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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

1. CARTESIAN COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Try to solve this quadratic equation : x + 2 x + 5 = 0


2

By using quadratic formula :

the discriminant , ∆ = b − 4ac = ( 2) − 4(1)(5) = −16


2 2

− (2) ± − 16
the solution : x=
2(1)

but it is not possible to evaluate −1 however if an operator j is defined as


j = −1 then the solution may be expressed as :
2

− (2) ± − 16 2 ± j4
x= =− = −1 ± j 2
2(1) 2

− 1 + j 2 and − 1 − j 2 are known as COMPLEX NUMBERS .

Both solutions are of the form :

x = −1 ± j2

Complex Real Imaginary


number part part

z = a ± jb

this form is known as the CARTESIAN COMPLEX NUMBERS ( ALGEBRAIC


FORM )

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

1.2 EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1 : Solve the quadratic equation , x2 + 4 = 0

x2 + 4 = 0
x 2 = −4
x = ± j2

EXAMPLE 2 : Solve the quadratic equation , 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5 = 0

− 3 ± 32 − 4(2)(5)
x=
2( 2)

− 3 ± 9 − 40
x=
4

− 3 ± − 36
x=
4

− 3 ± j6
x=
4

3 3
x=− ± j
4 2

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1.3 POWERS OF j

j0 ( − 1) 0 1

j1 −1 j

j2 ( − 1)( − 1) -1

j3 j2j = (-1)j -j

j4 j2j2 = (-1)(-1) 1

j5 j4j = (1)j j

In general we can bring the power to the nearest multiplication of 4 :

j 4p+0 = 1

j 4p+1 = j

j 4p+2 = -1

j 4p+3 = -j where p ∈ Z

1.4 DOMAIN

The domain of the complex number is C where R is an element of C

R∈ C

R C

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1.5 THE ARGAND DIAGRAM

A complex number may be represented graphically on rectangular or cartesian


axes . The horizontal ( or x ) axis is used to represent the real axis and the
vertical ( or y ) axis is used to represent the imaginary axis . Such a diagram is
called an ARGAND DIAGRAM .

EXAMPLES :

Represent Argand points A = 3 + j2 , B = -2 + j4 , C = -3 – j3 , D = 2 – j2

Imaginary
Axis

B
4

2
A

-3 -2 2 3
Real Axis

-2 D

-3
C

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION - ALGEBRAIC FORM

Two complex numbers are added / subtracted by adding / subtracting separately


the two real parts and two imaginary parts .

Given two complex number Z=a+jb and W=c+jd

2.1 IDENTITY

If two complex numbers are equal , then their real parts are equal and their
imaginary parts are equal .

Hence , two complex numbers are identical , i.e Z = W if :

a=c and b=d

EXAMPLE : Solve the complex equations ;

(a) 2( x + jy ) = 6 − j 3

SOLUTION
2 x + j 2 y = 6 − j3

Therefore
[ Re ]
2x = 6
6
x=
2
x=3
[ Im ]
2 y = −3
3
y=−
2

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(b) (1 + j 2)(− 2 − j3) = a + jb

SOLUTION

(1 + j 2)(−2 − j 3) = a + jb
(−2 + 6) + j (−4 − 3) = a + jb
4 − j 7 = a + jb

Therefore : [ Re ] : a = 4 and [ Im ] : b = - 7

2.2 ADDITION & SUBTRACTION

The sum of two complex number , i.e Z+W

z + w = (a + jb) + (c + jd )
z + w = (a + c) + j (b + d )
EXAMPLE

Given : z = 2 + j3 and w = −1 − j 4

z + w = [ 2 + (−1)] + j[3 + ( −4)]


z + w = 1− j

The difference of two complex number , i.e Z-W

z − w = (a + jb) − (c + jd )
z − w = (a − c) + j (b − d )
EXAMPLE

Given : z = 2 + j3 and w = −1 − j 4

z − w = [2 − (−1)] + j[3 − (−4)]


z − w = 3 + j7

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The addition and subtraction of complex numbers may be achieved graphically in


the Argand diagram .

Represent Example 1 and Example 2 in the Argand diagram .

Addition IMAGINARY
AXIS
z + w = 1− j 3 z

-1 2 REAL
AXIS

w -4

IMAGINARY
AXIS
Subtraction

z − w = 3 + j7 7
z

3
z

REAL
-1 2 3 AXIS

w -4

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2.3 SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

If Z=a+jb and k ∈ R , where k is a scalar ; then k Z ,

kz = k (a + jb)
kz = ka + jkb
EXAMPLE 3 : Given Z1 = 2 + j4 and Z2 = 3 - j

Determine :

(a) 4Z1 = 4( 2 + j 4) = 8 + j16

(b) 5 Z2 = 5(3 − j ) = 15 − j 5

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3. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION - ALGEBRAIC


FORM

3.1 MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication of complex numbers is achieved by assuming all quantities
involved are real and using j 2 = -1 to simplify :

Given two complex numbers : Z = a + jb and W = c + jd

The product of two complex number , i.e Z . W

z • w = (a + jb)(c + jd )

by using F O I L method

z • w = ac + jad + jbc + jjbd


z • w = ac + jad + jbc + j 2bd
z • w = ac + jad + jbc − bd
z • w = ( ac − bd ) + j (ad + bc )

Z.W = (ac − bd ) + j (ad + bc)

EXAMPLE : multiply the following complex number

(a) ( 3 + j2 )( 4 - j5 ) = (3)(4) + (3)(− j 5) + ( j12)(4) + ( j 2)(− j 5) = 22 − j12

(b) ( -2 + 5j )( -5 + 2j ) = ( −2)(−5) + (−2)( j 2) + ( j 5)( j 2) + ( j 5)( j 5) = − j 29

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

3.2 COMPLEX CONJUGATE

The complex conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the sign of


the imaginary part .

Hence the complex conjugate of :

• Z =a+jb is Z= a - j b

• W=c-jd is W=c+jd

EXAMPLE : Let Z = 2 + j5

1. The complex conjugate of Z , is z = 2 − j 5


2. Calculate Z . Z : z z = 2 2 + 52 = 4 + 9 = 13

CONCLUSION :

The product of the complex number and its conjugate Z . Z is always a real
number.

EXAMPLE : Let Q = 1 + j2 and R = 3 + j4

1. Calculate Q + R

Solution

Q + R = (1 + j 2) + (3 + j 4) = 4 + j 6

Therefore
Q = 1 − j2
Q + R = 4 − j6 or R = 3 − j4
Q + R = 4 − j6

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

2. Calculate QR

Solution

QR = (1 + j 2)(3 + j 4)
QR = (1 − j 2)(3 − j 4)
QR = (3 − 8) + j (4 + 6)
QR = (3 − 8) + j (−4 − 6) or
QR = −5 + j10
QR = −5 − j10
QR = −5 − j10

3. Calculate Q 2

Solution

2 Q 2 = (1 + j 2) 2
Q = (1 − j 2) 2
2 Q2 = 1 + j4 + j 2 4
Q = 1 − j4 + j 4 2
or
2
Q 2 = −3 + j 4
Q = −3 − j 4
Q 2 = −3 − j 4

From the previous examples , we can conclude that the :

3.3 PROPERTIES OF the COMPLEX CONJUGATES

z+w= z+w
zw = z • w
()
zn = z
n

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

The geometric interpretation of the complex conjugate ( shown below ) Z is


the reflection of Z in the real axis .

Im

Z = a + jb

Re
O

-j

Z = a − jb

3.4 DIVISION

Division of complex numbers is achieved by multiplying both numerator and


denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator .

Given two complex numbers : Z = a + jb and W = c + jd

The quotient of two complex number , i.e ; Z / W

z (a + jb)
=
w (c + jd )
z (a + jb)(c − jd )
=
w (c + jd )(c − jd )
z (ac + bd ) + j (bc − ad )
=
w c2 + d 2

z (ac + bd ) (bc − ad )
= 2 + j
w c +d2 c2 + d 2

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2 − j5
EXAMPLE : evaluate the following
3 + j4

z [(2)(3) + (−5)(4)] + j[(−5)(3) − (2)(4)]


=
w (3) 2 + (4) 2

z (6 − 20) + j (−15 − 8)
=
w 9 + 16

z − 14 − j 23
=
w 25

z 14 23
=− − j
w 25 25

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4. THE TRIGONOMETRIC FORM AND THE POLAR


FORM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
4.1 INTRODUCTION

Let a complex number Z = a + jb as shown in the Argand Diagram below. Let


the distance OZ be r and the angle OZ makes with the positive real axis be θ.

Imaginary axis

r jb

θ Real axis
O a A

From the trigonometry of right angle triangle :

a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ

Hence :

Z = a + jb = r cosθ + jr sin θ = r (cosθ + j sin θ )

4.2 TRIGONOMETRIC FORM AND POLAR FORM

Z = r ( cos θ + j sin θ ) known as the TRIGONOMETRIC FORM is usually


abbreviated to Z = [ r , θ ] or Z = r ∠ θ which is known as the POLAR FORM
of a complex number .

4.3 MODULUS / MAGNITUDE

r is called the modulus or magnitude of Z and is written as mod Z or Z 


r is determined by using Pythagoras Theorem on triangle OAZ :

mod Z =  Z  = r = a 2 + b2

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

4.4 ARGUMENT / AMPLITUDE

θ is called the argument or amplitude of Z and is written as arg Z .


By trigonometry on triangle OAZ :

b
arg Z = θ = arctan
a

algebraic form Z = a + j b

↓ ↓ ↓

Z = r cos θ + j r sin θ

trigonometric form Z = r (cosθ + j sin θ )

polar form Z = [r ,θ ] or r ∠ θ

EXAMPLE 1 :

Determine the modulus and argument of the complex number Z = 2 + j3 and


express Z (i) in trigonometric form and (ii) in polar form

Solution

Find r and θ,
r = 22 + 32 = 4 + 9 = 13
3
θ = arctan = 56.3°
2
(i) trigonometric form
z = 13 (cos 56.3° + j sin 56.3°)
(ii) Polar form
z = 13∠56.3°

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COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

EXAMPLE 2

Express the following complex numbers in (i) in trigonometric form and (ii)
in polar form
Represent each complex numbers on the Argand diagram

SOLUTION Im

(i) z = 3 + j4
j4

r = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5 z

b 4
θ = tan −1 = tan −1 = 53.1o θ Re
a 3
3
Therefore;
z = 5(cos 53.1° + j sin 53.1°)

Im

(ii) z = −3 + j 4

r = (−3) 2 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5
4
θ ' = tan −1 = −53.1°
−3 j4

θ
Therefore; θ'
-3 Re
θ = 180° − 53.1° = 126.9°

z = 5(cos126.9° + j sin 126.9°)

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(iii) z = −3 − j 4
Im

θ
r = (−3) 2 + (−4) 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5
-3
−4
θ ' = tan −1
= 53.1 Re
−3 θ'
-j4
Therefore the actual θ

θ = 180° + 53.1° = 233.1°


z = 5(cos 233.1° + j sin 233.1°)

(iv) z = 3 − j4

Im
r = (3) + (−4) = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5
2 2

−4
θ ' = tan −1 = −53.1 θ
3 3

Therefore ; θ' Re
- j4
z = 5(cos(−53.1)° + j sin( −53.1)°) z

or

θ = 360° − 53.1° = 306.9°


z = 5(cos(306.9)° + j sin(306.9)°)

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EXAMPLE 3 : Convert the following complex numbers into a + jb form ,


correct to 4 significant figures .

(a) Z = 4 ∠ 30°

z = 4(cos 30 + j sin 30)


z = 3.464 + j 2.000

(b) Z = 7 ∠ -145°

z = 7(cos− 145 + j sin − 145)


z = −5.734 − j 4.015

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5. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION – TRIGONOMETRIC /


POLAR FORM

5.1 TRIGONOMETRIC FORM

Given two complex numbers :


Z = r ( cos θ + j sin θ ) and W = p ( cos α + j sin α )

5.1.1 CONJUGATE

The conjugate of Z is Z = r ( cos θ - j sin θ )


The conjugate of W is W = p ( cos α - j sin α )

5.1.2 MULTIPLICATION

The product of two complex numbers , i.e Z.W

Z.W = r (cosθ + j sin θ ) • p (cosα + j sin α )


= rp (cosθ + j sin θ )(cosα + j sin α )
= rp (cosθ cosα + j sin α cosθ + j sin θ cosα + j 2 sin θ sin α )
= rp (cosθ cosα − sin θ sin α + j sin α cosθ + j sin θ cosα )
= rp[(cosθ cosα − sin θ sin α ) + j (sin α cosθ + sin θ cosα )]

Apply the trigonometry-sum identities

z • w = rp[cos(θ + α ) + j sin(θ + α )]

EXAMPLE

Given Z = 2 ( cos 30° + j sin 30° ) and W = 5 ( cos [-45°] + j sin [-45°] )
Evaluate in trigonometric form Z .W

Solution

Therefore

z • w = (2)(5)[cos{30 + (−45)} + j sin{30 + (−45)}]


z • w = 10[cos(−15) + j sin(−15)]

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5.1.3 DIVISION

Z
The quotient of two complex numbers , i.e
W

Z r (cosθ + j sin θ )
=
W p(cosα + j sin α )

We have to multiply the numerator and the denominator with the conjugate of the
denominator

Z r (cosθ + j sin θ ) (cosα − j sin α )


= •
W p(cosα + j sin α ) (cosα − j sin α )
r (cosθ cosα − j sin α cosθ + j sin θ cosα − j 2 sin θ sin α )
=
p(cos 2 α + sin 2 α )
r[cosθ cosα + j (− sin α cosθ + sin θ cosα ) − (−1)(sin θ sin α )]
=
p (1)
r[(cosθ cosα + sin θ sin α ) + j (sin θ cosα − sin α cosθ )]
=
p
z r
= [cos(θ − α ) + j sin(θ − α )]
w p

Apply the trigonometry-sum identities

z r
= [cos(θ − α ) + j sin(θ − α )]
w p

EXAMPLE

Given Z = 2 ( cos 30° + j sin 30° ) and W = 5 ( cos [-45°] + j sin [-45°] )
Z
Evaluate in trigonometric form
W

Solution
z 2
= [cos(30 − (−45)) + j sin(30 − (−45))]
w 5
z 2
= [cos 75 + j sin 75]
w 5

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5.2 POLAR FORM

Given two complex numbers : Z = r ∠ θ and W = p ∠ α

5.2.1 MULTIPLICATION

The product of two complex numbers , i.e Z.W

Z.W = r∠θ x p∠α or z • w = [rp,θ + α ] = rp∠θ + α

EXAMPLE : Determine in polar form

(1) 8∠ 25° × 4∠ 60°

= (8)( 4)∠25° + 60° = 32∠85°

(2) 3∠ 16° × 5∠ -44° × 4∠ 60°

= (3)(5)(4)∠16° − 44° + 60°


= 60∠32°

5.2.2 DIVISION
Z
The quotient of two complex numbers , i.e
W
Z
[r ,θ ] z r
= or = [ , (θ − α )]
W [ p,α ] w p

EXAMPLE : Evaluate in polar form

16∠ 75o = 16 ∠(75° − 15°) = 8∠60°


(1)
2∠15o 2

π π
10∠ × 12∠
(2) 4 2 =  10 × 12 ∠ π + π −  − π  = 20∠ 13 π
π  6  4 2  3 12
6∠ −
3

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6. THE EXPONENTIAL FORM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

6.1 EXPONENTIAL FORM


The exponential form of complex number : z = re Where θ is in
radian

where : e = c o s θ + j s in θ

Given two complex numbers : Z = re jθ and W = pe jα

6.1.1 CONJUGATE

The conjugate of Z = re jθ is Z = re − jθ

The conjugate of W = pe jα is W = pe − jα

6.1.2 MULTIPLICATION

The product of two complex number , ie Z.W

Z.W = ( re jθ )( pe jα )

z • w = rpe jθ + jα = rpe j (θ +α )

Example
π π
j j
Given two complex numbers : z = 10e 2
and w = 5e 3

Therefore
π π 5π
j( + ) j
z • w = (10 )( 5) e 2 3
= 50 e 6

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6.1.3 DIVISION

The quotient of two complex numbers , ie Z / W

re jθ
Z/W =
pe jα
z r jθ − jα r j (θ −α )
= e = e
w p p

Example
π π
j j
Given two complex numbers : z = 10e 2
and w = 5e 3

Therefore
π π π
z 10 j ( 2 − 3 ) j
= e = 2e 6
w 5
6.1.4 EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1 : Change ( 3 - j4 ) into (a) polar form (b) exponential form

Solution

Find r and θ ; r = 32 + (−4) 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5

−4
θ = arctan = −53.1°
3
Actual θ = 180° − 53.1° = 126.9°

(a) Polar form : 5∠126.9°

(b) Exponential form: 5e j 2.21 (Convert 126.1 into 2.21 radian)

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j 1.5
EXAMPLE 2 : Convert 7.2 e into algebraic form

Solution

Find a and b

a = r cosθ = 7.2 cos 85.94° = 0.51


b = r sin θ = 7.2 sin 85.94° = 7.18

Therefore algebraic form : 0.51+j7.18

1 + j π/3
EXAMPLE 3 : Express Z = 2e in algebraic form

Solution

π
j
z = 2e × e 3
= 2e × e j 60
a = r cosθ = 2e cos 60° = 2.72
b = r sin θ = 2e sin 60° = 4.71

Algebraic form: z = 2.72 + j 4.71

2 - j3
EXAMPLE 4 : Change 6 e into the algebraic form

Solution

j3
z = 6e 2 × e −

a = r cosθ = 6e 2 cos 3 = −43.89


( mode radian )
b = r sin θ = 6e 2 sin 3 = 6.26

Algebraic form: z = −43.89 + j 6.26

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6.2 DE MOIVRE’S THEOREM

By repeating the multiplication of the same complex number , we get :

TRIGONOMETRIC EXPONENTIAL POLAR


FORM FORM FORM

Z = r ( cos θ + j sin θ ) Z=re Z=r∠θ

j 2θ
Z2 = r2 ( cos 2θ + j sin 2θ ) Z2 = r2 e Z2 = r2 ∠ 2θ

j 3θ
Z3 = r3 ( cos 3θ + j sin 3θ ) Z3 = r3 e Z3 = r3 ∠ 3θ

In general we can write the above results , named after the French
mathematician ,Abraham De Moivre , as De Moivre’s Theorem

n n n n j nθ n n
Z = r ( cos nθ + j sin nθ ) Z =r e Z = r ∠ nθ

The theorem is true for all positive , negative or fractional values of n . The
theorem is used to determine powers and roots of complex numbers .

6.2.1 POWERS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

EXAMPLE 1: Determine the following complex numbers in polar form .

i. [ 2∠35° ]5

Solution

Solve for
[2,35°]5
= [25 , (5)(35°)]
= [32,175°]

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ii. ( -2 + j3 ) 6

Solution

Convert the algebraic form into trigonometric form

Find r and θ
r = (−2) 2 + (3) 2
3
θ = arctan(− )
r = 4+9 2
r = 13 θ = −56°

Therefore:
[ 13 (cos124° + j sin 124°)]6
= [{ 13 )6 (cos(6 × 124°) + j sin(6 × 124°)]
= 2197(cos 744° + j sin 744°)

EXAMPLE 2: Determine the value of ( 2 + j3 )3 , expressing the result in both


polar and algebraic form .

Solution

Convert 2 + j 3 into polar form

r = 13
3
θ = arctan = 56.31°
2

Therefore
3

[ 13 ,56.31°] = [13 ,3 × 56.31°]


3 2

= [13 ,168.93°]
2

Algebraic form

(2 + j 3)3 = −46 + j 9

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4
EXAMPLE 3 : Determine the value of ( -7 + j5 ) , expressing the result in
algebraic form .

Solution

Convert the algebraic form into trigonometric form

Find r and θ
r = (−7) 2 + (5) 2
5
θ = arctan(− )
r = 49 + 25 7
r = 74 θ = −35.54°

Therefore:
[ 74 (cos− 35.54° + j sin − 35.54°)] 6
= [{ 74 ) 6 (cos(6 × −35.54°) + j sin(6 × −35.54°)]
= 405224(cos− 213.24° + j sin − 213.24°)

Polar form: [5476,577.85°]

Algebraic form: − 4324 − j 3360

6.2.2 ROOTS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

The square root of a complex number is determined by letting n = ½ in De


Moivre’s Theorem , i.e

1 θ
[r∠θ ] = [r∠θ ]1/ 2 = r 1/ 2 ∠ θ = r ∠
2 2
There are two square roots of a real number , equal in size but opposite in sign .

EXAMPLE : [ 4∠ 60o ] =

Solution
60°
[4∠60°] = 4∠ = 2∠30°
2
or
[4∠60° = 2∠180° + 30° = 2∠210°

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7. EXERCISES
CARTESIAN COMPLEX NUMBERS

1. Solve the following quadratic equation and write down :

a : the real part and b : the imaginary part

(a) 2x2 + 5x + 7 = 0 a : ______ b : ______

(b) 2x ( x + 2 ) = - 9 a : ______ b : ______

(c) 9x2 - 2x + 28 = 3 - 2x a : ______ b : ______

(d) 2x2 - 4x + 5 = 0 a : ______ b : ______

(e) x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 a : ______ b : ______

2. Show on the Argand Diagram the following complex number

(a) Z=7 (b) W = -4 + j


(c) R = -3 -j4 (d) Q = -j4 (e) V = 5 + j12

3. Evaluate :

(a) j 24 (b) j 45 (c) j 105


86
(d) j (e) -4 / j 23

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION – ALGEBRAIC FORM

4. Calculate the following complex number :

(a) ( 7 + j5 ) + ( -18 + j9 ) (b) ( -6 - j9 ) + ( 5 + j3 )

(c) ( 5 + j ) + ( 5 - j9 ) (d) ( 12 + j4 ) + ( j3 )

(e) ( 7 - j6 ) + ( -6 -j5 ) (f) ( j16 ) - ( 6 - j5 )

(g) ( 10 - j5 ) - ( 2 + j5 ) (h) ( 6 + j8 ) - ( 7 - j4 )

(i) ( 8 + j5 ) - ( 9 ) (j) ( 25 + j8 ) + ( 6 - j5 ) - ( 5 + j )

(k) ( 8 + j2 ) + ( -9 - j ) (l) ( 1 - j ) - ( 2 + j2 ) + ( 3 + j7 )

(m) ( 3 + j7 ) + ( 2 - j ) (n) ( 4 + j 3 ) - ( 8 + j4 )

E2 - 28 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

5. Given Z = 5 + j6 and W = 6 + j , calculate :

(a) 10Z (b) 15W

(c) 2Z + 3W (d) 4W + Z

(e) ½Z-¼W (f) Z-W

(g) -Z + W (h) 5Z - 2W

(i) 9Z + 9W (j) ¾Z+½W

(k) 1/3W - 1/4Z (l) W+½Z

(m) 4Z – W (n) 2Z + 4W

(o) 5W + 3Z

6. Let Z = ( 4 + j7 ) and W = ( 3 – j2 )

(a) Represent Z and W as two vectors on in the Argand Diagram ( on the


same diagram )
(b) Represent Z + W on the Argand Diagram ( geometrically ) without
calculating

7. Let V = ( 4 + j6 ) and G = ( 2 – j5 )

(a) Represent V and G as two vectors on in the Argand Diagram ( on the


same diagram )
(b) Represent V - G on the Argand Diagram ( geometrically ) without
calculating

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION– ALGEBRAIC FORM

8. Find the following product and express the answer in the algebraic form .

(a) ( 8 - j7 )( 8 + j7 ) (b) ( -6 - j8 )( -6 + j8 )

(c) ( 2 - j8 )( - j5 ) (d) ( 5 + j7 )2

(e) ( 3 - j5 )( 9 + j5 ) (f) ( 2 + j6 )( 6 - j )

(g) ( 8 - j3 )( 5 + j8 ) (h) ( 6 - j8 )( - j4 )

(i) ( 3 + j8 )( 5 + j9 ) (j) ( 3 - j )( 6 + j2 )

E2 - 29 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

9. Find the following quotient and express the answer in the algebraic form .

( −4 + j 9 ) (3 − j5) 7 (3 + j 2) ( −1 − j )
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
(−3 − j 6) j4 j9 ( 6 + j5) (−2 − j 3)

10. The total impedance of an ac circuit containing two impedance Z1 and Z2 in


parallel is given by
ZZ
ZT = 1 2
Z1 + Z2

(a) Find ZT when Z1 = 1 + j kΩ and Z2 = 1 - j2 kΩ


(b) Find ZT when Z1 = 3 + j5 kΩ and Z2 = 5 - j4 kΩ

11. Find the conjugate of Z and the multiplication of Z . Z

(a) Z = 4 + j5 (b) Z = -3 - j6 (c) Z = 4 - j8

(d) Z = 6 - j3 (e) Z = 8 + j4

12. Find Z + W and Z .W

(a) Z = 5 + j6 W = 3 - j2 (b) Z = 4 + j6 W = -4 + j4

(c) Z = 6 - j5 W = -2 - j6 (d) Z = -6 + j7 W = 6 - j5

(e) Z=7-j W = -j3

13. Represent these complex numbers and their conjugate in the Argand
Diagram

(a) Z = 2 + j5 (b) W = 4 - j7 (c) V = -5 + j4

(d) Y = -6 -j8 (e) Q = j8

14. If Z1 = 1 - j3 , Z2 = -2 + j5 , Z3 = -3 - j4 ; determine in a + jb form :

Z1 Z1Z2
(a) Z1Z2 (b) (c) (d) Z1Z2Z3
Z3 Z1 + Z2

E2 - 30 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

TRIGONOMETRIC AND POLAR FORM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

15 . Given : Z = 7 + j5
a. Draw the projection of the complex number on the Argand Diagram
b. Find the modulus
c. Find the argument
d. Write down the trigonometric form of Z
e. Write down the polar form of Z

16. Given : Z = -3 - j4
a. Draw the projection of the complex number on the Argand Diagram
b. Find the modulus
c. Find the argument
d. Write down the trigonometric form of Z
e. Write down the polar form of Z

17. Complete the following table

ALGEBRAIC MODULUS ARGUMENT TRIGONOMETRIC POLAR FORM


FORM ║Z║ θ FORM

Z = -5 + j2

Z = 5 - j5

Z = [ 5 , 35° ]

Z = 4 + j3

Z = [ 4 , 55° ]

Z = 5(cos
120+jsin120° )

Z = [ 3 , 110° ]
Z=3√2(cos 310° +
jsin 310°)

Z = 5 - j5√3

Z = -2 + 0j

E2 - 31 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

ADDITION / SUBTRACTION / MULTIPLICATION / DIVISION –

TRIGONOMETRIC FORM , POLAR FORM

18. Evaluate in polar form 2∠30° + 5∠-45° - 4∠120°

NOTE : Addition and subtraction in polar form is not possible directly . Each
complex number has to be converted into cartesian form first

19. Express the given cartesian complex numbers in polar form , leaving
answers in surd form .

(a) 2 + j3 (b) -4 (c) -6 + j

(d) -j3 (e) (-2 + j )3 (f) j3 ( 1 - j )

20. Convert the given polar complex numbers into algebraic form giving
answers correct to 4 significant figures .

(a) 5∠30° (b) 3∠60° (c) 7∠45°

(d) 6∠125° (e) 4∠π (f) 3.5∠-120°

21. Evaluate in polar form .

(a) 3∠20° × 15∠45° (b) 2.4∠65° × 4.4∠-21°

(c) 6.4∠27° ÷ 2∠-15° (d) 5∠30° × 4∠80° ÷ 10∠-40°

π π
(e) 4∠ + 3∠ (f) 2∠120° + 5.2∠58° - 1.6∠-40°
6 8

Z
22. Find the product , Z .W and then the quotient , ( in trigonometric form )
W

(a) Z = 2√3(cos 260° + j sin 260°) and W = 4√3(cos 320° + j sin 320°)

(b) Z = √3(cos 120° + j sin 120°) and W = 2√3(cos 310° + j sin 310°)

(c) Z = 3 ( cos 110° + j sin 110° ) and W = ( cos 28° + j sin 28° )

(d) Z = 5 ( cos 20° + j sin 20° ) and W = 4 ( cos 55° + j sin 55° )

E2 - 32 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
COMPLEX NUMBER – E2

23. Determine the two square roots of the complex number ( 5 + j12 ) in polar
and Cartesian forms and show the roots on an Argand Diagram

24. Find the roots of ( 5 + j3 )1/2 in algebraic form , correct to 4 significant figures

EXPONENTIAL FORM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

25. Change the following complex number to exponential form

(a) z=1+j

(b) w=-1

(c) Q =-π - jπ

26. Change the following complex number to the algebraic form

(a) z = e πI

(b) z = 2 e πi/6

(c) z = e 1 + πi/3

27. Use De Moivre’s Theorem to find the indicated powers . Express the results
in a + jb

(a) z=(1+j) , z20

(b) z=(-1+j) , z10

(c) z =2(cos 15° + jsin15°) , z5

(d) z =2(cos 50° + jsin50°) , z4

E2 - 33 -
MATHEMATICS UNIT