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Learning Objectives – Corrosion Control

1. Understand the principles of each of the various corrosion control strategies: cathodic protection, inhibitors, coatings, design, and materials selections.

2. Know how to select the appropriate corrosion control strategy for various service environments.

3. Develop the skills to design key aspects of various corrosion control systems.

7.1 Introduction to Corrosion Prevention by Design

Equipment and Structures are typically designed to perform a specific function over a required service life. Corrosion prevention plays a critical role in determining the service life of components in a given service environment. but it is only one of many parameters which the engineer must consider when undertaking a design. To a large extent, the function of the equipment and the service environment will dictate the kinds of corrosion prevention systems employed: cathodic protection systems, inhibitors, and or coatings. This chapter will focus mainly on complementary strategies in design that will enhance the effectiveness of these corrosion prevention systems.

7.2 Design Requirements

7.2.1. Design with sufficient corrosion allowance

Pipes, tanks, containers and other equipment are often made with a wall thickness twice the corrosion depth expected during the desired lifetime. However, this must of course depend on load and maximum permissible stresses too.

7.2.2. Design with easy replacement in mind

maximum permissible stresses too. 7.2.2. Design with easy replacement in mind 7.2.3. Designs should allow easy

7.2.3. Designs should allow easy drainage

maximum permissible stresses too. 7.2.2. Design with easy replacement in mind 7.2.3. Designs should allow easy

7.2 Design Requirements

7.2.3. Designs should allow easy drainage

Find a way to allow water to drain off metal surfaces. Figures below illustrates how structural members and armored electrical cable should be oriented to allow moisture to drain from the metal.

be oriented to allow moisture to drain from the metal. Drainage holes can eliminate liquid entrapment,

Drainage holes can eliminate liquid entrapment, but the holes must be located so that the draining liquid does not drip or splash onto other

eliminate liquid entrapment, but the holes must be located so that the draining liquid does not

7.2 Design Requirements

7.2.4. Avoid hot and cold spots

7.2 Design Requirements 7.2.4. Avoid hot and cold spots

7.2.5 Susceptible area avoidance

In particular, corrodible metals and microstructures must be given special care. For example, empty drums and cylinders may contain a small amount of liquid that remains to corrode the bottom, as shown below. The galvanic cell setup at the weld can be prevented by locating the weld above the bottom. Dissimilar metals must be joined so that liquids run off the junction to prevent the initiation of galvanic corrosion

the junction to prevent the initiation of galvanic corrosion (a) (b) Improved design Weld at tank

(a)

(b) Improved design

Weld at tank bottom will corrode if liquid residue or condensation collects.

will corrode if liquid residue or condensation collects. Aluminum boat superstructure fastened to steel deck. (a)

Aluminum boat superstructure fastened to steel deck. (a) Crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion possible and (b) better design.

7.2.6

Concentrating liquids avoidance

Spills, splashing, spray, and intermittent flow leave a thin film of liquid that may become more corrosive with time. Condensed moisture and spills will run down the walls of a tank to the bottom, where droplets will sit, absorbing O 2 , and slowly evaporating while concentrating dissolved corrosives. A drip skirt should be welded on. The bottom of the drip skirt corrodes badly but that is only a cosmetic problem.

skirt corrodes badly but that is only a cosmetic problem. Tank (a) without and (b) with

Tank (a) without and (b) with drip skirt.

The design for liquid flow into a container should prevent liquid from running down the wall (Fig. 13-lla ), where it can wet the wall and absorb oxygen, or where the concentrated solution can contact the metal before mixing. Splashing of liquid up on the wall (Fig. 13-llb and c) can be prevented by feeding it into the center of the tank. Do not let solutions concentrate on a metal surface. Splashing solution can dry and concentrate on the hot coil, in contrast to the coil in (b), which is completely submerged.

contrast to the coil in (b), which is completely submerged. Designs for adding concentrated liquid to

Designs for adding concentrated liquid to a vessel. (a-c): liquid runs down or splashes on tank: walls and (d) good design.

runs down or splashes on tank: walls and (d) good design. a) Splashing solution will concentrate

a) Splashing solution will concentrate on a hot heating coil and (b) good design.

7.2.7 Galvanic Corrosion - Bimetallic Contacts

In many designs the use and joining of dissimilar materials is

unavoidable.

differences between dissimilar materials, but this type of corrosion can be minimized through design by:

Galvanic corrosion arises due to the potentials

1. selecting materials with small potential differences,

2. avoiding large area differences between different metals (particularly small anode area to large cathode area), and

3. insulating bolted and flanged joints.

7.2.7 Minimizing Galvanic Corrosion

• Do not protect the corroding metal with paint unless the cathode metal is painted also

• Increasing the cathode/ anode ratio at the inevitable flaws and damaged spots in the paint film only concentrates the attack. Instead, try to minimize the cathode/anode area ratio.

With welds, for example, specify filler metal the same or slightly more noble than the base metal and require that welds be oriented so that the least surface area of the weld is exposed to the corrosive environment

• Make sure that the design does not call for welding that can sensitize stainless steel.

• As with welds, fasteners (rivets, bolts, screws, etc.) should be at least as noble as the much larger area of metal they fasten

• All galvanic corrosion can be stopped if the two metals can be electrically insulated from each other

they fasten • All galvanic corrosion can be stopped if the two metals can be electrically
they fasten • All galvanic corrosion can be stopped if the two metals can be electrically
they fasten • All galvanic corrosion can be stopped if the two metals can be electrically

7.2.7 Minimizing Galvanic Corrosion

Take advantage of the distance effect in galvanic corrosion by placing anode and cathode as far apart as possible, especially in low-conductivity solutions.

The heater should be put in the center of the tank to get it as far from the tank wall as possible

If the two metals cannot be insulated from each other. Steel insert, necessary for wear resistance, can be used in a magnesium plate, even though condensation from the atmosphere will contact both metals.

The distance effect can reduce corrosion if the middle section is made of a metal that is intermediate in corrodibility between the other two sections. This technique separates the highly noble metal that serves as the principal cathode from the very reactive metal that is doing most of the corroding. Or, the intermediate section can be the most corrodible if the wall thickness is made extra heavy. This same approach can also be used to mitigate concentration cells and differential temperature cells.

made extra heavy. This same approach can also be used to mitigate concentration cells and differential
made extra heavy. This same approach can also be used to mitigate concentration cells and differential

7.2.8 Protect against environmental cells

Crevices

Geometric crevices often occur when two pieces of metal are put together, especially if rough machining marks on the surface prevent intimate mating. Avoid deposits on the metal by making sure that designs do not include ledges, pockets, flanges, or obstructions that will provide a location for entrained solids to settle out of the liquid.

a location for entrained solids to settle out of the liquid. If crevices must be in

If crevices must be in the system, seal them. Weld, caulk, or solder rather than use fasteners, such as rivets or bolts. Welding must be continuous, not skip or spot weld, and butt welds are better than welded lap joints

as rivets or bolts. Welding must be continuous, not skip or spot weld, and butt welds
as rivets or bolts. Welding must be continuous, not skip or spot weld, and butt welds

7.2.9 Avoid corrosive-mechanical interaction

Erosion-Corrosion and Cavitation

• Good design can eliminate erosion-corrosion by reducing velocity, turbulence, and impingement.

by reducing velocity, turbulence, and impingement. • Turbulence is often caused by projections into a pipe

• Turbulence is often caused by projections into a pipe or abrupt changes in cross section. The design should eliminate changes or make them more gradual. Streamline inlets and outlets where rapid changes in velocity must occur.

eliminate changes or make them more gradual. Streamline inlets and outlets where rapid changes in velocity

7.2.10 Avoid stresses with corrosion

7.2.10 Avoid stresses with corrosion
7.2.10 Avoid stresses with corrosion
7.2.10 Avoid stresses with corrosion
How could design of the reactor reservoir shown below be improved ?

How could design of the reactor reservoir shown below be improved ?

1. A small copper pipe in your plant began spurting a long stream of hot acetic acid at an elbow. Inside the pipe the surface is quite smooth with some rippled appearance. What changes in design could you recommend to prevent further trouble here?

2. What corrosion problems are the following design recommendations

intended to overcome? (a) Install a drip skirt. (b) Increase pipe diameter. (c) Install legs on the tank to raise it off the floor. (d) Install controls to hold solution temperature constant. (e) Insulate the legs of a reactor as well as the reactor.

3. A heavy-walled cast iron pipe is connected to a copper pipe.

They will be carrying dilute acetic acid at room temperature and very moderate velocity. The pipes are separated by a ceramic coupling to prevent corrosion. Is that right? Also, both pipes are

suspended from the roof I-beams by steel straps. Would corrosion occur?

4. How could you tell whether a failure is corrosion fatigue or SCC?

5. A pump impeller handling a corrosive liquid shows a small patch of losely spaced pits. What is your diagnosis and what is your cure for the problem

6. It took 1 h to transfer 98% H 2 SO 4 at 25 o C through a steel pipeline. A stronger pump was installed that reduced the transfer time to 15 min, but the pipe failed in less than 1 week. Which of the following suggestions could prevent damage to a new steel pipe? Explain. (a) Increase pipe diameter, (b) reduce acid concentration, or (c) align pipe sections carefully.

7. Suggest some improvement of the design shown.

7. Suggest some improvement of the design shown.

8.

A corrosion inhibitor protects a metal surface by

a) eliminating the corrosion from the metal surface

b) dissolving the corrosion products formed on the metal surface

c) increasing the thickness of the metal surface

d) being adsorbed on the metal surface

9. Cathodic inhibitors react by

a) increasing the rate of cathodic reduction by hydrogen

b) increasing the rate of oxygen reduction at the metal/electrolyte interface

c) shifting the potential of the cathode in a more negative direction

d) shifting the potential of the cathode in a more positive direction

10.

Which one of the following features least promotes corrosion?

a) Entrapment of moisture

b) Crevices

c) Shape

d) Thickness of the metal or alloy used

11. To eliminate entrapment of moisture, it is advised to

a) make corners smooth

b) coat the containers

c) use corrosion resistant alloy, like cupro-nickel

d) provide a drainage hole

12. Steel columns rest on ground levels. In certain situations water and debris collects at the junction of the ground and the columns. The most practical way to resolve the problem is to

columns. The most practical way to resolve the problem is to a) keep the junction clean

a) keep the junction clean by physical means

b) eliminate the source of water and debris

c) use coated steel columns

d) use concrete plinths with provision for water to runoff

13.

Storage containers should be designed in such a way that

a) no crevices are formed

b) no obstacle to drainage occurs

c) the design should ensure that the containers are drained in minimum time

d) the containers should be constructed from plastics rather than metals or alloys

14. If moisture and dirt entrapment is a major problem, it would be a good practice to

a) spot weld

b) skip weld

c) stitch weld

d) butt weld

15. To maintain a smooth flow in pipes, it is usual to avoid throttles, valves, and orifices unless absolutely necessary. This is usually done to

a) maintain smooth flow

b) avoid impingement of fluids

c) eliminate surging of pressure

16. The corrosion resistance of metals, such as stainless steels and copper alloys, depends upon the buildup of uniform surface films. Which one of the following would require a maximum attention of the designer?

a) Accessibility of oxygen in the operating medium

b) Coating of the metal

c) The drainage capability of the vessel

d) The period of storage of the liquid in a container

Learning Outcomes

What have you learned from this lecture?

1. You can describe design solutions to minimize corrosion caused by bimetallic contacts.

2. You can describe design solutions to minimize corrosion caused by joints, faying surfaces, welds and crevices.

3. You can describe design solutions to minimize corrosion caused by fluid movement.

4. You can describe the essential features of a properly designed liquid container.

Learning Outcomes

What have you learned from this lecture?

1. You can describe the requirements, mechanisms and consequences of fretting corrosion.

2. You can describe some engineering solutions for preventing fretting corrosion.

3. You can describe the requirements, mechanisms and consequences of erosion corrosion and cavitation damage.

4. You can describe some engineering solutions for preventing erosion corrosion and cavitation damage.