Sie sind auf Seite 1von 39

Table of Contents

Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................3
MANUFACTURE PROCESS OF STRUCTURAL STEEL..........................................................5
Making steel.................................................................................................................................5

The Blast Furnace........................................................................................................................6

Hot Rolled Steel – Hot Rolling....................................................................................................8

EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY ON STEEL PROPERTIES............................................................13


Carbon........................................................................................................................................13

Aluminum..................................................................................................................................13

Boron.........................................................................................................................................14

Chromium..................................................................................................................................14

Columbium................................................................................................................................14

Copper........................................................................................................................................14

Hydrogen...................................................................................................................................15

Manganese.................................................................................................................................15

Molybdenum..............................................................................................................................15

Nickel.........................................................................................................................................15

Nitrogen.....................................................................................................................................15

Oxygen.......................................................................................................................................15

Phosphorus.................................................................................................................................16

Silicon........................................................................................................................................16

Sulfur.........................................................................................................................................16

Titanium.....................................................................................................................................16

Tungsten....................................................................................................................................16
Vanadium...................................................................................................................................16

Maraging steels..........................................................................................................................18

THE TYPES OF PROTECTION METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL.............................19


Fire Protection for Structural Steel............................................................................................19

Cementitious products...................................................................................................................19
Cementitious products..........................................................................................................19
Board and casing systems..............................................................................................................19
Board and casing systems.....................................................................................................19
Protection against Corrosion......................................................................................................20

Coatings.........................................................................................................................................20
Coatings................................................................................................................................20
Structural Fasteners........................................................................................................................21
ASTM, SAE AND ISO GRADE MARKINGS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR

STEEL FASTENERS................................................................................................................23

FASTENER IDENTIFICATION MARKING..........................................................................27

LIMITATIONS ON USE OF FASTENERS AND WELDS....................................................28

Connections and Fasteners for Cold Form Steel.......................................................................29

Usual mechanical fasteners for common applications...............................................................30

Reference.......................................................................................................................................39
INTRODUCTION
According to the iron–carbon phase diagram [1–3], all binary Fe–C alloys containing less than
about 2.11 wt% carbon are classified as steels, and all those containing higher carbon content
are termed cast iron. When alloying elements are added to obtain the desired properties, the
carbon content used to distinguish steels from cast iron would vary from 2.11 wt%.

Steels are the most complex and widely used engineering materials because of (1) the abundance
of iron in the Earth’s crust, (2) the high melting temperature of iron (15348C), (3) a range of
mechanical properties, such as moderate (200–300 MPa) yield strength with excellent ductility to
in excess of 1400 MPa yield stress with fracture toughness up to 100 MPam_2, and (4)
associated microstructures produced by solid-state phase transformations by varying the cooling
rate from the austenitic condition.

Steel has been part of some of the greatest achievements in history: Steel is stronger than iron
and considerably more versatile. From the thinnest surgical needles to immense ships, steel is the
material of choice. It was the "iron horse" and steel rails that helped carve a nation out of the
frontier. Steel is the backbone of bridges, the skeleton of skyscrapers, and the framework for
automobiles. And at the dawn of the 21st century, it's still revolutionizing the way we live. It is
the high-strength, lighter-than-plastic frames for eyeglasses; it's the stronger, more durable frame
in housing; it's the high-tech alloy used in the Space Shuttle's solid fuel rocket and motor cases.
(American Iron and Steel Institute 2002) Yes steel today is in just about everything we use today.
Steel too has changed over the years.

“Iron has been a vital material in technology for well over three thousand years. But until the
Industrial Revolution, it’s mining, smelting, and working were largely done by individuals and
small groups. Known since ancient times, steel is made by alloying iron with carbon to produce
a harder, stronger metal that will take a much keener edge. But steel was very expensive to
manufacture by the primitive methods then available, and its use was largely confined to high-
value specialty products such as swords and precision instruments.” (Garraty 1991) “Steel
making (in the 18th century) was a laborious and time-consuming process. Flat bars of iron were
laid in a furnace chest, side by side on a bed of charcoal. The bars were the covered with
charcoal, another layer of iron bars was placed on top of that and the process was repeated until
the chest was full. It was then placed in the furnace, covered with a layer of sand and cooked red-
hot for a week. During this time the carbon from the charcoal was absorbed into the outer layers
of the iron, the carbonized areas forming blisters on the surface of the bars. When the chest was
removed and had cooled down, these blisters were hammered off, and the pieces reheated and
hammered together. The resultant “blister” steel was brittle and difficult to work.” (Burke 1996)
The Blast furnace technique came some time after this. The blast furnace, which consisted of
blowing steam or air through molten iron, had become widely used by the ninetieth century.
Along came a man by the name Henry Bessemer who would invent a new way to produce steel
using the blast method called the Bessemer process, “the most important technique for making
steel in the nineteenth century.” (Misa 1995) He first came across this while melting gun metal
down. “Bessemer built a crucible with a blow pipe extended into its center. Into the crucible he
poured about 10 pounds of unrefined pig iron and then placed the apparatus into a hot furnace;
after 30 minutes of blowing air into the metal, he found the crude iron had become malleable
iron. This experiment proved air could decarburize pig iron, turning it into a useful product, yet
the furnace surrounding the crucible still consumed copious amounts of fuel. Bessemer's real
insight was to get rid of the furnace entirely. For this he built a four-foot tall, open-mouthed
cylinder with openings, or tuyères, to blow air into the metal from the bottom.” (Misa 1995)
“Acceptance of the process was slow at first, so that by 1870 the annual output of Bessemer steel
in the United States was a mere 42,000 tons. Production grew rapidly thereafter, rising to 1.2
million tons in 1880. The principal application of Bessemer steel in the 19th century was for the
manufacture of railroad rails, which proved far more durable than iron rails. By the 1890s
virtually no more iron rails were being produced.
MANUFACTURE PROCESS OF STRUCTURAL STEEL

Making steel

Iron and steel are made from iron ore. Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron
can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from
dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of
magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Hematite is also known as
"natural ore". The rock and minerals containing iron ore is dug from the earth and put into a blast
furnace. Charcoal, made from coal and limestone are put into the furnace with the rock and air is
blasted into it. It gets very hot! The iron ore melts and the liquid iron runs out and cools. It is
now called 'pig iron'. Pig iron is used to make wrought iron for garden furniture, some tools and
horseshoes but most importantly used to make steel.
The Blast Furnace
Steel is made from pig iron. Steel is iron that has most of the impurities removed. Steel also has
a consistent concentration of carbon throughout (0.5 to 1.5 percent). Impurities like silica,
phosphorous and sulfur weaken steel tremendously, so they must be eliminated. The advantage
of steel over iron is greatly improved strength.

The open-hearth furnace is one way to create steel from pig iron. The pig iron, limestone and
iron ore go into an open-hearth furnace. It is heated to about 1,600 degrees F (871 degrees C).
The limestone and ore form a slag that floats on the surface. Impurities, including carbon, are
oxidized and float out of the iron into the slag. When the carbon content is right, you have carbon
steel.

Another way to create steel from pig iron is the Bessemer process, which involves the oxidation
of the impurities in the pig iron by blowing air through the molten iron in a Bessemer converter.
The heat of oxidation raises the temperature and keeps the iron molten. As the air passes through
the molten pig iron, impurities unite with the oxygen to form oxides. Carbon monoxide burns off
and the other impurities form slag.

However, most modern steel plants use what's called a basic oxygen furnace to create steel. The
advantage is speed, as the process is roughly 10 times faster than the open-hearth furnace. In
these furnaces, high-purity oxygen blows through the molten pig iron, lowering carbon, silicon,
manganese and phosphorous levels. The addition of chemical cleaning agents called fluxes help
to reduce the sulfur and phosphorous levels.

At this stage other elements can be added to achieve different properties for example manganese
to increase strength and resistance to wear, or molybdenum to improve strength and resistance to
heat creating what’s known as an alloy steel. To make an alloy steel, the basic steel is put into a
huge container called a ladle, and the other elements are added. For example, the addition of 10
to 30 percent chromium creates stainless steel, which is very resistant to rust.
The molten steel is cast into basic shapes of different sizes and cooled. Next up is a process
called rolling. The steel is passed between two rollers that flatten and lengthen it, much as pie
dough is shaped by a rolling pin. If the steel is "hot rolled," heated to a temperature of about
1200 degrees Celsius, it’s much more able to withstand stress without cracking or breaking. If
the steel is "cold rolled," rolled at room temperature, it makes the steel thinner and smoother,
and gives it a shiny finish. Sometimes both processes are used.

Rolling can produce many final shapes, as well. The most common are flat sheets and the
narrower flat strips, but this process can also turn out structural beams and a variety of bars. Wire
needs more work: It’s made by drawing a round bar through a series of smaller and smaller holes
called dies. For some intended uses, there’s additional processing, but basically this is it. The
finished steel can be sent off to a customer who will build a bridge, manufacture cookware, or
make millions of paper clips—whatever the particular steel was designed to do best.

Hot Rolled Steel – Hot Rolling


Most structural sections used by architects and engineers are formed by hot-rolling in a
range of standard sizes.

White hot slabs of cast steel are sent into the rolling mill and are passed through sets of rollers
which gradually change the profile into the familiar 'I' and 'H' sections. These are produced in a
wide range of section sizes. These are known as universal beams and columns, identified by
serial size and mass per unit length. Each serial size corresponds to a different set of roller sizes.
Changes in mass per unit length are achieved by increasing the thickness of the flanges during
rolling.

Hot Rolled Steel Shapes

During the production of special steel profiles by hot rolling the input billet or slab is formed into
lengths up to 70 m using two oppositely rotating cylindrical rolls. The hot rolled steel shapes of
this forming technique are used in a multitude of industrial applications. Hot rolled special pro-
files offer innovative solutions whether it be for automotive, materials handling, railroad or
thicker flange and web thickness structural steel shapes use. Finished hot rolled steel shapes are
roller straightened and sheared into production lengths or sawn into fixed lengths according to
customer wishes.

• Targeted strengthening of highly stressed areas of component parts


• Best mechanical properties through uninterrupted grain orientation
• Best shape properties and fitting accuracy by maintenance of the tightest tolerances

Hot extruding – Extruded Steel Shapes – Steel Extrusions

• Extruded Stainless Steel


• Stainless Steel Extrusions

During hot extrusion a round steel billet is pre-heated and, after leaving the furnace, is pushed
through a forming die into a profile bar using a ram with an extrusion force of 2,200 ton.Hot
extrusion offers substantial advantages in comparison to hot rolling forging or machining. Hot
extrusion can be used to make complex profile shapes even using metals which are difficult to
form. In addition, small lot sizes can be produced economically. Hot extruded profiles offer the
benefit of:

• Different material thicknesses within one profile cross-section


• The possibility to use in highly sensitive areas, where the special profiles must withstand
specific demands of temperature, pressure, aggressive media or hygienic requirements
• Seamless structure of solid and hollow section
Cold-formed members are normally manufactured by one of two processes. These are:
(a) Roll forming;
(b) Folding
(c) press braking.

Roll forming consists of feeding a continuous steel strip through a series of opposing rolls to
progressively deform the steel plastically to form the desired shape. Each pair of rolls produces a
fixed amount of deformation in a sequence of type shown in Figure 5a. In this example, a Ω section
is formed. Each pair of opposing rolls is called a stage as shown in Figure 5. In general, the more
complex the cross-sectional shape, the greater the number of stages required. In the case of cold-
formed rectangular hollow sections, the rolls initially form the section into a circular section and a
weld is applied between the opposing edges of the strip before final rolling (called sizing) into a
square or rectangular shape.

Figures 6, a and b, shows two industrial roll forming lines for long products – profiles – and sheeting,
respectively.

Fig. 5: Stages in roll forming a simple section (Rhodes, 1992)


Fig. 6: Industrial roll forming lines

A significant limitation of roll forming is the time taken to change rolls for a different size sections.
Consequently, adjustable rolls are often used which allows a rapid change to a different section width
or depth.

Folding is the simplest process, in which specimens of short lengths and of simple geometry is
produced from a sheet of material by folding a series of bends (see Figure 7). This process has very
limited application.

Fig. 8: Forming steps in press braking process

Fig. 7: Forming of folding


Press-braking is more widely used, and a greater variety of cross-sectional forms can be produced by
this process. Here a section is formed from a length of strip by pressing the strip between shaped dies
to form the profile shape (see Figure 8). Usually each bend is formed separately. The set up of a
typical brake press is illustrated in Figure 8. This process also has limitations on the profiled
geometry which can be formed, and, often more importantly, on the lengths of sections which can be
produced. Press-braking is normally restricted to sections of length less than 5 m although press
brakes capable of production 8 m long members are in use in industry. Roll forming is usually used
to produce sections where very large quantities of a given shape are required. The initial tooling costs
are high but the subsequent labour content is low. Brake pressing is normally used for low volume
production where a variety of shapes are required and the roll forming tooling costs cannot be
justified.
EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY ON STEEL PROPERTIES
Chemical composition determines many characteristics of steels important in construction
applications. Some of the chemicals present in commercial steels are a consequence of the
steelmaking process. Other chemicals may be added deliberately by the producers to achieve
specific objectives. Specifications therefore usually require producers to report the chemical
composition of the steels.
During the pouring of a heat of steel, producers take samples of the molten steel for chemical
analysis. These heat analyses are usually supplemented by product analyses taken from drillings
or millings of blooms, billets, or finished products. ASTM specifications contain maximum and
minimum limits on chemicals reported in the heat and product analyses, which may differ
slightly.
Principal effects of the elements more commonly found in carbon and low-alloy steels are
discussed below. Bear in mind, however, that the effects of two or more of these chemicals when
used in combination may differ from those when each alone is present. Note also that variations
in chemical composition to obtain specific combinations of properties in a steel usually increase
cost, because it becomes more expensive to make, roll, and fabricate.

Carbon
Carbon is the principal strengthening element in carbon and low-alloy steels. In general, each
0.01% increase in carbon content increases the yield point about 0.5 ksi. This, however, is
accompanied by increase in hardness and reduction in ductility, notch toughness, and
weldability, raising of the transition temperatures, and greater susceptibility to aging. Hence
limits on carbon content of structural steels are desirable. Generally, the maximum permitted in
structural steels is 0.30% or less, depending on the other chemicals present and the weldability
and notch toughness desired.

Aluminum
Aluminum, when added to silicon-killed steel, lowers the transition temperature and increases
notch toughness. If sufficient aluminum is used, up to about 0.20%, it reduces the transition
temperature even when silicon is not present. However, the larger additions of aluminum make it
difficult to obtain desired finishes on rolled plate. Drastic deoxidation of molten steels with
aluminum or aluminum and titanium, in either the steelmaking furnace or the ladle, can prevent
the spontaneous increase in hardness at room temperature called aging. Also, aluminum restricts
grain growth during heat treatment and promotes surface hardness by nitriding.

Boron
Boron in small quantities increases hardenability of steels. It is used for this purpose in quenched
and tempered low carbon constructional alloy steels. However, more than 0.0005 to 0.004%
boron produces no further increase in hardenability. Also, a trace of boron increases strength of
low-carbon, plain molybdenum (0.40%) steel.

Chromium
Chromium improves strength, hardenability, abrasion resistance, and resistance to atmospheric
corrosion. However, it reduces weldability. With small amounts of chromium, low-alloy steels
have higher creep strength than carbon steels and are used where higher strength is needed for
elevated-temperature service. Also chromium is an important constituent of stainless steels.

Columbium
Columbium in very small amounts produces relatively larger increases in yield point but smaller
increases in tensile strength of carbon steel. However, the notch toughness of thick sections is
appreciably reduced.

Copper
Copper in amounts up to about 0.35% is very effective in improving the resistance of carbon
steels to atmospheric corrosion. Improvement continues with increases in copper content up to
about 1% but not so rapidly. Copper increases strength, with a proportionate increase in fatigue
limit. Copper also increases hardenability, with only a slight decrease in ductility and little effect
on notch toughness and weldability. However, steels with more than 0.60% copper are
susceptible to precipitation hardening. And steels with more than about 0.5% copper often
experience hot shortness during hot working, and surface cracks or roughness develop. Addition
of nickel in an amount equal to about half the copper content is effective in maintaining surface
quality.
Hydrogen
Hydrogen, which may be absorbed during steelmaking, embrittles steels. Ductility will improve
with aging at room temperature as the hydrogen diffuses out of the steel, faster from thin sections
than from thick. When hydrogen content exceeds 0.0005%, flaking, internal cracks or bursts,
may occur when the steel cools after rolling, especially in thick sections. In carbon steels, flaking
may be prevented by slow cooling after rolling, to permit the hydrogen to diffuse out of the steel.

Manganese
Manganese increases strength, hardenability, fatigue limit, notch toughness, and corrosion
resistance. It lowers the ductility and fracture transition temperatures. It hinders aging. Also, it
counteracts hot shortness due to sulfur. For this last purpose, the manganese content should be
three to eight times the sulfur content, depending on the type of steel. However, manganese
reduces weldability.

Molybdenum
Molybdenum increases yield strength, hardenability, abrasion resistance, and corrosion
-resistance. It also improves weldability. However, it has an adverse effect on toughness and
transition temperature. With small amounts of molybdenum, low-alloy steels have higher creep
strength than carbon steels and are used where higher strength is needed for elevatedtemperature
service.

Nickel
Nickel increases strength, hardenability, notch toughness, and corrosion resistance. It is an
important constituent of stainless steels. It lowers the ductility and fracture transition
temperatures, and it reduces weldability.

Nitrogen
Nitrogen increases strength, but it may cause aging. It also raises the ductility and fracture
transition temperatures.

Oxygen
Oxygen, like nitrogen, may be a cause of aging. Also, oxygen decreases ductility and notch
toughness.
Phosphorus
Phosphorus increases strength, fatigue limit, and hardenability, but it decreases ductility and
weldability and raises the ductility transition temperature. Additions of aluminum, however,
improve the notch toughness of phosphorus-bearing steels. Phosphorus improves the corrosion
resistance of steel and works very effectively together with small amounts of copper toward this
result.

Silicon
Silicon increases strength, notch toughness, and hardenability. It lowers the ductility transition
temperature, but it also reduces weldability. Silicon often is used as a deoxidizer in steelmaking.

Sulfur
Sulfur, which enters during the steelmaking process, can cause hot shortness. This results from
iron sulfide inclusions, which soften and may rupture when heated. Also, the inclusions may lead
to brittle failure by providing stress raisers from which fractures can initiate. And high sulfur
contents may cause porosity and hot cracking in welding unless special precautions are taken.
Addition of manganese, however, can counteract hot shortness. It forms manganese sulfide,
which is more refractory than iron sulfide. Nevertheless, it usually is desirable to keep sulfur
content below 0.05%

Titanium
Titanium increases creep and rupture strength and abrasion resistance. It plays an important role
in preventing aging. It sometimes is used as a deoxidizer in steelmaking (see Art. 1.24) and
grain-growth inhibitor.

Tungsten
Tungsten increases creep and rupture strength, hardenability and abrasion resistance. It is used
in steels for elevated-temperature service.

Vanadium
Vanadium, in amounts up to about 0.12%, increases rupture and creep strength without
impairing weldability or notch toughness. It also increases hardenability and abrasion resistance.
Vanadium sometimes is used as a deoxidizer in steelmaking (see Art. 1.24) and grain growth
inhibitor.

In practice, carbon content is limited so as not to impair ductility, notch toughness, and
weldability. To obtain high strength, therefore, resort is had to other strengthening agents that
improve these desirable properties or at least do not impair them as much as carbon. Often, the
better these properties are required to be at high strengths, the more costly the steels are likely to
be.

Attempts have been made to relate chemical composition to weldability by expressing the
relative influence of chemical content in terms of carbon equivalent. One widely used formula,
which is a supplementary requirement in ASTM A6 for structural steels, is

where C _ carbon content, %


Mn _ manganese content, %
Cr _ chromium content, %
Mo _ molybdenum, %
V _ vanadium, %
Ni _ nickel content, %
Cu _ copper, %
Carbon equivalent is related to the maximum rate at which a weld and adjacent plate may be
cooled after welding, without underbead cracking occurring. The higher the carbon equivalent,
the lower will be the allowable cooling rate. Also, use of low-hydrogen welding electrodes and
preheating becomes more important with increasing carbon equivalent. (Structural
Welding Code—Steel, American Welding Society, Miami, Fla.)
Though carbon provides high strength in steels economically, it is not a necessary ingredient.
Very high strength steels are available that contain so little carbon that they are considered
carbon-free.
Maraging steels
Maraging steels, carbon-free iron-nickel martensites, develop yield strengths from 150 to 300
ksi, depending on alloying composition. As pointed out in Art. 1.20, iron-carbon martensite is
hard and brittle after quenching and becomes softer and more ductile when tempered. In contrast,
maraging steels are relatively soft and ductile initially but become hard, strong, and tough when
aged. They are fabricated while ductile and later strengthened by an aging treatment. These steels
have high resistance to corrosion, including stresscorrosion cracking.
(W. T. Lankford, Jr., ed., The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, Association of Iron
and Steel Engineers, Pittsburgh, Pa.)
THE TYPES OF PROTECTION METHODS FOR
STRUCTURAL STEEL

Fire Protection for Structural Steel


There are three generic types of fire protection for structural steel:
• Cementitious products
• Board and casing systems
• Intumescent coatings

Cementitious products

Cementitious products based on gypsum or Portland cement binders are normally applied by low
pressure spray techniques to the profile of the steel section to be protected. These materials
contain low density aggregates and rheological aids to help the application characteristics. Fire
protection is provided to the steel by these materials in two ways, the first being the ‘cooling
effect’ as the trapped moisture (physically and chemically bound) evaporates as the temperature
of the surrounding fire increases. Once all the moisture has turned to steam the product then
behaves as a thermal insulation material. Low density mineral and synthetic aggregates are used
in these products since they are efficient in allowing the steam to escape, while denser materials
might impede its progress and cause the product to spall.

Board and casing systems


Board and casing systems use materials such as ceramic wool, mineral wool, fire resistant
plasterboard, calcium silicate and vermiculite to provide fire protection to steel. These products
provide fire protection in much the same way as the cementitious products and are dry fixed
around the steel using clip, pin, noggin and screw systems.

Intumescent coatings
Intumescent coatings derive their name from the Latin verb tumescere, which means to begin to
swell. In a fire situation, these thin film products swell up to form a char which protects the steel,
thanks to its insulating properties. Using various types of industrial coating equipment, these
materials are applied as a thin film and are often available with a range of topcoats in different
colours so that the designer can achieve his or her aesthetic needs as well as those of fire
protection on visible steel. Intumescent coatings are particularly effective for steel that requires
up to 90 minutes’ protection.

Protection against Corrosion

Coatings

Structural components are typically coated to provide a first line of defense against corrosion.
Commonly used coatings include conversion, hot melt wax, electrocoat, metallic, organic,
autodeposition and powder.
Phosphate conversion coatings are employed to enhance paint adhesion, thereby indirectly
enhancing corrosion resistance.
Hot melt wax coatings are used extensively on underbody structural components to provide
corrosion protection, and are usually applied through a dipping process.
Electrocoating or E-coating is a process in which electrically charged particles are deposited
out of a water suspension to coat a conductive part. The process requires a coating tank in which
the part is completely immersed. E-coat is widely used to protect underbody structural
components from corrosion. Metallic coatings such as zinc, zinc-iron and aluminum are applied
to steel components to inhibit corrosion, using the electroplating, mechanical plating, electroless
or hot dipping process.
Many underbody structural components are manufactured from sheet steel with a metallic
coating. The steel mills supply hot or cold rolled sheet in coil form with metallic coatings applied
by either electroplating or hot dipping. Organic, autodeposition and powder coatings are also
available to protect underbody structural components.
An organic coating such as paint is a cost effective corrosion protection method. It prevents, or
retards, the transfer of electrochemical charge from the corrosive solution to the metal beneath
the coating.
Autodeposition is a waterborne process that relies on chemical reactions to achieve deposition.
A mildly acidic latex bath attacks a steel part immersed in it. Iron ions are released and react
with the latex in solution causing a deposition or coating on the surface of the steel part.
A powder coating is achieved by applying a dry powder to a part. The part is then heated, fusing
the powder into a smooth, continuous film.
Structural Fasteners
There is currently a myriad of structural fasteners available, each developed for specific
applications. For structural applications where only snug-tightened bolted joints are required,
low-strength ASTM A307 bolts are permitted, but typically considered only for secondary
members or low-load applications. High-strength bolts such as ASTM A325 and A490 are the
more common choice. There are four pretensioning methods of bolt installation sanctioned by
the RCSC specification turn-of-the-nut, calibrated wrench, twist-off-type tension-control bolt,
and direct-tension-indicator. For pretensioned and slip-critical bolted joints, one will need to
consider ASTM A325 and A490 high strength bolts, or alternatively, F1852 and F2280 tension-
control bolt assemblies. If ASTM A325 or A490 high-strength bolts are used in pretensioned and
slip critical joints, one can choose turn-of-the nut or calibrated wrench, or decide to use ASTM
F959 direct-tension-indicator washers to determine that the minimum level of installation
pretension has been provided. In all cases, the pre-installation verification requirements of the
RCSC specification must be followed. The newest addition to the structural bolting family is
ASTM F2280, which is a tension-control bolt with a material strength equivalent to an ASTM
A490 high-strength bolt. One should never confuse structural bolts with anchor rods, or
improperly use one when the other is required. AISC changed the term “anchor bolt” to “anchor
rod” about 17 years ago to highlight the differences between bolts used in steel-to-steel
connections and those used in anchoring steel-to-concrete. The design and installation
parameters are quite different for each. Structural bolt lengths are usually available in lengths of
8 in. or less, which is typically insufficient for proper embedment development length as an
anchor rod. When thinking about column anchorage, one should remember that ASTM F1554
Grade 36 is the preferred material specification for anchor rods. It contains the same chemical
and structural properties as ASTM A36 rod, but includes two important aspects: color coding
and inclusion in the ASTM F1554 anchor rod standard. ASTM F1554 is an “umbrella” anchor
rod standard, as it establishes the process, threading, coatings, dimensions, and tolerances for
anchor rods. No other ASTM Standard for rod material establishes these important requirements.
ASTM F1554 includes a Grade 55, which can be ordered to Supplementary Requirement S1,
which ensures weldability. There is also a Grade 105 for high-strength applications, which is a
heat-treated material; hence, it cannot be ordered to Supplementary Requirement S1 to ensure
weldability. It should be noted that threaded rods are typically used for tension-only bracing or
when tension hangers are required. Such threaded rods may also be used as anchor rod, although
are not very common. Per ASTM F1554, A563 heavy-hex or hex nuts are typically used with
anchor rods, depending on the anchor rod nominal diameter and whether zinc coating has been
applied. Heavy-hex ASTM A563 nuts are used with structural steel bolts, such as ASTM A325
and A490, as outlined in the RCSC specification.

Structural Steel Materials Update


BY SERGIO ZORUBA, PH.D., P.E., AND WILLIAM LIDDY
ASTM, SAE AND ISO GRADE MARKINGS AND
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR STEEL FASTENERS

Nominal Mechanical Properties


Identification Fastener Size Proof Yield Tensile
Specification Material
Grade Mark Description Range Load Strength Strength
(in.) (psi) Min (psi) Min (psi)
SAE J429 Low or Medium 1/4 thru 1-
33,000 36,000
Grade 1 Carbon Steel 1/2
60,000
ASTM A307
Bolts, Low Carbon Steel 1/4 thru 4 -- --
Grades A&B
Screws,
No
Studs 1/4 thru
Grade
SAE J429 Low or Medium 3/4 Over 55,000 57,000 74,000
Mark
Grade 2 Carbon Steel 3/4 to 1- 33,000 36,000 60,000
1/2

SAE J429 Medium Carbon 1/4 thru 1-


Studs -- 100,000 115,000
No Grade 4 Cold Drawn Steel 1/2
Grade
Mark

ASTM A193
AISI 501 80,000 100,000
Grade B5
B5
1/4 Thru 4 --
ASTM A193
AISI 410 85,000 110,000
Grade B6
B6

105,000 125,000
ASTM A193 AISI 4140, 4142, 1/4 thru 2- 95,000 115,000
Grade B7 OR 4105 1/2
-- 75,000 100,000
B7 Over 2-1/2
--
thru 4
-- 105,000 125,000
ASTM A193 Over 4
CrMoVa Alloy Steel thru 7 95,000 115,000
Grade B16
85,000 100,000
B16

ASTM A193
AISI 304
Grade B8
B8

ASTM A193 1/4 and


AISI 347 -- 30,000 75,000
Grade B8C larger
B8C

ASTM A193
AISI 316
Grade B8M
B8M
ASTM A193 1/4 and
AISI 321 -- 30,000 75,000
Grade B8T larger
B8T

ASTM A193 AISI 304


Grade B8 Strain Hardened 100,000 125,000
B8 80,000 115,000
Bolts, 65,000 105,000
ASTM A193 Screws, AISI 347 1/4 thr 3/4 50,000 100,000
Grade B8C Studs for High- Strain Hardened Over 3/4
--
B8C Temperature thru 1
Service --
Over 1
-- 95,000 110,000
thru 1-1/4
ASTM A193 AISI 316 -- 80,000 100,000
Over 1-1/4
Grade B8M Strain Hardened thru 1-1/2 65,000 95,000
B8M 50,000 90,000
100,000 125,000
ASTM A193 AISI 321 80,000 115,000
Grade B8T Strain Hardened 65,000 105,000
B8T 50,000 100,000

ASTM A320 AISI 4140,


Grade L7 4142 or 4145
L7

ASTM A320
AISI 4037
Grade L7A
L7A 1/4 thru 2-
Bolts, -- 105,000 125,000
1/2
Screws,
ASTM A320
Studs for Low- AISI 4137
Grade L7B
Temperature
L7B
Service

ASTM A320
AISI 8740
Grade LC7
L7C

ASTM A320
AISI 4340 1/4 thru 4 -- 105,000 125,000
Grade L43
L43
Bolts, 1/4 and -- 30,000 75,000
ASTM A320 Screws, larger
AISI 304
Grade B8 Studs for Low-
B8 Temperature
Service
ASTM A320
AISI 347
Grade B8C
B8C
ASTM A320 AISI 321
Grade B8T

B8T
ASTM A320 AISI 303
Grade B8F or 303Se
B8F

ASTM A320
AISI 316
Grade B8M
B8M

ASTM A320
AISI 304
Grade B8
B8

ASTM A320
AISI 347
Grade B8C 1/4 thru
B8C 3/4
Over 3/4 -- 100,000 100,000
ASTM A320 AISI 303 thru 1 -- 80,000 80,000
Grade B8F or 303Se Over 1 -- 65,00 65,00
B8F thru 1-1/4 -- 50,00 50,00
Over 1-1/4
ASTM A320 thru 1-1/2
AISI 316
Grade B8M
B8M

ASTM A320
AISI 321
Grade B8T
B8T
1/4 thru 1
SAE J429 85,000 92,000 120,000
Over 1 to
Grade 5 74,000 81,000 105,000
1-1/2
Bolts, Medium Carbon
Screws, Steel, Quenched 1/4 thru 1
Studs and Tempered Over 1 to 85,000 92,000 120,000
ASTM A449 1-1/2 74,000 81,000 105,000
Over 1-1/2 55,000 58,000 90,000
thru 3
Low or Medium
SAE J429 Carbon Steel, No. 6
Sems 85,000 -- 120,000
Grade 5.1 Quenched and thru 3/8
Tempered
Low Carbon
Bolts,
SAE J429 Martensitic Steel,
Screws, 1/4 thru 1 85,000 92,000 120,000
Grade 5.2 Quenched and
Studs
Tempered
High Strength Medium Carbon 1/2 thru 1
ASTM A325 Structural Bolts 85,000 92,000 120,000
Steel, Quenched 1-1/8 thru
Type 1 74,000 81,000 105,000
and Tempered 1-1/2
A325
ASTM A325 Low Carbon 1/2 thru 1 85,000 92,000 120,000
Type 2 Martensitic Steel,
Quenched and
A325 Tempered
Atmospheric
Corrosion 1/2 thru 1
ASTM A325 85,000 92,000 120,000
Resisting Steel, 1-1/8 thru
Type 3 74,000 81,000 105,000
Quenched and 1-1/2
A325
Tempered

ASTM A354 80,000 83,000 105,000


Grade BB 1/4 thru 2- 75,000 78,000 100,000
BB Alloy Steel,
Bolts, 1/2
Quenched and
Studs 2-3/4 thru
Tempered
ASTM A354 4 105,000 109,000 125,000
Grade BC 95,000 99,000 115,000
BC
Medium Carbon
SAE J429 Bolts, Alloy Steel, 1/4 thru 1-
105,000 115,000 133,000
Grade 7 Screws, Quenched and 1/2
Tempered 4
Medium Carbon
SAE J429 Alloy Steel,
Grade 8 Bolts, Quenched and
Tempered 1/4 thru 1-
Screws, 120,000 130,000 150,000
1/2
Studs Alloy Steel,
ASTM A354
Quenched and
Grade BD
Tempered 4
Medium Carbon
Alloy or SAE 1041
SAE J429 1/4 thru 1-
Studs Modified Elevated 120,000 130,000 150,000
Grade 8.1 1/2
No Grade Temperature
Mark Drawn Steel
150,000
Alloy Steel,
High Strength 1/2 thru 1- min
ASTM A490 Quenched and 120,000 130,000
Structural Bolts 1/2 170,000
Tempered
A490 max
Bolts, All Sizes
Screws, thru 1-1/2
ISO R898
Studs 33,000 36,000 60,000
Class 4.6
No Grade
Mark Medium Carbon
Steel, Quenched
and Tempered
ISO R898
55,000 57,000 74,000
Class 5.8
No Grade
Mark
8.8 ISO R898 Alloy Steel, 85,000 92,000 120,000
Class 8.8 Quenched and
Tempered

or

88
10.9

ISO R898
or 120,000 130,000 150,000
Class 10.9

109

FASTENER IDENTIFICATION MARKING


Proof Hardness
Grade
Nominal Size Load Rockwell See
Identification Specification Material
In. Stress Note
Marking
ksi Min Max
ASTM A563 - Grade 0 Carbon Steel 1/4 thru 1-1/2 69 B55 C32 3,4
ASTM A563 - Grade A Carbon Steel 1/4 thru 1-1/2 90 B68 C32 3,4
1/4 thru 1 120
No Mark ASTM A563 - Grade B Carbon Steel over 1 thru 1- B69 C32 3,4
105
1/2
Carbon Steel
May be
ASTM A563 - Grade C 1/4 thru 4 144 B78 C38 5
Quenched
and Tampered
Atmospheric
Corrosion
Resistant Steel
ASTM A563 - Grade C3 1/4 thru 4 144 B78 C38 5,9
May be
Quenched
and Tampered
Carbon Steel
May be
ASTM A563 - Grade D 1/4 thru 4 150 B84 C38 6
Quenched
and Tampered
Carbon Steel
ASTM A563 - Grade DH Quenched 1/4 thru 4 175 C24 C38 6
and Tampered
Atmospheric
Corrosion
ASTM A563 - Grade
Resistant Steel, 1/4 thru 4 175 C24 C38 5,9
DH3
Quenched
and Tampered

ASTM A194 - Grade 1 Carbon Steel 1/4 thru 4 130 B70 -- 7

Medium Carbon
ASTM A194 - Grade 2 1/4 thru 4 150 159 352 7,8
Steel
Medium Carbon
ASTM A194 - Grade 2H Steel, Quenched 1/4 thru 4 175 C24 C38 7
and Tempered
Medium Carbon
ASTM A194 - Grade
Steel, Quenched 1/4 thru 4 150 159 237 7,8
2HM
and Tempered
Medium Carbon
Alloy Steel,
ASTM A194 - Grade 4 1/4 thru 4 175 C24 C38 7
Quenched
and Tempered
Medium Carbon
Alloy Steel,
ASTM A194 - Grade 7 1/4 thru 4 175 C24 C38 7
Quenched
and Tempered
Medium Carbon
Alloy Steel,
ASTM A194 - Grade 7M 1/4 thru 4 150 159 237 7
Quenched
and Tempered
See Note 1,2 10

LIMITATIONS ON USE OF FASTENERS AND WELDS


Structural steel fabricators prefer that job specifications state that ‘‘shop connections shall be
made with bolts or welds’’ rather than restricting the type of connection that can be used. This
allows the fabricator to make the best use of available equipment and to offer a more competitive
price. For bridges, however, standard specifications restrict fastener choice.

High-strength bolts may be used in either slip-critical or bearing-type connections subject to


various limitations. Bearing-type connections have higher allowable loads and should be used
where permitted. Also, bearing-type connections may be either fully tensioned or snug-tight,
subject to various limitations. Snug-tight bolts are much more economical to install and should
be used where permitted.

Bolted slip-critical connections must be used for bridges where stress reversal may occur or
slippage is undesirable. In bridges, connections subject to computed tension or combined shear
and computed tension must be slip-critical. Bridge construction requires that bearingtype
connections with high-strength bolts be limited to members in compression and secondary
members.
Carbon-steel bolts should not be used in connections subject to fatigue.
Connections and Fasteners for Cold Form Steel

Because of the wall thinness of cold-formed sections, conventional method for connection used
in steel construction, such as bolting and arc-welding are, of course, available but are generally
less appropriate and emphasis is on special techniques, more suited to thin materials. Long-
standing methods for connecting two elements thin material are blind rivets and self drilling, self
tapping screws. Fired pins are often used to connect thin materials to a ticker supporting
member. More recently, press-joining or clinching technology (Predeschi, 1997) which is very
productive requires no additional components and causes no damage to the galvanising or other
metallic coating. This technology has been taken from the automotive industry, but actually it is
successfully used in building construction. “Rosette” system is another innovative connecting
technology (Makelainen P. and Kesti J., 1999), proper to cold-formed steel structures. Therefore,
connection technology of cold-formed steel structures is representing one of their particular
advantages, both in manufacturing and erection process.
Usual mechanical fasteners for common
applications
19: Bolt head shapes

Fig. 20: Bolted continuous fixation for purlins and side rails
Fig. 21: Failure modes for bolted connections in shear

Fig. 22: Possible failure modes for bolted connections in tension


Fig. 23: Thread types for thread-forming screws

Fig. 24: Thread and points of thread-cutting screws


Fig. 25: Self-drilling screws: a) drill diameter equal to body diameter for thin-to-thick connections; b)
drill diameter smaller than body diameter for thin-to-thin connections

Fig. 26: Washers for self-tapping screws: a) metal washer; b) elastomeric washer; c) and d)
elastomeric or vulcanised to metal washer
Fig. 28: Different types of blind rivets
Fig. 29: Nut systems
Five types of powder actuated fasteners

Three types of air driven fasteners


Fig. 30: Shot fired pins
Reference

George E. Totten. 2004. Steel Heat Treatment- Metallurgy and Technologies. 2nd edition. Taylor
& Francis Production

Michael F. Ashby. 1998. Engineering Materials 1- An lntroduction to their Properties and


Applications. 2nd edition. Butterworth Heinemann Production

Michael G. Goode. 2004. Fire Protection of Structural Steel in High-Rise Buildings. U.S.
Department of Commerce Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and
Technology

Roger L. Brockenbrough. 2001. STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGNER’S HANDBOOK. 3rd


edditon. McGRAW-HILL, INC.

Robert E. Reed-Hill. 1996. Physical Metallurgy Principles. 2nd edition. D. Van Nostrand
Company

Tunnplat. 2001. Hot Rolled Cold Forming Steel. Domex 240 YP. Domec Publication