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-Understand the manufacture of sulphuric

-Synthesising the manufacture of ammonia
and its salts.
-Understand alloys.
-Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer.
-Apply the uses of glass and ceramics.
-Evaluate the uses of composite materials.
-Appreciate various synthetic industrial
1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as
ammonium sulphate and
potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be
easily obsorbed by
2. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the electrolyte.
3. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres
and rayon.
4. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of
their component materials.
1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process
2. The process contain three stage:


i. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur
dioxide SO2.

S(s)+O2(g) SO2(g)

ii. sulphur dioxide is dried and purified.


i. The purified sulphur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over
oxide, V2O5 at controlled optimum condition to produce sulphur
trioxide SO3.
2SO2(g)+O2(g) 2SO3(g)

ii. The optimum used are:

a) Temperature:450-500°C
b) Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres
c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide
iii. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible.
Sulphur dioxide
and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over
the catalyst in
the converter.


i. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric
acid,H2SO4 to form oleum,H2S2O7 .

SO3(g)+H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l)

which is then diluted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4

H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)

ii. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to adding sulphur

trioxide directly into water.

SO3(g)+H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)

iii. The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out
because the reaction is vary vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. As a
result, a large cloud of sulphuric acid fumes is produced, which is
corrosive and causes severe air pollution.

1.Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process. It is a

colourless and poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell.

2.Sulphur dioxide which escape into the air causes air pollution.
3.Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form
sulphurous acidic,H2SO3.
In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form
sulphurous acidic.
SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq)

4.Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4,

which falls to the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily
oxidised in the air to form sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in
rainwater to produce sulphuric acid.

SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)

Acid rain and environmental pollution


1.Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses.

2.It uses:
i.In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium
sulphate, ammonia nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea.
ii.To manufacture nitric acid and explosive.
iii.In the making of synthetic fibre and nylon.
iv.As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy
stains in the kitchen.


1.The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following:

i.It colourless and has a pungent odour.
ii.It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution.
iii.It less dense then water.
iv.It easily liquified (at about 35.5°C) when cool.
2.The chemical properties of ammonia gas:
a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali.

NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution

to become alkaline. Thus aqueous ammonia solution:
i. Turns red litmus paper blue.
ii. Reacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization

NH3(aq) + HCI(aq) NH4CI(aq)

2NH3 + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)

iii. Reacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates.

Fe²+(aq) + 2OH(aq) Fe (OH)2(s)


1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the

haber process. In this process, ammonia is formed form direct
combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas in the volume ratio 1:3.
2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied
air. The hydrogen gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or
from the catalysed reaction of natural gas,CH4, with steam.

CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g)

3.The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron

catalyst under controlled optimum condition as below to form
ammonia gas.
i.Temperature: 450-500°C
ii.Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
iii.Catalyst used: Iron fillings
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

4.Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture
turn into ammonia gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not
reacted are then flow back over the catalyst again in the reactor
5.The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it
condenses into a liquid in the cooling chamber.

The Haber Process


1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins

which are necessary for growth and cell repair.
2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air
although it is abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble
nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots.
3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia
and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer.
4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers.

NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq)

3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) (NH4)3PO4(aq)

2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)


1. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes
the metal to have a hight density
2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong.
More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the
atoms are further apart during the melting. This is why metals usually
have hight melting point.
3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by
vibration. This make metal good conduct of heat.
4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure
are able to conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical
5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged
orderly in a regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal,
layer of atom slide easily over one another. This make pure metals
soft, malleable and ductile.


1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low
resistance to corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily.
2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of
another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy.
3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal)
in a specific proportion. For example:
a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin)
b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon)
4.The purposes of making alloys include the following:
a) Increase the strength
i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of
carbon is added to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is
added, the stronger the steel becomes.
ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of
copper and
magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy
call duralumin is produced.
b)Improving the resistance to corrosion
i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron,
0.4% of carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush.
These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical
instrument and cutlery.
ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the
yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to
c) Enhancing the appearance
i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only
hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance.
ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy
that has an attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is
suitable for making

Alloy Composition Properties Uses

High carbon 99% iron Strong,hard and • Making of
steel 1% carbon high cutting
wear resistance tools, hammers
Stainless steel 80.6% iron Do not rust and • Making of
0.4% carbon tarnish, strong surgical
18%chromium and instrument,
1% nickel durable knives
forks and
Brass 70% copper Hard, do not • Making of
30% zinc rust, ornaments,
bright electrical wiring
appearance and plug.
Bronze 90% copper Hard, do not • For casting
10% tin corrode bells,
easily and medals, swords
durable and statues
Pewter 90% tin Ductile and • Making of
2.5% copper malleable, ornaments,
0.5% antimony white souvenirs and
silvery mugs
Duralumin 95% aluminium Light, strong • Making part of
4% copper and aircrafts and
1%magnesium durable racing
Cupronickel 75%copper Attractive, • Making of
25%nickel silvery silver
appearance, coins
hard and

1.Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar

units joined together repeatedly are called polymer.
2.The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer
are caller monomer.
3.The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form
a long chain polymer is called polymerisation.
4.Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural
polymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural
polymers are starch cellulose, protein and rubber.
5.Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are
6.Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition