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CPB 30303 OIL AND FAT PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR


MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL & BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

MINI PROJECT COVER PAGE

Title of Assignment: Fibreboard from Mesocarp Fruit Bunches (MF)

Name & ID No: 1. Wan Faizah Johor Bt Fu-ad Johor (55213115186)


(Group Members) 2. Magdalyn Empina Anak Serit (55213115126)
3. Siti Rohani Bt Abdul Rahim (55213115136)
4. Farah Hani Bt Mohd Faizal (55213115318)
5. Nurul Farihah Bt Abu Sairi (55213115254)

Date of Submission: 10/11/17

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Description 2
Discussion 4
Green Technology 2
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Entrepreneurship 3
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References 2
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DrAminSafwanAlikasturi/Assignment/July2017
CPB 30303 OIL AND FAT PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

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DrAminSafwanAlikasturi/Assignment/July2017
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

CPB 30303 OIL AND FAT PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

MINI PROJECT REPORT

Title: Fibreboard from Mesocrap Fruit Bunches (MF)

Prepared by:

No. Name Id Number


1. Wan Faizah Johor Bt Fu-ad Johor 55213115186
2. Magdalyn Empina Anak Serit 55213115126
3. Siti Rohani Bt Abdul Rahim 55213115136
4. Farah Hani Bt Mohd Faizal 55213115318
5. Nurul Farihah Bt Abu Sairi 55213115254

Prepared for: Dr. Amin Safuan


Date of submission: 10/11/17
CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background study 1


1.2 Overview of Project
3
1.3 Problem Statement
3

2.0 Description of process path 4

3.0 Green Technology Element 5

4.0 Entrepreneurship Element

4.1 Commercialization value 6

4.2 Costing

5.0 Conclusions 7

6.0 References 8
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY

Malaysia is one of the largest producer and exporter of palm oil production. Overtime, oil palm
industry has increased significantly in our country and it has produced a huge quantity of
wastes, and its disposal is a challenging task for many reasons. As the oil palm production
capacity or the processing of fresh fruit bunches increases, the waste produced is increasing
as well. One of the solid waste from palm oil mill processing is including mesocarp fibre.
Mesocarp fibre is also known as oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF) or palm pressed fibre (PPF).
It is the biomass residue from the crude palm oil process and is an elongated cellulose with
30mm to 50mm as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Mesocarp fibre

It contain calorific value for about 19000kJ/kg, less than 6% oil residue and its moisture
content is 32%. Other than that, it contain 2.2% of Nitrogen and 53.1% of Carbon. This
mesocrap fibre is obtain after pressing the palm fruits for palm oil extraction. As the palm oil
extraction process does not involve any chemical, the mesocarp fibre is a natural and a non-
toxic material. It can be convert to value-added products or energy to generate additional profit
for the Palm Oil Industry (Zafar, 2015). According to Riansa-ngawong & Prasertsan (2011),
there are 13.5% of OPMF produced from the palm fruits after the oil extraction. Generally,
OPMF consists of fruit fibre, crushed kernels and shells.

Normally, mesocarp fibre is utilize as fuel for steam boilers at the mills. Other than that,
the fibre can be used to reinforce polymer materials such as thermoplastics and fibreboard.
There are many applications of mesocarp fibre including biomass material, mattress
fibreboard, cushion, carpet and organic fertilizer. Besides, Lee & Wang (2006) said that the
natural fibre-reinforced composites have varies benefits such as lightweight, low-cost, high

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toughness, and having good strength and stiffness. It shows that mesocarp fibre is suitable
choice to make a fibreboard.

There are two types of fibre such as synthetic fibre and natural fibre. According to
Steven B. Warner (1995), the synthetic fibre is made up from petroleum, while the mesocarp
fibre is considered as natural fibre because it is made up from plant cell. In addition,
manufacturing sector of glass composites are using the composites made from natural fibre
composites, as it is eco-friendly and cost effective option compared to synthetic fibre. Thus,
natural fibre is more preferable than synthetic fibre since it is environmental friendly and low
raw materials cost.

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1.2 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT

In this project, mesocarp fruit bunches (MF) is utilised for the fibreboard production.
Basically, this project demonstrates the potentials of using mesocrap fruit bunches as
fibreboard materials. Other than that, the focus of this project is to reduce the rate of palm oil
mill wastes. After all, mesocarp fruit bunches is one of the main waste generated from palm oil
mill processing. Along with the rapid increases of palm oil mill industry, the waste produced
has also increase significantly. However, the disposing of the palm oil waste has been a great
challenge for the government and the manufacturers. Until today, most of these wastes are
being disposed into the waste ponds or burnt in open. This has contribute to the changes in
global climate, as those wastes would emit methane and carbon dioxide. For this project,
mesocrap fibre would undergo few processes to produce a good quality fibreboard. The
process began with the selection and refinement of raw materials. Then, it will go through
several pressing steps to get a more useable size before being sanded using belts coated for
a smooth finish. A final product can be manufacture into various type of furniture or many other
applications. In conclusion, producing the fibreboard from mesocarp fibre can help to reduce
the waste greatly.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The average amount of mesocrap fibre waste produced per each palm oil production
is quite high. Normally, it will either be disposed by burning it openly or use it as a fertiliser.
However, open burning practises has contribute to air pollution and changes in global climate.
On the other hand, it does work as a fertiliser until the farmers refuse to use it because of the
pests that usually found in oil palm shows same interest towards palm waste fertilizer.
Mesocrap fibre would not decompose easily if it is being abandoned somewhere but it would
definitely causing a land pollution.

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2.0 PROCESS PATH

Figure 2: Manufacturing process of fibreboard

Figure 2 shows the brief methodology use for the process of producing fibreboard
from mesocarp fibre. Process of manufacturing fibreboard begins with mesocarp fibre
preparation. In this stage, mesocarp fibre is treated by crude glycerol in temperature 150℃
with the duration of 60 minutes. Then this material which called mesocarp fibre must be
produced in high percentages of halocanes and lower content of soluble lignin
(Aip.scitation.org, 2017). The process is called curing process which can improve the quality
of the material itself.

For the next step, the fibre is thrusting across scalping rolls in a same thickness of mat.
Pressing steps of mat is continuously conducted to produce a size, width and height that ready
for used before the final pressing step. Electronic controls used in pressing are to make sure
that the density and strength are strength. After that is the process of cutting fibre and cooling
the fibre (Madehow.com, 2017). The continuous step is panel sanding which the panels are
sanded using belts coated with harsh by using silicon carbide to smooth the fibre. Zirconia
alumina and aluminium oxide are used as ceramic abrasives for finer surfaces. The
smoothness of the fibreboard surface can be upgrade by eight-head sanding equipment and
also double-sided. Anti-static technology is used to increase belt life (Madehow.com, 2017).

Finishing step panels can involve with a many kinds of finishing steps but it is depends
on the final product. Different lacquer colours can be applied for the final product. Then, the
fibreboard is cut into large and small sheet sizes by using Guillotine machine. Another machine
such as specialty machines is used for cutting fibreboard into small strips of widths. Laminating
machines are used to make sure that the surface of the fibreboard more attractive and also to
smooth the surface. Laminating the material include the process of unwinding a roll of
fibreboard material. (Madehow.com, 2017)

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3.0 GREEN TECHNOLOGY ELEMENT

As stated previously, palm oil mill effluent is generally consist of mostly 80% from the
waste which majorly consist of fiber component. The increasing in number of the waste fiber
have affect the ecosystem to be polluted. Thus, to improve the quality of the ecosystem, the
mesocarp fibre is process to make a fibre board out from it. However, the presence of these
oil palm wastes has created a major disposal problem. The basic principles of waste handling
are to decrease and recycle the waste, recover the energy and finally dispose the waste. The
massive amount of waste produce from the harvesting process of the fruit palm oil making it
harder to dispose the residues when there is a concern in cost investment. Not only that, the
waste also contribute to the green and eco-friendly treatment to compared it with the natural
fiber. It is a good replacement for fiber that are typically obtained from wood. The production
of fibre board out from the mesocarp fibre lead to many green technology element. The green
technology element includes:

Table 1: Showing the element of green technology

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4.0 ENTREPRENEURSHIP ELEMENT

4.1 COMMERCIALIZATION VALUES

Fibreboard is already a well-known product in furniture industry that was made of woody
fibre but in this cases, it have been invented from using woody fibre into using mesocarp fruit
bunches. Commonly, fibreboard is use in sound proof, structural sheathing and, low-scope
roofing, sound deadening flooring underlayment. It was also known as a medium-density
board. However, a mesocarp fibre was a much little and uniform in size of fibre. It is shorter
length fibre than other types of fibre. Fibreboard from a mesocarp fibre was already
commercialize in form of mattress fibreboard, carpet, table, cushion and cushion. The invented
board from the mesocarp fiber was only 40% until 50% composed. The mesocarp fibreboard
have the same density which is medium, with resin. In additional, it also have the values of
waterproofing and a firming composition.

Such as for the simple example, tables were known as very famous furniture that are
compulsory to have in every houses. It has ability to be a dining table, make up table or even
an accessories table. People are prefer to bought furniture or other materials that are using
recycle items, this is shows that this is as their contribution on nature to the ‘Green Earth’ world
forward. Other than that, people nowadays tend to invest their money on something that is new
invent because people love to try new things or in other says, getting bored with the old thing.
Intentionly, this invention of mesocarp fiberboards are conventionally composed of products
that is already built, where the demand is keep exceeding from the current available amount
of supplies. Generally, these mesocarp fibre are waste product of oil palm, so of course it is
relatively inexpensive that are saving in costing, and for sure can be sustained the demand of
the fibreboard annually.

Finally, the mesocarp fibreboard invention can be classified as a ‘green’ technology or also
an eco-friendly system where the mesocarp fibre itself was obtained from the raw waste of
fresh fruit bunches in oil palm mill process, and convert them into a useful product. This
process is called recycling. At least, these mesocarp fibre waste was manage and able to be
create in other form for other usage.

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4.2 COSTING

In costing consider, this shows a huge saving cost in producing the mesocarp fibreboard.
This is because the mesocarp fibre was collected in form of mesocarp fruit bunches from the palm
oil mill process as a waste that are going to be invent into a useable product. This invented
fibreboard has been achieve successfully and already have a place in furniture industry.
Moreover, the process in making was the same in making the other furniture or other materials
that required the invented board. The cost in utilities are maintain as usual. However, the cost in
raw material can be reduced and resulting a high profits to the industry. This is due to the new
technology used by the industry toward the invented fibreboard production by only using waste of
mesocarp fruit bunches to be recycle. Furthermore, since it is eco-friendly system, the costing of
the raw waste was depends to the suppliers and the inventers need to deal with the suppliers
itself and also the waste before it is consider as a safe to proceed into the next process.

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5.0 CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the demand of palm oil in Malaysia has increase in many industries
especially for food industries. As the demand increase, more palm oil tree are being plant every
year to keep up with the demands of palm oil production. To obtain the crude palm oil, a few
process is carry out which in turn produce waste. One of the waste produce include the mesocarp
fibre. Thus, this has led to a major waste disposal, which in time, has affect the environment
visually, as well as the aquatic life. With the prolong matters being unsolved, a few action is taken
to utilizes the waste mesocarp fibre into something useful. In this project, the mesocarp fibre is
processes to become a fibreboard. As the mesocarp consist of high amount of fibre, it gives a
major benefit of utilizing its fibre. To develop the fibreboard, a few processes were carried out.
The process begin with curing, pressing, panel sanding before becoming the finishing product.
The process of developing the fibreboard using the mesocarp fibre has no differences compared
with the common fibreboard processing which utilize the fibre from the woodchips fibre. By
developing the fibreboard out from the mesocarp fibre, it has contribute too many benefit both
economically and environmentally. By utilizing the waste from the mesocarp fibre, is will solve the
waste issue and improving the quality of the environment. The green technology application has
create a country with much less waste as well as creating a healthier environment for the people.
Not only that, the wide application of the fibre board in domestic and industrial use will contribute
in economic benefits. The versatility in usage of the fibreboard are predicted to increase the
demand of its production and needs. Overall, the production of the fibreboard from the mesocarp
fibre will led to greater benefits in future.

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6.0 REFERENCES

Aip.scitation.org. (2017). Physicochemical characterization of oil palm mesocarp fibre treated with
glycerol. [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017].[online] Available at:
http://www.Aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4931300

Lee, S., & Wang, S. (2006). Biodegradable polymers/bamboo fiber biocomposite with bio-based
coupling agent. Composites Part A: Applied Science And Manufacturing, 37(1), 80-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2005.04.015

Madehow.com. (2017). How fiberboard is made - material, manufacture, making, history, used,
processing, parts, steps, product. [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017]. [online] Available at:
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-3/Fiberboard.html

Riansa-ngawong, W., & Prasertsan, P. (2011). Optimization of furfural production from


hemicellulose extracted from delignified palm pressed fiber using a two-stage
process. Carbohydrate Research, 346(1), 103-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2010.10.009

What are some examples of Green Technologies and Practices? : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
(2017). Bls.gov. Retrieved 8 November 2017, from
https://www.bls.gov/respondents/gtp/examples.htm

Zafar, S. (2015). Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills. BioEnergy Consult. Retrieved 1 November
2017, from https://www.bioenergyconsult.com/palm-biomass/
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