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1. Label the parts of the nephron and collecting duct system in the diagram (figure 1)


2. With the aid of figure 1, describe the structure and function of the parts of a nephron.
Include in your description how the concentration of the filtrate changes as passes
through the nephron.
3. Describe the external and internal structures of a kidney.

Helium- Point of entry for renal artery and renal nerves

• Point of exit for renal vein and ureter

Renal Fascia – A dense ,fibrous outer layer. Anchors kidney to surrounding structure

Adipose Capsule – A thick layer of adipose tissue . surround renal capsule

• Renal cortex - Superficial portion of kidney in contact with renal capsule

• Renal pyramid -6 to 18 distinct conical or triangular structures in renal medulla:

– base abuts cortex
– tip (renal papilla) projects into renal sinus

• renal column-Bands of cortical tissue separate adjacent renal pyramids .Extend into
medulla .Have distinctly granular texture

• renal lobe -Consists of:

– renal pyramid
– overlying area of renal cortex
– adjacent tissues of renal columns
• Produces urine

• Renal papilla - Ducts discharge urine into minor calyx:

– cup-shaped drain

• renal pelvis - Large, funnel-shaped chamber

• Consists of 2 or 3 major calyces
• Fills most of renal sinus
• Connected to ureter, which drains kidney

4. Describe the location of the source of renin. ( kidney)

Location of Kidney:
-Behind peritoneum (retroperitoneal) on posterior abdominal wall on either side of
vertebral column
-the lumbar vertebrae and rib cage partially protect it
-the right kidney is slightly lower than the left

• Juxtaglomerular apparatus- Area where DCT comes into close contact with the renal
• Consists of:
– Macula Densa – modified DCT epithelial cells
– Juxtaglomerular cells – smooth muscle fibres of afferent arteriole

5. Under what circumstances would renin be released from the kidneys? Describe the
events that occur after renin secretion. Include how blood pressure is affected.

The enzyme renin is released by kidney cells in response to a decline in blood volume,
blood pressure, or both.
Once in the bloodstream, renin starts an enzymatic chain reaction known as the renin-
angiotensin system, that leads to the formation of the hormone angiotensin II.

Renin carries out the conversion of angiotensinogen in the liver to angiotensin I.

Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by 'angiotensin converting

enzyme' found in the lungs.

Angiotensin II is a potent vaso-active peptide that causes blood vessels to constrict,

resulting in increased blood pressure.
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal
Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium
and water into the blood.
This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure.

6. Explain how changes in the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma may affect the rate of
glomerular filtration.

Osmotic pressure is the amount of attraction of substances to water. When hydrostatic

pressure forces water out, the remaining blood proteins exert more force to pull water back in.
When the osmotic pressure is high enough, filtration stops. If blood protein concentration is
low, filtration increases. If the blood flow is rapid, osmotic pressure stays low and filtration
rates remain high. If the blood flow is slow, the osmotic pressure changes because the blood
has more time to be filtered

7. Explain how hypotonic tubular fluid is produced in the ascending limb of the loop of

the filtrate becomes hypotonic because it is impermeable to water, and because sodium and
chloride are being actively pumped into the interstitial fluid, thereby decreasing solute
concentration in the tubule.

8. Explain why fluid in the descending loop of Henle is hypertonic.

the vasa recta acts as a countercurrent exchanger to maintain the osmotic gradient by serving
as a passive exchange mechanism that removes water from the medullary areas but leaves
salts behind. The filtrate at the tip of the loop of Henle is hypertonic due to the passive
diffusion of water from the descending limb to the interstitial areas

9. Explain how urine may become concentrated as it moves through the collecting duct.

Water being absorbed in interstitial fluid.

In response to certain metabolic conditions such as decreasing blood or fluid volume, the
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases ADH (antidiuretic hormone). In the kidney, ADH
causes increased permeability of the epithelial linings of the distal convoluted tubule and
collecting duct. This moves water rapidly out of these segments. Thus, the urine becomes more
concentrated because water is conserved by the body.
10. Conn’s Syndrome is an endocrine disorder brought about by a tumor of the adrenal
cortex that secretes excessive aldosterone in an uncontrolled fashion.
Given what you know about the functions of aldosterone, describe what the most
prominent features of this condition would be.

Increase Na+ and water reabsorption. Increase blood volume and increae blood pressure.

11. Explain the important differences between blood plasma and renal filtrate, and relate
the differences to the structure of the filtration membrane.

The plasma that is filtered is known as "renal filtrate" and is similar to plasma, except that the
circulating globular proteins are too big to be filtered.

12. Because of a mutation, a child was born with the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
only permeable to water. How would this affect the counter current multiplication
system? If the pelvic nerves supplying the bladder become damaged, how would the
process of micturition be affected?

13. Ben has glomerular nephritis. Urinalysis shows a large amount of protein in the urine.
How does this affect:
(i) Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
(ii) Blood colloid osmotic pressure
(iii) Capsular colloid osmotic pressure
(iv) Capsular hydrostatic pressure
(v) Glomerular filtration rate