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CIRCULAR

IRCULAR FUNCTION
FUNCTIONS Domain Range Period

( sin ) 1,1 2
y P(x,y)
sin ( cos ) 1,1 2
r

cos ( tan )\ + # , | , ∈ 011


2
)
x
( csc )\2, | , ∈ 03 ∞, 1 ∪ 1. #∞ 2
tan sec if 0
( sec )\ + # , | , ∈ 011 ∞, 1 ∪ 1. #∞ 2
2
cot csc 0
)
if
( cot )\2, | , ∈ 03

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
Reciprocal Identities Pythagorean Identities Co-function Identities
1 1 1 sin4 # cos 4 1
csc sec tan sin & % cos
sin cos cot tan # 1 sec
4 4 2
1 # cot 4 csc 4 cos & % sin
Quotient Identities 2
sin cos tan & % cot
tan cot Odd and Even Functions 2
cos sin sin sin cos cos
tan tan , if tan is defined
Sum and Difference Identities Half-Angle Identities Double-Angle Identities
sin sin cos sin cos sin 2 2 sin cos
1 cos
sin & %
4
cos 4 & % cos 2 cos 4 sin4
cos cos cos ∓ sin sin 2 2 2
1 # cos cos 2 2 cos 4
1
tan tan 2 cos 2 1 2 sin4
tan 2 tan
1 ∓ tan tan
sin 1 cos tan 2
tan & % tan & % 1 tan4
2 1 # cos 2 sin
1 cos
tan4 & %
2 1 # cos
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

2
2

sin tan cot


2
1 1 1 1 2
cos

2
1 1 2 1 1

: 1,1 : 0, : 1,1 :$ , ' : ∞, #∞ :& , % : ∞, #∞ : 0,


2 2 2 2

sec

1 1
: ∞, 1 ∪ 1, #∞
: $0, % ∪ & , '
2 2

2
csc

1 1

: ∞, 1 ∪ 1, #∞
:$ , 0% ∪ &0, '
2 2
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
A. Suppose is an angle in standard position and the point 6 is on the terminal side of . Find a) sin , b) cos , c) tan ,
d) csc , e) sec , and f) cot .
√; √;
1. 6 3, 4 3. 6 7, 24 5. 6 & , % 7. 6 2√7, 4
4 <
4
2. 6 5, 12 4. 6 30, 40 6. 6 & , % 8. 6 & , 3√11%
;> ;> ;

B. Determine the exact values of the remaining trigonometric function of given.


; √@ ; A
1. cos and sin <0 3. tan and is in Q III 5. sec and < <
> < 4 4
@ @ A
2. sin and tan >0 4. cot and is in Q II 6. csc and < <
; √4 ; 4

C. Without the aid of a calculator, give the exact value of the following expressions.
FFG
<A A CDE CDE 4N° CPI 4 N° ;A A
1. 3 sin # 3 cos 3. H
LG 5. 7. sec & % csc & % # csc 225°
; ; IJK KQE @N°RIJK ;;N° < 4
M
>A @A KQE 44@° IJK ; @° >A @A
2. 5 cos tan 4. 6. cot & % sin 315° 8. cot 210° # tan & %
S ; KQE ;@° < ;

D. Sketch the graph of the following circular functions with at least two periods. Determine the amplitude, period, phase
shift, domain, and range for each.
A
1. ( 2 sin #3 5. ( T tan T #2 9. ( U sec V & # U%W
;
A
2. ( sin V 2 & # %W 1 6. ( tan & # % 1 10. ( X 2sec 2 X
4 4 4
A
3. ( Y 3 cos Y # 4 7. ( Z cot &Z % 11. ( [ X\c #[
4 4
4 ;
4. ( ] 2 cos & ]% # 1 8. ( ^ 2 cot_ 2 ^ # `#3 12. ( a csc_ 2π a 1 `#2
; ; 4

E. Find the domain and range of the following inverse trigonometric functions.
c
1. ( sin #1 5. ( sec & % 9. ( tan 2 1
4 <
2. ( sin 3 2 1 6. ( 2 sec 2 10. ( tan # 2
4 ; 4
c
3. ( cos 2 1 7. ( csc & % 11. ( cot & %
4 <
4 c 4
4. ( cos & # 2% 4 8. ( csc 2 3 12. ( 3 cot 1
; < ;

F. Evaluate the following trigonometric expressions.


A 4 ;
1. sin &sin & %% 4. cot &sin & %% 7. cos &sin & % # cos & %%
S 4 @ @
A ; ; 4
2. cos &sin & %% 5. csc &cot & %% 8. tan &cos & % tan & %%
S @ > >
√; <
3. sec_tan _√3`` 6. sin &cos & % sin & %% 9. cot & tan
4
& %%
4 4 4 >

G. Find the solution set in a) ) and b) the indicated closed interval of the equation.
1. cos 4 # cos sin4 0, 2 4. sin cos # 2 sin cos 2 0 0,4
2. √2 sin cos # sin 0 2 ,0 5. 2 cos 4 2 # 2 cos 2 √3 cos 2 # 1 720°, 0°
c c c
3. csc 4 2 4 0 , 6. 2 tan √3 &sec 4 < 2 tan4 % 180°, 180°
< <

H. Solve the following problems.


<ce A
1. If tan M M , where , > 0 and < < 0, find csc .
<e c 4
@
2. The point 6 & , % with an -coordinate less than zero lies on the unit circle having the origin as its center. Suppose
>
an angle is in standard position whose terminal side touches the unit circle at 6, find cot .
3. Find the exact value of sin 451° # sin 452° # sin 453° # ⋯ # sin 628° # sin 629° # sin 630°.
@
4. If ( csc and ( i , find the exact value of a.) ( i , b.) ( i # ( i # 2 , and c.) ( i #( i#4 .
<
5. Sketch the graph of the function ( |4 cos # |. Find the range.
A <
6. Find a sine function with an amplitude of 4, period of and phase shift of .
< A
;A
7. Solve for : cot 4
3 #3 .
<
8. If 2 cos , express cos 2 in terms of .
<
9. Find the domain and range of ( .
CDE <cRIJC <c CDE <c IJC <c
10. Find the height of the flagpole if its horizontal shadow is 60 meters when the angle of elevation of the sun is 35°.
11. An artwork 4 feet high is hanged on a wall so that its base is 4 feet off the ground. If a spotlight is on the ground
feet from the wall and is the radian measure of the angle subtended by the artwork at the spotlight, express in
terms of .
12. A tourist rides on a Ferris wheel. His distance from the ground after t seconds, in feet, is given by ( 65 #
A A
60 sin & %. a) Find the initial distance of the rider from the ground. b) Find the time at which the rider reaches
4N 4
its maximum distance from the ground. c) How long does it take for the wheel to make 10 complete revolutions?