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1.

MEASUREMENT OF CUTTING FORCES DURING TURNING


OPERATION

Aim: To measure the cutting forces using a strain gauge based lathe tool dynamometer and study
the effect of machining parameters on them.

Tools, m/c tools required: Three component lathe tool dynamometer, Cylindrical Work piece
(of given material), Lathe.

Theory: Measuring cutting forces during machining processes is the most important and basic
step to determine and control the conditions under which the machine, the tool, and the work
piece are performing. Through measuring cutting forces and analysis of the chip formation that
takes place during machining, it is possible to estimate the operating temperatures, tool wear, and
power consumption. The computation of these parameters is required to estimate and control the
quality of the finished product as well as to consider maintenance actions for the optimal
operation of the machine and the tool.
In an orthogonal cutting, tangential cutting force (Ft) is the force acting on the tool in the direction
of the work piece travel).Axial cutting force (Ff) is the force required to keep the cutting edge in
contact with the workpiece (perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece). As the turning is not
orthogonal cutting in true sense, one more force, referred as Radial force (Fr) acts on the tool.
This is as shown in Fig. 1.1. The power consumption during turning is determined by tangential
cutting force. In this experiment, we are going to find the above force component using a strain
gauge based three component lathe tool dynamometer.

Fig.1.1 Cutting forces during turning


The dynamometer consists of a tool holder that can be held rigidly in the dynamometer body.
Sensing is done by resistance strain gauges mounted in the form of half bridge. The dynamometer

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can be mounted on the lathe tool Post. The output of the bridges is connected to the Instrument
panel for measurement of unbalance voltages. The display device consists of three digital displays
on which the three force components can be read directly.

Procedure: Before starting the experiments, the bridge balancing has to be carried out by
following the steps given below:
1. Place the sensing unit of the dynamometer in proper position.
2. Connect the cable of the tool holder to the Digital Indicator Unit.
3. Connect Force Indicator to 230 V, single phase supply and switch ‘ON’ supply.
4. Now Instrument is ready for use
5. Obtain balance on each channel by operating balance pot on Indicator for all three channels,
under specified conditions.
After the bridge balancing, carry out the experimentation according to the following sequence:
1. Mount the dynamometer on the tool post of the lathe and clamp it rigidly.
2. Mount solid work – piece in the chuck.
3. Adjust the speed & feed of the Lathe Machine and start the Machine. Feed the tool manually
to start cutting and then feed it automatically.
4. Wait to stabilize the output of the bridges and measure the maximum output for Vertical
Horizontal & Radial forces.
5. The Vertical and Horizontal forces on the dynamometer should not exceed the limit 500 kg. (
For safety purpose work up to 300 Kg )
To study the effect of processing parameters viz. speed, feed and depth of cut, select the three
levels of each i.e. lowest (-1) highest (+1) and middle (0). Now plan the experiments using full
factorial scheme of experimental design as shown in observation table. For each experiment note
the values of three components of the cutting force. Plot your results using two dimensional
interactions plots i.e. speed x feed, speed x depth of cut and feed x depth of cut. Derive the
regression equation to predict these forces within the experimental regime.

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Observation Table

Run
Speed Feed Depth of Cut Ft Ff Fr
No.
1 1 -1 -1
2 1 -1 1
3 -1 1 -1
4 0 0 0
5 -1 -1 1
6 1 1 -1
7 0 0 0
8 -1 1 1
9 1 1 1
10 -1 -1 -1

Precaution: Do not exceed Depth of Cut above 2 mm.

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2. ALIGNMENT TESTS FOR MACHINE TOOLS

Aim: To conduct alignment tests of a lathe machine.

Tools, m/c tools required: Dial gauge, test mandrels, live center and a lathe.

Theory: The accuracy and surface finish obtained on job machined on a m/c tool is
governed by the accuracy of the machine tool itself. Alignment tests or geometrical tests
are therefore conducted to ascertain the positional relation of parts of a m/c tool and their
permissible deviations. These tests can be categorized in three types.
1. Static Tests: The tests that check the alignment accuracy of various parts of a
machine tool under static conditions are known as static tests.
2. Dynamic Tests: The tests that check the behavior and characteristics of a machine
tool under normal operating conditions are known as "dynamic tests". In dynamic
tests, the machine tool is to be tested for its alignment under actual running
conditions. This test is conducted to check the effect of-vibrations/deflections of the
machine on its accuracy.
3. Practical Tests: This is final test for the accuracy of the machine tool which is done
by inspecting a specimen test piece machined according to the purposes for which the
machine tool is designed. .
A brief note on ‘Geometrical tolerances’ the knowledge of which is essential to conduct
alignment tests is given below. Unlike the dimensional tolerances that are related to the
dimensions of a job, the geometrical tolerances are related to the form of the surface
being described. Accordingly, the geometric tolerances are of two types, namely, Form
tolerances and Attitude tolerances.

1. Form Tolerances: These describe the quality of a surface. It specifies how much the
actual surface deviates from the desired surface. e.g. straightness, flatness, roundness
and cylindricity.
2. Attitude Tolerances: The permissible deviation in the specified attitude of a surface
or feature in relation to same other surface or feature taken as datum is called attitude
tolerance. e.g. Parallelism, squareness and concentricity.

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Straightness: It is the condition of a line where all its points should lie exactly along a
straight line. Its tolerance is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder within which all the
points of the line under consideration would lie.
e.g. (1) Straightness of slide ways of machine tools.
(2) Straightness line motion in guide ways. Refer Fig.2.1

Fig.2.1 Straightness testing


Flatness: It is condition of a plane where all the points lie on a flat surface. Its tolerance
is the perpendicular distance between imaginary and perfect flat parallel planes within
which actual surface must lie.
e.g. Flatness of lathe bed. Refer Fig.2.2

Fig.2.2: Flatness testing


Roundness: It is the condition where all its points lie along a circle. Its tolerance is the
radial distance between two imaginary perfect concentric circles within which the true
circle must lie. Refer Fig.2.3

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Fig.2.3: Roundness testing
Cylindricity: It is the condition of a cylindrical plane where all its points should lie along
an exact cylindrical surface. Cylindrical tolerance is the radial distance between two
imaginary and perfect concentric cylinders within which the true surface must lie. Refer
Fig.2.4

Fig.2.4: Cylidricity testing

Parallelism: It is condition of a plane to be parallel with a reference plane. Its tolerance is


measured as the distance between two planes, which are parallel to the reference plane
within which the plane under consideration must lie. This is shown in Fig.2.5.Parallelism
can be of
i. Two axes.
ii. Two planes.
iii. An axis to a plane.
iv. An axis to the intersection of two planes.

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Fig.2.5: Testing of parallelism
Squareness: It is the condition of a plane to be perpendicular with the reference plane.
Its tolerance is measured as the distance between two parallel planes perpendicular to the
reference plane in which the surface under consideration should lie. Refer Fig.2.6
Squareness can be:
i. An axis of rotation with a given plane.
ii. Squareness of two planes.
iii. Squareness of an axis to plane.
iv. Squareness of an axis to the intersection of two planes.

Fig.2.6: Testing of squareness

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S.
Test Diagram Max. Error Accuracy
No.

4a

4b

10

11

12

Fig.2.7: Different machine tool tests.


Fig.2.7 gives set up for the tests to be conducted on a lathe machine. Conduct the tests as

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per the procedure given below and note down the actual error determined in each of the
tests in the column provided and compare it with the maximum error recommended by
the manufacturer.
Test 1: Concentricity of Head Stock Spindle: The concentricity of head stock spindle
can be checked by setting the dial gauge plunger at the top of the cylindrical surface of
the spindle as shown in Fig.2.7 (Setting the dial gauge plunger in alignment tests mean
that a little initial pressure is given to the plunger and is set to zero. This is called as pre
loading of the dial test gauge). The spindle is then rotated one complete revolution and
the deviation shown by dial gauge give the concentricity error. The test may be repeated 2
or 3 times and at 2 or 3 positions to determine the maximum error.
Test 2: Axial Slip of the face of the spindle is the squarness error of the face of the
spindle with respect to the spindle axis. It is measured by setting the dial gauge plunger as
shown against the face of the spindle and rotating the spindle by one complete revolution.
The deviation shown by the dial gauge indicates the value of axial slip.
Test 3 Concentricity of Live Centre: This test is conducted to determine the concentric
error of spindle nose with its outer diameter. To conduct this test a perfect live centre is
inserted into the spindle nose after cleaning both the mating surfaces from dust and oil.
The dial gauge plunger is then set us shown in the Fig.2.7 and the test is conducted in the
same way as Test 1.
Test 4a and 4b: Concentricity of a Test Mandrel: A test mandrel is perfectly fitted in
spindle nose of a headstock. (A test mandrel is a perfectly ground shaft' whose form
errors are negligible). This is done in a similar manner as explained in Test 1 at two
positions one at headstock end and another at the free end of the mandrel.
Test 5 and 6: Parallelism of Spindle Axis: The Parallelism of spindle axis with respect
to lathe bed in vertical and horizontal directions is determined using this test. The dial
gauge base is fixed on carriage and plunger at the top point of the test mandrel as shown
in Fig-2.7. The carriage is then slowly moved from free end to fixed end vice versa.
Maximum deviation is noted. The test is repeated at two more positions by rotating the
spindle by 120 degrees and by 240 degrees.
Test 7 and 8: The Parallelism of spindle axis with respect to lathe bed when mandrel is
fixed between the centers of the lathe bed is carried out using this test. These are to be
carried out in the same manner as the above tests 5 and 6.
Test 9 and 10: These test measure the parallelism of quill w.r.t. the lathe bed in both
horizontal and vertical directions. .

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Test 11 and 12: Parallelism of Quill Nose: These tests measure the parallelism of quill
nose w.r.t the lathe bed. It is checked by fixing a mandrel in the spindle nose.
Test 13: Accuracy of Pitch of the Lead Screw: The accuracy of lead screw is assured or
promised if the tolerance on pitch is 0.03 mm over 300 mm. (.0012" over 12").
1. A Gear ratio of 1:1 is set between the spindle and lead screw shafts so that the spindle
shaft the lead screw make the same number of revolutions. Engage the half-nut with
the lead screw. This enables the saddle to be moved by a known distance for a given
number of lead screw rotations which in present case equal to the given number of
spindle rotations
2. Referring to Fig.2.8, in the starting position, the pin R contacts firmly with Block (B).
The slide carrying the dial gauge (M) is so adjusted that the gauge length (a) just
contacts with the stop (A) at the left end and the plunger or the dial gauge at the right
end of the gauge length (a). (A pressure of about 50gms in enough to ensure the
contact).After reading the dial gauge in this position, the block (B) is removed and
also the gauge length (a).
3. Next the lathe spindle with its faceplate and pin R is rotated until the side moves the
calculated distance of 12" by the lead screw. (Which is also equal to the precision
gauge length (a) = 1.2" or 300 mm).
4. If now the pin R is then brought in contact with the stop Block (B), the dial plunger
should just touch the face of stop (A), provided that the lead screw is free from pitch
errors. Any deflection of the dial pointer indicates the errors, the magnitude of which
corresponds to the plus or minus variation between the movement of the carriage
(slide) and the length of the precision gauge length (a) = 12".
5. In this manner, the Cumulative pitch Error of lead screw is determined over the full
length of 12". Likewise, error over each thread or over each one-inch length of the
lead screw can be determined.
6. Proceeding, in the above manner determine the error for each 1" length of traverse of
slide by lead screw i.e. successively using 11", 10", 9"…….1" precision gauge length.
7. Plot the graph between pitch error observed and the length of traverse by lead screw
over a total length of 12".
8. This graph can be used to study the pattern of pitch error along the length of L.S and
also the nature of pitch error i.e. cyclic or periodic.
The other important test that is also carried out is by cutting L.H ( Left Hand) and R.H (
Right hand) threads on a similar cylindrical test piece having a length at least 10 times the

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pitch of the lead screw. The pitch error on anyone of the pieces is the tested and the
following information' is recorded.
(a) Error on individual pitch of lead screw =
(b) The cumulative pitch error =

Fig.2.8 Testing of a lead screw


Assignments:
Give the neat sketch for the set up to conduct the following alignment tests.
a) For a radial drilling machine:
i. Squareness of spindle and base plate
ii. Feed of spindle perpendicular to the base plate
b) For a milling machine:
Squareness of table surface to its vertical movement.

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3. CNC PROGRAMMING

Aim: To write part programs for producing cylindrical and plane work pieces on a CNC
lathe and Vertical Machining Centre (VMC) respectively.

Machines and Tools required: A CNC lathe, VMC, different cutting tools, Vernier
calipers.

Theory: In manufacturing of parts on machine tools, the work piece shape and
dimensions are achieved either by moving the tool against a rotating work piece or by
moving the work piece against a rotating tool. The movement of tool/work piece is
commanded manually with the help of associated kinematics in the machine tool. The
process has to be repeated for every workpiece. The dimensions obtained by the operator
settings have to be verified by measurements and suitable corrections have to be made.
To produce component with high accuracy and precision, the operator skill requirements
are high. Further, for intricate components, the production time will be very high as each
dimension must be measured and controlled. Also, parts having special profiles which
require two or more slides to be moved simultaneously cannot be produced without
special profile systems. These factors result in low production rate when manually
controlled machine tools are used.
In a CNC machines, the slide (axis) movements are controlled by motors either
permanent magnet DC type, or stepper motors or AC feed motors. The main objective is
to reach particular point accurately in the required path at the required speed. The spindle
speeds can be selectable according to the tool-workpiece material combinations.

Control / Operation and Programming of CNC Machines

The program is a set of instructions which tell the machine tool ‘what to do’. It is
coded in numerical or symbolic form on same type of input medium that can be
interpreted by the controller unit, also called ‘Machine Control Unit' (MCU). This
consists of the electronics hardware that reads and interprets the program of instructions
and converts them into mechanical actions of the machine tool. Presently, a majority of
machine tools are provided with a microcomputer as the controller unit. Such a

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numerically controlled (NC) machine tool is called the CNC.
There are a number of ways of data input in CNC machine tools. Example, MDI (Manual
data Input), wide punch tape, magnetic tape etc. The latest data input medium is direct
link with computer.
CNC machines are controlled by CNC systems through the intermediate drive
elements like motors, hydraulic actuators in order to execute a particular task. The
instructions required are the cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, type of tool, geometrical
size and shape of the work piece to be machined etc.
The program of instructions is prepared by a part programmer which consists of
set of blocks. Each block consists of a code and associated decimal numbers. Here, the
code words may be same for all CNC machines. But the associated decimal number
may vary depending on the resolution and traverses of each machine. The programming
format in the form of blocks is as shown below:

N3 G2 X±: 3.2 Y± 3.2 Z±3.2 I± 3.2 J± 3.2 K±3.2 F4 S4 T2 M2 in metric mode.


N3 G2 X±2.3 Y±2.3 Z±2.3 I± 2.3 J± 2.3 K± 2.3 F3.1 S4 T2 M2 in inch mode.

The codes can be interpreted as follows:


N = The block numbers. This code is used to sequence and identify, a block of data in a
part program. Selection numbers are 0 to 999.
G = Preparatory commands. G codes are used to initiate control commands, positioning
of contouring modes of operation and machining cycles. .
F = Feed rate for axis movement. The feed rate is programmed in mm/min, inches/min,
mm/rev, inches/rev as determined by the prior G code selection. This value may be 1 to
700 mm/min or 0.1 to 27.6 in/min.
T= Tool offset number.
S = Spindle speed.
D=Tool or cutter radius.
M=Miscellaneous function such as end of program, spindle stop etc.
Dimensions for axes X, Y, Z, I, J, and K are to be given by in 1/100th of mm i.e. 1 mm
corresponds to a value of 100.
During programming the leading zeroes need not be entered however the trailing zeroes
must be entered to fix the decimal point of the number. The negative sign for X, Y, Z, I, J,

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K can be programd either after or before entering the numerical value.

CNC Lathe Control and Operational Terminology

After checking all electrical connections to the machine as well as the CRT, the
machines can be put ON by operating the switch located at the base of the machine. By
switching on the LCD, the machine is ready to edit/transmit/receive the part programs.
The axis movement cannot be done in this condition. Refer the control panel and perform
the following.
Insert the edit key in the key-hole and rotate it in the, clock wise direction and press the
control switch ON. When all the controls of the machine are ON and the green light
blinks, the machine is ready for operation.
In case of any emergency, the emergency switch can be pressed to put off the
machine and to avoid an accident. Following buttons can be seen on the control panel of
the machine:
i. Push button for selecting the mode of operations i.e. MAN/SBL/AUT/EDT.
ii. Cycle start and feed hold push button.
iii. Spindle control RPM switch, speed selector and ammeter.
iv. Jog push-button and jog selector switch.
v. Pushbutton for entering/editing/displaying of the part program.
vi. Main display i.e. LED display.

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Co-Ordinate System of CNC ASKAR Lathe

The co-ordinate system of ASKAR SPINTRAIN CNC used in our workshop is as


shown in Fig.3.1.

Fig.3.1 Co-ordinate system for CNC lathe

Preparatory Functions ('G' Codes)


Preparatory functions are of two types: Modal and Non- Modal. Modal
commands are those which would remain active not only in the present block but in all
the subsequent blocks until they get canceled by another modal code. Non modal codes
are those which remain active in the block concerned. Following are some of the
commonly used modal and non modal codes.

Machining Operations Using G Codes

G70 Enables the controller to accept part dimensions in inches.


G71 Enables the controller to accept pan dimensions in mm. This is a default code and
need not be programmed.
G90 The absolute system of dimensioning is to be followed while this code is active.
The target position of the tool is always programmed from the fixed reference
initially assigned.
G91 The incremental system of dimensioning is to be followed while this code is
active. The target position of the tool is programmed with respect to its current
position. This is a default code and need not be programmed.
G94 This enables to program the feed rate in the F word in mm/min or inch/min. It is a

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default code for the machine.
G95 This enables to program the feed rate in mm/rev or inch/rev.
G00 Rapid traverse: The code specifies a linear movement at the rapid feed rate. The
feed rate need not be programmed. The rapid feed rate value, stored in the system
is 700 mm/min.
G01 Linear interpolation: This code is used for straight line motion of tool both in X
and Z axes separately or simultaneously as in a taper. The feed rate in X and Z
direction is calculated by the system based on the feed rate programmed.
G02/G03 Circular interpolation clockwise/counter clockwise: When these codes are used
both the slides move simultaneously tracing a circular path. G02 makes the tool to
reach the target point in a concave path and that G03 in a convex path as shown in
the Fig.3.2 [The names used for these codes are to be understood in the opposite
way]
In using these codes, the I and K values are the incremental co-ordinates of the
center of the arc along the X and Z axes respectively with respect to the starting
point. These will remain unchanged irrespective to the starting point. These will
absolute (G90) mode or incremental (G91) mode.
e.g. G03 X 500 Z-500 F60 I0 K 500.

Initial point

G02

Final point
G03

Fig 3.2 G02/G03

G04 Dwell: To make the tool to stay at a particular point, this code is used. Dwell time
is programd under X address and time is specified in the unit of one hundredth of
a second
e.g. G04 X100 makes the tool to stay for 1 second.
G33 Threading with constant pitch: This code is used for thread cutting operation. The
maximum lead possible is 4.99 mm. The lead (equal to pitch for single start

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thread) is programmed under word K.
G37 Subroutine call: This code enables us to call and execute a subroutine. The block
number at the ‘start’ of the subroutine program should be entered against X value after
G37 has been entered.

Part program for CNC Lathe (Model: SPINTRAIN ASKAR)

Ex. 1: Write a part program to obtain a workpiece as shown in Fig.3.3

Ф24
Ф20
Ф14
Ф10

10 2 13 3 10 2

Fig 3.3 Workpiece to be produced on CNC lathe

Follow the following steps for carrying out the CNC lathe Operations
1. MCB ON.
2. MCB Stabilizer ON – wait for 10 sec and press green switch.
3. Machine main switch ON.
4. Switch ON the Control Panel.
5. Release Emergency Switch.
6. Press Reset key.
7. Place the job in the chuck.
8. Go to Jog Mode → move both the axis i.e. -X and –Z.
9. Go to reference mode → do referencing by pressing X+ and Z+.
10. Go to MDI mode and do referencing of Turret.
11. For off setting follow the procedure.
Select the tool No. using index button.
Move the tool and touch the job face (for fine movement go to MPG Z or X position
and for rapid movement go to Jog Mode).

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Press offset page → go to geometry offset → select tool No on screen → Give offset
value → press measure.
Go for MPG → move the x-axis → touch the diameter of the job → measure the
diameter → go to offset e.g X 20.0 → press measure.
12. Then go to home position.
13. Load the program.
14. Check program lines in program test ON position, also check the graph.
15. If the program runs ok then you can put the Machine program test off position and put
the operation ON.
Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.3

1. G28 U0 W0; 18. G00 X22.0; 35. G01 Z-12.0;


2. G00 T02 03; 19. G00 Z1.0; 36. G03 X20.0 Z-15.0
3. G47 S2000 M03; 20. G01 X18.0; 37. R3.0;
4. G00 X28.0 Z2.0; 21. G01 Z-12.0; 38. G01 Z-28.0;
5. G01 Z0.0 F0.2; 22. G00 X20.0; 39. G02 X24.0 Z-30.0
6. G01 X-2.0; 23. G00 Z1.0; 40. R2.0;
7. G01 Z1.0; 24. G01 X16.0; 41. G01 Z-35.0;
8. G00 X24.0; 25. G01 Z-12.0; 42. G00 X28.0;
9. G01 Z-40.0; 26. G00 X18.0; 43. G00 Z2.0;
10. G00 X26.0; 27. G00 Z1.0; 44. G28 U0 W0;
11. G00 Z1.0; 28. G01 X14.0; 45. M30;
12. G01 X22.0; 29. G01 Z-12.0;
13. G01 Z-28.0; 30. G00 X16.0;
14. G00 X24.0 31. G00 Z1.0;
15. G00 Z01.0 32. G01 X10.0;
16. G01 X20.0 33. G01 Z0.0;
17. G01 Z-28.0 34. G01 X14.0 Z-2.0;

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Ex. 2: Write the part program to obtain a work piece as shown in Fig.3.4

Fig 3.4 Work piece to be produced on CNC lathe

Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.4

1. G28U0W0 20. G1Z-27 38. G1X20Z-21 56. G03X12Z-5R6


2. G0T0606 21. G0X22 39. G0Z-11 57. G0Z0
3. G97S2000M03 22. G0Z0 40. G1X12 58. G0X6
4. G0Z0 23. G1X20 41. G1X20Z-21 59. G03X12Z-5R6
5. G0X25 24. G1Z-27 42. G1Z-27 60. G0Z0
6. G1X-2F0.8 25. G1X21 43. G1X22 61. G0X4
7. G0X24 26. G0Z0 44. G2X24Z-31R14 62. G03X12Z-5R6
8. G1Z-40 27. G0Z-11 45. G0Z-20 63. G0Z0
9. G0X25 28. G1X16 46. G1X20 64. G0X2
10. G0Z0 29. G1X20Z-21 47. G1Z-27 65. G03X12Z-5R6
11. G1X23 30. G0Z-11 48. G2X24Z-34R14 66. G0Z0
12. G1Z-27 31. G1X15 49. G1Z-38 67. G0X0
13. G0X24 32. G1X20Z-21 50. G0X26 68. G03X12Z-5R6
14. G0Z0 33. G0Z-11 51. G0Z0 69. G0X26
15. G1X22 34. G1X14 52. G0X10 70. G0Z5
16. G1Z-27 35. G1X20Z-21 53. G03X12Z-5R6 71. G28U0
17. G0X23 36. G0Z-11 54. G0Z0 72. M05
18. G0Z0 37. G1X13 55. G0X8 73. G28W0
19. G1X21 74. M30

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Ex. 3: Write a part program to obtain a work piece as shown in Fig.3.5

Fig 3.5 Work piece for Ex. 3 to be produced on CNC lathe

Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.5


1. G28U0W0 29. G0X18 57. M05
2. G0T0102 30. G01Z-25 58. G28U0
3. G97M03S1500 31. G0Z1 59. G28W0
4. G0Z2 32. G0X17 G01Z-22 60. M30
5. G0X28 33. G0Z1 61. %
6. G01Z0F0.8 34. G0X16
7. G01X-2M08 35. G01Z-22
8. G0Z1 36. G0Z1
9. G0X24 37. G0X15
10. G01Z-50 38. G01Z-22
11. G0X26 39. G0Z1
12. G0Z1 40. G0X14
13. G0X23 41. G01Z-22
14. G01Z-25 42. G0Z1
15. G0X24 43. G0X13
16. G0Z1 44. G01Z-22
17. G0X22 45. G0Z1
18. G01Z-25 46. G0X12
19. G0Z1 47. G01Z-22
20. G0X21 48. G0Z1
21. G01Z-25 49. G0X8
22. G0Z1 50. G01Z0
23. G0X20 51. G01X12Z-2
24. G01Z-25 52. G01Z-22
25. G0Z1 53. G02X18Z-25R3
26. G0X19 54. G03X24Z-28R3
27. G01Z-25 55. G01Z-35
28. G0Z1 56. G0Z2

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Ex. 4: Write a part program to obtain a work piece as shown in Fig.3.6

Fig 3.6 Work piece for Ex.4 to be produced on CNC lathe

Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.6


1. G28U0W0 28. G0Z1 55. G0X14
2. G0T0102 29. G0X19 56. G0Z1
3. G97M03S1500 30. G01Z-20 57. G0X12
4. G0Z2 31. G0X20 58. G01Z-20
5. G0X28 32. G0Z1 59. G0X13
6. G01Z0F0.15 33. G0X18 60. G0Z1
7. G01X-2M08 34. G01Z-20 61. G0X11
8. G0Z1 35. G0X19 62. G01Z-20
9. G0X24 36. G0Z1 63. G0X12
10. G01Z-50 37. G0X17 64. G0Z1
11. G0X26 38. G01Z-20 65. G0X10
12. G0Z1 39. G0X18 66. G01Z-20
13. G0X23 40. G0Z1 67. G0X11
14. G01Z-20 41. G0X16 68. G0Z1
15. G024 42. G01Z-20 69. G0X8
16. G0Z1 43. G0X17 70. G01Z0
17. G0X22 44. G0Z1 71. G01X10Z-2
18. G01Z-20 45. G0X15 72. G01Z-20
19. G0X23 46. G01Z-20 73. G0X23
20. G0Z1 47. G0X16 74. G01Z-25
21. G0X21 48. G0Z1 75. G0X24
22. G01Z-20 49. G0X14 76. G0Z-20
23. G0X22 50. G01Z-20 77. G0X22
24. G0Z1 51. G0X15 78. G01Z-25
25. G0X20 52. G0Z1 79. G0X23
26. G01Z-20 53. G0X13 80. G0Z-20
27. G0X21 54. G01Z-20 81. G0X21

21
82. G01Z-25 131. G0X25
83. G0X22 132. G0Z-20
84. G0Z-20 133. G0Z-25
85. G0X20 134. G0X18
86. G01Z-25 135. G01X24Z-45
87. G0X21 136. G0X25
88. G0Z-20 137. G0Z-20
89. G0X19 138. G0Z-25
90. G01Z-25 139. G0X17
91. G0X20 140. G01X24Z-45
92. G0Z-20 141. G0X25
93. G0X18 142. G0Z-20
94. G01Z-25 143. G0Z-25
95. G0X19 144. G0X16
96. G0Z-20 145. G01X24Z-45
97. G0X17 146. G0X25
98. G01Z-25 147. G0Z-20
99. G0X18 148. G0Z-25
100. G0Z-20 149. G0X15
101. G0X16 150. G01X24Z-45
102. G01Z-25 151. G0X25
103. G0X17 152. G0Z-20
104. G0Z-20 153. G01X10
105. G0X15 154. G02X15Z-25R5
106. G01Z-25 155. G0X26M9
107. G0X23 156. G0Z2
108. G0Z-20 157. M05
109. G0Z-25 158. G28U0
110. G01X24Z-45 159. G28W0
111. G0X25 160. M30
112. G0Z-20 161. %
113. G0Z-25
114. G0X22
115. G01X24Z-45
116. G0X25
117. G0Z-20
118. G0Z-25
119. G0X21
120. G01X24Z-45
121. G0X25
122. G0Z-20
123. G0Z-25
124. G0X20
125. G01X24Z-45
126. G0X25
127. G0Z-20
128. G0Z-25
129. G0X19
130. G01X24Z-45

22
Ex. 5: Write a part program to obtain a work piece as shown in Fig.3.7

Fig 3.7 Work piece for Ex. 5 to be produced on CNC lathe


Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.7
1. G28U0W0 30. G01Z-15 58. G0X17.5
2. G0T0102 31. G0X20 59. G02X17.5Z-17.5R2.5F0.15
3. G97M03S1500 32. G0Z1 60. G0Z-15
4. G0Z2 33. G0X18 61. G0X15
5. G0X28 34. G01Z-15 62. G02X20Z-20R5F0.15
6. G01Z0F0.15 35. G0X19 63. G0X26M09
7. G01X-2M08 36. G0Z1 64. G0Z2
8. G0Z1 37. G0X17 65. M05
9. G0X24 38. G01Z-15 66. G28U0
10. G01Z-50 39. G0X18 67. G28W0
11. G0X26 40. G0Z1 68. M30
12. G0Z1 41. G0X16 69. %
13. G0X23 42. G01Z-15
14. G01Z-40 43. G0Z-17
15. G0X24 44. G0Z1
16. G0Z1 45. G0X15
17. G0X22 46. G01Z-15
18. G01Z-40 47. G0X16
19. G0X23 48. G0Z0
20. G0Z1 49. G0X13
21. G0X21 50. G01X15Z-2
22. G01Z-40 51. G0Z0
23. G0X22 52. G0X10
24. G0Z1 53. G01X15Z-5
25. G0X20 54. G0Z0
26. G01Z-40 55. G0X0
27. G0X21 56. G03X15Z-7.5R7.5F0.15
28. G0Z1 57. G0Z-15
29. G0X19

23
Vertical Machining Center (VMC)

VMC control and operational technology

This machine is used for machining of plane work pieces having different
intricacies. The machine can be put ON/OFF by main switch at the left bottom side of the
machine after making all the necessary connections and can be controlled by operating
the control elements mounted on the display panel and the front of the CNC system. The
elements are:
1. POWER ON switch and plug
2. CONTROL ON illuminated by push button and key switch.
3. One red LED to indicate the system is ON.
4. Mushroom head EMERGENCY switch.
5. Feed rate over ride and spindle speed over ride selector switches and Push buttons for
selecting the mode of operation
6. Cycle start and feed hold push buttons
7. Jog mode selector and jog push button
8. Push buttons for editing operation containing forward, reverse and delete
9. Vertical or horizontal mode selector
Alphanumeric display terminal for part program and machine status display and analog
ammeter to display the current by the spindle motor while rotating.
The tool indicator LED is provided at the top of the machine to fix eight tools and the
indicator LED for the tool responding tool required during operation of the machine.
(Observe on the machine.)

24
The Co-Ordinate System of VMC
The co-ordinate system of this machine in horizontal and vertical modes is as shown in
Fig.3.8.

+Z

-Y

+X -X

+Y
-Z

Horizontal mode

-Y

-X

+Z -Z

+X
+Y

Vertical mode

Fig. 3.8 The Co-ordinate System on a VMC multimiller

25
Part programs for ASKAR Multimillar

The program codes are similar to those explained earlier. The range of spindle speed is
from 200 to 4000 RPM.

Ex.6: Write a part program to obtain the work- piece as shown in Fig. 3.9.

Fig 3.9 A work piece for Ex. 6 to be produced on VMC

Following steps to be followed before you put the machine in operations:


1. MCB ON.
2. MCB stabilizer ON → Wait for to see and press the green switch of stabilizer
3. Put M/C main ON.
4. Put CNC ON → Switch on control panel.
5. Release emergency knob and press reset key.
6. Go to Jog mode and press –X, -Y and –Z .
7. Move the axis for referencing.
8. Press position/all key.
9. Go to set mode.
10. Press axis Z+, X+ ,Y+
11. Check machine value X0, Y0, Z0.
12. Go to MDI mode → for ATC referencing.

26
13. Go to MDI mode.
Input M52 → EOB → Insert → press cycle start button.
Check tool display no.1 → referencing one
Next is to take the offset, follow the steps as under
Go to MDI mode → type M03 S1000;
For Z- axis offsetting, follow the steps
Press offset key → enter geometry (H) → move axis → touch the job surface → see the
machine value → input the value with –ve sign.
Next is offsetting for X and Y axis.
Press offset → press work key → move the arrow key to select off set no. → touch the Job →
measure the value and enter the value with –ve sign → press measure
Load the program
Check the program lines
Put the machine in program test mode ON position
Check the graph also
Run the machine once you confirm the above.

Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.9

1. G00 G49 X0.0, Y0.0, Z0.0; 11. G02 X-10.0 Y-40.0 R40.0;
2. G00 T02; 12. G01 X10.0;
3. G00 M03 S2000; 13. G03 X40.0 Y-10.0 R40.0;
4. G56 G17 X0.0 Y0.0; 14. G01 X40.0;
5. G00 G43 --- Z5.0; 15. G01 X0.0 Y40.0;
6. G00 X0.0 Y40.0; 16. G01 Z5.0;
7. G01 Z-1.0 F100.0; 17. G00 M05;
8. G01 X-20.0 18. G53 Z0.0
9. G01 X-50.0 Y20.0; 19. G0 G53 X0.0 Y0.0;
10. G01 Y-10.0; 20. M30;

27
EX 8: Write a part program to obtain the work- piece as shown in Fig. 3.10.

Fig. 3.10 Work piece for Ex.8 to be produced on VMC


Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.10
1. G0G49X0Y0Z0
2. G0T02
3. G0M03S1500
4. G56G17X0Y0
5. G0G43H2Z5.0
6. G0X0Y50
7. G01Z-5.0F100
8. G01X-20
9. G03X-20Y20R15
10. G01Y-35
11. G02X-5.0Y-50R15
12. G01X5
13. G02X20Y-35R15
14. G01Y20
15. G03X20Y50R15
16. G01X0.0
17. G01Z5.0
18. M05
19. G0G53Z0.0
20. G0G53X0.0Y0.0
21. M30

28
Ex.9: Write a part program to obtain the work- piece as shown in Fig. 3.11

Fig3.11 Work piece for Ex. 9 to be produced on VMC

29
Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.11
1. G28U0 47. G01Z-15
2. G28W0 48. G0X18
3. G0T0201 49. G0Z1
4. G97M03S1500 50. G0X16
5. G0Z2 51. G01Z-15
6. G0X28 52. G0X17
7. G01Z0F0.15 53. G0Z1
8. G01X-2M08 54. G0X15
9. G0Z1 55. G01Z-15
10. G0X26 56. G0X16
11. G01Z-50 57. G0Z0
12. G0X27 58. G0X12.5
13. G0Z1 59. G01X15Z-2.5
14. G0X25 60. G0Z0
15. G01Z-50 61. G0X10
16. G0X26 62. G01X15Z-5
17. G0Z1 63. G0Z0
18. G0X24 64. G0X0
19. G01Z-50 65. G03X15Z-7.5R7.5F0.15
20. G0X25 66. G01Z-15
21. G0Z1 67. G0X17.5
22. G0X23 68. G02X20Z-17.5R2.5F0.15
23. G01Z-40 69. G0Z-15
24. G0X24 70. G0X15
25. G0Z1 71. G02X20Z-20R5F0.15
26. G0X22 72. G0X26M09
27. G01Z-40 73. G0Z2
28. G0X23 74. M05
29. G0Z1 75. G28U0
30. G0X21 76. G28W0
31. G01Z-40 77. M30
32. G0X22 78. %
33. G0Z1
34. G0X20
35. G01Z-40
36. G0X21
37. G0Z1
38. G0X19
39. G01Z-15
40. G0X20
41. G0Z1
42. G0X18
43. G01Z-15
44. G0X19
45. G0Z1
46. G0X17

30
Ex.10: Write a part program to obtain the work- piece as shown in Fig. 3.12

Fig. 3.12Work piece to be produced on VMC


Part program for the job shown in Fig. 3.12
1. G0G53Z0 18. G03X20Y11R4
2. G0G53X0 19. G01X56Y11
3. G0T01 20. G01X56Y-17.21
4. G56G17G90X0Y0 21. G01X35.77Y-41
5. G0G43H34Z20 22. G01X0Y-41
6. M03S1200 23. G0Z8
7. M08 24. G0X0Y-15
8. G0Z10 25. G01Z-1.0F100
9. G0X0Y-41 26. G01X-40Y-15
10. G01Z-1.0F100 27. G0Z8
11. G01X-30Y-41 28. M09
12. G02X-56Y-15R26 29. M05
13. G01X-56Y25 30. G0G53Z0
14. G02X-40Y41R16 31. G0G53Y0
15. G01X2.49Y41 32. M30
16. G01X16Y27.49 33. %
17. G01X16Y15

31
4. COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE (CMM)

Aim: To study the operation of a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) and measure
the physical geometrical features of a given object.

Machines and tools required: CMM, Vernier calipers and fixtures.

Theory: A CMM as shown in Fig. 4.1 is an accurate machine for measuring coordinates
of a given geometry. A CMM is equipped with a tactile probe and a stylus with a ruby
ball is attached at the end of the probe. The probe, under computer control, touches a
sequence of points on the surface of a physical object to be measured, and the CMM
produces a stream of x, y, z coordinates of the contact points. The coordinate stream is
interpreted by algorithms that support applications such as reverse engineering, quality
control, and process control. This machine is best suited for inspecting incoming, in-
process and final components of such as molds for pressing, die casting, injection
molding, prototypes from NC machine tools, Machined parts etc. This task is called
dimensional inspection and amounts to comparing the measurements obtained by a CMM
with a solid model of the object. The model shows not only the solid’s nominal or ideal
geometry, but also the tolerances or acceptable deviations from the ideal. The inspections
results are used to accept or reject work pieces quality control, and also to adjust the
parameters of the manufacturing processes process control.
System Configuration
The system configuration of CMM machine is shown Fig. 4.2. The entire system is
divided into four units shown in the figure. Probe, which can be operated by joystick
interacts with the physical geometry and gives signal to the controller mounted on the
machine. The controller takes the signal and gives it for processing to the software
installed on the computer. Predefined algorithms in the software are useful in interpreting
and processing the geometrical information collected.

32
Fig.4.1. A Typical Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)

Joystick Box

` Main Unit Controller


Computer

Probe

Fig.4 2. System Configuration of CMM

Following are some important elements of a CMM:

Measuring Table: Precision surface plate is made of Graphite, and is finished to a high
degree of flatness it can be used as a high-precision reference surface for work piece
measurement. The top surface has tapped inserts (M8 X 1.25) for clamping tools to secure
work pieces. Tighten the clamping screws within the specified torque range (not
exceeding 9.8 N.m). The part of the table serves as a Y-axis guide, so it has excellent
stability of accuracy

Air Regulator Unit: The air regulator unit consists of a mist separator, air regulator, and
pressure switch. It is installed at the front of the stand (inside the acrylic cover). The air
regulator is used to adjust the air pressure and purifies the air. For all experimental
applications, the pressure is set to 0.4 MPa.

33
Probe Adapter: A probe adapter attached to the lower end of the Z-axis spindle holds the
probe with a shank of 14mm in diameter. The adapter incorporates a friction ring in its
shank hole, which can prevent the probe from falling when the clamp knob is loosened. A
touch signal probe cable is located on the probe adapter, and the signal cable runs inside
the Z-axis spindle.

Probe: The probe is the small mounting part and it is mounted on the adapter. The stick
shaped extension is called the stylus which has a red head at its tip (ruby ball). It has
angular degrees of freedom in both horizontal (360O rotation) and vertical directions (swivels
90O back and forth). There is a turn button for releasing the probe.

Controller: The controller is a subsystem that controls CMM motion by the host
computer and transfers the measurement result to the host computer. It includes the
joystick box which is used when measuring a work piece to create part programs.

Emergency switch: Pressing the EMERGENCY switch stops the machine completely.
The switch is locked when pressed. To release the switch, turn it clockwise. To restart the
machine, turn off the power, release the EMERGENCY switch, and then turn on the
machine.

Joystick lever: Use the joystick lever to drive each axis of the CMM. Fig. 4.3 shows the
relationship between the joystick movement and corresponding axis movement.

TS switch: Use the TS switch to enable or disable the touch signal. The switch is enabled
when its lamp is on. When the lamp is on in the joystick mode, CMM axis can be moved
with the joystick lever.

Fig. 4.3. Joystick movement corresponding to the axis movements

34
R.STOP/GO TO switch (red)

Pressing the R.STOP/GO TO switch in the CNC mode stops the CMM. To restart the
CMM the host computer should send a command. While creating a part program,
pressing the switch allows the operator to specify a target point.
START/MEAS switch (green)
When the power-on sequence has been completed by the controller, the
START/MEAS lamp turns on. Pressing the START/MEAS switch starts initialization.
When the joystick mode is selected after completion of initialization, this switch can
be used to switch between measurement modes.
Lamp on: The CMM moves at the measuring speed with the control form the joystick
lever.
Lamp off: The CMM moves at the maximum speed with the control from the joystick
lever.

Procedure to operate a CMM

1. Switch on the pressure regulator ON and the pressure should not exceed 0.4 MPa.

2. Attach stylus module along with the probe to the probe adopter.

3. Release the emergency switch.

4. Turn the POWER switch of the CMM to ON. The POWER ON lamp lights in green.
If a touch signal probe is attached, the probe status LED (red) located on the probe
also lights. If no error is detected in the power-on sequence, the START lamp (green)
on the joystick box lights.

5. Initialization: When the lit START switch is pressed, the CMM starts the initialization
sequence. During initialization, the CMM moves as shown Fig. 4.4.

6. Using the software installed in the PC create a folder,

7. The next step is calibration of ruby ball using the master ball. Mount the master ball
spindle on the table. Measure the diameter of the master ball by touching its surface at
various points (minimum of 4) so that the software can automatically calculate the
diameter and compare it with the original values, thus determining the diameter of the
ruby ball.

8. Measurement of geometrical features of the given work piece by mounting the work
piece on the table using clamping device.

35
Fig 4.4. Initialization of CMM

Ex. 1: Use a CMM to measure the following parameters of a workpiece as shown in Fig.
4.5 and compare them with the observations obtained using Vernier Callipers. Record
your observations in Table 4.1

Fig. 4.5. Workpiece for Ex. 1 on CMM

36
Table 4.1

Parameter Vernier Callipers (mm) CMM (mm)


Length (L)
Width (W)
Dia (d1, d2, d3,d4)
Dia (D)
Four angles

Ex. 2: Use a CMM to measure the following parameters of a workpiece having a


shape of frustum of cone as shown in Fig. 4.6 and compare them with the
observations obtained using Vernier Callipers. Record your observations according to
Table 4.2

Fig.4.6 Workpiece for Ex. 2 on CMM


Table 4.2

Parameter Vernier Callipers (mm) CMM (mm)


Height (H)
Dia (d1, d2)
Angle of cone (xo) --------

37
CMM as a tool for reverse engineering

Reverse Engineering (RE) is the process of discovering the technological


principles of a device, object or system through analysis of its structure, function and
operation. It often involves taking something (e.g., a mechanical device, electronic
component, or software program) apart and analyzing its workings in detail to be used in
maintenance or to try to make a new device or program that does then same thing without
utilizing any physical part of the original. RE’s tool today is a device originally developed
for quality assurance departments to make fast, in process quality checks. CMM can be an
important tool for RE as it can be used to develop a CAD model of an object of unknown
configurations.

Production equipment and lines can be fine-tunes after capturing critical


dimensions using reverse-engineering techniques. The key is measuring with sufficient
accuracy to capture the degree of detail necessary for a faithful reproduction. First,
measure the object or part. Then transcribe dimensions into a digital or CAD-compatible
format as an image of dots, streaming lines or wire frames. The image can be enhanced
for end use by engineering programs that deal with surfacing, stress analysis, human
factors, ergonomics, and plant layout or product flow. Tool making and product testing
also benefit from reverse engineering. Using a physical model, dimensions can be taken
to create everything from molds to fixtures for robotic welders.

Applications of Reverse Engineering

1. Design, by adapting a structure to a mating surface and to compress the time-to-


market cycles.

2. Development, by rapid prototyping and prototype testing, for ergonomic, flow testing,
or other evaluations.

3. Tool making, by reducing the time required to develop tooling and to improve tool
accuracy.

4. Repair, by creating new parts from old, fractured, or worn originals.

5. Fabrication, by creating elements of material handling systems or other processes.

6. Manufacturing, by developing one-off pieces of equipment or structures.

38
Procedure to carry Reverse Engineering using CMM

1. The CMM is capable of measuring points, planes, diameters, conicity, surface


tolerances, etc. Observe the given object and identify which geometric entities need to
be recreated.

2. Locate measure and label the base plane first.

3. Align the coordinate axis with respect to that of the base plane using the software.

4. Then measure and record the other surfaces of the object.

5. After the surfaces are create, measure and label entities like holes, chamfer, etc.

6. After all physical aspects of the model are registered in the file, it should be saved in
an IGES format. Go to Output and Export Elements. In Output File, select Type of
Format as IGES. Give the file a name and store in a specific folder.

7. Open Pro/E software. Go to File, Open and select the Type as IGES(.igs, .iges) and
create a path leading to the file saved in the previous step.

8. Select the file and click Open. From the Import New Model menu, select type as
Part, give it a name and click Ok.

9. An information window appears giving the details of the file import in Pro/E.

10. All the entities that had been measured on the CMM are now displayed on the Pro/E
window.

11. Create a Datum Plane that corresponds to the base plane of the object.

12. Create another datum plane perpendicular to the base plane of the object.

13. Using Sketch feature of Pro/E, select the necessary datum plane as Sketch Plane and
another perpendicular datum plane as Reference Plane.

14. In sketch mode, select the required entities as references. Then draw the shape of the
object and extend the planes to intersect each other.

15. Repeat above step till all the required entities have been sketched.

16. Then perform the operations of Extrude, Hole, Sweep, etc using these sketches till
the entire object is recreated.

39
Ex. 3 Obtain a model of the following part on Pro/E through Reverse Engineering using
CMM.

Fig 4.7 Workpiece for Ex. 3 for reverse engineering

40
5. ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM)

Aim: To study the EDM Process, and fabricate a tool using EDM.

Machine tools, tools used: EDM, Electrode, work piece, and dielectric medium.

Theory: Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process,


widely used to produce injection molds and dies, for mass production common objects
having complex shapes. It can also produce finished parts, such as cutting tools and is
widely used in industries like automotives, electronics, domestic appliances, machines,
packaging, telecommunications, watches, aeronautic, toys, surgical instruments etc.
Any material that conducts electricity can be machined irrespective of its
hardness. e.g. example hardened steel, tungsten carbide, special alloys for aerospace
applications. Furthermore, complex cutting geometry, sharp angles and internal corners
can be produced. Precise machining with final surface roughness value of less than 100
nm can be carried out by this process. Moreover, there is no mechanical stress on the
machined piece and rotation of work piece or tool is not necessary. On the other hand,
the disadvantages are the relatively low material removal rate (order of 100
mm3/minute), surface modification of the machined work piece (‘white layer’ and heat
affected zone, typical depth> 50 nm), and limitation on size of work piece and tool.

Principle of working

The principle of EDM is to use the eroding effect of controlled electric spark
discharges on the electrodes. It is thus a thermal erosion process. The sparks are created
in a dielectric liquid, generally water or oil, between the work piece and an electrode,
which can be considered as the cutting tool. There is no mechanical contact between the
electrodes during the whole process. Since erosion is produced by electrical discharges,
both electrode and work piece have to be electrically conductive. Thus, the machining
process consists in removing small volumes of work piece material, molten or vaporized
during a discharge. The volume removed by a single spark is small, in the range of 10-6
– 10-4 mm3, but this basic process is repeated typically 10,000 times per second. Fig. 5.1
gives a simple explanation of the erosion process due to a single EDM discharge. First,

41
voltage is applied between the electrodes. This ignition voltage is typically 200 V. The
breakdown of the dielectric is initiated by moving the electrode towards the work piece.
This will increase the electric field in the gap, until it reaches the necessary value for
breakdown. The location of breakdown is generally between the closest points of the
electrode and of the work piece, but it will also depend on particles present in the gap.
When the breakdown occurs, the voltage falls and a current rises abruptly. The presence
of a current is possible at this stage, because the dielectric has been ionized and a
plasma channel has been created between the electrodes.
The discharge current is then maintained, assuring a continuous bombardment of
ions and electrons on the electrodes. This will cause strong heating of the work piece
material (but also of the electrode material), rapidly creating a small molten metal pool
at the surface. A small quantity of metal can even be directly vaporized due to the
heating. During the discharge, the plasma channel expands. Therefore, the radius of the
molten metal pool increases with time. The distance between the electrode and the work
piece during a discharge is an important parameter. It is estimated to be around 10 to
100 µm (increasing gap with increasing discharge current). At the end of the discharge,
current and voltage are shut down. The plasma implodes under the pressure imposed by
the surrounding dielectric. Consequently, the molten metal pool is strongly sucked up
into the dielectric, leaving a small crater at the work piece surface (typically 1 - 500 µm
in diameter, depending on the current).

Fig. 5.1 Principle of the EDM


The liquid dielectric plays a crucial role during the whole process: it cools down
the electrodes, it guarantees a high plasma pressure and therefore a high removing force
on the molten metal when the plasma collapses, it solidifies the molten metal into small
spherical particles, and it also flushes away these particles. The post-discharge is in fact
a crucial stage, during which the electrode gap is cleaned of the removed particles for

42
the next discharge. If particles stay in the gap, the electrical conductivity of the
dielectric liquid increases, leading to a bad control of the process and poor machining
quality. To enhance the flushing of particles, the dielectric is generally flowing through
the gap. In addition, the electrode movement can be pulsed, typically every second,
performing a large retreat movement. This pulsing movement also enhances the
cleaning, on a larger scale, by bringing “fresh” dielectric into the gap.
The material removal rate can be asymmetrically distributed between the
electrode (wear) and the work piece (erosion). The asymmetry is mostly due to the
different materials of the electrodes. But it also depends on the electrode polarity, on the
duration of the discharges and on the discharge current. Note that by convention, the
polarity is called positive when the electrode is polarized positively towards the work
piece, negative otherwise. By carefully choosing the discharge parameters, 0.1% wear
and 99.9% erosion can be achieved.
Two main types of machining can be distinguished, as shown in Fig. 4.2 In die
sinking EDM, the electrode is shaped and will produce its negative form into the work
piece. The wear has to be very low, in order to keep the electrode original shape
unmodified during the whole machining process. The asymmetry in the material
removal rate is thus crucial for die-sinking. The electrode is generally in copper or
graphite, and the dielectric is oil. In wire-cutting EDM, the electrode is a continuously
circulating metallic wire (typical diameter 0.1 mm, generally in steel, brass or copper),
which cuts the work piece along a programd path. Deionized water is used as dielectric,
directly injected around the wire. The wire is capable of achieving very small cutting
angles. The wear is a lesser problem than in die-sinking, because eroded portions of the
wire are continuously replaced by new ones due to the wire circulation.
Die-sinking EDM is mainly used to produce injection molds, whereas the main
applications of wire-cutting EDM are the production of steel cutting dies and extrusion
dies. These are shown in Fig. 5.2

Fig. 5.2: Types of EDM: Die-sinking and wire-cutting.

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The quality of the machining, i.e. precision and surface roughness is directly
related to the discharge parameters (current, voltage, discharge duration, polarity, etc.),
but also on the dielectric cleanliness. Sparks with strong current produce deep craters: a
high removal rate is obtained but with a high surface roughness. On the other hand,
sparks with low current will produce small craters: the surface roughness is low but the
removal rate is also low. For a rough preliminary machining in die-sinking for example,
high current, long discharge duration and positive polarity will be chosen, typically 50
A and 1 ms. In wire-cutting, current up to 1000 A can be used. For surface finishing and
polishing, short discharges with low current and negative polarity are used, typically 2
A and 5µs.
Procedure:
1. Clamp the work piece on the bed and mount the tool of the required shape on the
holder.
2. Adjust the Allen screw fixed to the plate on which the tool holder is mounted in
order to get either a flat or inclined impression or cut as per the requirement.
3. Close the door of the machine before starting any operation, press auto positioning
button which will bring the tool just above the work piece to almost touch it.
4. Set the voltage and put ON the pump. This will pump the Di-electric fluid into the
container.
5. When the fluid crosses the wok piece height, put ON the sparking and adjust the
current accordingly.
6. Put on auto flush which will ensure that there is no carbon layer formed between the
work piece and the tool. The required depth is then checked by adjusting the dial
Indicator fixed on the machine.

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6. FOUNDRY PRACTICE
Aims:
1. To prepare a pattern and mould for a casting
2. To produce an Aluminium casting by melting and pouring the metal in this mould.
3. To find out the defects in casting produced.

Pattern making:

In order to make a pattern, take the material of either wood or metal as per the
requirement and make the pattern of the desired shape on a proper machine tool. Give
the proper machining allowance, shrinkage allowance, Draft allowance, rapping
allowance, and distortion allowance while preparing the pattern.
The surface finish of the pattern can be enhanced by either by filing or by using emery
paper. In case of wood pattern, wood polish is used to give a better surface finish. Fig.
6.1 shows some patterns used in Foundry.

Fig 6.1 Patterns used in foundry

Sand Preparation
The sand required to fill the mould box is taken and lumps (if any), are broken
down .The other impurities like small stones, dirt, etc. are also removed.After cleaning
the sand, it is mixed with water. The quantity of water is added such that the sand
prepared for mould preparation should not be too dry or not too wet. In order to check
the prepared sand, take a small quantity of sand in your hand and press it. If it breaks
easily, and fall as powder still more water has to be added or if it sticks to your hand or
leaves a water layer on your hand it means it is too wet so you will have to add a little

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amount of sand and mix it well. Now the sand is ready for molding

Mould preparation

Take the pattern prepared and apply a little amount of graphite powder on it
properly. This is done in order to avoid the pattern from sticking to the sand and to
allow it to be removed easily from the sand.
In case of a single piece pattern, it is kept in the drag after checking the proper
draft direction and filled with the molding sand and rammed with a rammer till the sand
is set properly and firmly. Ensure that the ramming is neither too hard as it will cause a
difficulty in removing the pattern, nor it should be too light as the sand will disrupt
when the pattern is removed.
Once the sand is filled the top surface is flattened by using a strike off bar and
then the drag is turned upside down. The cope is set on top of it and matched properly
with the help of dowel pins and in case of spilt pattern the other half of the pattern
coincided with the pattern in the drag otherwise after keeping the space for the sprue
and the riser, for pouring of metal usually pipes are used for making sprue and the riser.
The cope is then filled with the molding sand and rammed again for proper
setting of the sand and then the pipes for the sprue and riser is removed carefully, at the
sprue opening a pouring basin is made to ensure safe pouring of the metal. Finally the
dowel pins are removed and the pattern inside is removed by using draw pins. Now the
cavity is ready for pouring the cope is placed on the drag and the dowel pins are put
again. A two piece bench type molding box is as shown in Fig. 6.2.

Fig.6.2 Preparation of mold

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Pouring
L.P.G. gas fired furnace is used melting the metal. The temperature is set to
around 7000◌۠ C when the temperature reaches around 2000 C the Aluminum block is
placed into the furnace for melting; it takes around 2 hrs to attain the temp of 7000C and
once the melting is done the slag layer which is formed on top is removed. These are the
impurities which float on top and appear slightly greenish in color.
Then the mould box is brought closer to the furnace for safety purpose also to
avoid much movement with the hot liquid aluminum as it solidifies quickly. And then
the pouring is done through the pouring basin.
After cooling the boxes are separated and the work piece is removed and final
finishing is done.

Defects
Identify the defects like blow holes, shrinkage, misrun, cold shut, if any, in the casting
obtained and report the causes and remedies for the same.

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