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INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE:

This manual establishers criteria for improving the engineering properties of soils used
for pavement base course, sub base course, and sub grades by the use of additives
which are mixed into the soil to effect the desired improvement. These criteria are also
applicable to roads and airfields having a stabilized surface layer.

SCOPE.

This manual prescribes the appropriate type or type of additive to be used with different
soil types, procedure for determining a design treatment level for each type of additive,
and recommended construction practices for incorporating the additive into the soil. It
applies to all elements responsible for Anny and Air Force pavement and design
construction.

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY

1.1 DEFINITIONS AND DISCUSSION


Technology is rapidly shaping and reshaping the world. What appears to be
impossible today could be made possible by technology tomorrow. What is this
technology that is causing such phenomenal changes and reshaping the world?
The dictionary meaning of technology is “The practice, description, and
technology of any or all of the applied sciences which have practical value and/or
industrial use” or “systematic application of knowledge to practical tasks in
industry.” Here knowledge means “ascertained and tested “knowledge.

1.2 CONSTRUCTION ACTIVIES


Construction work comprises many construction activities performed by a few or
a great many number of construction workers. Deployment of manpower can be
reduced drastically by deploying construction equipment of high capacities. For
that, the requirements are: (i) executing agencies must be familiar with the
construction technology involved in the work to be implemented,(ii) whether
construction equipment necessary for adopting the appropriate technology is/are
available or not.

1.3 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES


The nature of the construction activities involved, the place where construction
work is to be carried out and the time available for construction work are the
three factors that determine the effective construction process. The sequence of
different activities depend on availability of vacant spaces that can be earmarked
for allotment to different executing agencies to mobilize men, material and
machine for timely implementation of contracted work. Each executing agency
has to build its own infrastructures to produce planned output. The owners make
provisions for basic facilities (water, communication, access to power, overall
security, etc) so as to enable the construction agencies to perform effectively and
efficiently.

1.4 CONSTRUCTION MENPOWER


Human element is an important factor in construction activities. The progress of
construction work conforming to the time schedule depends, to a large extent,
on the quality and efficiency of workers deployed in actual execution.

1.5 CONSTRUCTION VALUATION


To turn a concept into a construction project, investment is to be made. For that,
construction estimating is necessary.
In the initial stage, the owner has to be sure about the investment for which the
potential cost is to be assessed. Subsequently, more reliable estimate is made on
the basis of available information relating to the project. A Detailed project
Report (DPR) contains adequate information to initiate construction estimating.
As a project of sizable investment involves work of all disciplines of engineering,
the estimating process becomes complex.

1.6 CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE


A project is an undertaking with a defined starting point and a defined
completion point. A project has also defined objectives, and the project is
regarded as complete only when the objectives are fulfilled. A series of tasks and
activities in a project are to be completed with defined and limited resources. All
these tasks and activities (distinct and identifiable operations within a project)
are to be grouped into a number of packages.
1.7 PRODUCTIVITY AND MECHANIZED CONSTRUCTION
The productivity of any construction equipment is a term that indicates how
many units of output the equipment produces in an hour depending on the job
conditions and management as well as the operator’ s skill, persistence and co-
ordination with other construction forces.

1.8 CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS


Once a new undertaking is conceived, it is necessary to check its feasibility.
Owners’ engineers can do this. If owners’ engineers do not have the necessary
knowledge and experience, then specialists or consultants can do the job on their
behalf. On approval of the Feasibility Reports, project Reports are prepared. The
Feasibility Report, depending on its contents, is sometimes called Pre-feasibility
Reports. The project Report, also depending its scope and contents, is sometimes
called Detailed project Report. Thus the owners may have two, three or four
reports to suit their requirement.
1.9 CONSTRUCTION RECORDS
On completion of project work, the owner must have the following records at the
time of handover. Records are documents, which are to be preserved for future
reference as evidence of conformance to be contractual provision, specifications,
codes and national/international standards. The records as mentioned below are
documents, which cannot be revised or modified. A document, which is not a
record, can be revised or modified if required. Records would be different
depending on the nature of projects. An infrastructure projects like construction
of highways stretching on shore and off shore may generate very many or few
records depending on the route lengths.
 Updated contracts documents
 Updated specification
 Soil investigation reports/ground water data
 As built drawings and sketches
 Updated erection manual
 Updated operation and maintenance manuals
 Approved contractors log’s
 Procurement documents of bought out items
 Materials qualification records
 Skilled workers qualification records
 Quality system records
 Meteorological data
 Inspection and test records
 Safety records including accident records, if any
 Statutory clearance records
 Commissioning check list and protocols
 Performance test records
 Handing over protocols
 Storage and preservation records
 Equipment data
 Important correspondences.

1.10 QUALITY
Quality should be the most important consideration in all construction activities.
Reliability, durability and safety of constructed work depend mostly on quality.
Reliability is the probability that a product, system, or service will perform its intended
function satisfactorily over a stipulated period of time under specified condition.

EARTHWORK

4.1 CLASIFICATION OF SOIL


Soil is the result of disintegration and decomposition of the earth rocky
crust. Disintegration of earth‘s crust could be caused by various factors –
frost, rain, temperature, gravity, wind, ice, and water. Factors like frost,
rain, and temperature variation disrupt the solid rock of earth ‘s crust;
gravity disturbs balance of the earth’s rocky mass; and wind, water as well
as ice have inherent energy to transport disintegrated rock particles all
over. Some soil mass is mainly organic origin.
Soil may broadly classified into the following three categories;
 Course grained or non – cohesive
 Fine grained or cohesive
 Organic
 Course grained or non – cohesive

Very course gained soil like boulders and gravel are composed of rock fragments,
boulders are over 200mm in size. Particles sizes of cobbles lie between 60 – 200mm.
each fragment are gravel may be composed of one are more minerals. Quartz could
be predominant minerals in gravels when fragments are rounded in shape. Grain
sizes of lie between 2 – 60mm.

Coarse – grained materials like sand predominantly have quartz in their


composition. Sand particles that are not rounded may contain one or more minerals
other than quartz. The particles are more angular in fine sands than in coarse
variety. Grain sizes of sand lie between 0.06 – 2mm. depending on the higher
percentage of grain sizes, sands are further classified us coarse or medium or fine
sands. Sandy soils are coarse in texture and have high permeability and low
compressibility with low void ratio.

Principal soil type Further classification Particles size (mm)


Coarse 20 – 60
Gravel Medium 6 – 20
Fine 2–6
Coarse 0.6 – 2
Sand Medium 0.2 – 0.6
Fine 0.06 – 0.20

 Fine grained or cohesive

Fine-grained soils like silt and clay are composed of fine particles each of which
contain only one mineral. Fine particles are not rounded, but are more angular
and flack – shaped. Silt is a type of soil, intermediate between fine sand and clay.
Grain sizes of silt lies between 0.002 – 0.06mm. silt is smooth and slippery to
touch when wet, and the individual particles are much smaller than those of
sand. These individual particles can only be seen with the aid of a microscope. Silt
– textured or silty soils contain relative large amounts of silt.
Clays are very fine – grained soil possessing plasticity. Grain size of clay particles
is less than 0.002 mm.

 Topsoil and organic matter

Soil at the top is a mixture of mineral matter, organic matter, air, and water. Topsoil
is thus capable supporting plant growth but unsuitable for supporting foundation or
sub structure. The organic matter owes its existence to decomposed vegetable
matter and humus, which is a dark brown colloidal materials derived from the
decomposition of vegetable and animal matter. The topsoil is removed for
construction works. Peat is accumulated decomposed plant material and varying
degrees of alteration and is considered as coal in its early stage of formation.

Excavation by Blasting

5.1 ROCK EXCAVATION


Rock may, depending on its properties, be excavated by mechanical means like
ripping. Otherwise, rock is generally excavated by blasting using explosives.

Excavation by blasting is done:

 One the surface


 Under water – for dredging or exploration or construction of bridge/marine
sub-structures or sub-marine pipe-laying
Surface excavation is done for the following purposes:
 Stripping – the spoil as on value
 Cutting – removal primarily to lower the surface level
 Quarrying or mining

In stripping, the overburden is excavated by blasting. The spoil of any excavation by


blasting has, in most cases, no value. The overburden is stripped so that foundations or
substructures may rest on solid bases or at required levels. Drilling and blasting methods
would depend on the properties of rock encountered in the overburdens. Loose soils in
the overburdens may be removed manually or by deploying bulldozers and/or scrapers.

5.2 BASIC MECHANICS OF BREAKAGE


Solid rock mass Yields and breaks as a result of rock explosion. The energy from an
explosion is spent in rock breakage overcoming the resisting forces of compression,
shear and tension. Immediate reaction of the forces of explosion in solid rock mass is an
enormous compression. The rock is generally unyielding solid mass. It breaks only under
the sudden impact of huge compressive forces. Shear is the movement of rock pieces/
blocks along the lines of weakness. Tension is developed by reflection of the
compressive waves in the first stage against the unconfined free surfaces of rock. Apart
from the above, the energy from an explosion is also spent on overcoming gravity and
imparting kinetic energy to the lumps of broken rock.

5.3 BLASTING THEORY


Blasting is the result of conversion of a chemical substance into a gas that produces
instant devastating pressure shattering the rock adjacent to the explosive. The
equations given below on rock blasting are based on the work of U. Langford and B.
Kihlstrom of Sweden.

A rock mass may be blasted and taken out in one layer, or in a series of benches.
Contractors generally prefer benches. The height taken out in each layer is the face
height. The explosive in each hole is supposed to break out a section of the rock mass,
referred to as the burden, between the line of holes and the face.

5.4DRILLABILITT OF ROCKS
Igneous rocks, solidified out of molten state, are subdivided into volcanic cooled at the
surface, and plutonic hardened deep underground. Sedimentary rock are formed of soils
or plants or animal and have been hardened by pressure, time, and depositing of
natural cementing materials. Metamorphic rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary
rocks, but have been altered by extreme heat and pressure.

5.5KINDS OF DRILLING
Holes are drilled for various purposes, such as:

 Sub surface exploration /investigation – core sampling for geological investigation


 Rock blasting using explosive – general construction, tunneling, quarrying, and
mining
 Grout injection
 Rock bolting and anchoring

Extensive drilling is required in rock excavation by blasting. Considerable drilling is


done for soil investigation and resource (fuels, minerals, etc,) exploration. Grout
injection is specialized work, and drilling for such work is not done as extensively as
is done in case of investigation/exploration and rock blasting drilling for rock bolting
and anchoring is done as and when required.

5.6 SELECTION OF THE DRILLING METHOD AND EQUIPMENT


There are many factors which contribute to the selection of the drilling method and
the equipment required for drilling holes for blasting. The selection would be base
on the efficiency and economy with in practical limit. The most satisfactory method
would produce the blast holes at cost efficient rates for the particular project. The
following factors are relevant and important;

 Project size
 Nature of the terrain
 Rock hardness
 Integrity of the formation – broken or fractured
 Blast holes – required depth
 Extent of breakage – for handling and crushing
 Water availability – if dry drilling is required.

For small dia. Meter holes up to 125mm maximum for blasting purposes, the selection
to be made between:

 Jackhammers
 Wagon drill

For medium dia. Meter blast holes ranging from 125 mm – 175 mm, the choice would
be between

 Down – the – hole drill


 Blast holes drill
 Churn drill

5.7 EXPLOSIVE
An explosive is a chemical compound or mixtures of compounds that can be
decomposing instantaneously and violently when initiated by energy in the form of
heat, impact, or friction or by another detonation in difficult conditions like in densely
packed holes, under water and so on. The effect of an explosion in breaking up rock and
hard soil for excavation works, tunneling, quarrying and demolishing works is related to
the nature of the explosive used. The explosive detonation produces’ shock energy and
very short volume of hot gases that generate devastating pressure shattering the rock
adjacent to the explosive in the blast holes. Both shock and gases cause the rock to be
fragmented and displaced. For this comprehensive process, the explosive must contain
all the necessary ingredients, and the process needs to be well controlled. Oxygen from
the air, for example, would not be available for the detonation process.

5.8 BLASTING PATTERN AND FIRING SEQUENCE


Drilling pattern is the spacing of the drill holes. A typical blasting pattern comprises a
number of blast holes drilled in one or more rows in such a way as to suit specific
project requirement. The simplest pattern is a straight line of vertical blast holes parallel
to the vertical face. Surface blasting may be three types:

 Sinking out – for new area or level without any face existing
 Box type cut – for extending an excavation lengthwise
 Corner cut

There are two standard types of blast holes pattern:

 Square – the blast holes are positioned directly behind each other
 Staggered – the blast holes are staggered by half the spacing from the row in
front/behind

5.9 SMOOTH BLASTING


Conventional blasting work normally results in rough and uneven contours of blasted
surface. Such surfaces may require removal of blocks of stone or dressing up of roof
surfaces. Explosive may penetrate for into the rock resulting in great over break. All
theses would require additional expenditure including cost of filling up cavities.

5.10 ENVIROMENTAL EFFECT OF BLASTING


Noise pollution is a serious problem at construction sites where drilling and blasting
work is involved. Even compressors create noise problems when in operation.
Percussion drilling is very noisy. Mufflers can be fitted on the direct exhaust of
compressed air from the drill piston. By using water mixed with foaming agents for
removal of cuttings, noise level of the exhaust air from the drill holes may be reduced.
Nevertheless, noise pollution would remain. And, the people living in the vicinity of the
construction sites would have reasons to complain.

CONCRETE AND CONCRETING


7.1 DEFINITION OF CONCRETE
Concrete is a versatile construction material. It is defined as a properly proportioned,
homogeneous, and dense mixture of fine and coarse aggregates, cement and water with
or without admixtures.

Concrete is the most widely used materials, second only to water, which is used in larger
quantities. Concrete is a material that has been used in some form since the ancient
times because:

(a) It possesses excellent resistance to water unlike wood and steel.


(b) It can be easily cast or formed into any predetermined shape or size.

But the era of modern concrete dates from the middle of the nineteenth century with
the advent of the first truly ‘Portland’ cement.

7.2 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE


Both plastic concrete and hardened concrete have distinct desirable properties. The
essential properties of plastic concrete are:

 Workability
 Non-segregating
 Setting in specified time

The essential properties of hardened concrete are:

 Strength
 Water tightness
 Durability
 Volume stability
 Abrasion resistance
 Economy

7.3 COMPOSITION AND FINENESS OF CEMENT


The function of cement, the most chemically active component of concrete, is :

 To fill up the voids between fine (sand) and coarse (stone) aggregates and
develop specified strength
 To bind the fine and coarse aggregates on addition of the requisites amount of
water and exhibit the appropriate rheological behavior

There are two types of cement:

 Hydraulic – not only harden by reacting with water but also from a water
resistant product.
 Non – hydraulic - their products of hydration are not resistant to water

7.4 QUALITY OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES


Aggregates from the bulk of the concrete – about 60 to 75 % of the total volume.

And by far the largest amount of aggregates used in concrete is mineral aggregates,
such as gravel, crushed stone, and sand. Aggregates are obtained by crushing granite,
basalt, harder types of limestone, and sandstone. Aggregates differ in quality, and in
some locally, good quality aggregates are in short supply

Aggregates are classified in to two groups:

 Fine aggregates passing through the 4.75 mm sieve and within the grading limits
 Coarse aggregates retained by the 4.75 mm sieve ranging up to 150 mm

Fine aggregates again may be divided into two groups:

 Those consisting principally of rock fragments resulting from natural processing


of weathering – by disintegration or by glacial
 Those consisting of fine aggregates obtained by crushing of natural rocks and the
subsequent screening of crushed materials into several specified sizes (vide
Chapter 13, Section 13.6)

Sand may be divided into two general classifications

 Calcareous – when calcium carbonate is present in large quantities


 Siliceous – constituted largely of quartz or silicates – considered best for concrete
production

In many cases, however, sand quite often comprises of a mixture of both calcareous and
siliceous materials.

7.5 QUALITY OF WATER


The function of water, the active component of concrete is twofold:

 To react with cement chemically (hydration) to form a cement gel wherein the
aggregates remain in suspension till hardening of cement paste
 To serve as lubricant between the fine and coarse aggregates so that the
concrete may be easily placed and compacted – to make concrete workable for
specific use

Water that is to be used in concrete shall be clean and free from such impurities as
suspended solids, organic matter and dissolved salts which are frequently contained in
natural water and which may adversely affect the properties of concrete, especially
setting and hardening.

7.6 USE OF ADMIXTRES


Admixture are defined as materials other than aggregates, cement and water, which are
added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing to achieve special
properties and requirements of concrete in the fresh and /or hardened state. An
admixture is, however, not an essential ingredient of the concrete mix. The use of
admixture is now widespread because of many, physical as well as economic benefits
that may be derived from the use of such admixtures. Because of multifarious benefits,
admixtures have become regular and important ingredients of concrete mix. It is
possible, for example, to modify the setting and hardening characteristics / properties of
the cement paste by using chemical admixtures by influencing the rate of cement
hydration. Water reducing admixtures can increase plasticity of fresh concrete mixtures
by reducing the surface tension of water, air – entraining admixture can improve the
durability of concrete exposed to cold weather, and mineral admixtures such as
pozzolona can reduce thermal cracking in mass concrete.

7.7 FORMWORK INCLUDING ENABILING WORK


For in – situ concrete construction work, all concrete because of the plastic state of its
first stage requires some kind of form to mould it to the required shape.

7.8 REINFORCEING STEEL


Development of RCC as a structural medium is based on the fundamental fact that the
coefficient of expansion of both concrete and reinforcing steel is approximately the
same (11.7 x 10-6 / C).

7.9 SHOTCRETE
Shotcrete is also known as sprayed concrete or gunite. Sprayed concrete is a general
term.

There are two basic processes for shotcrete application:

 Dry process
 Wet process

7.10 LIGHTWEIGHT AND HEAVYWEIGHT CONCRETE


Lightweight concrete can be produced with a dry density range of approximately 300 to
a maximum of 1600 kg/m3, though products up to 2000kg/m3 are used for structural
concrete, compared to 2100 to 2500 kg/m3 for normal weight concrete. Light weight
concrete is produced principally for:

 Reducing the dead load of a structure


 Lowering the cost of foundations
 Adding fire – resisting capability, insulation, etc.

7.11 READY MIX CONCRETE


The most significant advantage of ready concrete (RMC) is that it is produced under
controlled conditions unlike at most construction sites except for large site where
developing the required controlled conditions is possible.

7.12 HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


High performance concrete (HPC), as the name suggests, is a product developed to
satisfy effectively the performance requirements for the desired application and is
essentially a modification of ordinary concrete.

7.13 SELF – COMPACTING CONCRETE


Since its introduction in mid 1980s based on new technology, the concept of self –
compacting concrete (SCC) has attracted the attention of technologists and engineers all
over the world.

7.14 EXTREME WEATHER CONCRETING


Good quality concrete is produced around the world including some regions where the
climates are typified by prolonged periods of extreme weather, hot or cold. In many
regions where extreme weather prevails, there are specifications and guidelines
documents for the production of concrete.

7.15 FIBRE – REINFORCED CONCRETE


Fibre – reinforced concrete is comprised of cement, fine or coarse aggregates and
discontinuous fibers with or without admixtures as used in normal concrete. Fibre used
are of various sizes and shapes made of steel, plastic glass, and other materials. Fibres
made of steel, however, are the most commonly used fibres in most structural and non
structural purposes.

7.16 PRESTRESSED CPNCRETE


Conventional reinforced concrete cannot take full advantages of the high strength
possessed by both reinforcing steel and concrete.
The advantages of prestressed concrete are:

 High degree of reduction in cracking


 Durability relating to freezing and thawing is higher due to reduced cracking and
pre – compression which keeps the crack closed
 Precasting of prestressed concrete under highly controlled conditions in
permanent shops which proper curing arrangement result in superior products,
which can be assembled in to structures at any construction sites very easily if
handling and lifting equipment are available
 Prestressing result in maximum economy in size and weight of structural
members, thereby economizing transportation and storage
 Time schedule can be squeezed as precasting, site development and preparatory
work can continue simultaneously
Prestressing can be introduced in to most type of concrete elements, including columns,
beams, walls, tanks, and cantilever members, such as retaining walls, and floors.

7.17 UNDER WATER CONCRETING


Underwater concreting is a special operation that may have to be carried out in remote
and difficult areas in unusual environment. If incorrectly carried out, the result could be
serious and remain undetected. Underwater concreting therefore should be well
planned and only experienced personnel should be deployed for such operation.

7.18 POLYMERS IN CONCRETE


Polymers or epoxy resins are used in several ways to enhance the properties of
concrete:

 Impregnating hardened concrete – polymers – impregnated concrete


 Addition as an admixture – polymers – modified cement concrete
 Replacement of Portland cement – polymers concrete
 Protective coating
 Bonding agent
 Other possible applications
While natural polymers such as rubber, wool, silk, cellulose fibre are of little or no use in
concrete production, synthetic polymers like urethanes, acrylics, styrene butadiene
resins, vinyl, epoxies can be used for various purposes in concrete.
7.19 STRIPPING OF FORMS
Stripping of forms from the finished concrete demands as much as goes into the
fabrication and erection of forms. Such care is essential for the protection of:

 Concrete cast
 Forms – for reuse without extensive repair
All forms should be designed keeping in view the ease of stripping so as to save the form
and stripping cost.

7.20 CURING OF CONCRETE


Curing process, natural or artificial, is a very important factor in determining the
strength of concrete, which depends on the continuous hydration of the cement. It is to
be assured that there is enough water present in the concrete for the hydration to
continue.

7.21 INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF FINISHED CONCRETE


 Reinforcing steel bars
 Formwork
 Concrete

7.22 MECHANIZATION OF CONCRETING


Mechanization of concrete work is covered in chapter 13, section 13.6. erection of
precast reinforced concrete structures as well as bridges is covered in chapter 8, section
8.7 and 8.8.

7.23 LABORATORY TESTING FACILITIES AT A SITE


For concrete construction work to be of such good and consistent quality as to conform
to the specification, testing facilities and services should be available at construction
site.
 Cement
 Aggregates
 Reinforcing steel
 Concrete
 Water

7.24 NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE


Rebound test
The rebound test is best on the principle that the rebound of an elastic mass depends
on the hardness of the surface upon which it impinges.
This test is most suitable for concrete in the range of 20 – 60 N/mm2 strength.

Windsor probe test


This test is based on the principle that the penetration depth by a metal rod under
standard conditions is inversely proportional to the compressive strength of concrete
depending on the hardness of the aggregates.

Ultrasonic pulse method


Refer ultrasonic inspection chapter at, section 8.4.
This method can be applied to in – situ structural concrete members or to
labortaryspecimens. The method consists of measuring the time of the onset of a
longitudinal pulse of vibration to travel between two crystals transducers placed in
contact with the concrete on the opposite faces.

Acoustic emission method


On loading of materials, localized points may be strained beyond their elastic limit
resulting in crushing and micro – cracking. The kinetic energy released would propagate
small amplitude elastic stress waves all through the specimen.

Pulse echo method


This method, which is based on the analysis of reflected pulse traces to detect defects or
varying soil support conditions, has been developed for pile testing. A single hammer
blow is applied to the pile top and the subsequent movements, including reflected
shock waves, are detected by a hand – held accelerometer.