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Team 4- Luay Askar, Lisa Emanuelson, Kalsoom Sanad Shah, David Cunha.

1. Usability with respect to assessing approaches to existing or

projected teaching/design situations.
The Ten steps is a practical version of 4C/ID, and the 4C-ID is
used to bridge the gap found in other instructional design models and
it has proved to be effective for training and promoting better transfer
performance with complex skills. However, the 4C-ID is not a stand
alone theory and must be used in conjunction with another theory.

2. Your recommendation(s) and opinion to your colleagues

(recommend, not recommend, ease of difficulty in
understanding the approach, etc.)

Kirschner and Merrienboer clearly state that most model and

theories are dealing with just a single or few aspects of the whole
learning process. The concept of this theory is dealing with complex
learning and presenting the task as parts in a whole rather than just
parts as parts, separate from the whole task.

3. Your opinion as to which theory, or theories, dominate

Kirschner's and van Merienboer's thinking.

This instructional theory is dealing with complex learning which

requires higher order thinking supported by cognitivism and

4. The rubric is a work in progress. Please add comments on the

rubric if you have them. Your input is welcome.

We numbered the descriptions under each item of the rubric to

simplify our group discussion. Maybe this would be an addition other
groups would like?

Team 4: 5P Analysis for the Ten Steps Complex Learning
of the 4C-ID

Y = Yes
Element of Motivation N= No Comments
NA = Not
? = Cannot
The theory considers whether No Our assumption about this
1 material is relevant to needs and theory centers around the lack of
goals of the learner a formal needs assessment of the
learners as defined by the
theory. Therefore, it is a
prescriptive theory, the goals are
related to the type of instruction
rather than learners’ needs.

The theory includes consideration as No Because this theory is dealing

2 to whether material and/or with complex learning, it is
presentation/ stimulus is novel, is concentrating on the complexity
something new and interesting to of the material rather than
the learner learners’ interest. The material
emphasizes the use of practical,
applicable skills grounded in
reality as the “driving force for
teaching and learning”.

The theory concerns itself with the This theory is focused on

3 presentation approach being Yes authentic tasks as central to the
intrinsically pleasant/ interesting/ learners, stimulating and
stimulating/ thought provoking provoking complex learning,

ultimately integrating and
transferring knowledge.

The theory informs with respect to No This theory is focused on the

4 areas such as wording, visuals, early steps of an instructional
audio, language being manageable design process, and does not get
and useable to the receiving group into such detail.
or individual.

The theory supports opportunities Yes The theory is based on complex
5 being provided to develop learning where the learners are
proficiency in application of the skill, scaffolded to integrate their
knowledge, ability or concept. knowledge and skills and use
their learned knowledge in new
(real-life) settings.

The theory supports practice Yes In this theory, practice to

6 activities, to include repetition and develop automaticity is
spiraling, designed to develop introduced in the sequence of
automaticity in responses and tasks arranged from simple to
execution if appropriate. complex. Consequently, after the
whole task has been introduced
to the learners, part-task
practice aims to develop
automaticity through repetition
of recurrent tasks.

The theory requires that practice is ? Based upon our stated

7 relevant to needs and goals of the assumption in question #1, the
learner. selected tasks should be relevant
to the learners’ real-life situation
although the theory does not
state this specifically.

The theory covers self-assessment Yes The theory states that for
or assessment by other means that acceptable performance of the
8 evidences that the Learner can see task, it is essential to assess the
that skill/competency acquisition is performance and provide
taking place feedback. Self-assessment can be
proved via strengthening and the
automation gained by each
successful attempt.

The theory requires practice Yes Step 2 ensure that the learners
9 activities that are within or slightly begin with simple tasks and
above the learner’s competency increase in difficulty using an
level Inductive method to perform a
task and start from concrete
experience that is gradually
embellished during training.
Essentially, learners are building
upon already understood
knowledge and/or concepts.

The theory requires that practice be Yes This procedural information

10 designed to lead to correct response. specifies for learners how to
perform the routine aspects of
learning tasks, preferably in the
form of direct, step-by-step
instruction where practice is
designed to be holistic so that
learners understand the
completion of the entire task. In
this way learners will be
provided not only with a final
view of what they will be able to
accomplish post- training but
also a way to determine if steps
do in fact lead to the holistic end.
Learners gain more expertise
through practice and successful
steps are achieved where part-
task practices lead to

Production and Posting

The theory encourages application of Yes This theory is almost entirely
11 the skill, knowledge/ability or focused on the application of
concept being learned knowledge and how to achieve
knowledge transfer. Part-task
practice for a particular
recurrent aspect of a task can
begin only after it has been
introduced in a meaningful
whole- learning task. In this way,
learners start their practice in a
fruitful cognitive context to
achieve knowledge transfer and

The theory encourages publication of ? The theory says that use the
whatever is produced by the learner learned knowledge in real-life
12 to group for peer view and learning task and settings, which means
to share with peers, but didn't
say anything about publication
per se. Because complex learning
is the integration of knowledge,
skills and attitudes transferring
what was learned in school or
training to daily life and work
could in itself be considered

Theory supports synchronous or ? This theory is focused on the
13 asynchronous review of posted tactics that lead to knowledge
products. transfer including development
of trainings with different
duration (weeks to years ) and
as such could be facilitated by
either asynchronous or
synchronous products although
the theory does not specifically
state this.

Theory promotes a Community of No Not mentioned.

14 Practice/Wisdom/Knowledge.

Theory supports some form of ? As stated in the introduction,

15 accountability with respect to who is this theory is meant for
contributing and how they are “teachers, domain experts...and
contributing to knowledge sharing less experienced instructional

Theory accounts for variation in task ? The theory does not mention
16 readiness and ability to contribute anything about group work, but
to group effort to meet goals the analysis of prerequisite
knowledge identifies the
learners’ readiness to apply
those condition-action pairs
which provide the basis for the
design of procedural

In terms of theory, does the theory No There is no mention of

17 provide for collaboration? collaboration in the theory,
unless we consider scaffolding
(supportive information and
procedural information) as a
sort of collaboration.