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Table of Contents

Abstract
Why Solar? .................................................................................................................................................. 2
Introduction to Solar ................................................................................................................................. 2
Solar in India
Solar Missions ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Solar Parks ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Growth over the years ........................................................................................................................... 6
Project Concept

Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 7
Value to Community ............................................................................................................................. 8
Project Details

Key points……………………………………………………………………………………………..8
Project Financials .................................................................................................................................. 9
Location .............................................................................................................................................. 10
Accessibility/Connectivity .................................................................................................................. 11
Raw material Requirements ................................................................................................................ 11
Breakeven analysis.............................................................................................................................. 12

Leading technology players/machine suppliers………………………………………………………..12

Advantage of being in Gandhinagar (Gujarat) ..................................................................................... 13

Scope for improvement............................................................................................................................. 14

Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………….15

References .................................................................................................................................................. 16

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ABSTRACT:
In this report, we would like to discuss the feasibility of setting up a 1MW solar PV plant in or
around Gandhinagar. It would include various aspects of solar power and how it is being
developed in India. Government of India has set an ambitious target of setting 100 GW of solar
power by 2022. For achieving the same, various solar parks have been established across the
country but still there is a lot of gap in established and targeted power. Thus, an individual
contribution would not only help in personal cause but also to achieve this target. Gujarat being
the highest receiver of solar irradiation in India has an ample scope for development of solar
energy if used efficiently. Gandhinagar being the capital city has all the necessary facilities
required for setting of a solar park. Gujarat also has the highest percentage of barren land (by %)
in India. This study would help the entrepreneurs, businessmen and green energy enthusiasts to
get all the necessary details for establishing a solar power plant along with government rules and
guidelines for establishing them. When the study is effectively used for a 1MW plant, it can be
used for scaled up projects as well.

WHY SOLAR
Solar energy, unlike the conventional source of energy will not produce any harmful emissions.
The electricity generated from the fossil fuels produces gases like CO2, CO, SO2, NO, mercury
and heavy metals which lead to increase in global warming, help in acid rain, contribute to ozone
at ground level which is harmful for human body. Mercury with other heavy metals can cause a
lot of harm to human body. One of the main problems we are facing is the increase in carbon
footprint. Solar energy can help us decrease carbon footprint to a significant extent. The solar
energy can assure us of long durability. The need to go from fossil fuels generated electricity to
solar energy is that fossil fuels are non-renewable resources and their rate of formation is lesser
than the rate of use. The other necessity of using solar power instead of fossil power is the
climatic change we have seen in the recent decade. We would have to decrease the level of CO 2
and the other harmful gases we are producing in electricity production. The falling PV prices and
the increase in recent technology and innovations will definitely outweigh the cost of fossil fuels
in recent coming years. Another advantage of solar energy is that it is a sustainable form of
energy. So all these advantages tell us why we should go towards use of solar energy.

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SOLAR IN INDIA

The national solar mission started by the government is Jawaharlal Nehru national mission. It is
an initiative taken by the government to promote ecologically sustainable growth. Since India is
a country with rapidly increasing population, there is an enormous need for a clean and reliable
source of energy. The main reason for the encouragement in solar energy is that India needs
renewable source of energy to replace the existing energy due to fossil fuels and the other reason
being that India lies in high solar insolation region. It has a high solar energy potential with
almost sunshine for 300 days.

The solar park is a well characterized area of solar power generation project with proper
infrastructure and all the resources. It decreases the risk as well as the cost of the project. Solar
parks have an advantage over the small parks is that for such a big park, permission for setting
up has to be taken only once. For setting up many small parks producing the same amount of
energy as the big one, we will need to take permissions for setting up each one. Hence one big
solar park can reduce a lot time and effort. Till now the places identified for the setup of ultra-
mega power projects are Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh,
Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Tamil
Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Uttarakhand .The states with shortage of non-agricultural
land are being eyed for small capacity power plants.

The ministry of new and renewable energy has planned to set up 25 solar park all having a
capacity of 500MW and above so thereby India is targeting 20000 MW of solar power installed
capacity by 2022.

Sl. State Capacity (MW) Name of the Solar Land identified at


No. Power Parks Developer
(SPPD)
1. Gujarat 700 GPCL 1407 hectares at Vav, Distt.
Banaskantha
2. Andhra 1500 AP Solar Power 3058 hectares at
Pradesh Corporation Pvt. Ltd., Anantpuramu, Kadapa
JVC of SECI, Districts
3. Andhra 1000 APGENCO and 1458 hectares at Kurnool
Pradesh NREDCAP District
4. Uttar 600 Lucknow Solar Power 1038 hectares at Jalaun,
Pradesh Development Sonbhadra, Allahabad &
Corporation Ltd.; JVC of Mirzapur districts

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UPNEDA and SECI

5. Meghalaya 20 Meghalaya Power 27 hectares at West Jaintia


Generation Corporation Hills & East Jaintia Hills
Ltd (MePGCL) districts
6. Rajasthan 680 Rajasthan Solar Park 1797.45 hectares at Bhadla
Development Company Phase II
Ltd. (RSDCL), a
subsidiary of RRECL
7. Rajasthan 1000 Surya Urja Company of 2000 hectares at Bhadla
Rajasthan Ltd; a JVC Phase III
between State Govt. and
IL & FS Energy
Development Company
Ltd
8. Rajasthan 1000 Surya Urja Company of 2000 hectares at Jaisalmer
Rajasthan Ltd; a JVC Phase I
between State Govt. and
IL & FS Energy
Development Company
Ltd
9. Rajasthan 500 M/s Adani Renewable Bhadla Phase IV, Bhadla,
Energy Park Rajasthan Jodhpur Rajasthan
Limited (AREPRL); a
JVC of Government of
Rajasthan and APEPRL.
10. Madhya 750 Rewa Ultra Mega Solar 1400 hectares at Rewa
Pradesh Limited; a JVC of SECI
and MPUVNL
11. Madhya 2000 Rewa Ultra Mega Solar 6000 hectares at Neemuch,
Pradesh Limited; a JVC of SECI Agar, Mandsaur, Shajapur,
and MPUVNL Rajgarh, Chhatarpur and
Morena
12. Karnataka 2000 Karnataka Solar Power Pavagada taluk Tumkur
Development dist. (2429 hectares)
Corporation Pvt. Ltd.
(KSPDCL); JVC of
SECI and KREDAL.
13. Tamil Nadu 500 To be finalised 1405 acres at
Ramanathapuram distt.

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(568 hectare)

14. Telangana 1000 SECI, Telangana 5408 acres at Gattu,


GENCO and Telangana Mehboob Nagar Distt.
New & Renewable (2189 hectare)
Energy Development
Corporation Ltd.
(TNREDC)
15. Kerala 200 JVC of SECI and KSEB Paivalike, Meenja,
Kinanoor, Kraindalam and
Ambalathara villages of
Kasargode district (4858
hectares)
16. Uttarakhand 39 UJVN Limited Almora district (77.853
hectares)
17. Arunachal 100 Arunachal Pradesh 2700 acres of waste land
Pradesh Energy Development Digaru Paya region in
Agency (APEDA) Sonpura circle of Lohit
district
18. Nagaland 60 Directorate of New & Dimapur, Kohima and New
Renewable Energy, Peren districts
Nagaland
19. A&N Islands 100 NTPC South Andaman
20. West Bengal 500 West Bengal State East Mednipur, West
Electricity Distribution Mednipur, Bankura
Company Ltd.
21. Himachal 1000 HP State Electricity Spiti Valley of Lahaul &
Pradesh Board Ltd. Spiti District
22. Assam 69 JVC of APDCL, APGCL Amguri in Sibsagar district
& SECI
23. Maharashtra 500 M/s Pragat Akshay Urja Sakri, Dhule district of
Ltd Maharashtra
24. Chhattisgarh 500 To be finalized To be finalized
25. Jammu & 100 To be finalized To be finalized
Kashmir
26. Andhra 1000 AP Solar Power Kadapa District
Pradesh Corporation Pvt. Ltd.,
JVC of SECI,
APGENCO and
NREDCAP

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27. Odisha 1000 JVC of GEDCOL & To be finalized
SECI
27 Solar Parks in 21 States with aggregate capacity of 18,418 MW

Growth over the Years:

 Solar tariffs fell below INR 5 per unit, due to aggressive bidding by global companies
looking to get a foothold in India’s high-growth renewable energy market (100% FDI
permitted under automatic route for renewable energy generation) 1

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)

 Gujarat has a higher solar tariff when compared to the above bids. However, the solar
tariffs in the state have also been on a decreasing trend.

1
MNRE

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PROJECT CONCEPT

Overview:

Solar power projects can be set up anywhere in the country, however the scattering of solar
power projects leads to higher project cost per MW and higher transmission losses. Individual
projects of smaller capacity incur significant expenses in site development, drawing separate
transmission lines to nearest substation, procuring water and in creation of other necessary
infrastructure. Also it takes a long time for project developers to acquire land, get change of land
use and various permissions, etc. which delays the project.

As government sets an ambitious target of producing 100GW of solar power by 2022 2, there is a
need for measures other than setting up of solar park or rooftop solar panels. There is a lot of
scope in the field of solar; from generating solar power to consultancy to installing, selling,
servicing and maintaining. Solar PV prices have dropped significantly in the last three years
primarily due to the rapid changes in the global solar markets. These facts can be explored to
make a profit out of an infinitely available source like Solar Energy.

Studying the feasibility of setting up of 1MW solar power plant in or around Gandhinagar would
not just serve a purpose from profit point of view but it would lead to change of perception of
individuals and business persons about solar power. On the other hand, this would also
contribute to the national agenda of setting 100GW solar power till 2022. The model on such a
small level, if successful, can also be scaled up and used to produce more power and thus reduce
our reliability of fossil fuels.

2
http://www.mnre.gov.in/solar-mission/jnnsm/introduction-2/

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In order to setup a solar power park of any order (except the rooftop), the availability of the
following should be taken into account:

1. Barren/non-agricultural land free from any shadow.


2. Connectivity by road, air or water (if possible)
3. Availability of water for heat treatment as well as maintenance purposes.
4. Availability of labor.
5. Solar Irradiation.

Value to Community:

1. Profitable business:

With rising demand of clean and green energy, this project can attract the customers
who are looking for a long term investment with good returns in future. With
decreasing tariff rates, setting up of solar parks can be a profitable business if done in
a right way, at right place and with right guidance.

2. Reducing the target gap set by government:

Setting up of individual parks would not only benefit a personal cause, but it would
ultimately lead to narrowing of the gap between the target and actual setup capacity
planned by the government.

3. Scope for scale-up:

When a small level plan is successful, the idea can be used to setup solar parks with
more capacity. It would reduce the dependence of industries/households on local
energy service provider. On the other hand, they get to be the suppliers if enough
electricity is produced by the plant.

PROJECT DETAILS:

1. Key points:
Increased focus on Sustainability
 This is due to the fact that there is an increased import spending on conventional
fuels and also the natural resources are depleting. “India racked up one of the
highest energy import bills of over $100 billion in 2012-13 and hence, a long term
renewable solution has become crucial.” (Gujarat, 2016)

 “Coal imports have been witnessing robust growth rates owing to greater demand
from thermal power plants and industries. Gujarat has no coal reserves and solely

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relies on imports. Its other hydrocarbon resources such as Natural Gas and Crude
oil resources have also been depleting.” (Gujarat, 2016)

2. Financials:

Estimated Project Cost


 Project Cost: The estimated cost of setting up a 1 MW Solar PV project is INR
53-54 millions. The major expense areas would be purchase of land and PV
modules.
 Major Infrastructure: The major infrastructure required for the proposed project is
o Land : 5 acres (2.02 hectares)

S. No. Parameters Cost for 1 MW Percentage of


(INR millions) cost
1. PV Modules 32.8 61.88%
2. Land ( if purchased) 2.5 4.72%
3. Civil and General Works 3.5 6.60%
4. Mounting Structures 3.5 6.60%
5. Power Conditioning Unit 3.5 6.60%
6. Evacuating Cost up to 4.4 8.30%
Interconnection point
(Cables and

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Transformers)
7. Preliminary and Pre- 2.8 5.28%
Operative Expenses
including IDC and
Contingency
Total means of finance 53 100%
(Source:
http://www.cercind.gov.in/2016/orders/SO17.pdf)

3. Location: The location of the Solar Plant would be in or around Gandhinagar. Below is
the map of Gandhinagar linking it to other cities and also via railways, airways etc.

Fig.1Map of Gandhinagar City

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Source: http://www.indiamapssite.com/gujarat/district/images/gandhinagar-district-map.gif

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Accessibility/Connectivity:

Rail Road Air

Gandhinagar Capital Gandhinagar is connected Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel


railway station (GNC) is to Surat, Mumbai, and Navi International Airport located
located in Sector 14. Mumbai through National in Ahmedabad is 18 km away
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Ahmedabad Railway Highway 8. It is connected from Gandhinagar and
Station in to Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Udaip provides connectivity with
Kalupur Ahmedabad is the ur, New Delhi domestic flights to the
nearest rail junction (25 km & Chandigarh through Metropolitans and other
away) which provides the National Highway 8C.5 major cities of India. Airport
connectivity with all the also has cargo facility.6
major cities and towns of
India.

Raw Materials Required:


 Solar Cells/Panels: Device that converts solar energy into electricity.

 Mounting Structures: Used to fix the solar panels at roofs, buildings and on the ground.

 Cables: Interconnect solar panels and other electrical components of a photovoltaic


system, designed to be UV resistant and weather resistant7

 Solar Tracker: Device that can orient the solar panels towards the Sun.

 Solar Inverter: To convert the variable direct current (DC) output of a PV solar panel
into alternating current (AC) so that it can be fed into a commercial grid.8

4
https://erailway.co.in/stations/GNC-Gandhinagar-Capital
5
http://www.mapsofindia.com/driving-directions-maps/nh8-driving-directions-map.html
6
Mishra, Piyush (16 July 2014). "Ahmedabad airport to get dedicated cargo terminal". Times of India. Ahmedabad.
Retrieved Mar 24, 2015.
7
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pdf/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-Solar-PV-Plant-at- Gujarat-
Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf
8
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pdf/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-Solar-PV-Plant-at-Gujarat-
Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf

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Labor Requirement:

Labors with skills such as masons, carpenters, welders, bar binders, fitters are required for setting
up the Solar PV Plant. Labor cost would be around 12-15% of Civil and General works.9

Breakeven Analysis:

Efficiency Assumptions 75% with plant operating for 12 hours a day.

Solar tariff INR 6.35/kWh


Breakeven 4-5 years

Source:
http://www.cercind.gov.in/2016/orders/SO17.pdf

LEADING TECHNOLOGY PLAYERS/MACHINE SUPPLIERS:

Indian Solar PV Module Manufacturers Foreign Companies

 Tata Solar India


 BHEL  Trina Solar (China)
 Central Electronics Limited  Yingli Green Energy (China)
 HHV Solar Technologies  Suntech (China)
 XL Energy  Bosch (Germany)
 Moser Bear Photovoltaic  Canadian Solar (Canada)
 ICOMM Tele Limited  Mitsubishi Electric (Japan)
 Kotak Urja  Panasonic (Japan)
 Euro Photovoltaic  REC (Norway)

9
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pdf/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-Solar-PV-Plant-at-Gujarat-
Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf

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Leading Players in the field

Indian Solar PV Power Projects Global Solar PV Power Projects

 NTPC Ramagundam Solar Plant,  Topaz Solar, USA (First Solar,


Telangana (20 MW) 550MW)
 Welspun Solar Project, Madhya Pradesh  Solar Star, USA (SunPower, 579
(151 MW) MW)
 Sakri Solar Plant, Maharashtra (125 MW)  Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, China
(PowerChina, 850 MW)
Source:  Meuro Solar Park, Germany
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pd (Canadian Solar, 166 MW)
f/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-Solar-PV-Plant-at-
Gujarat-Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf

ADVANTAGES OF BEING IN GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT:

Gandhinagar being the capital city is well planned when it comes to infrastructure and
availability of resources. Gandhinagar is well connected to railways, Airways and highways, 220
km away from Charanka Solar Park. India receives the highest amount of solar irradiation per
square km area around the world and Gujarat is the top state for receiving solar irradiations (5.5-
6 kWh per day per square meter). The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy estimates the
solar energy potential for Gujarat at ~40,000 MW.

“Euro Multivision Ltd., a Special Economic Zone for Non-Conventional Energy Sectors,
including Solar Energy Equipment is also located about 280 km from the Solar park. Euro
Photovoltaic India, which is a part of this SEZ, manufactures Solar PV Cells and Modules.

Gujarat has a strong manufacturing and engineering base with the presence of Micro, Small and
Medium Enterprises across the value chain by manufacturing mounting structures (made of
galvanized steel or aluminum), cables (made of copper or aluminum) and other electrical
accessories required to set up a working PV system.” (Gujarat, 2016)

Cheap labor is locally present. GEDA headquarters is situated in Gandhinagar for any type of
consultancy and support related to the solar parks. Since, the city is still developing, the scope
for a change about solar is much more as compared to any other cities.

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Gujarat’s percentage of wasteland is much more than the national average.

Total Area Barren and Uncultivable Percentage (%)


land

Gujarat 19.62 2.60 13.25


India 328.73 22.53 6.85
Source: Census 2011, Data in million hectares
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SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT


The solar tariffs in Rajasthan as per the record (in Jan 2016) were 4.35 INR per unit. In Gujarat,
the solar tariff in 2015-2016 was 6.35 INR per unit which is already higher as compared to other
states. Initially in the year 2012-2013, the solar tariff was 10.92 INR per unit. So there is a
decreasing trend in solar tariffs in Gujarat which is a good sign as decreasing prices will lead to
affordability and hence the usage of solar PV would increase. Once solar PVs are into market,
they will easily get popularity as solar energy is renewable source of energy and also the fossil
fuels would be used at a lesser rate. The harmful gases produced by the use of fossil fuels would
be reduced in the atmosphere leading to reducing the effect of global warming. The above might
seem to be a dream which cannot be achieved but with decreasing solar PV rates, this does not
seem impossible.

A new type of solar cell, Perovskite solar cell11, has been introduced in market. These cells are
easy to manufacture and their production rates are also less. These cells have an efficiency of
22.1%. The increase in efficiency is 18.3% which is ground-breaking. Lesser manufacturing
rates and higher efficiency of these cells is leading to their increasing importance in the market.
Some start-up companies have already started manufacturing them and might even sell them in
2017.

Once a company sets up, say a 1MW plant, it is easier for it to expand it to 5MW plant. It is just
the initial inertia which needs to be got ridden off. After that, there is huge profit as well as less
carbon footprint.

APPENDIX

10
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pdf/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-Solar-PV-Plant-at-
Gujarat-Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf
11
Manser, Joseph S. and Christians, Jeffrey A. and Kamat, Prashant V. (2016). "Intriguing Optoelectronic Properties
of Metal Halide Perovskites". Chemical Reviews. 116 (21): 12956–13008. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00136

14
Abbreviations:
PV- Photovoltaic
MNRE- Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
MMTA- Million Metric Tons Per Annum
GEDA- Gujarat Energy Development Agency
MW- Mega Watts

CERC- Central Electricity Regulatory Commission

Government Regulations
The following are the set of clearance and permissions are needed to get a permission to set up a
power plant -12

1. Industrial Clearance
2. Land conversion (Agricultural to Non-Agricultural)
3. Environmental Clearance Certificate from
4. Contract labor license from Labor Department
5. Fire Safety certificate from Fire Department
6. Latest tax receipt from the Municipal/Gram Panchayat for the factory land.
7. Auditor compliance certificate regarding fossil fuel utilization
8. Approval from Chief Electrical Inspector
9. Clearance from Forest department.
10. Land purchase
11. Power Evacuation arrangement permission letter from DISCOM
12. Confirmation of Metering Arrangement and location
13. ABT meter type, Manufacture, Model, Serial No. details for Energy Metering.
14. Copy of PPA (important as Preferential PPA projects are not eligible for REC
mechanism)
15. Proposed Model and make of plant equipment
16. Undertaking for compliance with the usage of fossil fuel criteria as specified by MNRE
17. Details of Connectivity with DISCOM
18. Connectivity Diagram and Single Line Diagram of Plant

REFERENCES:

1. http://www.cercind.gov.in/2016/orders/SO17.pdf

12
http://efficientcarbon.com/services/energy/renewable-energy-advisory/frequently-asked-questions

15
2. http://efficientcarbon.com/services/energy/renewable-energy-advisory/frequently-
asked-questions
3. Setting up a 150 MW Mega Solar PV Plant at Gujarat Solar Park, Charanka. (n.d.).
Retrieved April 20, 2017, from
https://vibrantgujarat.com/writereaddata/images/pdf/project-profiles/150-MW-Mega-
Solar-PV-Plant-at-Gujarat-Solar-Park-Charanka.pdf
4. https://www.thesolarco.com/why-solar-powered-energy-is-better-than-fossil-fuels/
5. https://1stlightenergy.com/10-reasons-to-go-solar/
6. http://efficientcarbon.com/services/energy/renewable-energy-advisory/frequently-asked-
questions
7. Manser, Joseph S. and Christians, Jeffrey A. and Kamat, Prashant V. (2016). "Intriguing
Optoelectronic Properties of Metal Halide Perovskites". Chemical Reviews. 116 (21):
12956–13008. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00136
8. http://www.cercind.gov.in/2016/orders/SO17.pdf
9. https://erailway.co.in/stations/GNC-Gandhinagar-Capital
10. http://www.mapsofindia.com/driving-directions-maps/nh8-driving-directions-map.html
11. Mishra, Piyush (16 July 2014). "Ahmedabad airport to get dedicated cargo
terminal". Times of India. Ahmedabad. Retrieved Mar 24, 2015.

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