inductance coil in the circuit, there will be no loss of power and energy will be stored

in the magnetic field.

If a capacitor is only connected in the circuit, even then there will be no loss of power and energy will

be stored in the electrostatic field.

In reality an inductor and a capacitor do have some resistance, so there is always some loss of

power.

In the state of resonance the power factor is one.

15

AC

9. WATTLESS CURRENT

The component of current whose contribution to the average power is nil, is called wattless current.

The average of wattless power is zero because the average of second component of instantaneous

power for a full cycle will be

= Eo sin ω t(I0 sinφ)sin(ω t -π/ 2) 0

The component of current associated with this part is called wattless current. Thus the current (I0 sin

φ) sin (ω t - π /2) is a wattless current whose amplitude is I0 sinφ.

If rms value of current in the circuit is Irms, then the rms value of wattless current will be Irms sin φ.

Wattless current lags or leads the emf by an angle π /2.

Rms value of wattless current

I0

= Irms sin φ = sin φ

2

I 0X

=

2 Z

Z

the circuit.

10. TRANSFORMERS

Transformer is a device used to convert low alternating voltage at higher current into high alternating

voltage at lower current and vice-versa. In other words, a transformer is an electrical device used to

increase or decrease alternating voltage.

10.1 Types of Transformers

(i) Step-up transformer : The transformer which converts low alternating voltage at higher current

into a high alternating voltage at lower current is called step-up transformer.

(ii) Step-down transformer : The transformer which converts high alternating voltage at lower current

into a low alternating voltage at higher current is called is called step-down transformer.

Principle : A transformer is based on the principle of mutual induction. An e.m.f. is induced in a coil,

when a changing current flows through its nearby coil.

Construction : It consists of two separate coils of insulated wire wound on same iron core. One of the

coils connected to a.c. input is called primary (P) and the other winding giving output is called secondary

(S) winding or coil.

EP P S ES Load

Core

(A)

Theory : When an alternating source of e.m.f. Ep is connected to the primary coil, an alternating current

flows through it. Due to the flow of alternating current in the primary coil, an alternating magnetic flux

induces an alternating e.m.f. in the secondary coil (Es). Let Np and Ns be the number of turns in the

primary and secondary coils respectively. The iron core is capable of coupling the whole of the magnetic

flux φ produced by the turns of the primary coil with the secondary coil.

16

AC

According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, the induced e.m.f. in the primary coil,

dφ

Ep = -Np ...(1)

dt

The induced e.m.f. in the secondary coil,

Es = -Ns dφ

...(2)

dt

Es Ns

=

Dividing (2) by (1), we get Ep Np

Ns

where N p = K, the transformation ratio or turns ratio.

Es =

Ns

Then =K

Ep Np

K < 1 for step down transformer. In this case Ns < Np and Es < Ep i.e. output alternating voltage < Input

alternating voltage.

K > 1 for step up transformer. In this case Ns > Np and Es > Ep i.e. output alternating voltage is greater

than the input alternating voltage.

For an ideal transformer (in which there are no energy losses), Output power = Input power ...(iii)

Let Ip and Is be the current in the primary and secondary coils respectively.

Then Output power = EsIs ; Input power = EpIp

Es Ip

From equation (iii), EsIs = EpIp or =

Ep Is

1

In general, Eα

I

For same power transfer, voltage increases with the decrease in current and vice-

versa. Thus, whatever is gained in voltage ratio is lost in the current ratio and vice-versa. So, a step-up

transformer increases the alternating voltage by decreasing the alternating current and step-down

transformer decreases the alternating voltage by increasing the alternating current.

For a transformer, efficiency, η = =

EpIp

Input power

For an ideal transformer, efficiency, η is 100%. But in a real transformer, the efficiency varies from

90-99%. This indicates that there are some energy losses in the transformer.

17

SOLVED EXAMPLES

18

AC

19

AC

AC

Ex.6 A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected Ex.7 A coil of resistance 20 and inductance

to a 12 V dc source. If the same coil is 0.5 henry is switched to dc 200 volt supply.

connected to a 12 V, 50 rad/s ac source a Calculate the rate of increase of current:

current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit. Determine (a) at the instant of closing the switch and

the inductance of the coil. Also find the power (b) after one time constant.

developed in the circuit if a 2500 F capacitor (c) Find the steady state current in the circuit.

is connected in series with the coil.

V

I i.e., Z

Z I 2.4 at t = 0, = 400 A/S

dt L

2 2 2 2 2

or, R XL 5 (as Z R XL ) (b) at t =

dt

i.e., XL = 4

but as, XL = L, (c) Since steady current is at t = and steady

current i0 = 400 A

XL 4

L= = 0.08

50

Ex.8 What is average and r.m.s. current over half

Now when the capacitor is connected to the

cycle if instantaneous current is given by

above circuit in series,

i = 4 sin t + 3 cos t.

1 Given i = 4 sin t + 3 cos t.

As XC = Sol.

C

4 3

1 10 3 =5 sin t cos t

= 5 5

–

50 2500 1 125

= 5 sin ( t + )

=8

2 5 2

L

= 32 (4 -8) 2

=5 Comparing with i = i0sin( t + )

i0 = 5 A

V 12

and henceI 2.4 A

Z 5 5

A

so, Pav = VrmsIrms cos irms = 2

R

= (Irms × Z) × Irms × 10

Z iavg = A

2

i.e., Pav I rms R (2.4)2 3 17.28W.

20

AC

Ex.9 A 100 V a.c source of frequency 500 Hz is

1 1 1 1 15 3

connected to a series LCR circuit with 1

L = 8.1 mH, C = 12.5 mF and R = 10 . L L 1 L 2 5 10 50 10

Find the potential difference across the

10

i.e.,L H

resistance.

3

Sol. Inductive reactance,

V 10 1

XL = 2 × 500 × 8.1 × 10-3 = 25.434 Irms in L1 = = ,

L 1 2 50 5 50

Capacitive reactance,

V 10 1

106 Irms in L2 =

XC 25.478 L2 2 50 10 100

2 500 1

XL = XC 1 1 3

Irms in circuit =

This is the condition of resonance. This means 50π 100π 100π

that total potential drop occurs across the

resistance only. Ex.2 A 0.21 H inductor and a 12 resistor are

NowV VR 2 VL–VC 2

VR

Calculate the current in the circuit and the phase

VR = 100 V.

angle between the current and the source

Ex.10 Two inductances of 5.0 H and 10.0 H are voltage.

connected in parallel circuit. Find the equivalent

inductance and r.m.s. voltage in each inductor

Sol.: Impedance Z R 2 ωL 2

and in mains circuit when connected to a source

of 10 V AC.

Sol. Let E = E0 sin t 12 0.21 H

2

12 2 3.14 50 0.21 2

E0

)= sin t-

I = I0 sin( t -

2 L 2 V S

2

20 V, 50 Hz 12 65.94 2

(since current legs by )

2 = 67

where L is equivalent inductance of circuit.

Vrms 220

CurrentI rms 3.28A

E0 π E0 π

I1 = ωL

sin ωt- ,I2 sin ωt- Z 67

1 2 ωL2 2

V S

L I 65.94

Phase angle tan –1 tan –1

I1 IR 12

5.0 H I

V R

I = 78.690 .

10 V ACV

C are connected in series with an AC supply

I = I1 + I2 where R = 16 , inductive reactance XL = 24

and capacitive reactance XC = 12 . If the

E0

sin t– current in the circuit is 5 ampere find

L 2

(a) P.D. across R, L and C

E0 E0 (b) impedance of circuit,

= sin t– sin t–

L1 2 L2 2 (c) voltage of AC supply and

(d) phase angle.

21

AC

Sol.:

(a) VR = 5 x 16 = 80 V, VL = I x ωL = 5 x 24

= 120 V, VC = 1 / Cω = 5 x 12 = 60 V

1

(b) Z = 𝑅2 + ω𝐿 − ω𝐶 2

= 16 2 + 24 − 12 2 = 20 Ω

(c) E = IZ = 5 x 20 = 100 V

ω𝐿 − ω1𝐶 24 − 12

(d) Φ = tan-1 = tan-1

𝑅 16

Xc –6

8 1

ωC 50 2500 10 at resonance, XL = XC or L=

C

When capacitor is connected in series,

1 1

2 5

C -4 =

Z R

2

(XL- XC) 2

3

2

(8 4)

2

5Ω ωL (4 10 ) 2 2 10

(1/32) F

R 3

Power factor, cos =

Z 5

= 17.28 W.

22

AC

VL

Source Voltage

VL - V C

45˚

i

VR

VC

23

AC

EXERCISE

EXERCISE - I- I

Q.1 The resistance of a coil for direct current (dc) Q.15 An alternating e.m.f. of 100 V (r.m.s.), 50 Hz

is 10Ω. When alternating current (ac) is sent is applied across a capacitor of 10 µF and a

through it; will its resistance increase, decrease resistor of 100W in series. Calculate (a) the

or remain the same? reactance of the capacitor ; (b) the current

flowing ; (c) the average power supplied.

Q.2 Prove that an ideal inductor does not dissipate

power in an A.C. circuit. Q.16 The effective value of current in a 50 cycle A.C.

circuit is 5.0 A. What is the value of the current

Q.3 What is impedance ? Derive a relation for it in

an A.C. series LCR circuit. Show it by a vector. 1/ 300 s after it is zero ?

series combination of L, C and R. Calculate Q.17 A pure capacitor is connected to an ac source

the impedance of the circuit and discuss the of 220 V, 50 Hz. What will be the phase

phase relation between voltage and current. difference between the current ana applied emf

in the circuit.

Q.5 What is the relation between peak value and

root mean square value of alternating e.m.f.? Q.18 A 100 Ω resistance is connected to a 220 V,

50 Hz A.C. supply.

Q.6 Is there any device which may control the direct

(a) What is the rms value of current in the

current without dissipation of energy?

circuit?

(b) What is the net power consumed over a

Q.7 What is the phase relationship between current

full cycle?

and voltage in an inductor?

Q.8 Find the reactance of a capacitance C at f Hz. Q.19 A pure inductance of 1 henry is connected

across a 110 V,70 Hz source. Find

Q.9 Prove that an ideal capacitor connected to an (a) reactance (b) Current (c) peak value of

A.C. source does not dissipate power. current.

Q.10 State the principle of an A.C. Generator. Q.20 A series circuit contains a resistor of 10 Ω, a

capacitor and an ammeter of negligible

Q.11 How are the energy losses reduced in a resistance. It is connected to a source of

transformer? 220 V - 50 Hz. If the reading of an ammeter is

2.0 A, calculate the reactance of the capacitor.

Q.12 Discuss the principle, working and use of a

transformer for long distance transmission of

Q.21 A series LCR circuit connected to a variable

electrical energy.

frequency 230 V source and L = 5.0 H, C =

80 µF, R = 40Ω.

Q.13 (a) What will be the instantaneous voltage for

(a) Determine the source frequency which

A.C. supply of 220 V and 50 Hz?

drives the circuit in resonance.

(b) In an A.C. circuit, the rms voltage is

(b) Obtain the impedance of the circuit and the

100 2 V. Find the peak value of voltage and amplitude of current at the resonating frequency.

its mean value during a positive half cycle. (c) Determine the rms potential drops across

the three elements of the circuit. Show that the

Q.14 What should be the frequency of alternating potential drop across the LC combination is

200 V so as to pass a maximum current of zero at the resonating frequency.

0.9 A through an inductance of 1 H ?

24

AC

Q.22 A circuit containing a 80 mH inductor and a Q.27 A 2µF capacitor, 100Ω resistor and 8 H

60 µF capacitor in series is connected to a 230 inductor are connected in series with an A.C.

V, 50 Hz supply. The resistance of the circuit is source. What should be the frequency of this

negligible. A.C. source, for which the current drawn in

(a) Obtain the current amplitude and rms the circuit is maximum ? If the peak value of

values. e.m.f. of the source is 200 V, find for maximum

(b) Obtain the rms values of potential drops current, (i) the inductive and capacitive

across each element. reactance of the circuit; (ii) total impedance of

(c) What is the average power transferred to the circuit; (iii) peak value of current in the

the inductor? circuit; (iv) the phase relation between voltages

(d) What is the average power transferred to across inductor and resistor; (v) the phase

the capacitor? difference between voltage across inductor and

(e) What is the total average power absorbed capacitor.

by the circuit ? ['Average' implies 'averaged

over one cycle'.]

Q.28 A step-down transformer converts a voltage

Q.23 Answer the following questions: of 2200 volt into 220 volt in the transmission

(a) In any A.C. circuit, is the applied line. Number of turns in primary coil is 5000.

instantaneous voltage equal to the algebraic sum Efficiency of the transformer is 90% and its

of the instantaneous voltages across the series output power is 8 kW. Calculate (i) number of

elements of the circuit? Is the same true for turns in the secondary coil (ii) input power.

rms voltage?

(b) A capacitor is used in the primary circuit Q.29 What will be the effect on inductive reactance

of an induction coil. XL and capacitance XC, if frequency of ac

(c) An applied voltage signal consists of a source is increased ?

superposition of a D.C. voltage and an A.C.

voltage of high frequency. The circuit consists Q.30 The frequency of ac is doubled, what happens

of an inductor and a capacitor in series. Show

to (i) inductive reactance (ii) capacitive

that the D.C. signal will appear across C and

reactance ?

the A.C. signal across L.

(e) Why is choke coil needed in the use of

fluorescent tubes with A.C. mains? Why can

we not use an ordinary resistor instead of the

choke coil ?

a 110 V, 70 Hz source. Find (a) reactance

(b) current (c) peak value of current.

reactance is 22 ohm at 200 hertz is connected

to a 220 volt, 50 hertz power line. What is the

value of the inductance and reactance ?

consumes a current 10 A. It is connected to a

250 V - 50 Hz A.C. mains through a choke.

Calculate the inductance of the choke required.

25

AC

EXERCISE - II

Q.1 In the given current, find the ratio of i1 to i2 Q.8 In a L-R decay circuit, the initial current at

where i1 is the initial (at t = 0) current and i2 is t = 0 is I. Find the total charge that has flown

steady state (at t = oo) current through the through the resistor till the energy in the inductor

battery. has reduced to one-fourth its initial value.

Q.9 A capacitor C with a charge Q0 is connected

across an inductor through a switch S. If at

t= 0, the switch is closed, then find the

instantaneous charge q on the upper plate of

L capacitor.

Q.2 Find the dimension of the quantity ,

RCV

where symbols have usual meaning.

Q.3 In the circuit shown, initially the switch is in

position 1 for a long time. Then the switch is Q.10 An inductor of inductance 2.0mH,is connected

shifted to position 2 for a long time. Find the across a charged capacitor of capacitance

total heat produced in R2. 5.0 µ F,and the resulting LC circuit is set

oscillating at its natural frequency. Let Q denote

the instantaneous charge on the capacitor, and

I the current in the circuit .It is found that the

maximum value of Q is 200 µ C.

(a) when Q=100 µ C,what is the value of

|dI/dt| ?

Q.4 Two resistors of 10Ω and 20Ω and an ideal (b) when Q=200 µ C ,what is the value of I ?

inductor of 10H are connected to a 2V battery (c) Find the maximum value of I.

as shown. The key K is shorted at time t = 0. (d) when I is equal to one half its maximum

Find the initial (t = 0) and final (t ->oo) currents value, what is the value of |Q|.

through battery.

Q.11 Find the value of an inductance which should

be connected in series with a capacitor of

5 F, a resistance of 10Ω and an ac source of

50 Hz so that the power factor of the circuit is

unity.

Q.5 An emf of 15 volt is applied in a circuit Q.12 In an L-R series A.C circuit the potential

containing 5 H inductance and 10 Ω resistance. difference across an inductance and resistance

Find the ratio of the currents at time t = oo and joined in series are respectively 12 V and 16V.

t = 1 second. Find the total potential difference across the

circuit.

Q.6 In the circuit shown in figure switch S is closed

at time t = 0. Find the charge which passes Q.13 A 50W, 100V lamp is to be connected to an

through the battery in one time constant. ac mains of 200V, 50Hz. What capacitance is

essential to be put in series with the lamp.

Q.14 In the circuit shown in the figure the switched

S1 and S2 are closed at time t = 0. After time

t = (0.1) ln 2 sec, switch S2 is opened. Find

Q.7 Two coils, 1 & 2, have a mutual inductance = the current in the circuit at time t = (0.2)ln2 sec.

M and resistances R each. A current flows in

coil 1, which varies with time as: I1 = kt2 , where

K is a constant and 't' is time. Find the total

charge that has flown through coil 2, between

t = 0 and t = T.

26

AC

Q.15 Find the values of i1 and i2 Q.21 A box P and a coil Q are connected in series

(i) immediately after the with an ac source of variable frequency. The

switch S is closed. emf of source at 10 V. Box P contains a

(ii) long time later, with S closed. capacitance of 1 µ F in series with a resistance

(iii) immediately after S is open. of 32Ω coil Q has a self-inductance 4.9 mH

(iv) long time after S is opened. and a resistance of 68Ω series. The frequency

Q.16 Suppose the emf of the battery, the circuit is adjusted so that the maximum current flows

shown varies with time t so the current is given in P and Q. Find the impedance of P and Q at

by i(t) = 3 + 5t, where i is in amperes & t is in this frequency. Also find the voltage across P

seconds. and Q respectively.

Take R = 4Ω, L = 6H

Q.22 A series LCR circuit containing a resistance of

& find an expression

for the battery emf as 120Ω has angular resonance frequency

function of time. 4 × 105 rad s-1. At resonance the voltages

across resistance and inductance are 60 V and

Q.17 Two parallel vertical metallic rails AB & CD 40 V respectively. Find the values of L and C.

are separated by 1 m. They are connected at At what frequency the current in the circuit lags

the two ends by resistance R1 & R2 as shown

the voltage by 45°?

in the figure. A horizontally metallic bar L of

mass 0.2 kg slides without friction, vertically Q.23 An inductor of inductance L = 400 mH and

down the rails under the action of gravity. There resistors of resistances R1 = 2Ω and R2 = 2Ω

is a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 0.6T are connected to a battery of e.m.f. E = 12V

perpendicular to the plane of the rails, it is as shown in the figure. The internal resistance

observed that when the terminal velocity is of the battery is negligible. The switch S is

attained, the power dissipated in R1 & R2 are closed at time t = 0. What is the potential drop

0.76 W & 1.2 W respectively. Find the terminal across L as a function of time? After the steady

velocity of bar L & value R1 & R2. state is reached, the switch is opened. What is

the direction and the magnitude of current

through R1 as a function of time?

E L

R 1

S R 2

shown, what is the

V = Vo sin ω t is applied. It is given that

variation of the current

ω

I as a function of time? L = 35mH, R = 11Ω, Vrms= 220 V, = 50Hz

The switch is closed at 2π

and π = 22/7. Find the amplitude of current

time t = 0 sec.

in the steady state and obtain the phase

Q.19 A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected

difference between the current and the voltage.

to a 12 V dc source. If the same coil is

Also plot the variation of current for one cycle

connected to a 12V, 50 rad/s ac source a on the given graph.

current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit. Determine

the inductance of the coil. Also find the power

developed in the circuit if a 2500 µ F capacitor V

is connected in series with the coil.

Q.20 An LCR series circuit with 100Ω resistance is

connected to an ac source of 200 V and angular

frequency 300 rad/s. When only the

capacitance is removed, the current lags behind O T/4 T/2 3T/4 T t

the voltage by 60°. When only the inductance

is removed, the current leads the voltage by

60°. Calculate the current and the power

dissipated in the LCR circuit.

27

AC

EXERCISE - III

Single Correct Question Which one(s) of the following graphs could

Q.1 A rectangular loop with a sliding connector of have caused i2 to behave as give above.

length 10 cm is situated in uniform magnetic

field perpendicular to plane of loop. The

magnetic induction is 0.1 tesla and resistance (A)

of connector (R) is 1 ohm. The sides AB and

CD have resistances 2 ohm and 3 ohm

respectively. Find the current in the connector

during its motion with constant velocity one (B)

metre/sec.

(C)

1 1

(A) A (B) A (D)

110 220

1 1

(C) A (D) A

55 440

Q.4 For L-R circuit, the time constant is equal to

Q.2 A square coil ABCD is placed in x-y plane with (A) twice the ratio of the energy stored in the

its centre at origin. A long straight wire, passing magnetic field to the rate of dissipation of

through origin, carries a current in negative z-

energy in the resistance

direction. Current in this wire increases with

(B) ratio of the energy stored in the magnetic

time. The induced current in the coil is :

field to the rate of dissipation of energy in

the resistance

(C) half the ratio of the energy stored in the

magnetic field to the rate of dissipation of

energy in the resistance

(D) square of the ratio of the energy stored in

(A) clockwise (B) anticlockwise the magnetic field to the rate of dissipation

(C) zero (D) alternating of energy in the resistance

Q.3 An electric current i1 can flow either direction Q.5 In the adjoining circuit, initially the switch S is

through loop (1) and induced current i2 in loop open. The switch ‘S’ is closed at t = 0. The

(2). Positive i1 is when current is from 'a' to 'b' difference between the maximum and minimum

in loop (1) and positive i2 is when the current current that can flow in the circuit is

is from 'c' to 'd' in loop (2) In an experiment,

the graph of i2 against time 't' is as shown below

(C) 1 Amp

(D) nothing can be concluded

28

AC

Q.6 The ratio of time constant in build up and decay Q.11 L, C and R represent physical quantities

in the circuit shown in figure is inductance, capacitance and resistance. The

combination which has the dimensions of

frequency is

1 R 1 R

(A) and (B) and

RC L RC L

(A) 1 : 1 (B) 3 : 2

(C) 2 : 3 (D) 1 : 3 C

(C) LC (D)

L

Q.7 In an L-R circuit connected to a battery of

constant e.m.f. E switch S is closed at time

t = 0. If e denotes the magnitude of induced Q.12 A coil of inductance 5H is joined to a cell of

e.m.f. across inductor and i the current in the emf 6V through a resistance 10Ωat time t = 0.

circuit at any time t. Then which of the following The emf across the coil at time t = ln 2 s is:

graphs shows the variation of e with i ? (A) 3V (B) 1.5 V

(C) 0.75 V (D) 4.5 V

complete circuit. If at a certain instant, the

current I is 5A and it is decreasing at a rate of

103 As-1 then VB-VA equals

(C) (D)

through a coil of inductance 2H. The energy (C) 10 V (D) 5 V

stored in the inductor per unit time is

(A) 2 J/s (B) 1 J/s Q.14 In the previous question, if I is reversed in

(C) 16 J/s (D) 4 J/s direction, then VB - VA equals

Q.9 Two identical inductance carry currents that (A) 5 V (B) 10 V

vary with time according to linear laws (as (C) 15 V (D) 20 V

shown in figure). In which of two inductance is

the self induction emf greater? Q.15 Two resistors of 10 Ω and 20 Ω and an ideal

inductor of 10 H are connected to a 2 V battery

as shown. The key K is inserted at time t = 0.

The initial (t = 0) and final (t ->oo) currents

through battery are

(A) 1 (B) 2

(C) same

(D) data are insufficient to decide

Q.10 The current in the given circuit is increasing with

a rate a = 4 amp/s. The charge on the capacitor

at an instant when the current in the circuit is 2

1 1 1 1

amp will be : (A) A, A (B) A, A

15 10 10 15

(A) 4 µ C

(B) 5 µ C 2 1 1 2

(C) A, A (D) A, A

(C) 6 µ C 15 10 15 25

(D) none of these

29

AC

Q.16 In the circuit shown, the cell is ideal. The coil Q.19 An induction coil stores 32 joules of magnetic

has an inductance of 4H and zero resistance. energy and dissipates energy as heat at the rate

F is a fuse of zero resistance and will blow when of 320 watts when a current of 4 amperes is

the current through it reaches 5A. The switch passed through it. Find the time constant of the

is closed at t = 0. The fuse will blow : circuit when the coil is joined across a battery.

(A) 0.2 s (B) 0.1 s

(C) 0.3 s (D) 0.4 s

The potential difference VB - VAwhen the

(A) just after t=0 current I is 5A and is decreasing at a rate of

(B) after 2s 103 As-1 is given by

(C) after 5s

(D) after 10s

(A) 15 V (B) 10 V

Q.17 In the circuit shown, X is joined to Y for a long (C) -15 V (D) 20 V

time, and then X is joined to Z. The total heat

produced in R2 is :

Q.21 In a L-R decay circuit, the initial current at t =

0 is I. The total charge that has flown through

the resistor till the energy in the inductor has

reduced to one-fourth its initial value, is

(A) L I / R (B) L I/ 2R

LE 2 LE 2

(A) (B) 2R22

2R12

Q.22 An inductor coil stores U energy when i current

is passed through it and dissipates energy at

LE 2 LE 2 R2

(C) (D) 2 the rate of P. The time constant of the circuit,

2R1R2 2R1 when this coil is connected across a battery of

zero internal resistance is

Q.18 The circuit shown has been operating for a long

time. The instant after the switch in the circuit 4U U

(A) (B)

labeled S is opened, what is the voltage across P P

the inductor VL and which labeled point (A or

2U 2P

B) of the inductor is at a higher potential ? Take (C) (D)

R1 = 4.0 Ω, R2 = 8.0 Ω, and L = 2.5 H. P U

L S

A B Q.23 The power factor of the circuit is 1/ 2 . The

capacitance of the circuit is equal to

R1 R2

= 12v

(B) VL = 12 V ; Point B is at the higher potential

(C) VL = 6V ; Point A is at the higher potential (A) 400 µ F (B) 300 µ F

(D) VL = 6V ; Point B is at the higher potential (C) 500 µ F (D) 200 µ F

30

AC

Q.24 When a resistance R is connected in series with Q.29 An AC current is given by I = I0 + I1 sin wt

an element A, the electric current is found to then its rms value will be

be lagging behind the voltage by angle Ѳ 1. When (A) I 02 + 0.5I 1 2 (B) I0 2 + 0.5I0 2

the same resistance is connected in series with

element B, current leads voltage by Ѳ 2. When

(C) 0 (D) I 0 2

R, A, B are connected in series, the current

now leads voltage by Ѳ. Assume same AC

Q.30 The phase difference between current and

source is used in all cases, then :

voltage in an AC circuit is π/4 radian. If the

(A) Ѳ = Ѳ 2 - Ѳ 1

frequency of AC is 50 Hz, then the phase

(B) tan Ѳ = tan Ѳ 2 - tan Ѳ 1

difference is equivalent to the time difference :

Ѳ1 + Ѳ 2

(C) Ѳ = (A) 0.78 s (B) 15.7 ms

2

(C) 0.25 s (D) 2.5 ms

(D) None of these

Q.25 In the circuit, as shown in the figure, if the value Q.31 Power factor of an L-R series circuit is 0.6

of R.M.S current is 2.2 ampere, the power

and that of a C-R series circuit is 0.5. If the

factor of the box is

element (L, C, and R) of the two circuits are

joined in series the power factor of this circuit

is found to be 1. The ratio of the resistance in

the L-R circuit to the resistance in the C-R

circuit is

1 (A) 6/5 (B) 5/6

(A) (B) 1

2

4 3 3

3 1 (C) (D)

(C) (D) 3 3 4

2 2

Q.26 When 100 V DC is applied across a solenoid

a current of 1 A flows in it. When 100 V AC is Q.32 The effective value of current

applied across the same coil, the current drops i = 2 sin 100 ω t + 2 sin(100 ω t + 30°) is :

to 0.5 A. If the frequency of the AC source is

50 Hz, the impedance and inductance of the (A) 2A (B) 2 2 3

solenoid are: (C) 4 (D) None

(A) 100Ω, 0.93 H (B) 200Ω, 1.0 H

(C) 10Ω, 0.86H (D) 200Ω, 0.55 H Q.33 If I1, I2, I3 and I4 are the respective r.m.s. values

Q.27The power in ac circuit is given by of the time varying currents as shown in the

P = ErmsIrmscosφ. The vale of cos φ in series four cases I, II, III and IV. Then identify the

LCR circuit at resonance is: correct relations.

(A) zero (B) 1

1 1

(C) (D)

2 2

Q.28 In ac circuit when ac ammeter is connected it

reads i current if a student uses dc ammeter in

place of ac ammeter the reading in the dc

ammeter will be:

i

(A) 2 (B) 2i (A) I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 (B) I3 > I1 = I2 > I4

(C) I3 > I4 > I2 = I1 (D) I3 > I2 > I1 > I4

(C) 0.637 i (D) zero

31

AC

Q.34 In series LR circuit XL = 3R. Now a capacitor Multiple Correct Question

with XC = R is added in series. Ratio of new to Q.38 A circuit element is placed in a closed box. At

old power factor is time t=0, constant current generator supplying

(A) 1 (B) 2 a current of 1 amp, is connected across the

box. Potential difference across the box varies

1

(C) (D) 2 according to graph shown in figure. The

2 element in the box is :

the inductor and potential difference VC across

the capacitor in circuit as shown in the figure

are best represented vectorially as

(A) resistance of 2Ω

(B) battery of emf 6V

(C) inductance of 2H

(A) (B) (D) capacitance of 0.5F

capacitance and resistance respectively.

(C) (D) Dimension of frequency are given by the

combination

(A) 1 / RC (B) R / L

Q.36 In the shown AC circuit phase different

1

between currents I1 and I2 is (C) (D) C / L

LC

t = 0. Which of the following quantities is not

zero just after the circuit

(A) current in the circuit

(B) magnetic field energy in the inductor

(A) π -tan-1 xL (C) power delivered by the battery

2 R (D) emf induced in the inductor

xL - x C

(B) tan-1 Q.41 The switches in figures (a) and (b) are closed

R

at t = 0

(C) π + tan-1 xL

2 R

x L - x C + π/2

(D) tan-1

R

source is half of the resonance frequency. The (A) The charge on C just after t = 0 is EC.

nature of the circuit will be (B) The charge on C long after t = 0 is EC.

(C) The current in L just after t = 0 is E/R.

(A) capacitive (B) inductive

(D) The current in L long after t = 0 is E/R.

(C) purely resistive (D) data insufficient

32

AC

Q.42 For L - R circuit, the time constant is equal to Q.45 Two coil A and B have coefficient of mutual

(A) twice the ratio of the energy stored in the inductance M = 2H. The magnetic flux passing

magnetic field to the rate of the dissipation of through coil A changes by 4 Weber in 10

energy in the resistance. seconds due to the change in current in B. Then

(B) the ratio of the energy stored in the magnetic (A) change in current in B in this time interval is

field to the rate of dissipation of energy in the 0.5 A

resistance.

(B) the change in current in B in this time interval

(C) half of the ratio of the energy stored in the is 2A

magnetic field to the rate of dissipation of energy

(C) the change in current in B in this time interval

in the resistance.

is 8A

(D) square of the ratio of the energy stored in

(D) a change in current of 1A in coil A will

the magnetic field to the rate of dissipation

produce a change in flux passing through

energy in the resistance.

B by 4 Weber.

Q.43 An inductor L, a resistance R and two identical

bulbs B1 and B2 are connected to a battery Q.46 Two different coils have self inductance 8mH

through a switch S as shown in the figure. The and 2mH. The current in one coil is increased

resistance of coil having inductance L is also at a constant rate. The current in the second

R. Which of the following statement gives the coil is also increased at the same constant. At

correct description of the happenings when the a certain instant of time, the power given to the

switch S is closed? two coils is the same. At that time the current,

the induced voltage and the energy stored in

the first coil are I1, V1 and W1 respectively.

Corresponding values for the second coil at

the same instant are I2, v2 and W2 respectively.

Then:

(A) The bulb B2 lights up earlier than B1 and I1 1 I1

(A) = (B) =4

finally both the bulbs shine equally bright. I2 4 I2

(B) B1 light up earlier and finally both the bulbs

acquire equal brightness. W2 V2 1

(C) =4 (D) =

(C) B2 lights up earlier and finally B1 shines W1 V1 4

brighter than B2.

(D) B1 and B2 light up together with equal

Assertion Reason Question

brightness all the time.

Q.47 Statement-1 : When a circuit having large

Q.44 In figure, a lamp P is in series with an iron-core

inductance is switched off sparking occurs at

inductor L. When the switch S is closed, the the switch.

brightness of the lamp rises relatively slowly to Statement-2 : Emf induced in an inductor is

its full brightness than it would do without the

di

inductor. This is due to given by | є | = L

dt

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and

statement-2 is correct explanation for

statement-1.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and

(A) the low resistance of P

(B) the induced-emf in L statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for

(C) the low resistance of L statement-1.

(D) the high voltage of the battery B (C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

33

AC

Q.48 Statement-1 : When resistance of rheostat is Q.51 At the same instant, the magnitude of the

increased, clockwise current is induced in the potential difference in volt, across the ac source

ring. may be

Statement-2 : Magnetic flux through the ring

is out of the page and decreasing. 4+ 3 3

(A) 4+ 3 3 (B)

2

3 3

(C)1+ (D)2+

2 2

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and Q.52 If the current at this instant is decreasing the

statement-2 is correct explanation for

magnitude of potential difference at that instant

statement-1.

across the ac source is

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and

statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for (A) Increasing (B) Decreasing

statement-1. (C) Constant (D) Cannot be said

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true. Comprehension-II

The capacitor of capacitance C can be charged

Q.49 Statement-1 : Peak voltage across the (with the help of a resistance R) by a voltage

resistance can be greater than the peak voltage source V, by closing switch S1 while keeping

of the source in an series LCR circuit. switch S2 open. The capacitor can be

Statement-2 : Peak voltage across the connected in series with an inductor ‘L’ by

inductor can be greater than the peak voltage closing switch S2 and opening S1.

of the source in an series LCR circuit.

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and V

statement-2 is correct explanation for

statement-1.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and R C S1

statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for

statement-1.

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false. S2

L

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

Comprehension-I Q.53 Initially, the capacitor was uncharged. Now,

switch S1 is closed and S2 is kept open. If time

In a series L-R circuit, connected with a constant of this circuit is τ, then

sinusoidal ac source, the maximum potential (A) after time interval τ, charge on the capacitor

difference across L and R are respectively 3 is CV/2

volts and 4 volts.

(B) after time interval 2τ, charge on the

capacitor is CV(1-e-2)

Q.50 At an instant the potential difference across

(C) the work done by the voltage source will

resistor is 2 volts. The potential difference in

be half of the heat dissipated when the

volt, across the inductor at the same instant will

be : capacitor is fully charged.

(A) 3 cos 30° (B) 3 cos 60° (D) after time interval 2τ, charge on the

(C) 3 cos 45° (D) None of these capacitor is CV(1-e-1)

34

AC

Q.54 After the capacitor gets fully charged, S1 is

opened and S2 is closed so that the inductor is

connected in series with the capacitor. Then,

(A) at t = 0, energy stored in the circuit is purely

in the form of magnetic energy

(B) at any time t > 0, current in the circuit is in

the same direction

(C) at t > 0, there is no exchange of energy

between the inductor and capacitor

(D) at any time t > 0, instantaneous current in

C

the circuit may V

L

Q0, then for t >=0

(A) the charge on t he capacitor is

π +t

Q= Q 0cos ( 2 LC

)

(B) the charge on t he capacitor is

( π2

-t

Q= Q cos

0

LC

(C) the charge on t he capacitor is

d2Q

Q = -LC

dt 2

(D) the charge on t he capacitor is

1 d2Q

Q=-

LC dt 2

35

AC

ANSWERS KEY

EXERCISE - I

I0

Q.5 Ir.m.s. = Q.6 No

2

Q.7 The current lags behid the voltage by phase angel π/2.

1 1

Q.8 Capacitive reactance, XC = = 2 π fC

ωC

Q.10 It is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction.

Q.11 (i) By using laminated iron core, we minimize loss of energy due to eddy currents. (ii) By selecting a

suitable materials for the core of a transformer, the hysteresis loss can be minizized.

Q.13 (a) ~~311 sin 314 t (b) 200 V, 127.4 V Q.14 50 Hz

Q.15 (a) 318.31 Ω (b) 0.314 A (c) 9.14 W Q.16 6.124 A

Q.18 (a) 2.20 A, (b) 484 W

Q.19 0.354 A

Q.20 109.5 Ω

Q.21 (a) 50 rad s-1, (b) 40 Ω, 8.1 A, (c) VLCrms = 1437.5 V, VCrms = 1437.5 V, VRrms = 230 V,

1

]=0

ω 0C

(a) For V = V0 sin ω t

V0 π

I= Sin ωt ; If R = 0

1 2

ω L- ωC

I0 = 11.6 A, Irms = 8.24 A

(b) VLrms = 207 V, VCrms = 437 V

(c) Whatever be the current I in L, actual voltage leads current by π/2. Therefore, average power

consumed by L is zero.

(d) For C, voltage lags by π /2. Again, average power consumed by C is zero.

(e) Total average power absorbed is zero.

Q.23 (a) Yes. The same is not true for rms voltage, because voltages across different elements may not be in

phase.

(b) The high induced voltage, when the circuit is broken, is used to charge the capacitor, thus avoiding

sparks, etc.

(c) For dc, impendance of L is negligible and of C very high (infinite), so the D.C. signal appears across C.

For high frequency ac, impedance of L is high and that of C is low. So, the A.C.signal appears across L.

(e) A choke coil reduces voltage across the tube without wasting power. A resistor would wast power

as heat.

Q.24 (a) 440 Ω (b) 0.25 A (c) 0.354 A Q.25 1.75 × 10-2 H; 5.5 Ω

Q.26 0.446 H

Q.27 Resonant frequency = 39.79 Hz

(a) 2000Ω (ii) 100 Ω (iii) 2A (iv) 90° (v) 180°

Q.28 (i) 500 (ii) 8.9 kW

36

AC

EXERCISE - II

EXERCISE - III

37

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