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The MIDREX Process ®

The world’s most reliable and productive


Direct Reduction Technology

Solutions
for Steelmakers
CONTENTS

2 INTRODUCTION
3 THE RISE OF DIRECT REDUCED IRON
4 APPLICATIONS FOR MIDREX® DRI PRODUCTS
5 MIDREX® DRI FOR ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES
6 MIDREX® DRI FOR INTEGRATED MILLS
7 MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS
9 MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE
11 FEED MATERIALS
12 REDUCING GAS
17 HOT TRANSPORT OF DRI TO EAF
19 PLANT PERFORMANCE
20 VALUE OF MIDREX
21 MIDREX® PLANTS

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE
Midrex Technologies, Inc. along with its parent company Kobe Steel, Ltd., recognizes the importance of protecting the
environment and conserving natural resources. Through the years we have been proactive in increasing efficiency and
productivity while reducing the environmental impact of our processes.

MIDREX® Plants are designed to minimize water, noise and air pollution.

MIDREX® Plants meet applicable World Bank standards and more importantly, Midrex can and will provide DR Plants
designed to meet any local emissions or environmental standards regardless of location.

1 The MIDREX® Process CONTENTS


The MIDREX® Process
INTRODUCTION
The growth and increasing sophistication of the world steel industry has created an escalating demand for higher quality iron
products. Over the past four decades Midrex Technologies, Inc. has risen to the occasion by supplying the industry with the
world’s most reliable and productive Direct Reduction Technology: The MIDREX® Process.

“Midrex is a technology company founded on the pursuit of innovation and is dedicated to continuous
improvement especially in the iron and steel industry.” - Don Beggs, inventor of the MIDREX® Process

The MIDREX® Process is the best industry example of this philosophy and its proven results. Plants using the MIDREX
Process are the world’s largest, most flexible and longest running Direct Reduction (DR) plants. Product quality and flexibility
to produce various forms of iron together with some of the best production records industry-wide make MIDREX® Plants the
most profitable DR plants in the world to own and operate. Midrex builds DR plants that work day in and day out, year after
year to provide value for our clients. We provide dependable solutions so our clients can make the most of their investment and
maximize their profits for years to come.

INTRODUCTION The MIDREX® Process 2


THE RISE OF
DIRECT REDUCED IRON
RECENT YEARS HAVE SEEN AN EVER INCREASING NEED WORLDWIDE FOR METALLICS, SPECIFICALLY
DIRECT REDUCED IRON (DRI) IN ITS VARIOUS FORMS TO FEED THE STEEL INDUSTRY.

DRI is premium iron that is made from oxide by removing A MIDREX® Plant can feed a single EAF or various combina-
chemically bound oxygen from the iron without melting. It is a tions of EAFs and integrated complexes supplementing Blast
metallic low in residual metals and nitrogen. It has been used Furnace (BF) and Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) operation.
for making almost every form of steel product from all types A single Super MEGAMOD® MIDREX® Plant is well-suited
of sheets up to and including exposed auto body steels, extra to feed EAFs to replace a blast furnace/BOF complex. A
deep drawing quality steels, wire and fine wire products, spe- MIDREX® Plant is also an excellent alternative to importing
cial bar quality, forging bar quality and seamless tube products. large quantities of scrap steel or to building a high cost blast
furnace complex.
DRI products are a staple of the electric arc furnace (EAF)
industry and have found increasing usage in integrated mills MIDREX® DRI products are high quality metallic, low in re-
to improve their productivity and lower fuel consumption. sidual metals, that dilute undesirable elements contained in
other charge materials. High metallic iron content, adjustable
Its purity allows EAFs to produce steels that were historically carbon levels and consistent chemical and physical character-
considered to be solely within the domain of oxygen furnace istics provide steelmakers broad flexibility in selecting their
steelmaking. Prior to the application of DRI, EAF’s had ex- furnace charges, along with the ability to produce higher
treme difficulty making these products because of the very quality steels than possible with scrap alone.
limited supply of low residual, high grade scrap steel that
could be sourced to feed to these EAF’s.

With the advent of the thin slab caster (TSC) in the early
1990’s, a renewed appreciation arose for the purity of DRI
and its usefulness in making sheet steels. This caused DR
plants to be built to supply iron for the EAF/TSC mills.

3 The MIDREX® Process THE RISE OF DIRECT REDUCED IRON


APPLICATIONS FOR MIDREX® DRI PRODUCTS
SINCE 1970, WORLD DRI CONSUMPTION HAS GROWN BY ALMOST 100-TO-1, A REMARKABLE RECORD
BY A RAPIDLY GROWING INDUSTRY. CONTINUED GROWTH IS EXPECTED AT A STEADY PACE.

DRI PRODUCTS CDRI CDRI HBI HDRI

Product Form Pellet & lump Briquettes* (density ≥ 5.0 Pellet & lump
grams per cubic centimeter
(g/cc)

Product Temperature Ambient Ambient 550° C or Higher

Where used EAF & BOF EAF, BOF & BF EAF

Charging Method Continuous & Batch Continuous & Batch Continuous & Batch

Description: CDRI (Cold DRI) is a high HBI (Hot Briquetted Iron) is a HDRI (Hot DRI) is discharged
quality metallic ideal for use premium form of DRI and is hot from the shaft furnace and
in a nearby EAF. It can also be the industry and regulatory transported to an EAF for
transported via rail to another preferred method of preparing melting and provides the
site when proper precautions DRI for long term storage and optimum way for DRI users
are made. It is not recommend- transport. HBI is commonly used to increase productivity and
ed for ocean transport. in EAFs and can also be added reduce cost.
to the Blast Furnace and BOF.

IMO Restrictions for Inerting (N2) or passivation No Special Precautions N/A


transport REQUIRED for cargo during
the transport

Number of MIDREX® Plants 50 12 7


currently in operation

* The MIDREX® Process requires less oxide coatings than competing DR technologies, which allows for easier briquetting of DRI and stronger physical
HBI characteristics.

CDRI HBI HDRI


TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS Fe Total (%) 90 – 94 90 – 94 90 – 94

OF MIDREX IRON Fe Metallic (%) 83 – 90 83 – 90 83 – 90


Metallization (%) 92 – 97 92 – 96 92 – 96
Carbon (%) 1.0 – 3.0 0.5 – 1.5 1.0 – 3.0
MIDREX® Plants commonly produce DRI products
P* (%) 0.005 – 0.09 0.005 – 0.09 0.005 – 0.09
with metallization levels up to 97%, and metal-
S* (%) 0.001 – 0.03 0.001 – 0.03 0.001 – 0.03
lization is controllable independent of other Gangue* (%) 2.8 – 6.0 2.8 – 6.0 2.8 – 6.0
major product parameters. Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mo,
trace trace trace
Sn, Pb, and Zn (%)

Bulk Density (kg/m3) 1,600 – 1,900 2,400 – 1,900 1,600 – 1,900

Degree of Metallization, % = (lbs/ft3) 100 – 120 150 – 175 100 – 120

[( % Metallic Fe)/( % Total Fe)] x 100 Apparent Density (g/cm ) 3


3.4 – 3.6 5.0 –5.5 3.4 – 3.6
Product Temperature (° C) 40 80 600 – 700
Typical Size (mm) 4 - 20 30 x 50 x 110 4 - 20
*Depends on iron ore source

APPLICATIONS FOR MIDREX® DRI PRODUCTS The MIDREX® Process 4


MIDREX® DRI FOR ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES
THE GREATEST USER OF DRI PRODUCTS IS THE EAF STEELMAKING INDUSTRY.

Even though DRI use is often associated with the production Continuous charging systems can be used to feed up to
of high grade, low residual metal, low nitrogen products, 100 percent of the required metallics. More commonly, one
most of the product is actually used to make common grades bucket of scrap is charged and the remainder is continuously
of long products, reinforcing bar and light structural prod- fed CDRI, HBI or HDRI. This can reduce the number of batch
ucts. This is simply because in many locations there is not charges and allows the furnace roof to stay on, retaining
enough scrap steel available and local demand for these light valuable heat. Maintaining a consistent temperature leads
construction steels is sufficient to justify building of an EAF to improved bath heat transfer and faster metallurgical
mini-mill. In such a location, a MIDREX® Plant is an excellent reactions. HDRI can be charged directly using the MIDREX
alternative to importing large quantities of scrap steel or to HOTLINK® System, the hot conveyor-based Hot Transport
building a high cost blast furnace complex. System developed by Midrex and Siemens VAI or by hot
transport vessels. HDRI usage reduces operating cost and
The benefits of DRI products are not limited to their chemical increases productivity.
characteristics. In an EAF, DRI products can be either batch
or continuously charged.
Melting Benefits of HDRI in EAF
In batch charging, the use of high bulk density DRI/HBI can
eliminate the need for a second or third scrap charge. This • Increases EAF productivity by 15-20% or higher
results in lower energy losses, more power on-time and • Decreases EAF electricity requirements by at least
improved productivity. Midrex DRI or HBI is mixed with scrap 120-140 kWh/t liquid steel
in the bucket. Generally, DRI or HBI can be added at up to 30
• Decreases EAF electrode consumption by at least
percent of the charge.
0.5-0.6 kg/t liquid steel

• Decreases EAF refractory consumption by at least


1.8-2 kg/t liquid steel

5 The MIDREX® Process MIDREX® DRI FOR ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES


MIDREX® DRI FOR INTEGRATED MILLS
MORE THAN TEN PERCENT OF THE HBI SHIPPED OVERSEAS IS BOUND FOR USE IN BLAST FURNACES, MOSTLY
IN NORTH AMERICA AND IN WESTERN EUROPE. HBI CAN HELP REDUCE BLAST FURNACE EMISSIONS WHILE
INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY. HBI IS ALSO OFTEN USED IN BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES AS A COOLANT.

BLAST FURNACE
EFFECT OF CHARGING METALLIC IRON INTO
Integrated works employ HBI in their blast furnaces to remarkably A BLAST FURNACE - PRODUCTIVITY INCREASE
increase hot metal production and lower coke consumption. HBI
may be used for up to 30% of the blast furnace charge with no

Percent increase in productivity


requirement for additional capital expenditure. 40

30
Its use is cost effective when the steelworks is hot metal short,
20
or if a blast furnace is down for a reline or idled until hot metal
demand increases. Use of HBI also decreases CO2 generation. 10
Practiced mostly in North America and in Western Europe, it is
0
used for two main reasons. One is to routinely increase the pro- 0 10 20 30 40 50
duction from a specific blast furnace, to either increase the steel Percent of iron charged as metallic iron
output from a works or to allow for the closure of a smaller, older,
less efficient blast furnace. The other is to raise the output of
a blast furnace while another blast furnace is taken down for
maintenance.

BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE


A common practice is to use HBI as a cold charge in the BOF
to supplement scrap. It can be loaded in the charging box and
charged and melted like scrap. In cases where scrap has high
levels of residual metals, HBI is a preferred charge material. This
practice is most common in areas where supplies of prime grades
of scrap steel, relative to demand, are readily available.

MIDREX® DRI FOR INTEGRATED MILLS The MIDREX® Process 6


MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS
OVERCOMING TECHNICAL, COMMERCIAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CHALLENGES IS MIDREX’S SPECIALTY,
AND IS A MAJOR FACTOR AS TO WHY THE MIDREX® PROCESS IS THE WORLD’S LEADING TECHNOLOGY
FOR PRODUCING DIRECT REDUCED IRON.

MIDREX® Plants are designed to meet the specific


requirements of each client and can do so because the GROWTH OF MIDREX CAPACITY
MIDREX Process allows for the broadest selection
of proven process options.
3.0 Prototype
MIDREX Plant capacities range from 0.5 million tons Series 400
2.5
per year to more than 2.5 million tons per year and Series 600

Million Tons/Year
provide a wide range of product combinations that 2.0 MEGAMOD
include CDRI, HBI and multiple ways to charge HDRI. 1.5 SUPER MEGAMOD
This allows users to create the plant best suited
1.0
for their project and site-specific requirements,
providing greater flexibility for the needs of captive 0.5
use or merchant sale.
0
Plant Size
MIDREX Plants may be sized to support the Client’s
needs whether that need is to provide a partial or
total charge for EAF(s), for Blast Furnace(s), for Basic
Oxygen Furnace(s) or for merchant purposes (sales
to other steel works). Only MIDREX Plants have Flexibility of MIDREX® Plants
proven performance in this regard.
• Combination plants allow for simultaneous discharge of
Midrex is proud to be the leader in this field with HDRI and CDRI or HBI
as determined by EAF operation
plants making more than 60% of total worldwide and market conditions.
DRI production. In addition more than 80% of all DRI
• The MIDREX® Plant can continue operation when EAF is
products made with natural gas as the fuel are made
offline.
by MIDREX Plants. The steel industry will need more
and more clean sources of iron and Midrex will be at • Use of proprietary SIMPAX® Software for process
the forefront, always developing new and ever more automation and HDRI quality prediction enables plant
efficient and profitable technologies. operators to optimize plant availability, efficiency
and productivity.

7 The MIDREX® Process MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS


For more than 40 years, Midrex has produced reliable
ironmaking technologies. Our shaft furnace-based
MIDREX® Process provides an efficient way to reduce
iron oxide with the greatest operational flexibility.
MIDREX® Plants are the industry’s largest, most efficient
and most profitable producers of CDRI, HBI and HDRI.

MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS FLEXIBILTY

FEED MATERIALS Pellets Lump Ore

ENERGY SOURCES REDUCING GAS

MIDREX®
SynRG™ Reformer
®
Natural Gas
NG Plant
Steam Reformer

Coal
Pet Coke Gasifier MIDREX®
Refinery Bottoms Shaft Furnace

Coke Oven Thermal Reactor Plant


Gas (COG) System™

Coal COREX® COREX® / ®

Pet Coke Plant

PRODUCT CDRI HDRI HDRI


CDRI HBI
OPTIONS & HBI & CDRI & HBI

MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PROCESS The MIDREX® Process 8


MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE
THE MIDREX® PROCESS USING THE MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE CONVERTS IRON OXIDE IN PELLET OR LUMP
FORM INTO HIGHLY METALLIZED DIRECT REDUCED IRON THAT CAN BE DISCHARGED EITHER HOT OR
COLD WITH UNIFORM PRODUCT QUALITY. COMBINATIONS OF CDRI, HDRI OR HBI CAN BE PRODUCED
SIMULTANEOUSLY WITHOUT DISRUPTION TO PRODUCT DISCHARGE.

Most naturally occurring iron ore exists as hematite (Fe2O3), and contains about 30% oxygen by weight. In the MIDREX®
Process, the chemically bonded oxygen in the iron ore is removed using a high temperature reducing gas composed of
hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to produce metallic iron (Fe).

The direct reduction of the iron oxide occurs inside the MIDREX® Shaft Furnace, a cylindrical refractory lined vessel. Iron oxide
is fed from the top and DRI is discharged at the bottom allowing for consistent even flow assuring uniform reduction.

MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE

• Iron Oxide pellets and/or lump are fed to top


of furnace and flow downward. Iron Oxide Charging

• Iron Oxide is heated and converted to DRI


by a high temperature reducing gas.

• Products can be discharged hot or cold in


combinations that include CDRI, HBI or HDRI

REACTIONS WITHIN THE MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE


Pre Heat
REACTION HEAT DESCRIPTION

3Fe2O3 + CO 2Fe3O4 + CO2 Exothermic Reduction by CO Reduction


3Fe2O3 + H2 2Fe3O4 + H2O Exothermic Reduction by H2

Fe3O4 + CO 3FeO + CO2 Endothermic Reduction by CO

Fe3O4 + H2 3FeO + H2O Endothermic Reduction by H2


Transition
FeO + CO Fe + CO2 Exothermic Reduction by CO

FeO + H2 Fe + H2O Endothermic Reduction by H2

3Fe + CH4 Fe3C + 2H2 Endothermic Carburizing Reaction

3Fe + 2CO Fe3C + CO2 Exothermic Carburizing Reaction Product Discharge


3Fe + CO + H2 Fe3C + H2O Exothermic Carburizing Reaction

9 The MIDREX® Process MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE


Hot, high quality reducing gas is introduced into the burden
where the metallization is highest and then passes through the THE OVERALL REDUCTION REACTIONS ARE:
burden in counter-flow to the descending solids (iron oxide Fe2O3 + 3H2 2Fe + 3H2O
being converted into metallic iron). This maximizes both the
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2
chemical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the gas.

Midrex pioneered the application of this design for direct re-


duction. Our long and extensive experience, that has produced
650 million tons of DRI to date, has been used to steadily
improve the technology and continues to inspire innovation.

The H2 and CO reducing gas can be produced one of several


ways depending on the fuel source available (more details on
this follows in the Reducing Gas section starting on page 12).

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) are byproducts


of the iron oxide reduction reactions.

H2 CO2

FeO Fe

CO H2O

CARBON IN DRI PRODUCTS


Carbon content of DRI Products can be critical when used in the EAF. One reason is that DRI by its very nature is less than
100% metallized, and carbon is necessary to complete the metallization of the iron in the EAF. Carbon is also a supplemental
way to provide energy to the EAF and for the formation of foamy slag. Too little carbon requires that additional carbon be
added to the EAF for these purposes; however, too much carbon requires additional oxygen be added to burn off the surplus.
This means longer power on times and longer tap-to-tap times for the EAF and loss of Fe, resulting in lower productivity.

The range of carbon needed is directly related to the metallization and amount of DRI charged in relation to the amount and
quality of the scrap also in the charge. Based on comprehensive and exhaustive modeling and testing, the world’s leading EAF
Technology Suppliers have determined that the optimum content should range from 2.0% to 2.7% when the EAF is charged
with 100% HDRI. Slightly higher carbon levels in the DRI may be preferable when CDRI is used as all, or part of the DRI Product
charge to the EAF.

Flexibility to produce variable amounts of carbon can be instrumental to optimum operation. MIDREX® Plants are unique in
their ability to control DRI Product carbon levels from 0.5% to 3.0% independent of other parameters unlike other competing
processes.

MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE The MIDREX® Process 10


FEED MATERIALS
THE MIDREX® PROCESS IS DESIGNED TO OPERATE WITH VIRTUALLY ANY BLEND OF PELLETS AND LUMP
ORES. MIDREX® PLANTS HAVE PROCESSED IRON OXIDE PELLETS AND LUMP ORES OF VARYING QUALITY
FROM MORE THAN 50 SOURCES AROUND THE WORLD.

The process handles a diverse array of feed


materials including low grade high sulfur ores
in both pellet and lump forms. The typical
characteristics for widely traded DR-Grade
pellets and lump ores are often dictated by
the requirements of the steel plant to maximize
productivity.

MIDREX Plants often use lower quality iron ore,


even Blast Furnace grade pellets depending on TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DR-GRADE PELLETS
the cost of raw materials and the economics of AND LUMP USED IN EAF STEELMAKING
the Steel Mill. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Pellets Lump
Midrex has a comprehensive testing program
that evaluates existing raw material sources and Fe (%) 67.0 67.0
SiO2 + Al2O3 (%) 3.0 3.0
investigates new ones. The Midrex Research and
S (%) 0.008 0.008
Technology Development Center is fully equipped
P (%) 0.03 0.03
to assess the suitability of pellets and lump ores
TiO2 (%) 0.15 0.15
for direct reduction use. Midrex works with iron
oxide suppliers to develop new and improved
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

sources of raw materials and with plant operators Pellets Lump


to evaluate sources for their needs.
Nominal Size 6 x 16 mm 10 x 35 mm
10 x 35 mm (%) — 85 min.
9 x 16 mm (%) 95 min. —
FEEDSTOCK OPTIONS
Minus 5 mm (%) 3 max. 5 max.
Compression Strength (kg) 250 min. —
Less than 50 kg (%) 2 max. —

REDUCTION CHARACTERISTICS
PELLETS
Pellets Lump

Midrex Linder Test (760° C)


Metallization (%) 93 min. 93 min.
Minus 3.36 mm (%) 2 max. 5 max.

Hot Load Test (815° C)
LUMP Tumble Strength (% plus 6.73 mm) 90 min. 85 min.
Compression Strength (kg) 100 min. —
Clustering (% plus 25 mm after 10 rev.) 0 0

Lower quality iron ores are often used in MIDREX® Plants depending on the cost of the raw materials and the
impact of down stream steelmaking operations. The Midrex Materials Testing Lab can evaluate all types of iron
oxide pellets and lump ore to determine suitability for Direct Reduction.

11 The MIDREX® Process FEED MATERIALS


REDUCING GAS
VARIOUS FUEL SOURCES INCLUDING NATURAL GAS, COAL, COKE OVEN GAS AND PROCESS SYNGAS
CAN BE USED TO CREATE A SUITABLE REDUCING GAS FOR THE MIDREX® PROCESS.

MIDREX® Process Energy Source Flexibility


Energy Source MIDREX® Plant Reference Reducing Gas Train Reducing Gas H2:CO Start-up

Natural Gas More than 60 modules MIDREX® Reformer 1.5 to 1.7 Since 1969
in operation

Natural Gas FMO (formerly OPCO) Steam Reformer, Heater + 3.2 to 3.9 1990
MIDREX® Reformer

COREX® Offgas Arcelor Mittal South Africa CO2 Removal + Heater 0.3 to 0.4 1999

COREX® Offgas JSW Projects Limited CO2 Removal + Heater 0.5 to 0.6 Construction

Coal Gasifier JSPL Angul I CO2 Removal + Heater 2.0 Construction

Reducing gas can be produced using natural gas through a traditional steam reformer or the unparalleled stoichiometric
MIDREX® Reformer. When the source is coal including high sulfur coals or Coke Oven Gas (COG), Midrex uses the MXCOL®
flowsheet by means of either a gasifier or Thermal Reactor System™ (more on page 15). Reducing gas can also be produced from
the off gas generated by COREX® or FINEX® Plants. An important property of the reducing gas is the reductant / oxidant ratio,
or “gas quality.” The gas quality is a measure of the potential for the gas to reduce iron oxide. The higher the gas quality the
lower the volume of gas required to react with the iron; pushing less gas means the process is more efficient.

Gas Quality = (% H2 + % CO) / ( % H2O + % CO2)

Hadeed Module E MIDREX® Plant, Saudi Arabia Comsigua MIDREX® Plant, Venezuela

ArcelorMittal South Africa Plant FMO Planta de Briquetas (formerly OPCO) JSPL Angul I, India - Under Construction
COREX®/MIDREX® Venezuela, Using Steam Reformers MXCOL® Coal Gasifier

REDUCING GAS The MIDREX® Process 12


REDUCING GAS
NATURAL GAS IS THE CLEANEST, GREENEST FUEL FOR PRODUCTION OF DRI.

USING NATURAL GAS


To create reducing gas from natural gas, the natural gas must first be reformed into hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
The MIDREX® Process typically uses natural gas as the reductant and fuel by means of the unique MIDREX® Reformer.

MIDREX® REFORMER
Midrex designed and built the world’s first commercial high temperature, stoichiometric CO2 reformer. This concept is unique
to the MIDREX Process and enables the production of a high quality reformed gas that can be fed directly to the direct
reduction shaft furnace.

The MIDREX Reformer converts recycled offgas MIDREX® PROCESS FUELED BY NATURAL GAS
from the MIDREX® Shaft Furnace plus fresh natural MIDREX REFORMER®
gas into hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Iron Ore
Natural gas plus recycled top gas is heated in a
refractory lined furnace and catalytically reformed.
The use of recycled gas and the ability to feed hot
reformed gas to the shaft furnace without quenching
and reheating provide for a very efficient process.
Top Gas Fuel
Unique to the MIDREX Process specifically due to the Top Gas
MIDREX Reformer is the recycle of waste CO2 from
the reduction furnace creating an additional reaction Scrubber
Natural MIDREX®
of CH4 + CO2 to produce 2H2 and 2CO. Gas MIDREX® Shaft
Reformer Reducing Gas Furnace

CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2 (H2O reforming)

CH4 + CO2 2CO +2H2 (CO2 reforming)


Product

The MIDREX Reformer eliminates the need for a


separate CO2 removal system as it reforms the CO2
to CO and it also completely eliminates the need for
a process gas re-heater.

SynRG® REFORMER
Through continuous innovation and commercial
application, Midrex has introduced its next genera-
tion MIDREX® SynRG® Reformer that provides even
greater efficiency of operation and lower capital
expenditure.

13 The MIDREX® Process REDUCING GAS


The SynRG® Reformer features lower NOx burners, new catalyst composition and configuration, revolutionary new tube
metallurgy and a new footprint.

To date Midrex has supplied more than 70 MIDREX® Reformers for projects around the world. The largest MIDREX®
Reformers produce nearly 400,000 Nm3/hr of reducing gas, enabling the production of more than 2.0 million tons per year
of DRI. Even larger units are available.

THE MIDREX® REFORMER

• Refractory lined furnace with catalyst tubes through which gas flows upward

• Combined CO2 removal and heater in one step

• Natural gas plus recycled top gas (feed gas) is catalytically reformed

• Reducing gas is approximately 90% (H2 + CO), at temperatures of


900-950° C , and used without quenching and without reheating

Reformer Tubes with Catalyst


Reducing Gas

TYPICAL COMPOSITION
Flue Gas
INLET OUTLET
H2 35 55
CO 19 35
CO2 15 2
H2O 13 6

Feed Gas CH4 17 1


N2 1 1
Fuel Gas and
Combustion Air Temp. (°C) 580 980

STEAM REFORMER
The optimum way to use natural gas to produce reducing gas is to use a MIDREX® Reformer; however, MIDREX has
produced reducing gas with a conven­tional steam reformer such as used in the petro-chemical industry.

One such example is the FMO Planta de Briquetas (formerly OPCO) in Puerto Ordaz,
Venezuela. This MIDREX® Plant started up in 1990 using an existing steam reformer
originally supplied for another process technology.

The FMO Plant decided to increase capacity in the 1990s. A number of options were
studied and eventually it was decided that best solution was to augment the steam
reformer by adding a small MIDREX® Reformer. The MIDREX Reformer began
operation in 1996 with the steam reformer and increased the capacity of the plant
to more than one million tons of HBI per year.

FMO Planta de Briquetas (formerly OPCO)


Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela

REDUCING GAS The MIDREX® Process 14


REDUCING GAS

MXCOL® (PRONOUNCED “M-X-COAL”) IS THE NAME AND TRADEMARK FOR THE COMMERCIALLY PROVEN
MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE TECHNOLOGY THAT USES SYNGAS DERIVED FROM COAL.

USING COAL
MXCOL® can receive syngas from many sources including commercial gasifiers (using high or low quality coals or other alter-
native fuels) and the new Thermal Reactor System™ (technology using an innovative partial oxidation system). The MIDREX®
Shaft Furnace can also use the off gas of the coal-based COREX® Hot Metal Process from Siemens VAI Metals Technologies.

MXCOL® COKE OVEN GAS (COG) SOLUTION


Coke ovens produce coke for use in blast furnaces and generate an offgas containing H2 and CO. This gas is used typically for
feedstock to chemical plants, heating applications and production of electricity, but chemically can have more economic value
to the steelmaker to create additional iron units.

The MXCOL® option for using coke


oven gas (COG) incorporates a MXCOL® COG OPTION
new Thermal Reactor System ™
Iron Oxide
from Midrex Technologies, Inc. and
Praxair, Inc. This unique technology Clean
Coke Oven Gas
utilizes partial oxidation to reform
(COG)
the COG gas for use in the MIDREX® COG
Pre-Heater
Process to produce DRI, HBI or Recycle Gas

HDRI. When the coke ovens are


located on the site of an inte- MIDREX®
Shaft Furnace
grated blast furnace steel works, CO2
Thermal Removal Scrubber
HBI produced by the MIDREX Reactor
Process can be used onsite to in- O2
Gas
crease the capacity of the blast fur- Air Heater
nace. HBI is used on an increasing Separation
Plant Syngas Reducing Gas
basis to provide alternate feed ma- DRI / HBI / HDRI

terial for blast furnace operations.


Thermal Reactor System™ MIDREX® Plant
Some operators feed up to 30%
HBI to their blast furnace on a con-
sistent basis to improve its perfor-
mance and reduce environmental Iron Oxide
COG HBI
emissions. DRI / HBI / HDRI
Coke Hot Metal

Coke Oven

Integrated Mill Blast Furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace

15 The MIDREX® Process REDUCING GAS


MXCOL® GASIFIER SYNGAS SOLUTION
Gasification refers to the reaction of coal or other solid or liquid carbonaceous feedstock with oxygen to produce a synthesis
gas (syngas). As opposed to combustion, in which air or oxygen produces CO2 and water, gasification uses lesser amounts of
air or oxygen to produce H2 and CO.

Commercially available gasification technology can be paired with a MIDREX® Shaft Furnace through MXCOL® to produce DRI.
The designs include gas-cleaning and conditioning systems to provide a reducing gas suitable for direct reduction. After cleaning
and conditioning, the gas is reheated to the proper temperature and introduced to the furnace. After scrubbing and CO2
removal, the offgas is recycled with fresh syngas.

The benefit is that it produces very


MXCOL® GASIFIER OPTION high quality syngas regardless of the
quality of the fuel.
Iron Oxide

Possible feedstocks include coal,


Coal
Pet Coke lignite, pet coke and other petroleum
Refinery Bottoms refinery bottoms. As energy costs
Recycle Gas rise, gasification enables the use of
lower quality coals or waste prod-
Gas
Gasifier Cleaning & ucts to produce energy.
CO2 MIDREX®
Conditioning Shaft Furnace
Removal
O2
Scrubber
Air
Separation Syngas
Gas
Plant Heater

Turbo Expander

DRI / HBI / HDRI


Gasification Plant MIDREX® Plant

COREX® OFFGAS
COREX®/ MIDREX® OPTION
The world’s first application of
coal gasification to produce DRI Iron Oxide
in a MIDREX® Plant started up in
Additives/
1999 at ArcelorMittal Steel South
Ore/Pellets
Africa (formerly Saldanha Steel). COREX®
This is known as the COREX®/ Export
Reduction Top Gas Syngas Recycle Gas
MIDREX® Process. Shaft

This facility includes a COREX® MIDREX®


Shaft Furnace
Plant, supplied by Siemens VAI, Coal CO2
Scrubber Removal Scrubber
which uses a melter/gasifier to
Gasifier
simultaneously produce hot metal Melter
and a by-product synthesis gas Gas
O2 Heater
that feeds a MIDREX MEGAMOD®
Shaft Furnace. Slag
DRI / HBI / HDRI
Hot Metal
COREX Plant
®
MIDREX Plant
®

REDUCING GAS The MIDREX® Process 16


HOT TRANSPORT OF DRI TO EAF
MIDREX OFFERS MULTIPLE METHODS FOR HOT TRANSPORT: HOTLINK®, HOT TRANSPORT
CONVEYORS AND
HOT TRANSPORT VESSELS THAT ALLOW IMPLEMENTATION AT A WIDE VARIETY OF EXISTING MILLS AS WELL
AS NEW GREENFIELD SITES. ALL THREE METHODS HAVE BEEN COMMERCIALIZED.

Midrex pioneered the Shaft Furnace design for HDRI that has been part of all MIDREX® Hot Discharge plants since 1984. For
any of the hot transport options, the MIDREX® Plant can be designed to produce CDRI or HBI as a secondary product stream
when the meltshop cannot accept HDRI. Plants are designed to produce the two products simultaneously and to switch from
one product to another quickly without disrupting product flow.

MIDREX HOT CHARGING METHODS

HOTLINK® HOT TRANSPORT CONVEYOR HOT TRANSPORT VESSELS


(Distances < 40m) (Distances < 200m) (Distances > 100m)

Reference: Jindal Shadeed (Oman) Reference: Hadeed Mod E (Saudi Arabia) Reference: Lion HBI (Malaysia)

HOTLINK®
MIDREX®
HOTLINK® is based on proven technology and HOTLINK® Shaft Furnace
the design using primarily gravity transport
minimizes HDRI metallization and temperature
losses. HDRI
Distance to EAF
Optional
less than 40 m
HOTLINK® delivers HDRI to the EAF at tempera-
tures up to 700° C by positioning the MIDREX®
Hot Discharge Furnace just outside and above DRI Cooler
the exterior wall of the meltshop. This allows hot Briquette Hot Transport
DRI to be discharged from the shaft furnace to a Machine Conveyor

surge bin and then directly to the EAF. EAF


DRI Storage

The primary goal is to supply hot DRI to the EAF Electric Arc Furnace
as demand requires. HOTLINK® Plants have been HBI Storage
built in Egypt and Oman.

17 The MIDREX® Process HOT TRANSPORT OF DRI TO EAF


MIDREX®
HOT TRANSPORT CONVEYOR Shaft Furnace

HOT TRANSPORT CONVEYOR


In cases where the meltshop is not immedi- HDRI
Distance to EAF
ately adjacent to the MIDREX® Shaft Furnace, Optional
less than 200 m
an option is to use an insulated mechanical
conveyor to transport HDRI to the meltshop at
a temperatures of 550° C or higher. DRI Cooler

Briquette
In this case, DRI is discharged hot from the Machine
Hot Transport EAF
furnace onto a fully enclosed and insulated DRI Storage Conveyor
conveyor, which is designed to minimize Electric Arc Furnace
temperature loss and prevent re-oxidation. The
conveyors are specially designed for Midrex by HBI Storage
Aumund Fördertechnik GmbH.

The HDRI is fed to storage bins located above the EAF. As one bin is being filled, the other one is discharging HDRI to the EAF.
It is critical that the transport method from the shaft furnace to the EAF be capable of delivering HDRI without adversely affect-
ing product quality, while providing maximum operational flexibility. Module E at Hadeed in Saudi Arabia is the first MIDREX
Plant to incorporate this option. This patented hot transport system was pioneered by Midrex Technologies, Inc., Siemens VAI
Metals Technologies and Aumund Fördertechnik.

HOT TRANSPORT VESSELS


Another means for transporting HDRI to the
MIDREX®
meltshop is with the use of vessels, normally HOT TRANSPORT VESSELS Shaft Furnace
with a capacity of 45-90 tons. The vessels are
first filled with inert gas or nitrogen, and con-
nected to a sealed and purged feed leg. The HDRI
Optional Distance to EAF
vessel is then filled and transported by truck or greater than 100 m
rail to the meltshop.
DRI Cooler
The use of vessels is ideal for situations in
Briquette
which there is an existing meltshop and it is Machine
EAF
not possible to locate the shaft furnace close
DRI Storage Hot Transport Electric Arc Furnace
enough to utilize HOTLINK® or a hot transport
Vessel
conveyor.
HBI Storage
MIDREX® Plants pioneered the use of hot
transport vessels in the 1990s and other
plants including LION HBI use similar vessels.
More than 40 million tons of HDRI have been
charged to the EAFs by this method.

HOT TRANSPORT OF DRI TO EAF The MIDREX® Process 18


PLANT PERFORMANCE
MIDREX® DIRECT REDUCTION PLANTS, THROUGH YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AND CONTINUOUS INNOVATION,
ARE THE STANDARD BY WHICH THE DIRECT REDUCTION INDUSTRY IS MEASURED.

MIDREX® Plants are designed to help owners and operators best deal with real world market changes. There are several
factors that can affect the profitable operation of a direct reduction plant such as ore costs, energy costs, labor and the
unpredictability of the steel market. Out of all the variable factors, the choice of process technology is the only one that the
owner can truly control and more importantly, it is the one that can affect profitability in both good and bad economic times.

MIDREX® Plants demonstrate by far the greatest availability (hours of continuous operations) of any direct reduction
technology. Every MIDREX Plant ever commissioned has exceeded its annual rated capacity on a real annual basis. Numerous
MIDREX Plants have produced up to 500,000 or more tons of DRI in a calendar year than their original design capacity. In
terms of both total tons produced and percentage of rated capacity, MIDREX® is the industry leader.

Hours of Operation x Capacity = Production = Profits

MIDREX® Plant Performance is defined by how well the flexibility and proven reliability of the MIDREX Plant operation allows
a client to take advantage of boom markets as well as weather the storm of bad times.

In good market conditions MIDREX Plants overwhelmingly produce more DRI than any other technology. When the market
is down, MIDREX Plants can be efficiently operated at lower capacities to provide the best economics for overall operation.
DR plant owners that have both MIDREX and competing technologies routinely idle the DR plant utilizing the competing
technology and run only their MIDREX Plant during the tough economic period.

Further, MIDREX Plants stay in production for many years. Even plants built in the early-1970 continue in operation, exceeding
their original planned product quality and productivity. MIDREX Plants are so reliable that if local economic conditions cause
profitability to decline, they are typically moved to another location.

Hours of Operation x Capacity = Production = Profits


Profits x Years = VALUE

INNOVATION THAT WORKS


2.0
Million tons per year

1.5
pm ent
g y D evelo
o l o
1.0 Techn

0.5

0.0
35 or more 30 to 35 25 to 30 20 to 25 15 to 20 10 to 15 10 or less
Prior to 1977 1977 to 1982 1982 to 1987 1987 to 1992 1992 to 1997 1997 to 2002 2002 to present

Average Rated Capacity Age of Plants (years) & Date of Start Up


Best Annual Production of Period

19 The MIDREX® Process PLANT PERFORMANCE


VALUE OF MIDREX
VALUE IS INSTRUMENTAL TO SUCCESS. providing the most innovative and top producing technology
solutions. It also includes providing the best methods of
building plants, from design and ore testing to transferring
THE VALUE OF A DRI TECHNOLOGY SUPPLIER CAN
technology through onsite training and on-going MIDREX®
BE MEASURED BY THE ENTIRE TECHNOLOGY
Licensee support. Midrex can also assist with ECA financing
PACKAGE, PROJECT EXECUTION AND OVERALL if needed for the project. In addition, progressive installation
PLANT PERFORMANCE. and construction methods and plans mean most MIDREX
Plants can be erected and ready to run in 24 months.
MIDREX® Plants are the most price effective DRI Plants to
build, own and operate. They have this reputation due to the We have experienced erection, operations and maintenance
years of technology innovation, operation and longevity of personnel from around the world. Our engineering staff has
each plant built. pioneered some of the Direct Reduction industry’s most
impressive innovations. Midrex’s technical services team
Every single MIDREX Plant ever commissioned has exceed- provides ongoing support through periodic technical services
ed its design capacity and has done so consistently on an bulletins and annual MIDREX® Operations conferences. In
annual basis. At least 20 MIDREX Plants have operated an addition, our dedicated Midrex Global Solutions aftermarket
impressive 8,300 continuous hours (or even higher) within group helps keep operations running smoothly by sourcing
a given year. That means these plants were in operation for spare parts and engineered solutions because value to us
more 95% of the year. The simple fact is if a DR Plant is not means passing value on to our clients.
running it cannot make product. If it can only run at a fraction
of its total design capability then it is a waste of a large capital MIDREX’S FOCUS IS TO BRING OUR CLIENTS NOT
investment, so we design and construct our plants to
ONLY THE BEST TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION, BUT TO
produce consistently with as little disruption as possible.
BRING THEM THE BEST FINANCIAL PAYBACK FOR
At Midrex we define value as the total worth of what we
THEIR INVESTMENT.
can bring to our clients and customers. This goes far beyond

VALUE OF MIDREX The MIDREX® Process 20


MIDREX® PLANTS
SINCE 1969, THERE HAVE BEEN MORE THAN 70 MIDREX® SHAFT FURNACE DIRECT REDUCTION MODULES
BUILT IN 21 COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE.

Overcoming technical, commercial and geographical challenges, MIDREX® Plants are able to perform reliably at or above rated
capacity in climates that range from the dry, sandy heat of Saudi Arabia to the frigid cold of Canada and Russia. To-date only three
MIDREX® Modules have ever been decommissioned, the two small demonstration plants built in Portland, Oregon in 1967-69 and
the first full sized commercial scale plant built in Georgetown, South Carolina, USA in 1969-71. Much of the equipment from the
Georgetown facility remains in operation at sister plants operated by the same owner.

Design Shaft Furnace


Plant Location Capacity (Mt/y) Modules Product Start-up Status**

MIDREX® PROCESS
Oregon Steel Mills 1 Pilot Plant1 Portland, Oregon, USA 0.08 1 CDRI ‘69 D
Oregon Steel Mills 2 Pilot Plant1 Portland, Oregon, USA 0.08 1 CDRI ‘69 D
ArcelorMittal Georgetown2 South Carolina, USA 0.40 1 CDRI ‘71 D
ArcelorMittal Hamburg Hamburg, Germany 0.40 1 CDRI ‘71 O
ArcelorMittal Canada 1 Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada 0.40 1 CDRI ‘73 O
TenarisSiderca Campana, Argentina 0.40 1 CDRI ‘76 O
ArcelorMittal Canada 2 Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada 0.60 1 CDRI ‘77 O
SIDOR I Matanzas, Venezuela 0.35 1 CDRI ‘77 O
Acindar3 Villa Constitucion, Argentina 0.60 1 CDRI ‘78 O
Qatar Steel I Mesaieed, Qatar 0.40 1 CDRI ‘78 O
SIDOR II Matanzas, Venezuela 1.29 3 CDRI ‘79 O
ArcelorMittal Point Lisas I & II Point Lisas, Trinidad & Tobago 0.84 2 CDRI ‘80/’82 O
Delta Steel Warri, Nigeria 1.02 2 CDRI ‘82 I
Hadeed A & B Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia 0.80 2 CDRI ‘82/’83 O
OEMK I - IV Stary Oskol, Russia 1.67 4 CDRI ‘83/’85/’85/’87 O
Antara Steel Mills Labuan Island, Malaysia 0.65 1 HBI ‘84 O
Khouzestan Steel Co. I - IV Ahwaz, Iran 1.84 4 CDRI ‘89/’90/’92/’01 O
EZDK I El Dikheila, Egypt 0.72 1 CDRI ‘86 O
LISCO 1 & 2 Misurata, Libya 1.10 2 CDRI ‘89/’90 O
Essar Steel I & II Hazira, India 0.88 2 HBI/HDRI ‘90 O
FMO Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela 1.00 1 HBI ‘90 O
VENPRECAR Matanzas, Venezuela 0.82 1 HBI ‘90 O
Essar Steel III Hazira, India 0.44 1 HBI/HDRI ‘92 O
Hadeed C Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia 0.65 1 CDRI ‘92 O
Mobarakeh Steel A - E Mobarakeh, Iran 3.20 5 CDRI ‘92/’93/’94 O
JSW Ispat, Ltd. Raigad, India 1.00 1 CDRI ‘94 O
EZDK II El Dikheila, Egypt 0.80 1 CDRI ‘97 O
LISCO 3 Misurata, Libya 0.65 1 HBI ‘97 O
ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas Lázaro Cárdenas, Mexico 1.20 1 CDRI ‘97 O
COMSIGUA Matanzas, Venezuela 1.00 1 HBI ‘98 O
ArcelorMittal Point Lisas III Point Lisas, Trinidad & Tobago 1.36 1 CDRI ‘99 O
ArcelorMittal South Africa4 Saldanha Bay, South Africa 0.80 1 CDRI ‘99 O
EZDK III El Dikheila, Egypt 0.80 1 CDRI ’00 O
Essar Steel IV Hazira, India 1.00 1 HBI/HDRI ‘04 O
Nu-Iron5 Point Lisas, Trinidad & Tobago 1.60 1 CDRI ‘06 O
Essar Steel V Hazira, India 1.50 1 HBI/HDRI ‘06 O
Mobarakeh Steel F Mobarakeh, Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘06 O
DRIC I & II6 Dammam, Saudi Arabia 1.00 2 CDRI ‘07 O
Hadeed E7 Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia 1.76 1 HDRI/CDRI ‘07 O
LGOK II8 Gubkin, Russia 1.40 1 HBI ‘07 O
Qatar Steel II Mesaieed, Qatar 1.50 1 CDRI/HBI ‘07 O

21 The MIDREX® Process MIDREX® PLANTS


Design Shaft Furnace
Plant Location Capacity (Mt/y) Modules Product Start-up Status**

MIDREX® PROCESS (Continued)


Khouzestan Steel V Ahwaz, Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘08 O
Lion DRI Banting, Malaysia 1.54 1 HDRI/HBI ‘08 O
HOSCO I & II Bandar Abbas, Iran 1.65 2 CDRI ‘09/‘10 O
Essar Steel VI Hazira, India 1.50 1 CDRI ‘10 O
Khorasan Steel I Khorasan (Mashad), Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘10 O
IMPADCO Khorasan (Mashad), Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘11 O
Jindal Shadeed Sohar, Oman 1.50 1 HDRI/HBI ‘11 O
IGISCO Ardakan (Yazd), Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘12 * C
Arfa Steel Ardakan (Yazd), Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘12 * C
Khorasan Steel II Khorasan (Mashad), Iran 0.80 1 CDRI ‘12 * C
Jindal Steel & Power9 Angul, India 1.80 1 HDRI/CDRI ‘12 * C
Tuwairqi Steel Mills Karachi, Pakistan 1.28 1 HDRI/CDRI ‘12 * C
ESISCO Sadat City, Egypt 1.76 1 HDRI/CDRI ‘13 * C
Saba Bandar Abbas, Iran 1.50 1 CDRI ‘13 * C
SULB Hidd, Bahrain 1.50 1 HDRI/CDRI ‘13 * C
JSW Projects Ltd. Toranagallu, Karnataka, India 1.20 1 HDRI/CDRI ’13 * C
LGOK 3 Gubkin, Russia 1.80 1 HBI TBA C

FOOTNOTES PRODUCTION OF DIRECT REDUCED IRON 2011 Total Production

1. Original demonstration plants built for Oregon Steel Mills used to


BY SHAFT FURNACE PROCESSES 55.5 Mt
develop the MIDREX® Process. Ceased operating after the cost of
natural gas to the plants rose to more than ten times the original cost.
Total of all other shaft furnace
2. Facility idled after its natural gas supply rose to eight times
original cost. Parent company sold facility as it was about to restart;
processes
new owners relocated main process equipment to support their
more strategically located MIDREX® Plants.
MIDREX® Process
3. Record holder for most cumulative production from a single
(1970 through 2011)
Direct Reduction module, producing more than 25 million tons
to date.

4. 1st commercial COREX®/MIDREX® Plant

5. Original module first built in 1990s in the USA as the 1.2 mtpy AIR
plant idled due to low industry demand and record high natural gas
prices in North America; moved to Trinidad & Tobago in 2005, and
the plant was expanded by Midrex Technologies Inc. to new a new
design capacity of 1.6 mtpy.

6. Original modules first built in the 1970s in the UK and moved to


USA in the late 1990s, then dismantle and moved again to Saudi
Arabia in 2005-2006.

7. Largest Producing DRI module currently in operation - nearly 2 Mt


in 2011.

8. Largest HBI Shaft Furnace Module in Production

9. 1st commercial MXCOL® Plant using coal gasifier

* Client’s projected date of start up as of 3Q 2012

** Status Codes:
O – Operating
I – Idle
C – Under Contract or Construction
D – Decommissioned

MIDREX® PLANTS The MIDREX® Process 22


www.midrex.com

USA / CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS:


Midrex Technologies, Inc.
2725 Water Ridge Parkway
Suite 100
Charlotte, NC 28217 USA
Tel: +1 (704) 373 1600
Email: sales@midrex.com

UK:
Midrex UK Ltd.
Two London Bridge
London, SE1 9RA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(0)207 0891520
Email: info@midrex.com

CHINA:
Midrex Metallurgy Technology Services
(Shanghai) Ltd.
1505 Park Place
1601 Nan Jing West Road
Shanghai 200040 PRC
Tel: +86 21 61573700
Email: sales@midrex.cn

INDIA:
Midrex Technologies India Private, Ltd.
Global Foyer, Golf Course Road
Gurgaon-122002, Haryana | India
Tel: 0124-4908712
Email: sales@midrex.in

November 2012