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0 A thesis on Quadcopter

A thesis on Quadcopter
MD. ROKIBUJJAMAN SOVON
sovonsdp@gmail.com
© All right reserved 2017
Abstract

UAV is defined as an aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses
aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely,
can be expandable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. It is
controlled either autonomously by on-board computers or by remote control of a pilot on
the ground. Its’s usage is currently limited by difficulties such as satellite communication
and cost. A Quadcopter has been built that can be operated by radio frequency controller
and send live audio-visual feedback. The developed Quadcopter control system has been
simulated in MATLAB and abaqus. The simulation shows a very stable operation and
control of the developed Quadcopter. Microcontroller based drone control system has
also been developed where a RF transmitter and receiver operating in the frequency of
2.4 GHz are used for remote operation for the Quadcopter.

The development in the fields of MEMS sensors, miniature, energy efficient and very
powerful microcontrollers, and microprocessors has given the opportunity to build small
autonomous flying vehicles. This thesis is studying one type of these vehicles, so called
quadcopter. The quadcopter is flying vehicle like helicopter but having four rotors which
are situated in one plane. The popularity of quadcopters are increasing as the sensors and
control systems are getting more advanced. The quadcopter is naturally unstable, has a
complex dynamic model and six degrees of freedom.

This paper describes modelling, estimation, and control of the horizontal translational
motion of an open-source and cost effective quadcopter. I determine the dynamics of its
roll and pitch attitude controller, system latencies, and the units associated with the values
exchanged with the vehicle over its serial port. Using this we create a horizontal-plane
velocity estimator that uses data from the built-in inertial sensors and an onboard laser
scanner, and implement translational control using a nested control loop architecture.
Although there are many enhancements that I could do to the design, we have proven that
it is possible to produce a small-scale UAV that performs functions of interest to the
military as well as commercial/industrial applications. The final quadcopter concept is
well suited for further experimental work.

Keywords

Drone, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Quadcopter, Aerial surveillance.


2 A thesis on Quadcopter

Contents
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 7
1.1 QUADCOPTER ....................................................................................................... 7
1.2 ISSUE.................................................................................................................... 8
1.2.1 Flight Controller Failure .............................................................................. 8
1.2.2 Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) Problems .............................................. 8
1.2.3 Radio Transmitter/Receiver Signal .............................................................. 9
1.2.4 Motor............................................................................................................ 9
1.2.5 Video Transmitter/Receiver Signal .............................................................. 9
1.2.6 Final Words ................................................................................................ 10
1.3 REVIEW .............................................................................................................. 10
1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT .............................................................................. 11
CHAPTER 2: REFERENCE GEOMETRY AND DYNAMIC MODEL ................ 12
2.1 COORDINATE SYSTEM......................................................................................... 12
2.2 ROTATION MATRIX.............................................................................................. 13
2.3 MOTOR REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 14
2.4 COORDINATE SUMMARY .................................................................................... 14
2.5 AERODYNAMIC EFFECT ...................................................................................... 14
2.6 THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE FOUR-ROTOR AIRCRAFT ..................................... 15
2.6.1 Quadcopter movement mode ..................................................................... 16
2.6.2 Ground and the establishment of the body coordinate system................... 17
2.6.3 Euler angles ................................................................................................ 18
2.7 DYNAMIC MODEL .............................................................................................. 20
2.8 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS BEFORE MODELING............................................................ 21
2.9 KINEMATICS ....................................................................................................... 21
2.9.1 Kinetic model ............................................................................................. 21
2.9.2 Kinematic analysis ..................................................................................... 24
2.10 PHYSICS .......................................................................................................... 25
2.11 MOTORS ......................................................................................................... 25
2.12 FORCES ........................................................................................................... 26
2.13 TORQUES ........................................................................................................ 27
2.14 EQUATIONS OF MOTION .................................................................................. 28
2.15 ENGINE DYNAMICS ......................................................................................... 29
CHAPTER 3: DEVELOPMENT & CONSTRUCTION .......................................... 31
3.1 DEVELOPMENT AND EQUIPMENT: ....................................................................... 31
3.1.1 Brushless DC motor ................................................................................... 31
3.1.2 Multi-Rotor control board .......................................................................... 32
3.1.3 ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) ............................................................ 35
3.1.4 Servo motor ................................................................................................ 36
3.1.5 Li-Po battery............................................................................................... 36
3.1.6 Landing gear............................................................................................... 37
3.2 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN................................................................................. 37
3.2.1 BLDC motor transfer function ................................................................... 38
3.2.2 BLDC motor open loop analysis ................................................................ 40
3.2.3 DC servo motor .......................................................................................... 40
3.2.4 DC servo motor transfer function............................................................... 41
3.2.5 Yaw-controller ............................................................................................ 42
3.2.6 Phi-Theta controller ................................................................................... 43
3.2.7 PID control ................................................................................................. 43
3.2.8 LQR control ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.9 Firmware limitation.................................................................................... 46
3.3 PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER ............................................................................. 46
3.4 PAYLOAD COMPONENTS ..................................................................................... 47
3.5 TELEMETRY SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 48
3.5.1 Radio communication ................................................................................ 48
3.5.2 Wi-Fi Communication................................................................................ 49
3.5.3 Wireless communication module for quadcopter....................................... 49
3.6 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................ 50
3.7 HARDWARE SELECTION OF QUADCOPTER .......................................................... 51
3.8 FLIGHT CONTROLLER FOR QUADCOPTER ........................................................... 52
3.8.1 Microprocessor STM32F103VC................................................................ 53
3.8.2 Inertial Measurement Unit ......................................................................... 54
3.8.3 HMC5883L geomagnetic sensor ................................................................ 54
3.8.4 Air pressure altimeter ................................................................................. 55
CHAPTER 4: CONTROL SCHEME DESIGN AND SIMULATION ..................... 56
4.1 CONTROL SCHEME DESIGN ................................................................................. 56
4.2 EFFECT OF MOTOR ROTATION SPEED ON ATTITUDE ANGLE ............................... 56
4.2.1 The overall design of the program ............................................................. 56
4.2.2 Simulation model is established ................................................................. 56
4.2.3 Simulation results analysis ......................................................................... 58
4.3 ATTITUDE ANGLE CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL OF THE MOTOR SPEED REGULATION .. 60
4.3.1 Control scheme overall design ................................................................... 60
4.3.2 Attitude control .......................................................................................... 61
4.3.3 Height control............................................................................................. 62
4.3.4 Establish the simulation model .................................................................. 62
4.3.5 Simulation environment settings: ............................................................... 63
4.3.6 Emulation Stop Condition Setting ............................................................. 63
4.3.7 Control parameter optimization ................................................................. 64
4.3.8 Simulation results analysis: ........................................................................ 64
4.4 INNER AND OUTER LOOP PID POSITION CONTROL SIMULATION ........................... 66
4 A thesis on Quadcopter

4.4.1 The basic principles of the simulation model ............................................ 66


4.4.2 Simulation model establishment ................................................................ 67
4.4.3 PID control parameters .............................................................................. 69
4.4.4 Simulation flight test .................................................................................. 69
4.5 ANALYSIS OF ACTUAL FLIGHT OF FOUR ROTORCRAFT....................................... 71
4.5.1 Flight test and comparative analysis .......................................................... 71
CHAPTER 5: FUTURE QUADCOPTER .................................................................. 75
5.1 FUTURE WORK ................................................................................................... 75
5.2 FUTURE RISK ..................................................................................................... 76
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................. 77
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................... 79
REFERENCE ................................................................................................................ 80
APPENDIX .................................................................................................................... 84
Chapter 1: Introduction 7

Chapter 1: Introduction
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are more properly known as Drone [1]. Basically,
drone is a flying robot. Working in combination with GPS, the flying machine may be
remotely controlled or can fly autonomously by software controlled flight plans in their
embedded systems. Drones are most often used in military services. However, it is also
used for weather monitoring, firefighting, search and rescue, surveillance and traffic
monitoring etc. In recent years, the drone has come into attention for a number of
commercial uses. In late 2013, Amazon announced a plan to use unmanned aerial
vehicles for delivery in the nearby areas future. It is known as Amazon Prime air; it is
estimated to deliver the orders within 30 minutes inside 10 miles of distance. So it is clear
that domestic usage of UAV has vast future possibility in different fields rather than
military usage [1,2,5].
Drones for military use were started in the mid-1990s with the High-Altitude Endurance
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrator (HAE UAV
ACTD) program managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
and Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) [3]. This ACTD placed the base
for the improvement of the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk hovers at heights up to
65,000 feet and flying duration is up to 35 hours at speeds approaching 340 knots and it
costs approximately 200 million dollars. The wingspan is 116 feet and it can fly 13.8094
miles which is significant distance. Motherland security and drug prohibition are the
main needs Global Hawk was designed for. Another very successful drone is the Predator
which was also built in the mid-1990s but has since been improved with Hellfire missiles.
“Named by Smithsonian’s Air & Space magazine as one of the top ten aircraft that
changed the world, Predator is the most combat-proven Unmanned Aircraft System
(UAS) in the world”. The original version of the Predator, built by General Atomics, can
fly at 25,000 feet for 40 hours at a maximum airspeed of 120 [47,48].

1.1 Quadcopter
A quadcopter is a popular form of UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle). It is operated by
varying the spin RPM of its four rotors to control lift and torque. The thrust from the
rotors plays a key role in maneuvering and keeping the copter airborne. Its small size and
swift maneuverability enables the user to perform flying routines that include complex
aerial maneuvers. But for conducting such maneuvers, precise angle handling of the
copter is required. The precise handling is fundamental to flying by following a user-
defined complex trajectory-based path and while performing any type of missions. This
paper serves as a solution to handling the quadcopter with angular precision by
illustrating how the spin of the four rotors should be varied simultaneously to achieve
correct angular orientation along with standard flight operations such as taking-off,
landing and hovering at an altitude [4,34,52].
8 A thesis on Quadcopter

1.2 Issue
For anyone who has experience of building quadcopters, should be familiar with all the
critical parts of the machine. If not please take a look at the quadcopter hardware
overview guide. Here I will discuss some hardware failures and how to prevented it.

• Flight Controller
• Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) Problems
• Radio Receiver/Transmitter (Signal)
• Motor
• ESC
• Video Receiver/Transmitter (Signal)
There is nothing can stop hardware failure, but there are things you can do to minimize
the chance of disaster happening [35].

1.2.1 Flight Controller Failure


FC have actually been very reliable to regardless which only problem was flying over
wet grass, water went into the FC and it malfunctioned. Anyway, before the flight it’s
always a good idea to check the flight controller’s sensor readings (in GUI), and your
PID values are correct. One should also always backup my PID settings every time before
they make any changes. For example, the Naze32‘s software provides facility to save and
restore flight controller settings [10].

1.2.2 Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) Problems


Burnt out ESC is probably one of the most common quadcopter problems. There are
many situations where the ESCs can be burnt out. 1 – Overloading, i.e. motor draws high
current over a period of time and causes over heat. 2 – Over limit burst current such as
during a crash. 3 – ESC reached end of life. When this happens, it’s will be pretty obvious:
You might see smokes, and the motor connected to the burnt ESC will either stop or
behave unexpectedly.
To avoid this problem, always stay within safe limit when picking motors and propellers,
also make sure the ESC supports the number of cell counts of the LiPo battery. Don’t
overload the BEC either as this is often overlooked (the 5V output). Some people like to
remove the heatsink to save weight, I always go against doing this. Your ESC might be
cool flying in cold weather, but in a warm day it can still get hot and require heatsink.
When building your quadcopter, perfect soldering is important. Any cold solder joint
could affect your quad’s performance and reliability.
All soldering and wiring should be kept well insulated from each other, and proper heat
shrink should be used for electrical protection. For carbon fiber frames, wires should be
handled with extra care as carbon fiber is conductive. They should be insulated from each
Chapter 1: Introduction 9

other.

1.2.3 Radio Transmitter/Receiver Signal


When it comes to radio problems, the first thing one can think of would be loss of radio
signal. Most radio controller uses 2.4Ghz, so the penetration ability is moderate, biggest
problem I have is range.
The 9X and the original radio module is pretty poor in range, I could probably only get
300 meters. Getting a decent radio module is key if you are after good range. After
upgrading to Frisky module, one have never had any problems flying within 1Km range
(unless there is something serious blocking the signal like a think wall or lots of trees).
Always point your transmitter antenna to the direction which aligns with your receiver
antenna.
Also, get some kind of RSSI signal strength alarm. Some transmitter module comes with
this feature; it would start beeping if your signal is getting weak. It’s a great life saver
and reminds you how far you can go. Make sure failsafe is setup properly on your radio
receiver and flight controller.
Lastly, range check your radio if you are flying in an unfamiliar place, “knowing your
limit”. otherwise it may crush.

1.2.4 Motor
Motors are quite robust and they don’t break easily. But one may replace any motors with
bent shaft or loose magnet.
The problem with bad motors is that, they take a lot more current to spin at the same
speed, so uses more power and generates a lot more heat. Not only that, it results in less
stable aircraft, also risks your ESC getting burnt out if it draws too much current in punch
outs for example. To check, one should spin the motors with propellers mounted on, if
one motor is harder to spin (you can feel the resistance), and it stops earlier than other
motors, that is a sign of bad motor that needs to be replaced.

1.2.5 Video Transmitter/Receiver Signal


If you fly FPV, this is the last thing you want to have problems, because when losing
video link, you have no idea where the quadcopter is heading, the best thing you can do
is probably cutting throttle, let gravity take care of the rest and crash your quad in to the
ground.
Most people fly 5.8Ghz these days, and penetration ability is worst and this is the main
cause of loss of signal. Don’t expect it to work perfectly if you are racing in the wood or
flying through your house windows. Trees and walls are very effective at blocking your
video signal at this frequency.
10 A thesis on Quadcopter

Also, getting some decent Circular Polarized Antennas could improve the range a lot too.
And again, range check your equipment before you fly.

1.2.6 Final Words


before a flight session, remember to check all of the bolts and nuts are fastened. People
don’t want one of your frame arm comes loose during a flip. After a rough landing or
crash, triple check the props and frame for any hidden damages as well.

1.3 Review
Many methodologies have been tried to improve real-world aircraft with vertical take-
off and landing abilities. First, Nikola Tesla introduced a vertical take-off and landing
vehicle concept in 1928. Advanced VTOL aircrafts uses a single engine with thrust
vectoring. Thrust vectoring illustrates that the aircraft can send thrust from the engine in
different directions, so that vertical and horizontal fight can be controlled by one engine.
The Harrier Jump Jet is one of the most famous and successful fixed-wing single-engine
VTOL aircraft. In the 21st century, UAVs are becoming progressively conventional.
Many of these have VTOL capability, especially the quad copter type [6]. We were also
interested by the requirements of DARPA’s UAVforge, while studying large and tiny
UAVs competition which was posted around the time we started our project. The UAV
forge contest us basically to design and build a micro-UAV that can take off vertically,
go to the destination and surveillance the area for three hours.
We know transporting and resupplying troops is a great challenge in war field. To meet
this challenge DARPA initiated a program in 2010 demonstrating four-person vertical
takeoff and landing vehicle. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works® is foremost a group with
Plawecki Aircraft to improve the next generation of dynamic vertical takeoff and landing
(VTOL) transport systems under the ARES program. ARES VTOL flight unit is designed
to work as an unmanned platform capable of transferring a variety of payloads [8]. The
flight unit has built in digital flight controls, remote command-control interfaces, power
system and gasoline. Twin tilting ducted fans would deliver effective flying and landing
abilities in a compact structure. It is capable of rapid change to high-speed travel voyage.
However, this project is under development now. Our project has similarities with this
Lockheed Martin’s research and the flying methodology is partially similar to their
machine.
On the other hand, using drone in firefighting has already been taken place in history. An
unmanned Predator B aircraft helped firefighters and saved many lives in 2007 in
southern California. It delivered firefighters up-to-the-minute information.
In addition to the military practices of the drones, we were concerned in evaluating
applications in the industrial, commercial and as well as government sector. In addition,
new markets and uses will emerge if small drones are very available. Potential new
markets in business and modern applications incorporate reviewing pipelines or actually
Chapter 1: Introduction 11

investigating perilous regions like an emergency site at an atomic force plant. Harvest
evaluation or natural disaster aid seems also to be possible areas where small drones
could be beneficial. Although the designs of different UAVs are charming, our interest
was in attempting to produce a small UAV which could support a broad mission
capability.

1.4 Structure of the project


This paper is organized into six major parts. Chapter 1 contains introduction, history and
aspect of drone and detailed review. Chapter 2 contains reference geometrical
information. Chapter 3 contains the dynamic model. Chapter 4 is consisting the
development and construction of the drone in brief. Chapter 5 contains the control
scheme, simulation and flight analysis. In addition, it contains elaborate discussions
control system and Chapter 6 contains the future task and the risk. Finally, chapter 7
contains conclusion and recommendation of the developed drone.
12 A thesis on Quadcopter

Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model

In this chapter coordinate systems and reference geometry is defined. The chapter also
defines motor position and its direction of rotation. The last part of this chapter is a
method to transform from one coordinate system to another.

2.1 Coordinate system


When the quadcopter is navigating in three-dimensional space there are two different
coordinate systems present. One is the body coordinate system, indexed ’b’, which is
affected by the motors. The other is the navigation frame, indexed ’n’, were forces like
gravitation has influence. The body coordinate system will move along with the
quadcopter, while the navigation coordinate system is the reference point for the
quadcopter. The reference coordinate system can be placed anywhere, but has to be fixed
once the quadcopter starts moving. One assumption for the coordinate systems is the
neglected curvature of the earth. A quadcopter has a limited area to navigate in and this
assumption will not affect any result. In avionics, the Z-axis is normally pointing towards
the earth. To ease the comparison with other projects the Z-axis is also pointing
downwards in this project. The quadcopter is able to rotate around its own axes with an
angular velocity. This angular velocity is denoted as σ˙ with an index for the
corresponding axis [13,14].

𝜎x
𝜎y 𝜎z
Yb
Zb Xb
Xn
Yn
Zn

Figure 2.1: The blue coordinates are the navigation frame, while the black is the body
coordinates

In order to get the orientation of the quadcopter in terms of angles, the quadcopters
coordinate system has to be linked to the navigation coordinates. The way this is done is
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 13

by the implementation of Euler angles. There are three Euler angles, φ, θ and ψ, known
as roll, pitch and yaw. This notation is often used in avionics [31].

2.2 Rotation matrix


To make a dynamic model, the forces and moments acting on the quadcopter must be
found. The forces must also be oriented so they influence the quadcopter in the correct
way, no matter how quadcopter is oriented. Gravity will always point the Z-direction of
the navigation frame, but will have vector components referred to the quadcopter
dependent of its orientation. A vector can be oriented to any position with three successive
rotations. In order to overcome the gravity, vector the quadcopters orientation must be
rotated, but not in the physical way, to determine how much force the motors has to put
out to keep it hoovering. The rotations can be done one at a time. show the matrices that
can be used to rotate about a single axis [15].

0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜑 0 1 0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜓 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜓 0


𝑅𝜎𝑥 = [1 0 0 ] 𝑅𝜎𝑦 = [𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 ] 𝑅𝜎𝑧 = [𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜓 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜓 0 ]
0 −𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 0 0 1
To be able to calculate the total conversion from the body frame to the navigation frame
all the three matrixes can be multiplied together. The result is a complete rotation matrix
(Equation. The motor force vector can be expressed in the navigation frame if multiplied
with this rotation matrix. Once the force is represented in the navigation frame the total
thrust needed to hoover can be found.

C nb = R σx (φ)R σy (θ)R σz (ψ) (2.1)

The calculated matrix gives the conversion from body to navigation frame. It is also
needed in some cases to calculate from navigation to body frame. This can be done by
transposing the result
C nb matrix, C bn = C nb T (2.2)

ψ X

Y
X

Figure 2.2: Euler angles


14 A thesis on Quadcopter

2.3 Motor Reference


The motors rotation and position is also of significant. Motor one and two are placed
along the X-axis and rotate the in the clockwise direction [44]. Motor three and four are
placed on the Y-axis and rotate in the counterclockwise direction (Figure 2.3).

M1
M4

Yb M
M3 Xb 2
Zb

Figure 2.3: Sketch of where the motors are mounted and direction of propeller
movement

2.4 Coordinate Summary


The coordinate systems has been fully defined (chapter 2.1). The difference between the
body and navigation coordinate system is also defined and how to convert from one
system to the other. The motors have been set at their representative position on the axis
and also the direction of rotation for the motors are described. To be able to derive the
dynamic equations of the quadcopter this is all needed.

2.5 Aerodynamic effect


The preceding model is a simplification of complex dynamic interactions. To end- force
more realistically behavior of the quadcopter, drag force generated by the air resistance
is included.

(2.3)

in which Ax, Ay and Az are the drag force coefficients for velocities in the corresponding
directions of the inertial frame. Several other aerodynamical effects could be included in
the model. The influence of aerodynamical effects are complicated and the effects are
difficult to model. Also, some of the effects have significant effect only in high velocities.
Thus, these effects are excluded from the model and the presented simple model is used
[26].
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 15

2.6 The basic structure of the four-rotor aircraft


Figure 2.4 shows the layout of a quadcopter with two cantilevers, each with a rotor.
Motors 1 and 3 are mounted on the same arm and rotate in a clockwise direction while
motors 2 and 4 are mounted on the second arm and are rotated in the counterclockwise
direction. The two motors should rotate in the same direction at the opposite ends of the
same arm to prevent torque imbalance during linear flight.

Figure 2.4: Schematic diagram of a quadcopter structure

Quadcopter is a four-rotor lift with the aircraft, by changing the speed of the four motor
to control the size of the lift to control the four-wing flight attitude. There are six DOFs
in the air, only four inputs, which are typical multi-input and multi-output systems, and
the output of the quadcopter is more than the input, and there is a coupling relation
between the control quantity and the state quantity, Therefore, the control system of the
four-rotor vehicle is also under-driven and strong coupling control system [19]. Four
motors always maintain the same speed, began to accelerate the rotation, when the total
force is greater than the total force from the ground began to rise to a certain height after
the appropriate slow down can be kept hovering, this time if the left side of the motor
speed reduction, it will To break the balance, the four-wing aircraft will tilt to the left and
move to the left and flip, and will also cause the original rotor torque balance between the
destruction of the four-wing aircraft to the left yaw, at the same time, the total lift , And
the tilting, the vertical component of the force decreases, four-wing aircraft will gradually
decline, so the end can lead to its side rotation, edge down, while moving in the direction
of tilt. Therefore, the speed of a motor is changed, and from the viewpoint of the body
coordinate system, four output quantities are changed
size. Figure 2.2 shows a schematic diagram of several flight principles for a four-rotor
vehicle.
16 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 2.5: The quadcopter of several flight principle

2.6.1 Quadcopter movement mode


1. Hover and lift movements
Hovering and hoisting movements are the most basic form of motion for a four-rotor
vehicle, as shown in Figure 2.5(a). When it is flying in the air, air resistance through the
rotor to produce anti-torque effect on the body, anti-torque rotation direction and the
direction of rotation of the rotor is just the opposite, and its role with the size of the
increase in speed increases. The motors 1 and 3 rotate counterclockwise, and the motors
2 and 4 rotate clockwise. Since the rotation speed of the four motors is the same, the rotor
produces the same lift force, so the counter-torque just cancel out each other, and then
stabilizes horizontally. At this time, if the rotation speed of four motors is increased at the
same time, the lift force of the body will increase. When the lift of the four rotors exceeds
the gravity of the body, the quadcopter will make vertical ascending motion; When the
four rotors provide lift less than the body's gravity, the quadcopter will do a vertical
descent motion. If the four rotors produce lift just equal to the body gravity, this time in
the absence of external disturbances under the influence of the aircraft will maintain the
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 17

balance of force, that four-wing aircraft to maintain the hover state.

2. Yaw movement
During the hovering and hoisting movements, the four motors rotate at the same speed,
counteracting the counter-torque generated by the rotors rotating in different directions.
However, when the speed of motor 1, 3 and 4 are not the same, the anti-torque can not
reach equilibrium, so that the rotation of the aircraft body. As shown in Fig. 2.5(b), if the
rotation speed of the No. 2 and No. 4 motors are not changed and the rotation speed of
the No. 1 and No. 3 motors are reduced, the sum of the anti-torque effects of the rotor
group to the airframe in the clockwise direction is smaller than Counterclockwise
direction and the role of the body will eventually counterclockwise torque, the same as
the No. 2,4 motor speed, 1,3 motor speed is the same, making the plane by the lift on the
horizontal plane symmetry, the whole body Does not occur, such as rollover, so in the air
to complete the same level of clockwise yaw movement.

3. Pitch and back and forth movement


Figure 2.5(c) shows the pitching motion of the aircraft. In the hover state, the two motors
keep the same speed, increase the rotation speed of motor 1 and reduce the rotational
speed of motor 3, so that the lift generated by rotor 1 increases, the lift generated by rotor
3 Small, resulting in four-wing aircraft before and after the end of the original lift to break
the balance, so that the aircraft nose up. However, when the nose is rising, the anti-torque
of the machine changes. Therefore, to maintain the balance of the anti-torque effect, the
variation of the motor speed of No.1 and No.3 should be as same as possible. When the
aircraft pitching motion, the rotor surface, and the ground to produce an angle, so the lift
will be generated in the horizontal component, so that the quadcopter body before and
after the movement, as shown in Figure 2.5(e). At the same time lift in the vertical
direction of the weight and gravity of the same size in the opposite direction, the body in
the vertical direction to keep hover.

4. Roll and left and right movement


Figure 2.5(d) shows the rolling motion of the aircraft. In the hovering state, it is like the
pitching motion, but the motor serial number is the opposite, keep the rotation speed of
1,3 motor unchanged, increase the motor speed of 4, 1 motor speed, resulting in four-
wing aircraft left and right ends of unbalanced lift, so that the aircraft body to the right
flip. Similarly, to maintain the balance of the role of anti-torque, 2,4 motor speed changes
should be as much as possible the same. When the aircraft roll motion, the rotor surface,
and the ground to produce an angle, so the lift will produce a component in the horizontal
direction, so that the four-wing aircraft to produce left-right movement of the fuselage, as
shown in Figure 2.5(f). At the same time, the component of the lift in the vertical direction
and the gravity are just the same size in the opposite direction, making the vertical force
balance.
Through the combination of the above basic motion states, the four-wing aircraft can fly
in any trajectory and in any attitude in the air, and realize its own flexible flight.

2.6.2 Ground and the establishment of the body coordinate system


Before establishing the kinetic model, the following two coordinate systems need to be
selected: ground coordinate system E (OXYZ) and body coordinate system B (oxyz). As
previously mentioned, the quadcopter has two main types of motion: translation and
rotation [20]. We study the translational process based on the ground coordinate system
18 A thesis on Quadcopter

and the motion of the aircraft as the particle motion. The rotation process is studied in the
body coordinate system and the aircraft is regarded as rigid body model.

1. Definition of ground coordinate system E (OXYZ)


Ground coordinate system is mainly used to describe the quadcopter relative to the ground
movement, get the spacecraft coordinate position. The ground coordinate system E
(OXYZ) is a reference coordinate system fixed on the surface of the earth, which satisfies
the following four points:
• The origin O is any point on the ground, is the quadcopter take-off initial position;
• Its X-axis pointing in a horizontal direction;
• Its Z-axis pointing in the air and perpendicular to the ground;
• The Y axis is perpendicular to the X axis in the horizontal plane, and the Y axis
direction is determined by the right hand rule.
2. The definition of body coordinate system B (oxyz)
The origin of the body coordinate system B (oxyz) is located at the center of gravity of a
four-rotor vehicle, which is attached to and moves with the body of a four-rotor vehicle
and satisfies the following four points:
• The origin o take the body center of gravity;
• X axis in the plane of symmetry plane parallel to its longitudinal axis, the direction
of the same direction with the nose;
• Z axis in the fuselage symmetry plane and perpendicular to the x-axis pointing to
the fuselage above;
• Y-axis perpendicular to the aircraft's symmetry plane and left and right rotor
connection direction parallel to the left side of the fuselage, and in line with the
right-hand spiral rule.

2.6.3 Euler angles


1. The transformation relationship between the body coordinate system and the ground
coordinate system
The transformation relation of the coordinate system is related to the attitude angle: Φ, θ,
ψ, as shown in Figure 2.6, where:
Ψ represents the roll angle, that is, the angle of the body coordinate system B (oxyz) to
rotate around the x-axis relative to the ground coordinate system E (OXYZ); θ represents
the pitch angle, that is, the body coordinate system B (oxyz) relative to the ground
coordinate system E (OXYZ) Ψ represents the yaw angle, that is, the angle of rotation of
the body coordinate system B (oxyz) relative to the ground coordinate system E (OXYZ)
about the z-axis.
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 19

Figure 2.6: Generation of three attitude angles for four-rotor aircraft

From Figure 2.6, the transformation from the body coordinate system to the ground
coordinate system is described as follows: Using the right-hand rule, a new coordinate
system E1 is obtained by rotating the body coordinate system B (oxyz) around its z axis.
The new coordinate system E2 is obtained by rotating the angle θ on the y axis. Finally,
E2 is rotated around the x axis to obtain the final ground coordinate system E (OXYZ).
From B (oxyz) to E1, from E1 to E2, and from E2 to E (OXYZ), the corresponding
transformation matrix is:

cosψ −sinψ 0
R(z, ψ) = ( sinψ cosψ 0)
0 0 1
cosθ 0 sinθ
R(y, θ) = ( 0 1 0 ) (2.4)
−sinθ 0 cosθ
1 0 0
R(x, Φ) = (0 cosΦ −sinΦ)
{ 0 sinΦ cosΦ

The transfer matrix of the whole process is: R = R (z, ψ) R (y, θ) R (x, Φ)

cos ψ cos θ cos ψ sin θ sin ∅ − sin ψ cos ∅ cos ψ sin θ cos ∅ + sin ψ sin ∅
R = ( sin ψ cos θ sin ψ sin θ sin ∅ + cos ψ cos ∅ sin ψ sin θ cos ∅ − cos ψ sin ∅) (2.5)
− sin θ cos θ sin ∅ cos θ cos ∅

2. Euler angular velocity and the body angular velocity conversion


Before establishing the kinetic model, we first define p, q, r as the angular velocity of the
three axes in the body coordinate system; ∅ ˙, θ ≡, ψ ˙ are the three-axis Euler angular
velocity in the ground coordinate system, The relationship between the angular velocity
and the body angular velocity is:
p 1 0 − sin θ ∅̇ ∅̇ − ψ̇ sin θ
[q] = [0 cos ∅ sin ∅ cos θ ] [ θ̇ ] = [ θ̇ cos ∅ + ψ̇ sin ∅ cos θ ] (2.6)
r 0 − sin ∅ cos ∅ cos θ ψ̇ −θ̇ sin ∅ + ψ̇ cos ∅ cos θ
20 A thesis on Quadcopter

Can also be written as:

∅̇ 1 sin ∅ tan θ cos ∅ tan θ p


[ θ̇ ] = [0 cos ∅ − sin ∅ ] [q]
ψ̇ 0 sin ∅ sec θ cos ∅ sec θ r
(p cos θ + q sin ∅ sin θ + r cos ∅ sin θ)/ cos θ
=[ q cos ∅ − r sin ∅ ] (2.7)
(q sin ∅ + r cos ∅)/ cos θ

(2.7) can be reduced to a standard unit matrix when the four rotors are stabilized in flight,
the roll angle and the pitch angle are small, and the corresponding angular rate is also
small:

∅̇ 1 0 0 p
[ θ̇ ] = [0 1 0] [q] (2.8)
ψ̇ 0 0 1 r

2.7 Dynamic Model


We will start deriving quadcopter dynamics by introducing the two frames in which will
operate. The inertial frame is defined by the ground, with gravity pointing in the negative
z direction. The body frame is defined by the orientation of the quadcopter, with the rotor
axes pointing in the positive z direction and the arms pointing in the x and y directions
[17].

Figure 2.7: Quadcopter Body Frame and Inertial Frame


Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 21

2.8 Basic assumptions before modeling


Before the establishment of the nonlinear dynamic model of the quadcopter, we make the
following assumptions [21] for the sake of convenience:
• The visual aerocraft is rigid body, the quality does not vary with the position,
while ignoring the blade elastic vibration and deformation.
• Assuming the earth does not move, the ground coordinate system can be regarded
as the inertial coordinate system, the acceleration of gravity does not change with
height.
• Does not consider the earth's own rotation and revolution movement, regardless
of the ground effect of the impact.
• Strict symmetrical structure, the body evenly distributed, the center of gravity can
be regarded as coinciding with the body center.

2.9 Kinematics
Before delving into the physics of quadcopter motion, let us formalize the kinematics in
the body and inertial frames. We define the position and velocity of the quadcopter in the
inertial frame as x = (x, y, z)T and x˙ = (x˙ , y˙, z˙)T , respectively. Similarly, we define the
roll, pitch, and yaw angles in the body frame as θ = (φ, θ, ψ)T , with corresponding angular
velocities equal to θ̇ = (φ̇ , θ̇, ψ̇ ) T . However, note that the angular velocity vector ω ƒ= θ̇.
The angular velocity is a vector pointing along the axis of rotation, while θ˙ is just the
time derivative of yaw, pitch and roll. To convert these angular velocities into the angular
velocity vector, we can use the following relation:

1 0 −𝑠𝜃
𝜔 = [0 𝑐𝜑 𝑐 𝜃 𝑠𝜑 ] (2.9)
0 −𝑠𝜑 𝑐𝜃 𝑐𝜑

where ω is the angular velocity vector in the body frame [24,25].


We can relate the body and inertial frame by a rotation matrix R which goes from the body
frame to the inertial frame. This matrix is derived by using the ZYZ Euler angle
conventions and successively “undoing” the yaw, pitch, and roll.

𝑐𝜑𝑐𝜓 − 𝑐𝜃 𝑠𝜑𝑠𝜓 −𝑐𝜓𝑠𝜑 − 𝑐𝜑𝑐𝜃 𝑠𝜓 𝑠𝜃 𝑠𝜓


R=[𝑐𝜃 𝑐𝜓𝑠𝜑 + 𝑐𝜑𝑠𝜓 𝑐𝜑𝑐𝜃 𝑐𝜓 − 𝑠𝜑𝑠𝜓 −𝑐𝜓𝑠𝜃 ] (2.10)
𝑠𝜑𝑠𝜃 𝑐𝜑𝑠𝜃 𝑐𝜃
Where R is rotation matrix.

2.9.1 Kinetic model


Figure 2.8 is the force analysis chart, quadcopter during the movement by the force and
torque are: the aircraft's own gravity, along the three-axis translation of the air resistance,
rotation around the three-axis torque, four rotor Rotation of the lift, three axial rotation
torque, the rotor rotation generated by Coriolis torque, vibration and external disturbance
generated torque.
22 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 2.8: Quadcopter force analysis

After completion of the force analysis, per Newton's law of motion and Euler equation,
based on the force analysis is easy to obtain quadcopter dynamics model equation:
mv̇ = Ff + Fd + Fg
{ (2.1
JΩ̇ + Ω × JΩ = Mf − Md + Mc
1)
In order to study the convenience and effectiveness of this model, and according to the
research environment and requirements of this article, the mathematical model to increase
the constraints: (1) in the absence of indoor or outdoor circumstances, the aircraft hover
and (2) As the rotor mass and volume are very small, its moment of inertia J_r is also very
small, the rotor rotation generated when the Coriolis torque Mc = ∑4i=1 Ω ×
T
Jr [0 0 (−1)i+1 wi ] Which is not obvious and neglects its influence on the angular
motion of the aircraft. Therefore, we get the simplified model applied in this paper
mv̇ = Ff + Fg
{ (2.1
JΩ̇ + Ω × JΩ = Mf
2)
Explain the specific meaning of the variables in this model:
The translational motion of a four-rotor vehicle is achieved by the lift provided by four
propellers, and since the propeller shaft of the aircraft is fixed, its lift direction is constant
in the body coordinate system, ie perpendicular to the body. In the ground coordinate
system, the horizontal force along the three-axis, can be expanded as follows:

0 cos ∅ cos ψ sin θ + sin ∅ sin ψ


Ff = R [ 0 ] = [cos ∅ sin θ sin ψ − cos ψ sin ∅] ∑4i=1 Fi (2.13)
∑4i=1 Fi cos θ cos ∅
The lift provided by the rotor is proportional to the product of the lift coefficient and the
square of the rotor speed, Therefore, we define Fi as the lift produced when the i-th rotor
rotates and b is the lift coefficient, specifically expressed as:

Fi = bwi2 i = 1,2,3,4 … .. (2.14)


Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 23

Quadcopter by the gravity of the body (select the positive direction up) can be written as:

Fg = [0 0 − mg]T (2.15)

(2.13) ~ (2.15) into the first equation of equation (2.12), we can get:

ẍ cos ∅ cos ψ sin θ + sin ∅ sin ψ 0


b
[ÿ ] = [cos ∅ sin θ sin ψ − cos ψ sin ∅] [m ∑4i=1 wi2 ] − [0] (2.16)
z̈ cos θ cos ∅ g
When the rotor around the axis of symmetry in space, high-speed rotation, the axis of
symmetry changes in resistance will appear when the torque, known as the gyro moment.
During the flight of a four-rotor aircraft, the rotor rotates at high speed and its rotation
axis changes with the position and attitude of the aircraft in space. At this time, the aircraft
will be affected by its own gyro moment, which can be expressed as:
p Ix p qr(Iz − Iy )
Ω × JΩ = [q] × [Iy q] = [ pr(Ix − Iz ) ]
r Iz r pq(I − I )
y x

(2.17)
Quadcopter in the air to do roll, pitch, yaw movement, will be driven by the rotational
torque, resulting in changes in attitude. Specific roll, pitch, and yaw torques are expressed
as
l(F4 − F2 ) lb(w42 − w22 )
Mf = [ l(F3 − F1 ) ]=[ lb(w32 − w12 ) ] (2.18)
d(w12 + w32 − w22 − w42 ) d(w12 + w32 − w22 − w42 )

Substituting Equations (2.17) and (2.18) into the second equation in Equation (2.12)
yields the following equation:
Iy −Iz l
qr ( I ) b(w42 − w22 )
x Ix
ṗ l
I −I
[q̇ ] = pr ( zI x ) + b(w32 − w12 ) (2.19)
y I y
ṙ Ix −Iy d
pq ( ) [ (w12 + w32 − w22 − w42 )]
[ Iz ] I z

We assume that the control input of the four rotorcraft is U = (U1, U2, U3, U4)T. Where U1
is the resultant force of lift force; U2 is the resultant force that affects the roll angle of the
aircraft; U3 is the resultant force that affects the pitch angle of the vehicle; U4 is the
resultant force that affects the yaw angle of the aircraft. The control input U is:
U1 = b(w12 + w22 + w32 + w42 )
U2 = b(w42 − w22 )
(2.20)
U3 = b(w32 − w12 )
2 2 2 2
{U4 = d(w1 + w3 − w2 − w4 )
(2.8) and (2.12) ~ (2.20), the dynamic model of a four-rotor vehicle can be expressed as
follows:
24 A thesis on Quadcopter

U
ẍ = ( cos Ф cos ψ sin θ + sin Ф sin ψ ) m1
U
ÿ = ( cos Ф sin θ sin ψ − cos ψ sin Ф ) m1
U
z̈ = cos θ cos Ф m1 − g
Iy −Iz l (2.21)
Ф̈ = θ̇ψ̇ ( I ) + I U2
x x
I −I l
θ̈ = ∅̇ψ̇ ( zI x ) + I U3
y y
Ix −Iy 1
ψ̈ = ∅̇θ̇ ( ) + I U4
Iz z

2.9.2 Kinematic analysis


The state variables of the quadrotor are the following twelve quantities:

 x, y, z   Position of CoM of quadrotor along in inertial frame Ri


 , ,  Rotation Euler angles from inertial to body

v , v
qx qy , vqz  Linear velocities measured along each axis in body framer Rq
 , 
qx qy , qz  Angular velocities measured along each axis in body frame Rq

The states  x, y, z are inertial frame quantities, where vqx , vqy , vqz  are body frame
quantities, however, assuming the rotation applied from inertial to body follow sequence
1-2-3, there is a relation between position and velocities [25]:

𝑥 𝑣𝑞𝑥 𝐶𝜓 𝐶𝜃 𝑆𝜃 𝑆𝜙 𝐶𝜓 − 𝑆𝜓 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜓 𝑆𝜃 + 𝑆𝜃 𝐶𝜓 𝐶𝜙
𝑑 𝑇
[ 𝑦 ]=𝑅𝑞 𝑣𝑞 =(𝑅𝑞 ) [𝑣𝑞𝑦 ]=[ 𝑆𝜓 𝐶𝜃
𝑖 𝑖 𝑆𝜃 𝑆𝜙 𝑆𝜓 + 𝐶𝜃 𝐶𝜓 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜃 𝑆𝜓 − 𝑆𝜙 𝐶𝜓 ] (2.22)
𝑑𝑡
−𝑧 𝑣𝑞𝑧 −𝑆𝜃 𝑆𝜃 𝐶𝜃 𝐶𝜙

Now, we need to relate Euler angles to angular velocities [2], considering the angular
velocities are body frame quantities, each Euler angles along different direction as
following figure:
1
2 4

3 Roll

Pitch Yaw
Figure 2.9: Eular angles along different directions
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 25

We can set following identity matrix for relating Euler angles to angular velocities:
𝑏 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙
𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 (𝜙)=𝑅𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ (𝜃)= 𝑅𝑌𝑎𝑤 (𝜓)= I (2.23)
Then
𝜔𝑞𝑥 𝜙 0 0
[𝜔𝑞𝑦 ]=𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 (𝜙) [ 0 ]+𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 (𝜙)𝑅𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ (𝜃́) [𝜃́] + 𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 (𝜙)𝑅𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ (𝜃) 𝑅𝑌𝑎𝑤 (𝜓) [ 0 ] (2.24)
𝑏 𝑏 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑏 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙
𝜔𝑞𝑧 0 0 𝜓́
We write the above equation in more compact form:
𝜔𝑞𝑥 𝜙 0 0
[𝜔𝑞𝑦 ]=[ 0 ]+𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙
𝑏 𝑏
(𝜙) [𝜃́] + 𝑅𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙
(𝜙)𝑅𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ (𝜃) [ 0 ] (2.25)
𝜔𝑞𝑧 0 0 𝜓́

𝜙́ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 𝐶𝜃 0 𝑆𝜃 0
=[ 0 ] + [0 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜙 ] [𝜃́] + [0 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜙 ] [ 0 1 0 ] [0]
0 0 −𝑆𝜙 𝐶𝜙 0 0 −𝑆𝜙 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜃 0 𝐶𝜃 𝜓́

1 0 −𝑆𝜃 𝜙́
=[0 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝜙 𝐶𝜃 ] [ 𝜃́ ]
0 −𝑆𝜃 𝐶𝜙 𝐶𝜃 𝜓́

Inverting the coefficient transformation matrix, we get

𝜙́ 1 𝑆𝜙 𝑡𝜃 𝐶𝜙 𝑡𝜃 𝜔𝑞𝑥
[ 𝜃́ ] = [0 𝐶𝜙 𝜔
−𝑆𝜃 ] [ 𝑞𝑦 ] (2.26)
𝜓 ́ 0 𝑆𝜙 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝜃 𝐶𝜙 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝜃 𝜔𝑞𝑧

2.10 Physics
In order to properly model the dynamics of the system, we need an understanding of the
physical properties that govern it. We will begin with a description of the motors being
used for our quadcopter, and then use energy considerations to derive the forces and
thrusts that these motors produce on the entire quadcopter. All motors on the quadcopter
are identical, so we can analyze a single one without loss of generality. Note that adjacent
propellers, however, are oriented opposite each other; if a propeller is spinning
“clockwise”, then the two adjacent ones will be spinning “counter-clockwise”, so that
torques are balanced if all propellers are spinning at the same rate [30].

2.11 Motors
Brushless motors are used for all quadcopter applications. For our electric motors, the
torque produced is given by

τ = Kt (I − I0) (2.27)
where τ is the motor torque, I is the input current, I0 is the current when there is no load
on the motor, and Kt is the torque proportionality constant [18]. The voltage across the
26 A thesis on Quadcopter

motor is the sum of the back-EMF and some resistive loss:

V = IRm + Kvω (2.28)


where V is the voltage drop across the motor, Rm is the motor resistance, ω is the angular
velocity of the motor, and Kv is a proportionality constant (indicating back-EMF
generated per RPM). We can use this description of our motor to calculate the power it
consumes. The power is
(𝜏+𝑘𝑡 𝐼0 )(𝑘𝑡 𝐼0 𝑅𝑚 +𝜏𝑅𝑚 +𝐾𝑡 𝐾𝑦 𝜔)
𝑃 = 𝐼𝑉 = (2.29)
𝐾𝑡2

For the purposes of our simple model, we will assume a negligible motor resistance. Then,
the power becomes proportional to the angular velocity:
(𝜏 + 𝐾𝑡 𝐼0)𝐾𝑣𝜔
P≈ (2.30)
𝑘𝑡

Further simplifying our model, we assume that Kt I0 τ. This is not altogether


unreason- able, since I0 is the current when there is no load, and is thus rather small.
In practice, this approximation holds well enough. Thus, we obtain our final, simplified
equation for power:

P≈𝑘𝑝 𝜏𝜔/𝑘𝑡 (2.31)

2.12 Forces
The power is used to keep the quadcopter aloft. By conservation of energy, we know that
the energy the motor expends in a given time period is equal to the force generated on the
propeller times the distance that the air it displaces moves (P · d t = F · d x). Equivalently,
the power is equal to the thrust times the air velocity (P =𝐹𝑑𝑥 /𝑑𝑡 )

P = Tvh (2.32)
We assume vehicle speeds are low, so vh is the air velocity when hovering. We also
assume that the free stream velocity, v∞, is zero (the air in the surrounding environment
is stationary relative to the quadcopter). Momentum theory gives us the equation for hover
velocity as a function of thrust,

𝑣ℎ = √(𝑇/2𝜌𝐴) (2.33)

where ρ is the density of the surrounding air and A is the area swept out by the rotor.
Using our simplified equation for power, we can then write
𝑇 3/2
P≈𝑘𝑣 𝜏𝜔/𝑘𝑡 =𝑘𝑡 𝑘𝑣 𝜏𝜔/𝑘𝑡 = (2.34)
√2𝜌𝐴

Note that in the general case, τ = ˙r × ˙F; in this case, the torque is proportional to the thrust
T by some constant ratio Kt determined by the blade configuration and parameters.
Solving for the thrust magnitude T, we obtain that thrust is proportional to the square of
angular velocity of the motor:
𝑘𝑣 𝑘𝑡 √2𝜌𝐴
T=( 𝜔)2=k𝜔2 (2.35)
𝑘𝑡
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 27

where k is some appropriately dimensioned constant. Summing over all the motors, we
find that the total thrust on the quadcopter (in the body frame) is given by

0
TB=∑4𝑖=1 𝑇𝑖 =[ 0 ] (2.36)
∑ 𝜔𝑖2

In addition to the thrust force, we will model friction as a force proportional to the linear
velocity in each direction. This is a highly-simplified view of fluid friction, but will be
sufficient for our modeling and simulation. Our global drag forces will be modeled by an
additional force term

−𝑘𝑑 ẋ
𝐹𝐷 =[−𝑘𝑑 ẏ] (2.37)
−𝑘𝑑 ż

If additional precision is desired, the constant 𝑘𝑑 can be separated into three separate
friction constants, one for each direction of motion. If we were to do this, we would want
to model friction in the body frame rather than the inertial frame [20,21,22].

2.13 Torques
Now that we have computed the forces on the quadcopter, we would also like to compute
the torques. Each rotor contributes some torque about the body z axis. This torque is the
torque required to keep the propeller spinning and providing thrust; it creates the
instantaneous angular acceleration and overcomes the frictional drag forces.
The drag equation from fluid dynamics gives us the frictional force:
1
𝐹𝐷 = 2 𝜌𝐶𝐷 𝐴𝑣 2 (2.38)

where r is the surrounding fluid density, A is the reference area (propeller cross-section,
not area swept out by the propeller), and CD is a dimensionless constant. This, while only
accurate in some in some cases, is good enough for our purposes. This implies that the
torque due to drag is given by
1 1
𝐹𝐷 = 2 𝜌𝐶𝐷 𝐴𝑣 2 = 𝜌𝐶𝐷 𝐴(𝜔𝑅)2 (2.39)
2

where ω is the angular velocity of the propeller, R is the radius of the propeller, and b is
some appropriately dimensioned constant. Note that we’ve assumed that all the force is
applied at the tip of the propeller, which is certainly inaccurate; however, the only result
that matters for our purposes is that the drag torque is proportional to the square of the
angular velocity. We can then write the complete torque about the z axis for the ith motor:

τz = bω2 + I M ω̇ (2.40)

where IM is the moment of inertia about the motor z axis, ˙w is the angular acceleration
of the propeller, and b is our drag coefficient. Note that in steady state flight (i.e. not
28 A thesis on Quadcopter

takeoff or landing), ˙w _ 0, since most of the time the propellers will be maintaining a
constant (or almost constant) thrust and won’t be accelerating. Thus, we ignore this term,
simplifying the entire expression to
τz = (−1)i+1bωi2 (2.41)

where the (−1)i+1 term is positive for the ith propeller if the propeller is spinning
clockwise and negative if it is spinning counterclockwise. The total torque about the z
axis is given by the sum of all the torques from each propeller:

τψ = b( ω1 2 − ω2 2 + ω3 2 – 𝜔42 ) (2.42)

The roll and pitch torques are derived from standard mechanics. We can arbitrarily choose
the i = 1 and i = 3 motors to be on the roll axis, so
τφ = ∑ r × T = Lk(kω12 − kω32) = Lk(ω12 − ω32) (2.43)

Correspondingly, the pitch torque is given by a similar expression


τθ = Lk(ω22 − ω42) (2.44)

where L is the distance from the center of the quadcopter to any of the propellers. All
together, we find that the torques in the body frame are
𝐿𝑘(𝜔12 − 𝜔32)
τB =[ 𝐿𝑘(𝜔12 − 𝜔32) ] 2.45)
2 2 2 2
𝑏( 𝜔1 − 𝜔2 + 𝜔3 – 𝜔4 )
The model we’ve derived so far is highly simplified. We ignore a multitude of advanced
effects that contribute to the highly nonlinear dynamics of a quadcopter. We ignore
rotational drag forces (our rotational velocities are relatively low), blade flapping
(deformation of propeller blades due to high velocities and flexible materials),
surrounding fluid velocities (wind), etc. With that said, we now have all the parts
necessary to write out the dynamics of our quadcopter [25,37].

2.14 Equations of Motion


In the inertial frame, the acceleration of the quadcopter is due to thrust, gravity, and linear
friction. We can obtain the thrust vector in the inertial frame by using our rotation matrix
R to map the thrust vector from the body frame to the inertial frame [39]. Thus, the linear
motion can be summarized as
0
mẍ=[ 0 ]+ RTB + FD (2.46)
−𝑚𝑔
where ẍ is the position of the quadcopter, g is the acceleration due to gravity, FD is the
drag force, and TB is the thrust vector in the body frame.

While it is convenient to have the linear equations of motion in the inertial frame, the
rotational equations of motion are useful to us in the body frame, so that we can express
Chapter 2: Reference Geometry And Dynamic Model 29

rotations about the center of the quadcopter instead of about our inertial center. We derive
the rotational equations of motion from Euler’s equations for rigid body dynamics.
Expressed in vector form, Euler’s equations are written as
M =Iω̇ + I𝜔2 (2.47)
where ω is the angular velocity vector, I is the inertia matrix, and M is a vector of applied
torques. We can rewrite this as
𝜏−𝐼𝜔 2
𝜔̇= (2.48)
𝑀

We can model our quadcopter as two thin uniform rods crossed at the origin with a point
mass (motor) at the end of each. With this in mind, it’s clear that the symmetries result in
a diagonal inertia matrix of the form
𝐼𝑥𝑥 0 0
I =[ 0 𝐼𝑦𝑦 0 ] (2.49)
0 0 𝐼𝑧𝑧
Therefore, we obtain our final result for the body frame rotational equations of motion
𝐼𝑦𝑦 −𝐼𝑧𝑧
−1
𝜔𝑦 𝜔𝑧
𝑀𝜑𝐼𝑥𝑥 𝐼𝑥𝑥
−1 𝐼𝑧𝑧 −𝐼𝑥𝑥
𝜔˙=[𝑀𝜑𝐼𝑦𝑦 ]- 𝐼𝑦𝑦
𝜔𝑧 𝜔𝑥 (2.50)
−1
𝑀𝜑𝐼𝑧𝑧 𝐼𝑥𝑥 −𝐼𝑦𝑦
[ 𝜔𝑥 𝜔𝑦 ]
𝐼𝑧𝑧

2.15 Engine dynamics


The motors propelling the quadrotor have their own dynamics. The equations of motions
are the well-known equations of motion of DC motor with the aerodynamic damping
added.
𝑑𝑖
L𝑑𝑡 = u−Ri−𝜔𝑚 ke (2.51)
J r𝜔𝑚 =k i i −d m 𝜔𝑚 − f ( 𝜔𝑚 ) (2.52)

Where,
• L - inductance of the coil in the engine

• i – current flowing through the engine

• u – voltage across the engine

• R – resistance of the coil and wirings

• ke – back EMFconstant
30 A thesis on Quadcopter

• ωm- motor angular rate

• dm- bearing damping constant

• Jr – moment of inertia of the rotor

• ki – torque constant

• f(ωm) - nonlinear drag torque function for the given propeller.


Chapter 3: Development & Construction 31

Chapter 3: Development & Construction


To build such a dynamic unmanned aerial vehicle we need to attach many complex
electronic devices. In this implementation, we have used many intelligent electronic
devices like brushless DC motor, KK2.1.5 Multi-Rotor board, ESC (electronic speed
controller), digital servo motor and 3300 mA Lithium Polymer battery [12]. In this chapter,
we will discuss about all those electronic components and their behavior. Also,
development of telemetry system for real time communication with drone is introduced
in this section.

3.1 Development and equipment:


In order to develop this project, we have used Brushless DC motors, Electronic Speed
Controllers (ESC), KK2 Multicolor Controller Board, 3300mAh Li-Po battery, Aluminum
bar (as rotor holder) and Landing gear [42,43].

3.1.1 Brushless DC motor


We have used EMAX bl 2815/09 motor for the propeller. The Emax BL2815/09 is a 3.9
ounce, 1000KV, 450 watts out runner brushless motor. It's used for sport planes weighing
709 to 1550 gram

Figure 3.1: EMAX bl 2815/09


32 A thesis on Quadcopter

Table 3.1: EMAX bl 2815/09 motor parameters

Model Battery RPM/V Propeller RPM MAX Thrust


cell
Current
count
11 × 7 8360 30A 1350 gm

12 × 6 7000 31A 1550 gm


BL 2815/09 3s 920

In practice, we have used 12 × 6 propellers so that we can get 1.5kg thrust form one motor.
As we have used two motors in our drone so we are getting approximately 3kg of thrust.

3.1.2 Multi-Rotor control board


In this project, we have used kk2.1.5 Multi-Rotor control board to control the drone. This
KK2.1 Multi-Rotor controller controls the flight of multi-rotor. Its purpose is to stabilize
the aircraft during flight and to do this, it takes signals from on-board gyroscopes (roll,
pitch and yaw) and passes these signals to the Atmega324PA processor, which processes
signals according the users designated firmware and passes the control signals to the
mounted ESCs (Electronic Speed Controllers) and the mixture of these signals commands
the ESCs to make fine adjustments to the motors rotational speeds which stabilizes the
craft [16].
The KK2.1.5 Multi-Rotor control board also uses signals from radio system via a receiver
and passes these signals together with stabilization signals to the Atmega324PA IC via
the aileron; elevator; throttle and rudder user demand inputs. Once processed, this data is
sent to the ESCs which adjusts the rotational speed of each motor to control flight
orientation (up, down, backwards, forwards, left, right, yaw).
Technical specifications of KK2.1.5 board:
• Size: 50.5mm x 50.5mm x 12mm
• Weight: 21 grams
• IC: Atmega644 PA
• Gyro/Acceleration: 6050MPU
• Auto-level: Yes
• Input Voltage: 4.8-6.0V
• AVR interface: standard 6 pin.
• Firmware Version: 2.1.5
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 33

Figure 3.2: kk2.1.5 Multi-Rotor control board.


We have used quadcopter firmware that is pre-installed in the board. However, we had to
tune it as per our model because automatic settings were not working properly for our
model. Basically, settings are very different and unique for each model. Without
customized settings, this board is not going to work properly. So, to make our drone stable
and quick responsive to the disturbances, we have tuned the PI editor and all other settings.
The table 5.2 shows the customized values we have set to make quadcopter stable.
34 A thesis on Quadcopter

Table 3.2: kk2.1.5 Multi-Rotor board setup values

KK2
MENU
ITEM
PI Editor P Gain: P Limit: I Gain: I
Axis: Limit:
200 40 0 0
Roll
(Ailero
Axis:
200 40 0 0
n)
Pitch
(Elevato
Axis:
200 40 0 0
r)Yaw
(Rudder Auxiliar
Receiver Aileron: 0 Elevator: 0 Throttle: 0 Rudder: 0
) y: 0
Test
Link Roll Auto
Mode Self Level: CPPM:
Pitch: Disar
Settings
m:
aux No Yes no
Pitch(Elev
Stick Scaling Roll (Ail): Yaw Throttle:
):
(Rud):

36 53 52 90
Height Height Alarm Servo
Misc. Min
Dimen: D. 1/10 Filter:
Settings Throttle:
Limit: Volts:
10 16 30 105 50
Self- ACC ACC
P Gain: P Limit:
Level Trim Trim
Settin 90 89 0 Roll: 0 Pitch:
gs
Camera Roll PitchGain PitchOffse
Roll Gain: 0
Stab Offset: 50 :0 t: 50
Settings
Sensor Test Gyro X: Gyro Y: Gyro Z: ACC X: ACC ACC
ACC Y: Z:
Calibration
Pitch
CPPM Roll (Ail): Throttle: Yaw Aux:
(Elev):
Settings (Rud):
Mixer Editor Throttle: Aileron: Elevator: Rudder: Offset: Type Rate
Ch: 1 100 100 0 0 0 :
esc :
high
Ch: 2 100 -100 0 0 0 Esc high
Ch: 3 0 0 -100 -75 32 Serv low
Ch: 4 0 0 100 -75 49 o
Serv low
Show o
②-----①
Motor
Layout
Load
Dual-copter
Motor
Layout
Finally, with these settings from table 3.2 our model started hovering with stability.
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 35

3.1.3 ESC (Electronic Speed Controller)


An electronic speed controller or ESC is a device installed to a remote controlled
electrical model to vary its motor's speed and direction. It needs to plug into the receiver's
throttle control channel.

Figure 3.3: Electronic Speed Controller (ESC)


We have used 60A electronic speed controllers to control each brushless motors in this
experiment which can constantly supply required current to drive brushless motors. It has
following specifications:
• Constant Current: 60A
• Burst Current: 80A
• Battery: 2-4S Li-Po
• SBEC: 5.5v / 4A
• Motor Type: Brushless
• Size: 70 x 32 x 17mm
• Battery Wire: 14AWG
• Motor Wire: 14AWG
• Weight: 61g
36 A thesis on Quadcopter

3.1.4 Servo motor


For tilting the motors, we have used small servo motors. In this experiment, we have
mounted two Futaba S-140 servo motor to tilt the brushless motors to a certain angle.
This servomotor is can rotate up to 180º. So, we can rotate each brushless motor up to 45º
from normal as the brushless motors needs to be at 90º for vertical takeoff or landing.

Figure 3.4: Servo Motor (Model: Futaba S-140)

This servomotor is connected with the KK2.1.5 multi-rotor board to get signals and power
both. Technical specifications of the Futaba S-140 Servo motor is given below:
• Modulation: Analog
• Torque: 4.8V: 122.0 oz-in (8.78 kg-cm) 6.0V: 153.0 oz-in (11.02 kg-cm)
• Speed: 4.8V: 0.70 sec/60° 6.0V: 0.56 sec/60°
• Weight: 2.54 oz (72.0 g)
• Dimensions: Length: 1.73 in (43.9 mm)
• Width: 0.91 in (23.1 mm)
• Height: 1.69 in (42.9 mm)
• Motor Type: 3-pole
• Gear Type: Hybrid
• Rotation/Support: Dual Bearing

3.1.5 Li-Po battery


As the brushless motor, we have used in this experiment needs high amount of current so
we have used 3300mAh 11.1V 3 cell Li-Po (Lithium Polymer) battery. It can provide
approximately 3A current constantly [36].
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 37

Figure 3.5: 3300mAh 3 cell Li-Po battery

Specifications:
• Capacity: 3300mAh
• Voltage: 11.1V
• Max Continuous Discharge: 25C (82.5A)
• Max Burst Discharge: 50C (165A)
• Weight: 284g
• Dimensions: 133×42×23mm
• Charge Rate: 1-3C Recommended, 5C Max

3.1.6 Landing gear


For safe landing and to reduce landing pressure we have used a flexible plastic landing
gear. It is very efficient and useful. It spreads the landing pressure and saves the body
parts from crash [7].

Figure 3.6: Landing gear

3.2 Control System Design


This chapter contains control system, software, electrical and wireless communication
part. Different electrical components were used to implement this machine such as
38 A thesis on Quadcopter

brushless DC motor, electronic speed controller (ESC), KK2 multicomputer board, and
high torque servo motor. We have built a GPS tracking android application to keep a track
where it is traveling and used an IP camera software to get live video stream from the
Drone which is also described elaborately in this chapter [21].

3.2.1 BLDC motor transfer function


The BLDC motor we have utilized for this project is the Emax Bl4030. It is a 385kv, 11.5
ounce (326g), 1300 watt out runner brushless motor. Contingent upon the propeller and
battery utilized, it is generally comparable to .60 to .90 2 stroke nitro engines [11].
The parameters we used in the modeling are extracted from the datasheet of this motor
with corresponding relevant parameters used. Table 3.3 contains the major extracted
parameters used for the modeling task.
The physical parameters for our example are:

Table 3.3: BLDC motor parameter used


Model Emax Bl4030

Weight 11.5ounces (326 grams)

RPM (n) 6100

Thrust 4200g

Power (Pw) 1300w

Electric resistance 0.22 ohm


(R)
Electric 8.5 mH
inductance (l)
Maximum 55 A
Current
Torque constant 0.04Nm/A
(𝑘𝑡 )
Moment of inertia 0.089 kg m2
(j)

Mechanical constant
𝑗×0.004×𝑅
𝜏𝑚 = (3.1)
𝑘𝑒 ×𝑘𝑡

Electrical constant
1
𝜏𝑒 = 0.004𝑅 (3.2)
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 39

Phase value of the EMF constant

𝑘𝑒 = 𝑘𝑡 × 0.0605
(3.3)
Where kt is torque constant, DC current I=0.0605
𝑝𝑤 ×9.554
Torque = (3.4)
𝑛
1300×9.554
= 6100

= 2.03Nm
Torque constant,
𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒
𝑘𝑡 = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 (3.5)
2.03
= 55

= 0.04Nm/A

Electrical torque,
𝐾𝑒=0.04×0.0605=0.0024
Mechanical constant,
0.089×0.004×0.22
𝜏𝑚 = = 0.8158
0.04×0.0024

BLDC Motor Transfer Function


1
𝑘𝑒
𝐺1 (𝑠) = (3.6)
𝜏𝑚 𝜏 𝑒 𝑠2 +𝜏 𝑚 𝑠+1

416.67
= 0.38𝑠2 +0.82𝑠+1

It is continuous time transfer function. If s is 5. Then


416.67
𝐺1 (5) = 0.38×25+0.82×5+1

= 28.5
40 A thesis on Quadcopter

3.2.2 BLDC motor open loop in MATLAB


The open loop step response is shown by using the Simulink tools as shown in figure
below.

Figure 3.7: BLDC motor Simulink diagram

Figure 3.8: BLDC motor Simulink diagram

3.2.3 DC servo motor


The servo motor we used in this project is Futaba S148. The parameters we used in the
modeling are extracted from the datasheet of this motor with corresponding relevant
parameters used. Find below in Table 4.4 the major extracted parameters used for the
modeling task [34].
The physical parameters for our example are:
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 41

Table 3.4: DC Servo motor parameters


Modulation: Analog

Torque: 4.8V: 33.3 oz-in (2.40 kg-cm)

6.0V: 41.7 oz-in (3.00 kg-cm)

Speed: 4.8V: 0.28 sec/60°

6.0V: 0.22 sec/60°

Weight: 1.57 oz
(44.4g)
Motor 3-pole
Type:
Rotational 1800
angle

3.2.4 DC servo motor transfer function in MATLAB


We have used Futaba S-140 DC servo motor for this experiment. The linear mathematical
model (transfer function) for the Futaba S-140 Servo is
950
G3(s)= 𝑠2 +40𝑠+950 (3.7)
42 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 3.9: DC Servo motor Simulink model

Figure 3.10: Open loop step response of DC servo motor

3.2.5 Yaw-controller
The total motor thrust is set as a variable. This thrust is the thrust that is required to hoover
or to accelerate the quadcopter in the local Z-axis. The more thrust, the faster the
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 43

quadcopter will accelerate. But the yaw is controlled by altering the motor thrust between
the four motors. The yaw controller divides the total force to the two motor pairs, 1-2 and
3-4. This way the total force is kept constant and a moment is applied to yaw the
quadcopter around the body Z-axis.
Since the relationship of the motor thrust and moment is constant the quadcopter will not
yaw as long as the total thrust is equal for the two motor pairs [29].

3.2.6 Phi-Theta controller


The phi and theta controller is the controller that controls the phi and theta angle of the
quadcopter. This is done by dividing the motor pair force from the yaw controller to the
two motors. This is done in two steps, first the phi angle is corrected, then theta [30]. Both
of them use the same controller, shown in figure.

Figure 3.11: Block diagram of the phi and theta controller

3.2.7 PID control


A PID controller (proportional-integral-derivative controller) is a control loop feedback
mechanism widely used in control systems. A PID controller calculates an “error” value
as the difference between a measured variable and a desired set-point. The controller
attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the control inputs.
In quadcopter terms this means the PID controller will be taking data measured by the
sensors on the flight controller (gyros / accelerometers etc) and comparing that against
expected values to alter the speed of the motors to compensate for any differences and
maintain balance.
The PID controller calculation algorithm involves three separate constant parameters, the
proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. Heuristically, these
44 A thesis on Quadcopter

values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error I on the
accumulation of past errors D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of
change Depending on your flight controller there will be PID’s associated with a number
of flight modes [27].

Figure 3.12: PID control

PID in More Simple terms


This is a general description what PID is, how it affects quadcopter performance still
depends on how the algorithm is written. For example, in Clean flight firmware, there are
three PID controllers and they each performs differently.
What is P?
P is the main value you worry about, which is the number for stability. You can actually
leave I and D values at 0 and your plane will hover just fine. So, that is why it always
tune P gain first before I and D.
The higher the P the harder it tries to stabilize the plane. But if P is too high, the
quadcopter becomes too sensitive, and over-correct itself (overshoot), you will have
oscillations with high frequency.
Not all oscillations are from P being too high though. You need to eliminate vibration as
much as possible from your quadcopter before you can even start tuning, for example the
motors, frame rigidity, balanced props etc. With a vibration, free copter, you can set a
much higher P gain and enjoy more stability, and controllability.
The way I tune P is, increase it until you see vibrations, then back it down a little.
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 45

What is I?
You have tuned P gain, leaving I and D at default values. When you are flying, you will
notice that you have to hold the pitch/roll stick to get the machine to move, as soon as
you let go of the stick the machine just breaks and stay in hovering again. It might even
cause a few osculation’s or wobbles if the change of control is rapid.
That is because your P is doing its job, trying to stabilize your quadcopter. Look at I gain
as the stick follower, by adding a little I gain you will find that the plane will now fly
forward more smoothly. But the side-effect is when you let go of the stick the copter will
keep on flying to that direction. This is the effect of I, keeping the last stick position.
To understand it, think of the quadcopter is trying to reduce the position error, but the
error is not reducing, it will just keep trying! This is the effect of the I term. In technical
terms, it is integrating the error over time, the longer the error persists, the greater the
force is applied. When the I gain is not zero, a small error can persist forever (which is
not necessary a bad thing in real flying!)
Some people use I gain to make flying more smoothly, while some people purely just like
this “stick following” behavior. However, with too much I your quadcopter will start to
oscillate with a lower frequency at high throttle. When I gain is too low, your quadcopter
will wobble when descend.
Normally default I gain works pretty well already. But if you notice wobble when
descending, increase I should help. But when I is too high, you might notice slow
vibrations at punch-outs (high throttle ascend).
What is D?
D isn’t very useful to many people. In fact you can ignore D completely and your
quadcopter will fly just fine. That’s why the KK2 does not allow you to tune D, because
they want to make it really simple and effective, without D it’s not going to affect the
flight performance too much. D is sometimes used to get rid of the jerkiness of the
quadcopter movement.
D is like the opposite of P. If P is a hand to keep pushing the machine back to a stable
position, then D is a spring between the hand and the machine, which absorbs the shocks.
By adding D gain, you can “soften” the movement just like adding a spring to it. However
too much D is not good, because again it will introduce oscillations. Also, your copter
will be really sluggish and mushy.
Basically, D changes the force applied to correct an position error, when it sees a decrease
or increase in the position error. Just like if you are hungry, you eat a lot faster, when you
are nearly full, your eating will slow down. That’s why you see a softer movement in the
quadcopter when D is used.
When you see vibrations, don’t rush to decrease P, try to increase D and see if you can
eliminate the vibrations. Also, If you see some bumpiness or slight vibration at high
throttle, or doing flips and rolls, give it a bit more D should also help. The cost is you
have mushier control and stick responsiveness.
46 A thesis on Quadcopter

PID for Yaw Axis


The above are mainly for roll and pitch axis, and you need to tune Yaw axis separately.
Default values usually work pretty well, but same principle applies from above. It
shouldn’t cause too much vibrations like roll and pitch, and at the end of the day it’s just
a matter of personal preference.
PID is just to find the balance between the moment of inertia of the multicopter, and the
force generated by the motors, which is also affected by other factors such as vibrations,
frame rigidity, FC performance etc. The moment of inertia is related to how heavy the
quadcopter is, how the mass is distributed, and the properties of motors. Therefore, PID
gains are different settings for each individual quadcopter, because they all have different
setup, mass distribution etc. That’s exactly why for the pre-built quadcopters, they fly so
well straight out of the box for example the DJI Phantom, because they have exactly the
same setup so they can all use the same PID settings [33].
So, don’t forget to look at the hardware side of things before tuning PID. When your
quadcopter is not stable, it could be more than just PID. It could be the malfunctioning
ESC, unbalanced props or motors, could be the frame, or might be the weight is not
distributed evenly on the frame. There are just so many other issues that will affect the
drone’s performance and flight behavior besides PID.

3.2.8 Firmware limitation


When I started working with the quadrotor the firmware was able to implement only the
PI control loops (D is also present but it works only as a proportional gain, it does not
differentiate the signal). I started to develop the control loops respecting these limitations.
The later version of the firmware provides an interface which can be used to download
the sensor data and upload control commands. Then the control algorithms can be
implemented on different host. This version of firmware was released too late and I did
not have sufficient time to exploit its new features allowing to use more sophisticated and
modern control techniques.
The firmware provides four inner loops whose outputs are fed through a mixer to the
engines. Then there are eight outer loops which can be connected to the inner loops or to
each other. Loops' inputs can be other loop's output, sensor data or RC stick position. All
inputs and outputs can be scaled and offsets can be added.

3.3 Proportional controller


The mixture of proportional terms is vital to rise the speed of the response and also to
remove the steady state error [13]. The proportional controller block is reduced to P only
as shown in figure 3.13 By using MATLAB we have determined a suitable value for our
proportional controller.
Where P = Proportional gain and we set P = 0.5 to get a stable output. In practice, KK2
multirotor controller board is the PID controller for the system we have developed [32].
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 47

Figure 3.13: Proportional gain controller

3.4 Payload Components


The camera which provides surveillance capability for the Quadcopter is a Link sprite
JPEG color camera that employs a transistor-transistor-level (TTL) logic signal. The
camera has the ability to display a series of images through a serial communication output
as well as 30 frames per second (fps) National Television System Committee (NTSC)
formatted output. All of the sensors and electronic hardware used in this project
communicate over a TTL serial connection, including the wireless telemetry module we
are using. The ability to integrate the video over the serial connection seamlessly was the
main reason that we chose this camera [35].
Other reasons included the fact that it operated from a 5 V power supply, just like the rest
of our sensors, and that the power consumption was low at less than 100 mA. The camera
has the ability to capture VGA, QVGA, and QQVGA picture formats as well as allow the
image to be compressed with various degrees of compression. This allowed us to shrink
the image file size to under 30 kb per image frame which is small enough to allow us to
reach a frame rate of about 2.5 fps while transmitting at 115200 bps. This frame rate
should be sufficient to guide navigation or to perform surveillance. An image of the
camera can be seen. The camera is controlled by the Arduino processor board. A series
of hex commands are sent to the camera from the Arduino to initialize and then start a
series of image collects. The images are sent from the camera serially in hex format to
the Arduino and then transmitted via the XBee- PRO telemetry modules to the ground-
based computer for processing.
48 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 3.14: Link sprite JPEG Color Camera


The XBee-PRO telemetry module is the second payload function on the Quadcopter today.
A telemetry module was needed In order to control the Quadcopter from a distance
without the use of an RC transmitter. It was also needed to communicate payload camera
images back to the ground control computer. The module we chose for the project is a
900Mhz XBee-PRO XBP09. The XBee-PRO modules are capable of deploying point-
to-point, peer-to- peer and point-to-multipoint networks. Designed for maximum range,
the XBee-PRO is ideal for solutions where RF penetration and absolute transmission
distance are paramount to the application. In my setup, I use two of the modules. One is
connected to the Arduino processor board on the Quadcopter while the other one is
connected to a computer on the ground and together they allow communication between
the GUI that I am developing on the computer and the Arduino board. The XBee-PRO
communicates with the computer serially, through a virtual com port at a baud rate of
57600. An image of the XBee-PRO module can be seen.

3.5 Telemetry System


As unmanned aerial vehicle, must needs to operate remotely, several communication
system used in this project such as radio communication, Wi-Fi communication and 3G
communication which are covered in this chapter.

3.5.1 Radio communication


There are many high range radio transmitter and receiver in the market which are
expensive. However, as it is prototype and to minimize the cost we used 2.4 GHz FlySky
6 channel transmitter and receiver module. It covers almost 970 meter to 1 kilometer with
average obstacle [28].
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 49

Figure 3.15: Fly Sky 6 channel radio transmitter and receiver


Over 1200 meter it gets very low signal and completely lost the signal over 1320 meters.
To record precise values, we used a car to move around and transmits the signal from a
stationary point.
Technical Specifications:
• Radio: 2.4 GHz
• Length: 7.4 in (188mm)
• Height: 3.8 in (96.5mm)
• Width/Diameter: 11.6 in (294.6mm)
• Weight: 498.9 g (17.6oz)
By the aid of this device we can control the flight system of our drone. Each channel
controls a specific electronic device which in embedded in our system such as brushless
DC motors or servo motors, thus we can control forward, backward, right or left motion
of the prototype.

3.5.2 Wi-Fi Communication


Wi-Fi communication used in this experiment for the IP webcam software for short range
video transmission without internet connection. We have used IP webcam android
software for video transmission. It provides live video stream which can be access via
local and global computers. For local communication, it uses Wi-Fi communication.
Mobile device and the on-board computer needs to connected in the same Wi-Fi network
[19].

3.5.3 Wireless communication module for quadcopter


The function of the wireless communication module is to realize the flight data
transmission between the host computer and the four-rotor aircraft, to receive the aircraft
real-time status and attitude information, motor control signal PWM information and so
on for the flight controller to observe and debug.
50 A thesis on Quadcopter

This article uses two NRF24L01 modules, one through the SPI interface with the flight
controller connected to a communication, through a USB to serial port module to connect
with the PC. NRF24L01 is a work in the 2.4-2.5GHz world common ISM band wireless
transceiver chip.

3.6 Hardware implementation


We have used aluminum bar instead of carbon fiber bar to minimize cost. A plastic made
landing gear is used to land the machine softly and spread the landing force over the body.
Two brushless

Figure 4.16: Sketch of the drone


motors are mounted on the top of the aluminum bar and a servo motor is placed
underneath of each brushless motor. Middle part of the body contains all the payloads
(ESC, Controller, RF receiver, battery and mobile device). Figure 3.17 shows all the total
connections between all electronic components.

Figure 3.17: Diagram of connections


Chapter 3: Development & Construction 51

In this diagram, thin red, orange and red wires signifies +5V, black wire Signal and GND
resectively.

3.7 Hardware Selection of Quadcopter


In this paper, the attitude control platform based on the inertial measurement unit is
designed. The F450 frame is made of nylon fiber material. The wheelbase is 450mm, the
rack is 260g and the maximum safe takeoff weight is 1200g.
Quadcopter hardware system consists of six parts:
• microprocessor to control the operation of the whole system, the choice
STMicroelectronics based on ARM CortexM3 core STM32F103VC processor;
• power module, including good surplus XRotor-20A electronic governor, EMAX
bl 2815/09-1000KV brushless DC motor and EMAX1045 propeller;
• sensor part, including the MPU-6050 three-axis gyroscope and three-axis
accelerometer, HMC5883L three-axis geomagnetic sensor, MS5611 barometric
altimeter;
• remote control, using Fu Si FS-T6 2.4G six-channel remote control;
• communication module, and wireless communication with the host computer
using NRF24L01 transceiver chip;
• power supply system, the use of nine 11.1v 5200mah lithium battery for the flight
control panels and electronic governor to provide DC.
Figure 3.18 is the physical model and Figure 3.19 a quadcopter hardware structure
diagram,
52 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 3.18: Quadcopter Physical map

Figure 3.19: Schematic diagram of the four-wing quadcopter hardware structure

3.8 Flight Controller for Quadcopter


In this paper, the flight controller based on STM32 has the characteristics of small size,
low power consumption, abundant resources of software and hardware and high
development efficiency. It is suitable for multi - axis aircraft. Figure 3.20 is the flight
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 53

control board; the hardware components are as follows:

STM32F103VC: 32-bit ARM CortexM3 processor;


MPU-6050: three-axis gyroscope and three-axis accelerometer;
HMC5883L: three-axis geomagnetic sensor;
MS5611: Pneumatic altimeter;
CP2101: USB to serial chip for debugging;
AT45DB161: Flash chip, used to store data;
Five - way switch: parameter adjustment

Figure 3.20: Flight controller

The interfaces are defined as follows:


ADC: Connect the battery positive and negative, used to measure the battery voltage.
T8_4, T8_3, T8_2, T8_1: TIM8 four interface, can be used for PWM, PPM input capture,
PWM output, to facilitate the expansion of peripherals.
T4_C4: PWM input capture channel, then remote control receiver PITCH channel.
T4_C3: PWM input capture channel, then remote control receiver ROLL channel.
T4_C2: PWM input capture channel, connected to the remote control receiver's throttle
channel.
T4_C1: PWM input capture channel, then the remote control receiver YAW channel.
T2_C1: PWM output channel, connect No. 1 motor.
T2_C2: PWM output channel, then the No. 2 motor.
T2_C3: PWM output channel, then the No. 3 motor.
T2_C4: PWM output channel, then No. 4 motor.
3.3V, DIO, CLK, GND: SWD interface for program download.
GPS: GPS interface.
UART3: Serial 3 interface, can be used for external Bluetooth wireless communication.
E3, E4, E5, E6: four IO port, for the expansion of peripherals.
NRF24L01: NRF24L01 wireless interface, can be used for wireless data transmission.
OLED: LCD OLED interface for display.

3.8.1 Microprocessor STM32F103VC


Flight controller processor used STM32F103VC, ST is designed ARM CortexM3 core
54 A thesis on Quadcopter

embedded processor, its on-chip resources sufficient to achieve various types of sensor
communication needs. The three-axis acceleration and geomagnetic horizontal
components are acquired and the attitude angle is calculated in real time. The output
control quantity is calculated according to the designed control scheme algorithm. The
data is transmitted through the wireless communication module and the ground.
Receiving remote control commands to change the flight status and so on.
Its performance is as follows: Operating frequency is 72MHz, with 32-bit RISC core,
high-speed embedded memory (up to 128K bytes of Flash memory and 20K bytes of
SRAM memory), configured to connect to two APB bus 80 high-speed I / O port. There
are two internal 12-bit ADCs, four timers (three general purpose 16-bit timers and one
PWM timer), and multiple standard and advanced communication interfaces (2 I²C and
SPI interfaces, 3 USART interfaces, 1 USB interface and a CAN interface).

3.8.2 Inertial Measurement Unit


Figure 3.21 shows the inertial measurement unit MPU-6050, which integrates a three-
axis gyroscope, a three-axis accelerometer, and an expandable digital motion processor
DSP. ± 2g, ± 4g, ± 8g, ± 16g respectively. The range of the internal gyroscope is ± 250 °
/ s, ± 500 ° / s, ± 1000 ° / s and ± 2000 ° / Both gyroscopes and accelerometers are
equipped with three 16-bit ADCs that convert their measured analog values to digital. The
MPU-6050 communicates with the processor over the I²C bus.
Accelerometer by measuring the inertial force to measure the linear acceleration of each
axis, the gyroscope is the use of Coriolis force that is rotating objects in the radial motion
of the tangential force received by the body angular velocity [24], in the actual application
of the need for fusion Both results are used.

Figure 3.21: MPU-6050 axis

3.8.3 HMC5883L geomagnetic sensor


The HMC5883L is a field-weakening magnetic sensor chip with an I²C digital interface
that includes a high-resolution HMC118X series magnetoresistive sensor, amplifier, auto
demagnetization driver, offset calibration and digital-to-analog converter. The
HMC5883L communicates with the processor over the I²C bus.
Geomagnetism according to each axis of the sensor to detect the magnetic field strength
to determine the magnetic north pole and the forward direction of the angle that azimuth
angle α, due to the geomagnetic north pole and the geographical difference, compensate
for the local magnetic declination β The correct geographic north direction can be
Chapter 3: Development & Construction 55

obtained [52].
In fact, when the quadcopter flight, the geomagnetism is not horizontal, set non-horizontal
state, the geomagnetic coordinate system along the axis of the three components were
h_x, h_y and h_z, geomagnetism tilt compensation, available The magnetic field
component in the horizontal direction is [53]:

hx
H cos θ sin Ф sin θ − sin θ cos Ф h
[ X] = [ ] [ y] (3.8)
HY 0 cos Ф sin Ф
hz
The resulting azimuth angle is:

H 180
360 − arctan (HY ) ∗ HX > 0, HY > 0
X π
H 180
180 − arctan (HY ) ∗ HX > 0, HY <0
α= X π (3.9)
HY 180
−arctan (H ) ∗ HX < 0
X π
{ 180 + sgn(HY ) ∗ 90 HX = 0

And then can be obtained quadcopter forward and the north pole of the angle A is
A= α+β (3.10)

3.8.4 Air pressure altimeter


The MS5611 Barometer consists of a high linear pressure sensor and a 24-bit low-power
AD converter. The sensor contains a factory calibration factor that measures both air
pressure and temperature. Because it can provide a pair of precise 24-bit pressure values
and temperature values, so MS5611 is ideal for measuring height and pressure.
The working principle of the barometer MS5611 [54]: MS5611 through the built-in
piezoresistive sensor to measure the analog pressure and temperature values, and then
converted to 24-bit ADC digital output, and then read the sensor stored in the PROM
factory calibration data, And then convert the two 24-bit digital values to the standard
pressure value D1 and the temperature value D2.
56 A thesis on Quadcopter

Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation

4.1 Control scheme design


The quadcopter has six degrees of freedom, which is controlled by the rotation speed of
four motors. It belongs to the typical under-actuated nonlinear system. Based on the
dynamic model of the four-rotorcraft, the control input and the motor speed and the
relationship between the motor speed and the four forces is obtained. Then the closed-
loop control loop of the attitude angle is established to obtain the corresponding change
of the motor rotation speed when the four-rotor vehicle is turned over, and the simulation
is carried out.

4.2 Effect of Motor Rotation Speed on Attitude Angle


Here I am going to describe the the design of the whole program.

4.2.1 The overall design of the program


By the formula (4.1) to obtain the relationship between the control input U and the four-
motor speed, first through the motor speed and control of four forces between the
conversion relationship, given a given motor speed corresponding to the U1, U2, U3, U4.
Since there is no sensor element in the simulation environment that can measure the
height and attitude in real time, the feedback value is calculated by calculating the three
displacement accelerations in real time (x, y, And acceleration of the three attitude angles
(Ф ̈, θ ̈, ψ ̈). The acceleration is obtained through two integrals and the real-time
displacement is obtained. The angular acceleration is integrated twice and the real-time
attitude feedback is obtained.

U1 = b(w12 + w22 + w32 + w42 )


U2 = b(w42 − w22 )
(4.1)
U3 = b(w32 − w12 )
2 2 2 2
{U4 = d(w1 + w3 − w2 − w4 )

4.2.2 Simulation model is established


In this paper, the simulation of the quadcopter control system is carried out in
Matlab/Simulink simulation environment. Figure 4.1 is the corresponding simulation
model:
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 57

Figure 4.1: Simulation model of relationship between motor speed and four forces

In this simulation model, simulation should be carried out before the simulation set, for
the four rotorcraft, the algorithm type selection variable step size algorithm, the algorithm
in the simulation process to change the time interval to calculate the model of continuous
state; calculation method selection ode45, This is based on the Runge-Kutta (4,5) and
Dormand-Prince combination algorithm, which is a one-step algorithm, which is
characterized by only the solution of the previous point in time, and then can immediately
calculate the current point in time equation solution. This algorithm for most of the
simulation model, it should first use ode45 to solve the model, because of this, ode45 is
simulink default algorithm, the specific settings shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Simulink simulation environment settings


Parameter Value (Standard Unit)
Calculate the step size Auto
Algorithm Type Variable-step
Calculation method Ode45(Dormand-Prince)
Simulation time 10

Reasonable test data is an important prerequisite to ensure the simulation, the


quadcopter used in the simulation parameters shown in Table 4.2:
58 A thesis on Quadcopter

Table 4.2: Simulation parameters of the quadcopter


parameter Value (Standard Unit)
Total Weight m 1.23
Gravitational acceleration g 9.8
Body inertia matrix J diag(6.126,6.126,12.4)× 10−3

Motor moment of inertia 𝐉𝐫 2.8425× 10−5


Distance from the rotor center to the 0.225
center of the body 𝐋
Lift coefficient b 3.501× 10−5
Coefficient of rotation d 7.51× 10−7

4.2.3 Simulation results analysis


1. The curve of Rolld, Pitchd, Yawd (the black is Rolld, blue is Pitchd and red is Yawd)
when ω1 = 1100r / min and ω2 = ω4 = 1000r / min.

Figure 4.2: attitude output curve

2. when ω 2=1100r/min, ω1 = ω 3 when ω4=1000r/min, Figure 4.3 is the correspondin


g Rolld, Pitchd, Yawd curves (shown in black for Rolld, blue Pitchd, red for Yawd):
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 59

Figure 4.3: profile output curve

3. when ω 3=1100r/min, ω1 = ω 2 when ω4=1000r/min, Figure 4.4 is the correspondin


g Rolld,Pitchd,Yawd curves (shown in black for Rolld, blue Pitchd, red for Yawd):

Figure 4.4: profile output curve

4. when ω 4=1100r/min, ω1 = ω 2 when ω3=1000r/min, Figure 4.5 is the correspondig


Rolld, Pitchd, Yawd curves (shown in black for Rolld, blue Pitchd, red for Yawd):
60 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 4.5: profile output curve

4.3 Attitude angle closed-loop control of the motor speed regulation

4.3.1 Control scheme overall design


Based on the simulation results in the previous section, we can get the influence of the
motor speed on the attitude angle of the quadcopter. It can be deduced that if we want to
get the corresponding attitude angle, we can get the change process of the motor. For the
six degrees of freedom of a four-rotor vehicle, two groups are divided. One group is the
attitude angle, roll angle, pitch angle, yaw angle; the other group is the position, or
displacement, including the upper and lower, front and rear, left and right direction
displacement. There is no need to consider how to control the front-to-back, left-right
positional relationship of the quadcopter for the effect of the motor speed on the attitude
angle. Only the attitude angle of the vehicle should be considered. Therefore, the control
system to establish attitude angle closed-loop control loop, and then make the height
control for a single channel. The control system input is the target height Zd, and the three
target attitude angles, Rolld, Pitchd, Yawd, cause the aircraft to produce the corresponding
deflections, and consequently the corresponding displacements. Figure 5.6 is the
corresponding control system block diagram.
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 61

Figure 4.6: Block diagram of the overall control system for a four-rotor vehicle

4.3.2 Attitude control


The angular acceleration of the attitude angle is linearly related to the input, so the PID
controller can be used for the attitude angle to obtain three control inputs U2 , U3 , U4 :
U2 = K pФ (Фd − Ф) + K iФ ∫(Фd − Ф)dt + K dФ (Ф̇d − Ф̇)
U3 = K pθ (θd − θ) + K iθ ∫(θd − θ)dt + K dθ (θ̇d − θ̇) (4.2)
U4 = K pψ (ψd − ψ) + K iψ ∫(ψd − ψ)dt + K dψ (ψ̇d − ψ̇)

Φd is the target attitude angle, K p 、K i 、K d are the three control points of the PID controller,
which are the actual roll angle, pitch angle, yaw angle, Фd 、θd 、ψd , which are measured
and calculated respectively. Parameters, the value of the experiment through a specific
model to be.
The brief description of the three parameters is as follows:
Kp is the proportional coefficient. The control signal outputted from the proportional
link is proportional to the system error, and the control output is developed to reduce the
error [22]. The greater the proportion coefficient, the more sensitive the system response,
the higher the accuracy, but also make regulation more severe shocks, and even cause
system instability. At the same time, the proportional control can only reduce the error,
can not eliminate the error. Ki is the integral coefficient, the integral control output signal
proportional to the integral error, integral regulation can eliminate the system's steady-
state error, but also caused the system phase lag. The larger the integral coefficient, the
faster the steady-state error can be eliminated, but if the integral coefficient is too large,
large overshoots and long-term fluctuations occur. Kd is the differential coefficient, the
differential link output control signal and the error rate of change is proportional to the
main role of differential regulation is to make changes to the system early warning,
resulting in early regulation. Differential control can make the system phase ahead, offset
the role of integration caused by phase lag, while reducing overshoot, but the differential
coefficient is too large, may cause system instability.
62 A thesis on Quadcopter

4.3.3 Height control


Height control channel and yaw angle without coupling relationship, a separate channel,
using PID controller, the control equation is 5.3:

z̈ = K pz (zd − z) + K iz ∫(zd − z)dt + K dz (ż d − ż ) (4.3)

The obtained target height acceleration z is input to the calculation module of the lift force
U1. According to the line motion equation of the system dynamics model, the third
equation g is moved to the left side of the equation, and the lift force U1 , The expression
is:
m
U1 = cos Фcos θ (K pz (zd − z) + K iψ ∫(zd − z)dt + K dz (ż d − ż ) + g) (4.4)

At this point, the controller design is completed. Position control loop output control
signal U1 and attitude control loop output control signals U2, U3, U4 into speed input to
the motor module to drive the aircraft to complete the corresponding movement, the use
of sensors to measure the position and attitude of the aircraft signal as a feedback signal
to form a closed-loop Feedback system, by constantly adjusting the PID control
parameters, the system to achieve the desired value and remain stable.

4.3.4 Establish the simulation model


The simulation model of the four-rotor control system was built by using the Simulink
toolbox per the attitude controller and height control channel designed above. In the
simulation model, the target attitude angles (Φd, θd, ψd) and height Zd are taken as the
input of the system, and (U1, U2, U3, U4) are taken as the control variables of the height
and attitude of the quadcopter. Control system output. (X, y, z) and the three attitude
angular accelerations (Ф ̈, θ ̈, ψ ̈) in real time and the accelerations of the three
accelerations the real-time position feedback is obtained through two integrals, and the
angular acceleration is obtained by two integrals. Figure 4.7 is the corresponding
simulation model.
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 63

Figure 4.7: Simulation model of attitude control corresponding to motor speed variation

4.3.5 Simulation environment settings:


Because of the use of variable step-length ode45 (Dormand-Prince) algorithm, in seeking
the two differential, the response curve becomes very smooth, a number of error values,
burr serious impact on the simulation data behind the authenticity and reliability And then
choose the fixed step size ode4 (Runge-Kutta) method [23], and set the step size of 0.001,
the glitch phenomenon is alleviated, the curve is smooth, there are still some flaws, but
does not affect the correct simulation results, 4.3 is the specific simulation parameter
settings:

Table 4.3 Simulink simulation environment settings

Parameter Value (Standard Unit)


Calculate the step size 0.001
Algorithm Type Fixed-step
Calculation method Ode4(Runge-Kutta)
Simulation time 100

4.3.6 Emulation Stop Condition Setting


The basic principle of the simulation is to set the real-time attitude angle of the
quadcopterto be less than 2% of the set target error and to differentiate the output function.
If the derivative function is also zero, the two conditions are simultaneously, The curve
will only fluctuate in the range of 2%, and the system has been stable, and then stop the
64 A thesis on Quadcopter

simulation. Simulation time is set to 100 seconds, so you can adjust the PID parameters
of the control system to adapt to changes in system simulation time. Figure 4.8 is a
simulation stop simulation model:

Figure 4.8: Emulation Stop Simulation Model

After analyzing the feedback of the three attitude angles and height, we find that the curve
of Roll is stable for the longest time. So we will consider the stability of Roll as the
benchmark to determine the stability of the whole system. Since the real-time attitude
angle is first differentiated, there is an error, so that the first-order differential curve has
crossed the abscissa, but did not stop the simulation problem. Therefore, the first
differential curve to determine the sign, and then through the signal transition to judge.

4.3.7 Control parameter optimization


Control system stability and performance of the key lies in the determination of PID
control parameters, control parameters to determine the control parameters that are found
in the optimal value. Because of the large number of parameters, the parameters of the
attitude controller are designed first, then the parameters of the height controller are
determined, the parameters are determined by trial and error method, then the integral is
adjusted first, then the control parameters are obtained through constant trial and error.
Optimal value. Equation 4.2,

Table 4.4 shows the optimal values for all control parameters

parameter Value parameter Value parameter Value


K pФ 2.5 K iФ 0 K dФ 10
K pθ 3.5 K iθ 0 K dθ 10
K pψ 3 K iψ 0 K dψ 10
𝐊 𝐩𝐳 5 K iz 1 K dz 5

4.3.8 Simulation results analysis:


The initial state of the aircraft is: Euler angle (0,0,0) rad, Euler angular velocity (0,0,0)
rad / s, given target attitude angle is (1,1,1) rad, Height of 1m, the simulation process in
29.429s automatically stop, this time the system to achieve stability.
Figure 4.9 shows Attitude Output Response Curve, Figure 4.10 shows the position output
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 65

response curve, Figure 4.11 of the quadcopter speed curve:

Figure 4.9: Attitude Output Response Curve

Figure 4.10 Position Output Response Curve


66 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 4.11 Four motor speed variation curves

The simulation results show that the final four motors remain at about 571 rad / s and
maintain the corresponding attitude angle movement.

4.4 Inner and outer loop PID position control simulation


Here it is described about the outer loop PID position and it’s simulation.

4.4.1 The basic principles of the simulation model


From the above simulation results, we can get the change of the four-motor speed when
the attitude control, and finally stabilize and maintain the corresponding posture, but
maintain the corresponding attitude, can not control the horizontal position of the
quadcopter, therefore, to control its position, Position control should be added to the
simulation model. So we are based on a simulation model, add the location of closed-loop
control loop. To control the position, then the control system input is the target position
Xd, Yd, Zd then the attitude control loop PID control reference value needs to be obtained
through the anti-solver module, so the horizontal position controller using PID algorithm
to expect the target position (Xd, Yd) and the actual position feedback value of the
deviation of the input signal, the control equation is as follows:
ẍ = K px (xd − x) + K ix ∫(xd − x)dt + K dx (ẋ d − ẋ )
(4.5)
ÿ = K py (yd − y) + K iy ∫(yd − y)dt + K dy (ẏ d − ẏ )

The acceleration value (x ̈, y ̈) of the horizontal position is used as the input signal of the
inverse resolving module. For the kinetic model, the first equation is obtained by
multiplying sinψ by the second equation by multiplying by cosψ,

mẍ sin ψ − mÿ cos ψ = U1 sin Ф (4.6)


further,
m
Фd = arcsin (U (ẍ sin ψ − ÿ cos ψ)) (4.7)
1
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 67

From the first equation of the kinetic model,


mẍ
sin θ = ( U − sin Ф sin ψ)⁄cos Ф cos ψ (4.8)
1

which is
mẍ
θd = arcsin (( U − sin Ф sin ψ)⁄cos Ф cos ψ) (4.9)
1

(4.7) and (4.8), the input signal Φd, θd of the inner loop attitude control loop can be
obtained. Φd, θd as the attitude control loop closed-loop PID reference value.
For the overall simulation model framework, we finally decided to adopt dual closed-
loop control, the inner loop for the attitude control loop, the outer loop for the position
control loop. Double closed-loop control can enhance the anti-interference ability of the
control system. The interference can be eliminated quickly in the inner loop attitude
control mediation. The inner loop attitude control directly affects the stability and control
precision of the system. The output of the outer loop is the input of the inner loop. Since
the height control channel and the yaw angle do not have a coupling relation or a single
channel, the input of the control system is Xd, Yd, Zd and ψd, and the output is U1, U2,
U3, U4, Figure 5.12 is the corresponding control system block diagram.

Figure 4.12: Block diagram of internal and external control system

4.4.2 Simulation model establishment


Figure 4.13 is the corresponding simulation model:
68 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 4.13: Simulation model of inner and outer loop control

Among them, Figure 4.14 is the output of the four force-related motor speed
transformation relationship:

Figure 4.14: The simulation model of the speed-conversion of the force-corresponding motor
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 69

4.4.3 PID control parameters


Based on the PID control parameter values obtained in the previous simulation
experiment, the integral control parameters of the inner loop are removed. When the PID
parameters are set, the integral of the inner loop will lead to system instability. Ring PID
parameters, select a larger number of Kp, so that the inner ring adjustment faster than the
outer ring position, but should not be too large, easily lead to system instability, the
appropriate choice of the appropriate derivative ratio coefficient Kd, and then determine
the outer ring position PID parameters. PID parameters in the outer loop position The
system is linearized by the Tune function in the PID module in Simulink. The response
time of the system is adjusted so that the amplitude curve is stable after two peaks and
the first peak is about the second peak. 4 times, so get the ideal system PID control
parameters. In general, there is no concatenation of PID control parameters and yaw angle
PID control parameters, which are easier to set and the rest parameters are more complex.
Table 4.5 is the optimal value for all control parameters:

Table 4.5: PID Control Parameter Values

Parameter Value Parameter Value Parameter Value


K px 0.000725151717 K ix 7.2512026914189 K dx 0.1613812053
50405 9e-07 30171
K py 0.000725151717 K iy 7.2512026914189 K dy 0.1613812053
50405 9e-07 30171
K pz 0.014536381336 K iz 4.5500324092617 K dz 0.4216225326
6618 7e-05 40386
K p∅ 4 K i∅ 0 K d∅ 10
K pθ 6 K iθ 0 K dθ 10
K pψ 5 K iψ 0 K dψ 5

4.4.4 Simulation flight test


(0,0,0) rad, the Euler angular velocity (0,0,0) rad / s, the ground coordinate system
position (0,0,0) m, the linear velocity ( 0, 0) m / s.
The main function of this section is to test the performance of flying and hovering. The
target is set to (2,2,2), and the aircraft takes off from the origin (0,0,0) to the target position
(2,2,2) , The target yaw angle is 0rad. Figure 4.15,4.16,4.17 is simulated by the four rotor
position output response curve, the attitude of the output response curve and the four
motor speed curve.
70 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 4.15: Position Output Response Curve

Figure 4.16: Attitude Output Response Curve


Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 71

Figure 4.17: Four motor speed variation curves

The final motor speed stable at 293.4rad / s, or 2801.9r / min or so, hover motor speed
and aircraft gravity mainly related.
Therefore, the above analysis shows that the PID algorithm used in the quadcopter has
good control effect for the fixed-point flight hover control, and the error is small.

4.5 Analysis of Actual Flight of Four Rotorcraft

4.5.1 Flight test and comparative analysis


When the software and hardware are designed to complete, the quadcopter to build
completed. After constant software debugging and cumbersome tuning of the PID
parameters, the four-rotor can take off. In this paper, the movement of four-wing aircraft
is controlled by the remote control, using Fu Si FS-T6 six-channel wireless professional
model aircraft remote control, in fact only four channels, respectively, throttle, pitch
channel, roll channel and Navigation channel, four channels, respectively, to control
different modes of exercise. The throttle channel controls the motion by giving the pitch
angle, and the roll channel controls the left and right movements by giving the roll angle.
The yaw channel is controlled by giving the yaw angle Control of yaw movement, yaw
movement is rarely used in actual flight, only in the direction of adjustment of the nose
will be used, because in the four-wing after yaw movement is difficult to find the direction
of the nose is not conducive to remote control, so This paper does not conduct yaw
experiment.

1. Hover experiment
When only the remote control throttle channel, the other channel does not move, that is,
three attitude angles are zero, four-rotor will produce movements, four rotor will produce
movements, when the throttle to the size of 1850, the four rotor in the air To achieve the
hover, but the direction of the nose some deflection, may be due to start the motor when
the four motor speed inconsistency or yaw angle caused by the initial offset changes.
When the throttle size is greater than 1850, the four-rotor rise in motion, less than 1850,
the four-rotor will decline, Figure 4.18 is the hover experiment.
72 A thesis on Quadcopter

Figure 4.18: Hover flight

4000

3500 3573.61
3427.495
3235.54 3206
3000 3032.125 3079
2801.97 2759 2801
2688
2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
1.22kg 1.42kg 1.62kg 1.82kg 2.02kg

Figure 4.19: Motor speed and aircraft quality simulation and measured contrast

Figure 4.19 is the control motor simulation model to change the quality of the theoretical
motor speed and the measured comparison chart, can be seen through the comparison, the
two curves have a clear linear relationship between theoretical and actual speed error of
about 10%, the main Is due to the simulation model ignores many factors, and the actual
model gap, and because of the lift coefficient b and anti-torque coefficient d measurement
complexity, the accuracy of these two values is not high, and the actual hardware model,
2 motor Rotation resistance other motor to be high, which have affected the deviation of
the theoretical speed.

2.Rolling Experiment
When a certain size of the throttle signal, the four-rotor off, this time the other channel
does not move, only to the roll angle channel a positive signal, the four-wing to the right
side of the fuselage direction of movement, when the negative-angle signal, The left side
of the fuselage movement, the signal to the greater speed to the left faster for the safety
of four rotor flight considerations, the attitude angle in the program to limit the range of
Chapter 4: Control Scheme Design and Simulation 73

± 20 °, Figure 4.20 is the roll flight test.

Figure 4.20: Rolling flight experiment

As the roll of flight experiment, the small angle of deflection is more difficult to
accurately measure, only according to the scale on the remote control to estimate, and the
size of the deflection angle on the screen approximation that the aircraft to achieve the
corresponding deflection angle. According to the previous simulation experiments, we
can know that in order to keep the attitude angle of the aircraft in the roll-flight experiment,
the change of the motor is a first acceleration or deceleration respectively. When the target
value reaches the target value, the four motors rotate at the same speed to keep the attitude
angle . It is difficult to measure the complete change process of the motor, so we only
estimate the size of the throttle when the motor keeps the corresponding attitude angle.
The specific method is to push the throttle before takeoff, the first given the target attitude
angle, and then slowly push the throttle, when the quadcopter just left the ground, record
the corresponding throttle size. Figure 4.21 is a comparison between the results obtained
from the previous simulation model and the actual value of the hold-up motor speed
stabilization value obtained from the actual flight test.

2920
2900
2880
2860
2840
2820
2800
2780
2760
2740
5° 10° 15° 20°
Figure 4.21: Comparison of Steady Value of Motor Speed and Simulation Results for Actual Flight
Holding Corresponding Attitude Angle
74 A thesis on Quadcopter

From the above experiment, we can see that the quadcopter can realize the basic flight
action, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Chapter 5: Future Quadcopter 75

Chapter 5: Future Quadcopter


5.1 Future work
I shall want to complete the coding and integration of the GUI so that we can achieve full
control with a computer rather than an RC control. I shall work on optimizing power
consumption as well as looking at alternatives to the current battery system that I am
using now. One of the biggest steps I will do is getting a completely stabilized flight that
will allow the Quadcopter to hover untethered in a single location. With the stabilized
flight, I will also be worked on getting untethered flight around a local area like the park
nearby. The next step after untethered flight in a local area is to give it remote way points
where it will have to go on its own to a location and come back. Once I have achieved
the ability of the Quadcopter to reach a target location and then return home, I will be
almost completely done with this project. I will also be researching alternative bodies that
I can use to protect our Quadcopter as well as looking at upgraded hardware if I receive
donations from outside sources. There are certainly a lot of tasks remaining but I will be
prepared and on schedule to show a demonstration of this project.
As can be seen throughout the thesis the assigned goals were achieved to some extent. I
successfully analyzed the existing hardware and derived the mathematical model.
Identification and measurement of the model's parameters were challenging issues where
I had to improvise. The lack of any measurement devices forced me to create my own
improvised tools to get the necessary data. This was of course reflected in the quality of
the measured and evaluated data. This can be seen most obviously for the drag coefficient
d which has in reality much greater magnitude as can be seen from the tuning of the yaw
rate controller when testing with the real model.
Even though the nonlinear mathematical model is fully functional it must be noted that it
is not a true representation of the reality. The most problematic areas are the aerodynamic
forces and torques which are almost fully neglected. This poses no problem when the
indoor low speeds flights are considered but for faster outdoor flying one has to calculate
with these simplifications.
Unfortunately, it was not possible to implement more modern controllers such as the LQ
optimal regulator or controllers synthesized using the H∞ minimization. This lead to pure
proportional controllers' design. It was very interesting to see that even those very simple
controllers are able to stabilize and even provide robust performance when a suitable
architecture is chosen. The comparison between LQ and P regulator was carried out and
evaluated. The LQR provides faster and smoother response but the difference is not
dramatic.
Although a complete position control system was developed and simulated it was not
possible to run the tests with the real system. Due to the lack of features provided by the
original program and firmware and not enough time to implement my own external
algorithm, it was only possible to test the attitude control. Unfortunately, the inertial
velocity stabilization and control was not possible to implement at all.
76 A thesis on Quadcopter

Even though the goals of the thesis were not fully reached the contribution of this thesis
is fully functional nonlinear mathematical model and linear systems representing the
quadrotor’s movement which can be used as a development environment and testbed for
future work.
The last thing to be noted is that even though the position control is developed and
functional it needs more testing on the real system. One has not to forget that the
controllers are designed for the hover trim point. When more aggressive or more robust
control is desired e.g. recovering from extreme positions, more trim points have to be
introduced and some gain scheduling algorithm implemented to select or interpolate
suitable control law for the given flight envelope. Once the interface for the Gums tix
computers is operational this feature is possible. Then more advanced control algorithms
can be implemented as well, such as already mentioned LQR and H∞ minimization or
model predictive control (MPC) algorithm as a higher-level control and planning platform.
This algorithm can use the already developed inner loops as a low-level control interface
providing optimal control therefore lowering the power consumption and improving the
performance.

5.2 Future Risk


The risk that we have thought of is pushing the Quadcopter beyond its limits without
having a failsafe function. An example of this risk is failing to notice that there is
insufficient battery life to safely complete a mission, resulting in the Quadcopter being in
the air when all systems shut down. The Quadcopter will then fall to the ground, and most
likely break. I also have to watch out for weather conditions as well as altitude ceiling to
prevent similar destructive results. I have not begun to design fail safes but we do plan on
including features that will try to predict as many different risk factors as we can think of
and design the Quadcopter to auto respond appropriately, such as make a decision to land
safely to the ground.
There is also the risk with any UAV of losing the control link to the aircraft. Witness the
recent problem of the U.S. stealth drone losing communication and crashing in Iran. My
approach to this particular risk is to monitor the control link and have the copter either
land or return home if the link is broken.
Chapter 6: Conclusions 77

Chapter 6: Conclusions
This paper studied mathematical modelling and control of a quadcopter. The
mathematical model of quadcopter dynamics was presented and the differential equations
were derived from the Newton-Euler and the Euler-Lagrange equations. The model was
verified by simulating the flight of a quadcopter with Matlab. Stabilization of attitude of
the quadcopter was done by utilizing a PD controller. A heuristic method was developed
to control the trajectory of the quadcopter. The PD controller was integrated into the
heuristic method for better response to disturbances in the flight conditions of the
quadcopter.
The simulation proved the presented mathematical model to be realistic in modelling the
position and attitude of the quadcopter. The simulation results also showed that the PD
controller was efficient in stabilizing the quadcopter to the desired altitude and attitude.
However, the PD controller did not considered positions x and y. Thus, the values of x
and y variated from their original values during the stabilization process. This was a result
of the deviation of the roll and pitch angles from zero values.
According to the simulation results, the proposed heuristic method produced good flight
trajectories. The heuristic method required only three parameters to generate the values
for the jounce of the position. The position and its other derivatives were calculated from
the jounce values. The total thrust and the pitch and roll angles to achieve given
accelerations were solved from the linear differential equations. Then, the torques were
determined by the angular accelerations and angular velocities calculated from the angles.
Finally, the required control inputs were solved from the total thrust and the torques. The
simulation results indicated that the quadcopter could be controlled accurately with the
control inputs given by the method.
The proposed heuristic method does not consider unmodeled disturbances, such as wind,
and thus the PD controller was integrated into the control method. The integrated PD
controller operated well in the example simulation. The quadcopter followed the given
trajectory and began to stabilize after reaching the final destination. However, the PD
controller can perform poorly if the parameter values are not properly selected and are
too small or high [38].
The presented mathematical model only consists of the basic structures of the quad-
copter dynamics. Several aerodynamical effects were excluded which can lead to
unreliable behavior. Also, the electric motors spinning the fours rotors were not modelled.
The behavior of a motor is easily included in the model but would re- quire estimation of
the parameter values of the motor. The position and attitude information was assumed to
be accurate in the model and the simulations. However, the measuring devices in real life
are not perfectly accurate as random variations and errors occur. Hence, the effects of
imprecise information to the flight of the quadcopter should be studied as well. Also,
methods to enhance the accuracy of the measurements should be researched and
implemented to improve all aspects required for robust quadcopter maneuvers.
The presented model and control methods were tested only with simulations. Real
experimental prototype of a quadcopter should be constructed to achieve more realistic
and reliable results. Even though the construction of a real quadcopter and the estimation
78 A thesis on Quadcopter

of all the model parameters are laborious tasks, a real quadcopter would bring significant
benefits to the research. With a real prototype, the theoretical framework and the
simulation results could be compared to real-life measurements. This paper did not
include these highlighted matters in the study but presented the basics of quadcopter
modelling and control. This paper can thus be used as a stepping-stone for future research
in more complex modelling of the quadcopter.
List of Abbreviations 79

List of Abbreviations
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
DCM - Direction Cosine Matrix
ESC - Electronic Speed Controller
FEM - Finite Element Method
FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array
IMU - Inertial Measurement Unit
MV - Measured values
PWM - Pulse Width Modulation
RC - Remote Control
rpm - Revolutions per minute
Rx - Receive
sbRIO - Single Board Reconfigurable Input/output
SP - Set points for the controller
SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface
Tx - Transmit
UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
VI - Virtual Instrument, a LabVIEW program
subVI - Subroutine in a LabVIEW VI
lipo - lithium polymer
UAV- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
BLDC- Brushless Direct Current
P- Proportional
MATLAB- Matrix Laboratory
M-file- MATLAB text editor file
ESC- Electronic Speed Controller
GPS- Global Positioning Syste
80 A thesis on Quadcopter

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84 A thesis on Quadcopter

Appendix

• UAV (Unmanned Ariel Vehicle)

• GUI (Graphical User Interface)

• HAE UAV ACTD (High altitude Endurance Unmanned Ariel Vehicle Advance
Concept Technology Demonstrator)

• DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

• DARO (Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office)

• UAS (Unmanned Ariel System)

• DIY (Do It Yourself)

• GPS (Global Positioning System)

• IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)

• TTL (Transistor – Transistor – Level)

• NTSC (National Television System Committee)

• FPS (Frames Per Second)

• BPS (Bits Per Second)

• ESC (Electronic Speed Controller)

• Lipo (Lithium ion Polymer)

ESC:

• Constant Current: 60A

• Burst Current: 80A

• Battery: 2-4S Li-Po

• SBEC: 5.5v / 4A

• Motor Type: Brushless

• Size: 70 x 32 x 17mm

• Battery Wire: 14AWG

• Motor Wire: 14AWG

• Weight: 61g
Appendix 85

BLDC Motor:

Model Battery cell count RPM/V Propeller RPM MAX Thrust

Current

92 11 × 7 8360 30A 1350 gm

12 × 6 7000 31A 1550 gm


BL 2815/09 3s 0

KK2.5.1 multirotor controller board:

• Size: 50.5mm x 50.5mm x 12mm

• Weight: 21 gra

• IC: Atmega644 PA

• Gyro/Acceleration: 6050MPU

• Auto-level: Yes

• Input Voltage: 4.8-6.0V

• AVR interface: standard 6 pin.

• Firmware Version: 2.1.5

Servo Motor:

• Modulation: Analog

• Torque: 4.8V: 122.0 oz-in (8.78 kg-cm) 6.0V: 153.0 oz-in (11.02 kg-cm)

• Speed: 4.8V: 0.70 sec/60° 6.0V: 0.56 sec/60°

• Weight: 2.54 oz (72.0 g)

• Dimensions: Length: 1.73 in (43.9 mm)

• Width: 0.91 in (23.1 mm)

• Height: 1.69 in (42.9 mm)

• Motor Type: 3-pole

• Gear Type: Hybrid


86 A thesis on Quadcopter

• Rotation/Support: Dual Bearings

Li-Po Battery:

• Capacity: 3300mAh

• Voltage: 11.1V

• Max Continuous Discharge: 25C (82.5A)

• Max Burst Discharge: 50C (165A)

• Weight: 284g

• Dimensions: 133*42*23mm

• Charge Rate: 1-3C Recommended, 5C Max

GHz radio transmitter:

• Radio: 2.4 GHz

• Length: 7.4 in (188mm)

• Height: 3.8 in (96.5mm)

• Width/Diameter: 11.6 in (294.6mm)

• Weight: 498.9 g (17.6oz)

-The End-