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RT9214

RT9214

5V/12V Synchronous Buck PWM DC/DC Controller

General Description

The RT9214 is a high efficiency synchronous buck PWM

controllers that generate logic-supply voltages in PC based systems. These high performance , single output devices

include internal soft-start, frequency compensation networks and integrates all of the control, output

adjustment, monitoring and protection functions into a single package.

The dev ice operati ng at fix ed 300kHz f requency prov ides

an optimum compromise between efficiency, external component size, and cost.

Adjustable over-current protection (OCP) monitors the voltage drop across the R DS(ON) of the lower MOSFET for

synchronous buck PWM DC/DC controller. The over current function cycles the soft-start in 4-times hiccup

mode to provide fault protection, and in an always hiccup mode for under-voltage protection.

Ordering Information

RT9214

for under-voltage protection. Ordering Information RT9214 Package Type S : SOP-8 SP : SOP-8 (Exposed Pad-Option

Package Type

S : SOP-8

SP : SOP-8 (Exposed Pad-Option 1)

Lead Plating System

P

: Pb Free

G

: Green (Halogen Free and Pb Free)

Z

: ECO (Ecological Element with Halogen Free and Pb free)

Note :

Richtek products are :

} RoHS compliant and compatible with the current require-

ments of IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020.

} Suitable for use in SnPb or Pb-free soldering processes.

Features

l

Operating with 5V or 12V Supply Voltage

l

Drives All Low Cost N-MOSFETs

l

Voltage Mode PWM Control

l

300kHz Fixed Frequency Oscillator

l

Fast Transient Response :

} High-Speed GM Amplifier

} Full 0 to 100% Duty Ratio

l

Internal Soft-Start

l

Adaptive Non-Overlapping Gate Driver

l

Over Current Fault Monitor on MOSFET, No Current Sense Resistor Required

l

RoHS Compliant and 100% Lead (Pb)-Free

Applications

l

Graphic Card

l

Motherboard, Desktop Servers

l

IA Equipments

l

Telecomm Equipments

l

High Power DC/DC Regulators

Pin Configurations

(TOP VIEW)

BOOT 8 PHASE UGATE 2 7 OPS GND 3 6 FB LGATE 4 5 VCC
BOOT
8
PHASE
UGATE
2
7
OPS
GND
3 6
FB
LGATE
4
5
VCC
SOP-8
BOOT
8
PHASE
UGATE
2
7
OPS
NC
GND
6
FB
3 9
LGATE
4
5
VCC
SOP-8 (Exposed Pad)

RT9214

RT9214

Typical Application Circuit

V IN

5V to 12V 3.3V/5V/12V D1 R BOOT 1N4148 2.2 C2 0.1µF C3 C4 1µF 470µF
5V to 12V
3.3V/5V/12V
D1
R BOOT
1N4148
2.2
C2
0.1µF
C3
C4
1µF
470µF
R1
R UGATE
10 1
2.2 Q1
BOOT
2
UGATE
MU
5
8
VCC
PHASE
L1
V OUT
3µH
C1
RT9214
ROCSET
6
7
1µF
FB
OPS
3
Q2
R
4
GND
LGATE
ML
C
Q3
C6 to C8
Disable >
3904
1000µFx3
R2
R3
32
68
R4
C5
V
=
V
OUT
REF
200-1k
0.1-0.33µF

¥

(1

+

R3

R2

)

V REF

: Internal reference voltage

(0.8V

±

2%)

Functional Pin Description

BOOT (Pin 1)

Bootstrap supply pin for the upper gate driver. Connect the bootstrap capacitor between BOOT pin and the PHASE

pin. The bootstrap capacitor provides the charge to turn

on t he uppe r M O S FE T.

UGATE (Pin 2)

Upper gate driver output. Connect to the gate of high side power N-MOSFET. This pin is monitored by the adaptive

shoot through protection circuitry to determine when the upper MOSFET has turned off.

GND (Pin 3)

Both signal and power ground for the IC. All voltage levels

are measured with respect to this pin. Ties the pin directly to the low side MOSFET source and ground plane with

the lowest impedance.

LGATE (Pin 4)

Lower gate drive output. Connect to the gate of low side

power N-MOSFET. This pin is monitored by the adaptive shoot through protection circuitry to determine when the

lower MOSFET has turned off.

VCC (Pin 5)

Connect thi s pi n to a well-decoupled 5V or 12V bias

supply. It is also the positive supply for the lower gate driver, LGATE.

FB (Pin 6)

Switcher feedback voltage. This pin is the inverting input of the error amplifier. FB senses the switcher output

through an external resistor divider network.

OPS (OCSET, POR and Shut-Down) (Pin 7)

This pin provides multi-function of the over current setting, UGATE turn-on POR sensing, and shut down features.

Connecting a resistor (ROCSET) between OPS and PHASE pins sets the over current trip point.

Pulling the pin to ground resets the device and all external

MOSFETs are turned off allowing the output voltage power rails to float.

This pin is also used to detect V IN in power on stage and issues an internal POR signal.

PHASE (Pin 8)

Connect this pin to the source of the upper MOSFET and

t he dr a i n o f t he l o we r M OS F E T.

NC [Exposed Pad (9)]

No Internal Connection.

RT9214

RT9214

Function Block Diagram

FB

VCC

EN 0.1V PH_M Bias & Regulators Power On Reference (3V_Logic & 3VDD_Analog) Reset 1.5V 0.8VREF
EN
0.1V
PH_M
Bias & Regulators
Power On
Reference
(3V_Logic & 3VDD_Analog)
Reset
1.5V
0.8VREF
3V
Soft-Start
0.6V
40µA
UV_S
&
Fault Logic
OC
-
OPS
0.4V
+
+
-
BOOT
UGATE
PHASE
EO
GM
Gate
Control
Logic
VCC
LGATE
Oscillator
(300kHz)
-
-
+
+
-
+

GND

RT9214

RT9214

Absolute Maximum Ratings

(Note 1)

l

Supply Voltage, V CC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16V

l

BOOT, V BOOT - V PHASE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16V

l

PHASE to GND

 
 

DC

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -5V to 15V

 

<

200ns ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -10V to 30V

l

BOOT to PHASE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15V

l

BOOT to GND

 
 

DC

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -0.3V to V CC +15V

 

<

200ns ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -0.3V to 42V

l

UGATE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V PHASE - 0.3V to V BOOT + 0.3V

l

LGATE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ GND - 0.3V to V VCC + 0.3V

l

Input, Output or I/O Voltage --------------------------------------------------------------------------- GND-0.3V to 7V

l

Power Dissipation, P D @ T A = 25 C (Note 2) SOP-8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0.625W SOP-8 (Exposed Pad) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.33W

l

Package Thermal Resistance SOP-8, q JA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 160 C/W SOP-8 (Exposed Pad), q JA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 C/W

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Junction Temperature -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

150 C

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Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec.) -------------------------------------------------------------- 260 C

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Storage Temperature Range --------------------------------------------------------------------------- -65 C to 150 C

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ESD Susceptibility (Note 3) HBM (Human Body Mode) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2kV MM (Machine Mode) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 200V

Recommended Operating Conditions

(Note 4)

 

l

Supply Voltage, V CC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5V ± 5%,12V ± 10%

l

Junction Temperature Range -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -40 C to 125 C

l

Ambient Temperature Range -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -40 C to 85 C

Electrical Characteristics

(V CC = 5V/12V, T A = 25 C, unless otherwise specified)

Parameter

Symbol

Test Conditions

Min

Typ

Max

Unit

VCC Supply Current

Nominal Supply Current

ICC

UGATE and LGATE Open

--

6

15

mA

Power-On Reset

POR Threshold

V CC RTH

CC Rising

V

--

4.1

4.5

V

Hysteresis

V CCHYS

 

0.35

0.5

--

V

Switcher Reference

Reference Voltage

V REF

CC = 12V

V

0.784

0.8

0.816

V

To be continued

RT9214

RT9214

Parameter

 

Symbol

 

Test Conditions

Min

Typ

Max

Unit

Oscillator

Free Running Frequency

f

OSC

V

CC = 12V

250

300

350

kHz

Ramp Amplitude

DV OSC

V

CC = 12V

--

1.5

--

V P-P

Error Amplifier (GM)

E/A Transconductance

 

g

m

 

--

0.2

--

ms

Open Loop DC Gain

 

A

O

 

--

90

--

dB

PWM Controller Gat e Drivers (VCC = 1 2V)

 

Upper Gate Source

I

 

V

B OOT - V PHASE = 12V,

0.6

1

 

A

UGATE

V

UGATE - V PHASE = 6V

--

Upper Gate Sink

R

UGATE

V

B OOT - V PHASE = 12V,

 

4

8

 

V

UGATE - V PHASE = 1V

--

W

Lower Gate Source

I

LGATE

V

CC = 12V, V LGATE = 6V

0.6

1

--

A

Lower Gate Sink

R

LGATE

V

CC = 12V, V LGATE = 1V

--

3

5

W

Dead Time

 

T

DT

 

--

--

100

ns

Protection

FB Under-Voltage Trip

D FBUVT

FB Falling

70

75

80

%

OC Current Source

I

OC

V

PHASE = 0V

35

40

45

mA

Soft-Star t Interval

 

T

SS

 

--

3.5

--

ms

Note 1. Stresses listed as the above "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are for

stress ratings. Functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the

operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended

p e riod s ma y r em a in po ss ib ilit y t o aff e c t d e vice r e liab ilit y.

Note 2. q JA is measured in the natural convection at T A = 25 C on a low effective thermal conductivity test board of

JEDEC 51-3 thermal measurement standard.

Note 3. Devices are ESD sensitive. Handling precaution recommended.

Note 4. The device is not guaranteed to function outside its operating conditions.

RT9214

RT9214

Typical Operating Characteristics

(V OUT = 2.5V, unless otherwise specified )

Efficiency vs. Output Current

1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 VCC = 12V 0.65 V IN = 5V
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
VCC = 12V
0.65
V IN = 5V
0.6
0
5
10
15
20
25
Efficiency(%)

Output Current (A)

Reference Voltage vs. Temperature

0.812 V CC = 12V 0.810 VIN = 5V 0.808 0.806 0.804 0.802 0.800 0.798
0.812
V CC = 12V
0.810
VIN
= 5V
0.808
0.806
0.804
0.802
0.800
0.798
-40
-25
-10
5
20
35
50
65
80
95
110 125
Reference Voltage (V)

Temperature (°C)

POR vs. Temperature

4.75 Rising 4.50 4.25 4.00 Falling 3.75 3.50 -40 -10 20 50 80 110 140
4.75
Rising
4.50
4.25
4.00
Falling
3.75
3.50
-40
-10
20
50
80
110
140
POR Rising or Falling (V)

Temperature (°C)

Efficiency vs. Output Current

1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 VCC = 5V 0.65 V IN = 5V
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
VCC = 5V
0.65
V IN = 5V
0.6
0
5
10
15
20
25
Efficiency(%)

Output Current (A)

Frequency vs. Temperature

350 330 310 290 270 250 -40 -10 20 50 80 110 140 Frequency (kHz)
350
330
310
290
270
250
-40
-10
20
50
80
110
140
Frequency (kHz)

Temperature (°C)

V CC Switching

(100mV/Div) OUT I OUT (10A/Div) (20V/Div) V CC V CC = 12Vto 5V I OUT
(100mV/Div)
OUT
I
OUT
(10A/Div)
(20V/Div)
V CC
V CC = 12Vto 5V
I OUT = 10A
VIN = 5V
(10V/Div)

V

UGATE

Time (10ms/Div)

RT9214

RT9214

V CC Switching

(100mV/Div) (10A/Div) (20V/Div) VCC = 5V to 12V IOUT= 10A, VIN = 5V (10V/Div)
(100mV/Div)
(10A/Div)
(20V/Div)
VCC = 5V to 12V
IOUT= 10A, VIN = 5V
(10V/Div)

I OUT

V OUT

UGATE

V CC

Time (10ms/Div)

Power Off

(10V/Div) (2V/Div) (2V/Div) (10V/Div) IOUT = 2A
(10V/Div)
(2V/Div)
(2V/Div)
(10V/Div)
IOUT = 2A

V CC

V OUT

V IN

UGATE

Time (5ms/Div)

(5V/Div)

Dead Time (Falling)

VCC = 12V VIN = 5V IOUT= 25A UGATE PHASE LGATE
VCC = 12V
VIN = 5V
IOUT= 25A
UGATE
PHASE
LGATE

Time (10ns/Div)

Power On

(500mV/Div) (2A/Div) (10V/Div)
(500mV/Div)
(2A/Div)
(10V/Div)

V

OUT

I OUT

UGATE

Time (500 μs/Div)

(5V/Div)

Dead Time (Rising)

VCC = VIN = 5V IOUT = 25A UGATE PHASE LGATE
VCC = VIN = 5V
IOUT = 25A
UGATE
PHASE
LGATE

Time (25ns/Div)

Transient Response (Rising)

VCC = VIN = 12V IOUT= 0A to 15A L = 2.2 μ H Freq.
VCC = VIN = 12V
IOUT= 0A to 15A
L
= 2.2 μ H
Freq. = 1/20ms, SR = 2.5A/μ s
C
= 2000 μF

UGATE

(10V/Div)

V OUT

(100mV/Div)

I L

(10A/Div)

Time (5μs/Div)

RT9214

RT9214

Transient Response (Falling)

L = 2.2 μH C = 2000 μF V CC = V IN = 12V
L
= 2.2 μH
C
= 2000 μF
V CC =
V IN = 12V
I OUT = 15A to 0A
Freq. = 1/20ms
SR = 2.5A/μs

UGATE

(10V/Div)

V OUT

(100mV/Div)

I L

(10A/Div)

Time (25 μ s/Div)

RT9214

RT9214

Application Information

Inductor Selection

The selection of output inductor is based on the considerations of efficiency, output power and operating frequency. Low inductance value has smaller size, but results in low efficiency, large ripple current and high output ripple voltage. Generally, an inductor that limits the ripple current (DI L ) between 20% and 50% of output current is appropriate. Figure 1 shows the typical topology of synchronous step-down converter and its related waveforms.

According to Figure 1 the ripple current of inductor can be calculated as follows :

V

IN

L

=

-

V

OUT

(V

IN

-

=

L

ΔI

L

Δt

;

Δt

=

D

fs

;

V

OUT

)

¥

V OUT

V

IN

¥

fs

¥

ΔI

L

D

=

V

OUT

V

IN

Where :

V IN = Maximum input voltage

V OUT = Output Voltage

Dt = S1 turn on time

DI L = Inductor current ripple

(1)

V

IN

i S1 L I L + V - L i C i S2 + S1
i
S1
L
I L
+
V
-
L
i
C
i
S2
+
S1
V
OR
r
C
-
R
S2
L
+
V
OC
C
OUT
-
T
S
V
T
g1
T ON
OFF
V
g2
+

I OUT

f S = Switching frequency
+

V OUT

D = Duty Cycle

- r C = Equivalent series resistor of output capacitor

Output Capacitor

The selection of output capacitor depends on the output ripple voltage requirement. Practically, the output ripple voltage is a function of both capacitance value and the equivalent series resistance (ESR) r C . Figure 2 shows the related waveforms of output capacitor.

V L

i L

V IN - V OUT - V OUT I L = I OUT ΔI L
V IN - V OUT
- V OUT
I L = I OUT
ΔI L
i S1 i S2 Figure 1. The Waveforms of Synchronous Step Down Converter
i S1
i S2
Figure 1. The Waveforms of Synchronous Step Down
Converter
di V di V i L IN -V OUT L OUT L = = dt
di
V
di
V
i
L
IN -V OUT
L
OUT
L
=
=
dt
L
dt
L
I
OUT
T
S
i
C
1/2 ΔI L
0
ΔI L
V
OC
ΔV OC
V
OR
ΔI L x r c
0
t1
t2

Figure 2. The Related Waveforms of Output Capacitor

DS9214-15

March 2011

w ww.rich tek .com

RT9214

RT9214

The AC impedance of output capacitor at operating frequency is quite smaller than the load impedance, so the ripple current (DI L ) of the inductor current flows mainly through output capacitor. The output ripple voltage is described as :

(2)

ΔV

OUT

=

ΔV

OR

+

ΔV

OC

ΔV

ΔV

OUT

OUT

=

=

ΔI

ΔI

L

L

¥

¥

rc

ΔI

+

L

1

C

O

t2

Ú

t1

ic dt

¥

rc

+

1

V

OUT

8

C

OL

(1

-

D)T

2

S

(3)

(4)

where DV OR is caused by ESR and DV OC by capacitance. For electrolytic capacitor application, typically 90 to 95% of the output voltage ripple is contributed by the ESR of output capacitor. So Equation (4) could be simplified as :

(5)

DV OUT = DI L x rc

Users could connect capacitors in parallel to get calculated ESR.

Input Capacitor

The selection of input capacitor is mainly based on its maximum ripple current capability. The buck converter draws pulse wise current from the input capacitor during the on time of S1 as shown in Figure 1. The RMS value of ripple current flowing through the input capacitor is described as :

Irms

=

I

OUT

D(1 - D)
D(1
-
D)

(A)

(6)

The input capacitor must be cable of handling this ripple current. Sometime, for higher efficiency the low ESR capacitor is necessari ly.

PWM Loop Stability

RT9214 is a voltage mode buck converter using the high gain error amplifier with transconductance (OTA, Operational Transconductance Amplifier).

The transconductance :

GM =

dI OUT

dVm

The mid-frequency gain :

dV

OUT

=

dI

OUT

Z

OUT

=

G =

dV OUT

dV IN

= GMZ

OUT

GMdV

IN

Z

OUT

Z OUT is the shut impedance at the output node to ground (see Figure 3 and Figure 4),

GM C 1 C 2 R 1
GM
C 1
C 2
R 1

V OUT

Figure 3. A Type 2 Error-Amplifier with Shut Network to Ground

V OUT + R O + EA+ EA- - GM Figure 4. Equivalent Circuit Pole
V OUT
+
R O
+
EA+
EA-
-
GM
Figure 4. Equivalent Circuit
Pole and Zero :
1
1
F
=
;
F
=
P
Z
2 p
¥
R C
2 p
¥
R C
1
2
1
1

We can see the open loop gain and the Figure 3 whole loop gain in Figure 5.

Open Loop, Unloaded Gain A Closed Loop, Unloaded Gain F Z F P Gain =
Open Loop, Unloaded Gain
A
Closed Loop, Unloaded Gain
F
Z
F
P
Gain = GMR 1
B
100
1000
10k
100k
Gain (dB)

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 5. Gain with The Figure 2 Circuit

RT9214 internal compensation loop :

GM = 0.2ms, R1=75kW, C1 = 2.5nF, C2 = 10pF

RT9214

RT9214

OPS (Over Current Setting, VIN_POR and Shutdown)

1.OCP

Sense the low side MOSFET s R DS(ON) to set over current trip point.

Connecting a resistor (R OCSET ) from this pin to the source of the upper MOSFET and the drain of the lower MOSFET sets the over current trip point. R OCSET , an internal 40μA current source, and the lower MOSFET on resistance, R DS(ON) , set the converter over current trip point (I OCSET ) according to the following equation :

I

OCSET

=

40uA

×

R

OCSET

0.4V

R DS(ON)

of the lower MOSFET

OPS pin function is similar to RC charging or discharging circuit, so the over current trip point is very sensitive to parasitic capacitance (ex. shut down MOSFET) and the duty ratio.

Below Figures say those effect. And test conditions are Rocset = 15kΩ (over current trip point = 20.6A), Low side MOSFET is IR3707.

OCP

UGATE (10V/Div) I L (10A/Div) V IN = 5V, VCC = 12V V OUT =
UGATE (10V/Div)
I L (10A/Div)
V IN = 5V, VCC = 12V
V OUT = 1.5V

Time (5μs/Div)

OCP

UGATE (10V/Div) I L (10A/Div) V IN = 12V, VCC = 12V V OUT =
UGATE (10V/Div)
I L (10A/Div)
V IN = 12V, VCC = 12V
V OUT = 1.5V

Time (2.5μs/Div)

OCP

UGATE (10V/Div) I L (10A/Div) OPS (200mV/Div) V IN = 5V, VCC = 12V V
UGATE
(10V/Div)
I L (10A/Div)
OPS (200mV/Div)
V IN = 5V, VCC = 12V
V OUT = 1.5V

Time (5μs/Div)

OCP

OPS (200mV/Div) UGATE (10V/Div) I L (10A/Div) V IN = 12V, VCC = 12V V
OPS
(200mV/Div)
UGATE
(10V/Div)
I L (10A/Div)
V IN = 12V, VCC = 12V
V OUT = 1.5V

Time (2.5μs/Div)

RT9214

RT9214

2. VIN_POR

UGATE will continuously generate a 10kHz clock with 1% duty cycle before V IN is ready. V IN is recognized ready by detecting V OPS crossing 1.5V four times (rising & falling). R OCSET must be kept lower than 37.5kΩ for large R OCSET will keep V OPS always higher than 1.5V. Figure 6 shows the detail actions of OCP and POR. It is highly recommend-ed that R OCSET be lower than 30kΩ.

3V

40uA R OCSET - PHASE OPS 0.4V + Q2 10pF DISABLE + Cparasitic - 1st
40uA
R
OCSET
-
PHASE
OPS
0.4V
+
Q2
10pF
DISABLE
+
Cparasitic
-
1st 2nd 3rd 4th OPS
+
waveform
UGATE
-
1.5V

OC

V IN POR_H

PHASE_M

(1) Internal Counter will count (V OPS > 1.5V) four times (rising & falling) to recognize V IN is ready. (2) R OCSET can be set too large. Or can  detect V IN is ready (counter = 1, not equal 4)

Figure 6. OCP and VIN_POR Actions

3. Shutdown

Pulling low the OPS pin by a small single transistor can shutdown the RT9214 PWM controller as shown in typical application circuit.

Soft Start

A built-in soft-start is used to prevent surge current from

power supply input during power on. The soft-start voltage

is controlled by an internal digital counter. It clamps the

ramping of reference voltage at the input of error amplifier and the pulse-width of the output driver slowly. The typical soft-start duration is 3ms.

COMP V RAMP_Valley Cross-over SS_Internal VCORE SSE_Internal
COMP
V RAMP_Valley
Cross-over
SS_Internal
VCORE
SSE_Internal

1) Mode 1 (SS< Vramp_valley)

Initially the COMP stays in the positive saturation. When SS< V RAMP_Valley , there is no non-inverting input available to produce duty width. So there is no PWM signal and V OUT is zero.

2) Mode 2 (V RAMP_Valley < SS< Cross-over)

When SS>V RAMP_Valley , SS takes over the non-inverting input and produce the PWM signal and the increasing duty width according to its magnitude above the ramp signal. The output follows the ramp signal, SS. However while V OUT increases, the difference between V OUT and

SSE (SS V GS ) is reduced and COMP leaves the saturation and declines. The takeover of SS lasts until it meets the COMP. During this interval, since the feedback path is broken, the converter is operated in the open loop.

3) Mode3 ( Cross-over< SS < V GS + V REF )

When the Comp takes over the non-inverting input for PWM Amplifier and when SSE (SS V GS ) < V REF , the output of the converter follows the ramp input, SSE (SS V GS ). Before the crossover, the output follows SS signal. And when Comp takes over SS, the output is expected to follow SSE (SS V GS ). Therefore the deviation of V GS is represented as the falling of V OUT for a short while. The COMP is observed to keep its decline when it passes the cross-over, which shortens the duty width and hence the falling of V OUT happens.

Since there is a feedback loop for the error amplifier, the output s response to the ramp input, SSE (SS V GS ) is lower than that in Mode 2.

4) Mode 4 (SS > V GS + V REF )

When SS > V GS +V REF , the output of the converter follows the desired V REF signal and the soft start is completed now.

www.richtek.com

DS9214-15

March 2011

RT9214

RT9214

Under Voltage Protection

The voltage at FB pin is monitored and protected against UV (under voltage). The UV threshold is the FB or FBL under 80%. UV detection has 15μs triggered delay. When OC is trigged, a hiccup restart sequence will be initialized, as shown in Figure 7 Only 4 times of trigger are allowed to latch off. Hiccup is disabled during soft-start interval, but UV_FB has some difference from OC, it will always trigger V IN power sensing after 4 times hiccup, as shown in Figure 8.

COUNT = 1 COUNT = 2 COUNT = 3 COUNT = 4 4V 2V 0V
COUNT = 1
COUNT = 2
COUNT = 3
COUNT
= 4
4V
2V
0V
OVERLOAD
APPLIED
0A
T0 T1
T2
T3
T4
Internal
Inductor Current
SS

TIME

Figure 7. UV and OC Trigger Hiccup Mode

Power Off

(20V/Div) UV V IN Power Sensing (500mV/Div) (2V/Div) (2V/Div) IOUT = 2A
(20V/Div)
UV
V IN Power
Sensing
(500mV/Div)
(2V/Div)
(2V/Div)
IOUT = 2A

UGATE

FB

V OUT

V IN

Time (10ms/Div)

Figure 8, UV_FB Trigger V IN Power Sensing

PWM Layout Considerations

MOSFETs switch very fast and efficiently. The speed with which the current transitions from one device to another causes voltage spikes across the interconnecting impedances and parasitic circuit elements. The voltage spikes can degrade efficiency and radiate noise, that results in over-voltage stress on devices. Careful component

placement layout and printed circuit design can minimize the voltage spikes induced in the converter. Consider, as an example, the turn-off transition of the upper MOSFET prior to turn-off, the upper MOSFET was carrying the full

load current. During turn-off, current stops flowing in the upper MOSFET and is picked up by the low side MOSFET

or schottky diode. Any inductance in the switched current

path generates a large voltage spike during the switching interval. Careful component selections, layout of the critical components, and use shorter and wider PCB traces help in minimizing the magnitude of voltage spikes.

There are two sets of critical components in a DC/DC converter using the RT9214. The switching power components are most critical because they switch large amounts of energy, and as such, they tend to generate equally large amounts of noise. The critical small signal components are those connected to sensitive nodes or those supplying critical bypass current.

The power components and the PWM controller should be placed firstly. Place the input capacitors, especially the high-frequency ceramic decoupling capacitors, close to the power switches. Place the output inductor and output capacitors between the MOSFETs and the load. Also locate the PWM controller near by MOSFETs.

A multi-layer printed circuit board is recommended.

Figure 9 shows the connections of the critical components

in the converter. Note that the capacitors C IN and C OUT

each of them represents numerous physical capacitors. Use a dedicated grounding plane and use vias to ground all critical components to this layer. Apply another solid layer as a power plane and cut this plane into smaller islands of common voltage levels. The power plane should support the input power and output power nodes. Use

copper filled polygons on the top and bottom circuit layers for the PHASE node, but it is not necessary to oversize this particular island. Since the PHASE node is subjected

to very high dV/dt voltages, the stray capacitance formed

between these island and the surrounding circuitry will tend to couple switching noise. Use the remaining printed circuit layers for small signal routing. The PCB traces between the PWM controller and the gate of MOSFET and also the traces connecting source of MOSFETs should be sized to carry 2A peak currents.

RT9214

RT9214
IQ1 IL 5V/12V V OUT Q1 IQ2 LOAD Q2 GND LGATE VCC GND RT9214 FB
IQ1
IL
5V/12V
V OUT
Q1
IQ2
LOAD
Q2
GND
LGATE
VCC
GND
RT9214 FB
UGATE
+
+
+

Figure 9. The Connections of The Critical Components In The Converter

Below PCB gerber files are our test board for your reference :

PCB gerber files are our test board for your reference : w w w . r
PCB gerber files are our test board for your reference : w w w . r
RT9214

RT9214

RT9214 According to our test experience, you must still notice two items to avoid noise coupling
RT9214 According to our test experience, you must still notice two items to avoid noise coupling
RT9214 According to our test experience, you must still notice two items to avoid noise coupling

According to our test experience, you must still notice two items to avoid noise coupling :

1.The ground plane should not be separated. 2.V CC rail adding the LC filter is recommended.

RT9214

RT9214

Outline Dimension

A J B
A
J
B

I

F

D
D

C

H

RT9214 Outline Dimension A J B I F D C H M   Dimensions In Millimeters

M

 

Dimensions In Millimeters

Dimensions In Inches

Symbol

Min

Max

Min

Max

A

4.801

5.004

0.189

0.197

B

3.810

3.988

0.150

0.157

C

1.346

1.753

0.053

0.069

D

0.330

0.508

0.013

0.020

F

1.194

1.346

0.047

0.053

H

0.170

0.254

0.007

0.010

I

0.050

0.254

0.002

0.010

J

5.791

6.200

0.228

0.244

M

0.400

1.270

0.016

0.050

8-Lead SOP Plastic Package

RT9214

RT9214

A Y EXPOSED THERMAL PAD (Bottom of Package) J X B
A
Y
EXPOSED THERMAL PAD
(Bottom of Package)
J
X
B

I

F

D
D

C

H

EXPOSED THERMAL PAD (Bottom of Package) J X B I F D C H M  

M

 

Dimensions In Millimeters

Dimensions In Inches

Symbol

Min

Max

Min

Max

A

4.801

5.004

0.189

0.197

B

3.810

4.000

0.150

0.157

C

1.346

1.753

0.053

0.069

D

0.330

0.510

0.013

0.020

F

1.194

1.346

0.047

0.053

H

0.170

0.254

0.007

0.010

I

0.000

0.152

0.000

0.006

J

5.791

6.200

0.228

0.244

M

0.406

1.270

0.016

0.050

 

X

2.000

2.300

0.079

0.091

Option 1

Y

2.000

2.300

0.079

0.091

 

X

2.100

2.500

0.083

0.098

Option 2

Y

3.000

3.500

0.118

0.138

8-Lead SOP (Exposed Pad) Plastic Package

Richtek Technology Corporation

Headquarter 5F, No. 20, Taiyuen Street, Chupei City Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: (8863 )55267 89 Fax: (886 3)5526 611

Richtek Technology Corporation

Taipei Office (Marketing) 5F, No. 95, Minchiuan Road, Hsintien City Taipei County, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: (8862)86672399 Fax: (8862)86672377 Email: marketing@richtek.com

Information that is provided by Richtek Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable. Richtek reserves the right to make any change in circuit design, specification or other related things if necessary without notice at any time. No third party intellectual property infringement of the applications should be guaranteed by users when integrating Richtek products into any application. No legal responsibility for any said applications is assumed by Richtek.