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V10.

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Instructor Guide

AIX Jumpstart for UNIX Professionals


Course code AN14G ERC 5.0
Instructor Guide

Trademarks
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.
The following are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, registered in many
jurisdictions worldwide:
Active Memory™ AIX 5L™ AIX 6™
AIX® Approach® DB2®
Electronic Service Agent™ Everyplace® Initiate®
Language Environment® MVS™ Notes®
Power Architecture® POWER Hypervisor™ Power Systems™
Power® PowerHA® PowerPC®
PowerVM® POWER6® POWER7+™
POWER7® POWER8™ Redbooks®
RS/6000® System p® System Storage®
Tivoli® WebSphere®
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
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Java™ and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Oracle and/or its affiliates.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies.

August 2015 edition


The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed on an “as is” basis without
any warranty either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer
responsibility and depends on the customer’s ability to evaluate and integrate them into the customer’s operational environment. While
each item may have been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will
result elsewhere. Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk.

© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2009, 2015.


This document may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
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Instructor Guide

TOC Contents
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Instructor course overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Course description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
AIX overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Additional AIX capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Logical partition overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Typical Power system layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
HMC and LPAR capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
The HMC (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
The HMC (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Virtualization example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27

Unit 2. AIX system management tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
AIX administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
SMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
SMIT main menu (text-based) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Dialog screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Output screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
SMIT log and script files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
IBM Systems Director Console for AIX (pconsole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Console interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Console management view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Console applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36

Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
AIX media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Software packaging definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Software bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
AIX software levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
What is my AIX version? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Software installation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Software repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Contents iii


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Software states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-21


Software listing and versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23
lslpp, filesets and files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25
Installing new software using SMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-27
Installing software using command line: Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29
RedHat Package Manager filesets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-32
Applying patches to the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-35
Applying patches, apply, commit, reject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-37
Listing fixes (APAR's) installed on the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-39
Interim fix management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-41
Removing installed software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-43
Recovering from broken or inconsistent states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-45
Service update management assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-47
SUMA base configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-49
SUMA command line execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-51
Fix Central website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-56
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-58
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-60

Unit 4. System configuration and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
System configuration and device overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4
prtconf (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6
prtconf (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8
lscfg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10
lsdev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-12
lsattr and chdev commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14
Device states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-16
/dev directory, device configuration, and control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-18
Device addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-20
Physical location code examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-22
Virtual location codes example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-25
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-28
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-30
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-32

Unit 5. TCP/IP networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
Ethernet adapters and interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-10
SMIT, ODM, and the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12
TCP/IP startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15
Command line TCP/IP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17
Name resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-19
Network file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-22
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-27
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29

iv AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
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TOC Unit 6. System startup and shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Start-up modes for AIX (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Start-up modes for AIX (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
AIX partition activation (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
AIX partition activation (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
/etc/inittab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
/etc/inittab management and run levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
System resource controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Listing subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
SRC control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
AIX partition shutdown (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
AIX partition shutdown (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-28
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-31
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-33
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-35

Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Creating partitions and profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Memory and processor allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Adapter allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Create Logical Partition wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Create Logical Partition wizard steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22

Unit 8. AIX installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Installation methods for AIX 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
AIX installation in a partition: DVD or CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Installing AIX from DVD (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Installing AIX from DVD (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Installation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Installation and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
Method of installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Installation disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
Set Primary Language Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
Security Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
Software install options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
Install summary and installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-28
Accept License Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30
AIX installation: Post steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-32
AIX installation in a partition using NIM: NIM overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34
AIX installation in a partition using NIM: Configuration steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37
Network boot (1 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
Network boot (2 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41
Network boot (3 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43
Network boot (4 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45
Network boot (5 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-47

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Contents v


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Network boot (6 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-49


Network boot (7 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-51
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-53
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-55
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-57

Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-2
Logical Volume Manager components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4
Uses of logical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7
Benefits of the AIX Logical Volume Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10
Volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-12
SMIT Volume Groups menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-15
Adding a volume group to the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-17
Adding a scalable volume group to the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-19
Listing volume groups and VG attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-21
Listing PVs in a VG and VG contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-23
Change a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-26
Extend and reduce a VG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-28
Remove a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-31
Activate and Deactivate a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-33
Logical storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-35
LVM, RAID, and SAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-37
LVM options and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-40
Reorganize logical volumes in a volume group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-44
SMIT Logical Volumes menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-46
Adding a logical volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-48
Show LV characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-50
Add Copies to a Logical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-53
Increasing the size of a logical volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-55
Remove a Logical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-57
List all logical volumes by volume group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59
Mirroring volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-61
Physical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-63
SMIT Physical Volumes menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-65
List physical volume information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-67
List logical volumes on a physical volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69
Add or remove a physical volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-72
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-74
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-76
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-78

Unit 10. File systems administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-2
Journaled file system support in AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-4
Advantages of enhanced JFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-6
Listing i-node and block size information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-8
Creating a JFS2 file system (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-10
Creating a JFS2 file system (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-12
Mounting a file system and the /etc/filesystems file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-14
JFS2 logging options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-16

vi AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

TOC Creating a file system on a previously defined logical volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18


Changing the size of a JFS2 file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Removing a JFS2 file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
File system space management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-29
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31

Unit 11. The Object Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Data managed by the ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
ODM components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Configuration manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Basic device object classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
How ODM classes act together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
ODM and high-level device commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
ODM commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
Changing attribute values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
Additional device object classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-28
ODM repositories and software-related objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-31
Software vital product data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-39
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-41

Unit 12. LVM metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
LVM identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
LVM metadata locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
LVM-related ODM objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Exporting a volume group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Importing a volume group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
importvg and duplicate names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21
How LVM interacts with ODM and VGDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-24
Fixing ODM problems with user volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-27
Fixing ODM problems with rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-30
Intermediate-level ODM commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-40

Unit 13. Disk management procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Disk replacement: Starting point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Procedure 1: Disk mirrored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Procedure 2: Disk still working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Procedure 2: Special steps for rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Procedure 3: Disk in missing or removed state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
Stale partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
VGDA count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24
Quorum not available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Contents vii


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Nonquorum volume groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-29


Physical volume states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-32
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-35
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-37
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-39

Unit 14. Backup and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-2
Backup and restore technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-4
Topic 1 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-8
Backup by file name and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-10
Backup and restore by i-node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-13
Topic 2 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-18
JFS2 snapshot (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20
JFS2 snapshot (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-22
Creating snapshots (external) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-25
Creating snapshots (internal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-28
Listing snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-31
Using a JFS2 snapshot to recover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-34
Using a JFS2 snapshot to backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-36
Topic 3 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-40
System image backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-42
Creating a mksysb image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-45
image.data file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-48
bosinst.data file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-51
mksysb tape image format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-54
Restoring a mksysb from tape device (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-57
Restoring a mksysb from tape device (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-59
Restoring a mksysb from a NIM server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-62
Back up and restore a user volume group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-64
Checkpoint (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-68
Checkpoint (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-70
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-72
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-74

Unit 15. Error monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-2
Error logging components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-6
Generating an error report using SMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-9
The errpt command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-12
A summary report (errpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-15
A detailed error report (errpt -a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-17
Types of disk errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-20
LVM error log entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-23
Maintaining the error log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-25
ODM-based error notification: errnotify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-30
Redirecting messages between syslog and error log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-34
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-37
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-39
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-41

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TOC Unit 16. System initialization - I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
How does an AIX system boot? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Working with bootlists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
AIX 7: bootlist pathid enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11
Starting System Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Working with bootlists in SMS (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-16
Working with bootlists in SMS (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-19
Boot device alternatives (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24
Boot device alternatives (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-27
Accessing a system that will not boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-29
Booting in maintenance mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32
Working in maintenance mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-35
How to fix a corrupted BLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-38
Checkpoint (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41
Checkpoint (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-43
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-45
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-47

Unit 17. System initialization - II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
System software initialization overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Contents of the boot logical volume (hd5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
rc.boot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
The alog command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-15
Fixing corrupted file system logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18
Boot problem management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-21
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-24
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-26
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-28

Unit 18. The AIX system dump facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Types of dumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
When a dump occurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
The sysdumpdev command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
Dedicated dump device (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
Dedicated dump device (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18
dumpcheck utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20
Methods of starting a dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23
Copying a system dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-27
Working with AIX support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-30
Capturing system data with snap command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-33
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-37
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-39
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-41

Unit 19. Advanced install techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1


Unit objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Topic 1 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6
Alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Contents ix


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Alternate mksysb disk installation (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-11


Alternate mksysb disk installation (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-14
Alternate disk rootvg cloning (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-16
Alternate disk rootvg cloning (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-19
Removing an alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-21
Topic 1 Checkpoint: Alternate disk installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-24
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-26
Topic 2 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-30
multibos overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-32
Active and standby BOS logical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-35
Setting up a standby BOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-37
Other multibos operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-40
Topic 2 Checkpoint: multibos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-44
Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-46
Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-48
Unit summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-50

Appendix A. Survey of additional AIX facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

Appendix B. Printers and queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

Appendix C. Quick reference: Solaris to AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

Appendix D. Quick reference: HP-UX to AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

Appendix E. Checkpoint solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-1

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TMK
Trademarks
The reader should recognize that the following terms, which appear in the content of this training
document, are official trademarks of IBM or other companies:
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.
The following are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, registered in many
jurisdictions worldwide:
Active Memory™ AIX 5L™ AIX 6™
AIX® Approach® DB2®
Electronic Service Agent™ Everyplace® Initiate®
Language Environment® MVS™ Notes®
Power Architecture® POWER Hypervisor™ Power Systems™
Power® PowerHA® PowerPC®
PowerVM® POWER6® POWER7+™
POWER7® POWER8™ Redbooks®
RS/6000® System p® System Storage®
Tivoli® WebSphere®
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.
Java™ and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Oracle and/or its affiliates.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Trademarks xi


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

pref
Instructor course overview
This is a five-day course for experienced UNIX administrators on how to
install, customize, and administer the AIX operating system in a Power
Systems partitioned environment. The course requires the students to be
familiar with AIX from an end-user’s point of view (for example, to be able to
use the vi editor). They are expected to be familiar with all aspects of UNIX
system administration and only need to know how AIX differs and how to
translate their skills to the AIX environment.
At the end of the week, students should be proficient in most aspects of AIX
system administration. Additional LPAR and virtualization skills are available
by attending the virtualization series of courses: AN11G, AN30G, and AN31G.
Additional AIX skills in AIX TCP/IP configuration and in AIX Performance
Management can be obtained by attending AN21G and AN51G respectively.
AIX WPAR training can be obtained by attending AN17G.
With this release of the course, the materials are AIX 7.1 compliant. The
course has been designed to reflect partitioning technology. There is no
reference to the concept of a stand-alone system.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Instructor course overview xiii


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xiv AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

pref
Course description
AIX Jumpstart for UNIX Professionals

Duration: 5 days

Purpose
Provide focused training for experienced UNIX administrators on how to
install, customize, and administer the AIX operating system in a multiuser
Power Systems partitioned environment. The course is based on AIX 7.1
running on a Power system managed by Hardware Management Console
version 7 and provides practical discussions that are appropriate to earlier
AIX releases.

Audience
This intermediate course is intended for experienced UNIX system
administrators who need training to support their transition to supporting AIX
running on POWER processor based systems in a multiuser Power Systems
partitioned environment.

Prerequisites
The students who are attending this course should already be able to use
basic UNIX commands to:
• Execute basic AIX commands
• Manage files and directories
• Use the vi editor
• Use redirection, pipes, and tees
• Use the utilities find and grep
• Use command and variable substitution
• Set and change Korn shell variables
• Write simple shell scripts
The above skills can be acquired by attending AIX Basics (AU13 or AN10) or
through equivalent AIX/UNIX knowledge.
In addition, students are expected to have hands-on experience
administering a UNIX operating system (such as Solaris, HP/UX, and others)
including:
• User management and system security
• Storage
• Networking
• System shutdown and restart
• Backup and recovery
• System task scheduling

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Course description xv


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Objectives
After completing this course, students should be able to:
• Install the AIX operating system, filesets, and RedHat Package Manager
(RPM) packages
• Perform system startup and shutdown
• Discuss and use system management tools such as System Management
Interface Tool (SMIT) and IBM Systems Director console for AIX
• Manage physical and logical devices
• Discuss the purpose of the logical volume manager
• Perform logical volume and file system management
• Perform and restore system backups
• Use the AIX error log as a tool in problem determination
• Configure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
networking

Contents
• Introduction to IBM Power Systems and AIX
• AIX system management tools
• AIX software installation and maintenance
• System configuration and device
• TCP/IP networking
• System startup and shutdown
• Basic logical partition definition and use
• AIX installation
• Working with the Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
• File system administration
• Backup and restore
• Working with the Object Data Manager (ODM)
• Working with the AIX error log
• System boot problem management
• LVM and file system problem management
• Disk management procedures
• Advanced installation and system update techniques
• AIX dump creation and packaging for AIX support
• Use of JFS2 snapshot for backup and restore
• (Optional) Survey of additional AIX features

Curriculum relationship
This course acts as a starting point in the AIX system administration and
POWER virtualization curriculum for experienced UNIX administrators. The
next recommended course is AN11G. AN14G attendees should not attend
AN12G or AN15G, because AN14G already covers the material in those
courses. Other follow-on courses related to AIX system administration would
be AN51G (performance management), AN21G (networking), AN22G (NIM),
and AN17G (workload partitions).

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V10.1
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pref
Agenda
Day 1
(00:30) Welcome
(00:35) Unit 1: Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems
(00:30) Exercise 1: Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems
(00:40) Unit 2: AIX system management tools
(00:30) Exercise 2: Using system management tools in AIX
(01:15) Unit 3: AIX software installation and maintenance
(00:20) Exercise 3: AIX software installation and maintenance
(00:45) Unit 4: System configuration and devices
(00:30) Exercise 4: System configuration and devices

Day 2
(00:40) Unit 5: TCP/IP networking
(00:25) Exercise 5: TCP/IP implementation
(01:00) Unit 6: System startup and shutdown
(00:30) Exercise 6: System startup and shutdown
(00:20) Unit 7: Basics of configuring logical partitions
(01:00) Exercise 7: Configuring logical partitions
(01:20) Unit 8: AIX installation
(00:50) Exercise 8: AIX installation
(01:30) Unit 9: Working with the Logical Volume Manager

Day 3
(01:10) Exercise 9: Working with LVM
(01:05) Unit 10: File systems administration
(00:25) Exercise 10: File systems administration
(00:45) Unit 11: The Object Data Manager
(00:30) Exercise 11: The Object Data Manager
(00:50) Unit 12: LVM metadata
(00:45) Exercise 12: LVM metadata issues
(01:10) Unit 13: Disk management procedures
(00:40) Exercise 13: Disk management procedures

Day 4
(01:30) Unit 14: Backup and restore
(01:00) Exercise 14: Backup and restore
(00:55) Unit 15: Error monitoring
(00:25) Exercise 15: Error monitoring
(01:05) Unit 16: System initialization - I
(00:45) Exercise 16: System initialization - I (Parts 1-3)

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Agenda xvii


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Day 5
(00:20) Exercise 16: System initialization - I (Part 4)
(00:45) Unit 17: System initialization - II
(00:35) Exercise 17: System initialization - II
(00:35) Unit 18: The AIX system dump facility
(00:20) Exercise 18: System dump
(00:45) Unit 19: Advanced install techniques (Topic 1: Alternate disk
installation)
(01:00) Exercise 19: Advanced install techniques (Topic 1: Alternate disk)
(00:35) Unit 19: Advanced install techniques (Topic 2: Using multibos)
(00:35) Exercise 19: Advanced install techniques (Topic 2: multibos)
(00:45) Optional Appendix A: Survey of additional AIX facilities
(00:40) Optional Appendix B: Printers and queues

xviii AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty
Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power
Systems

Estimated time
00:35

What this unit is about


This unit provides an introduction to IBM Power Systems, AIX, and system
administration.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Define terminology and concepts of IBM Power System servers,
virtualization, HMC, and AIX
• Identify the components and their relations in a typical setup of a Power
environment

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX 7.1 Information
POO03022USENAIX “From Strength to Strength”
AU73G System p LPAR configuration and virtualization I
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ib
m.aix.base/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Define terminology and concepts of IBM Power System
servers, virtualization, HMC, and AIX
• Identify the components and their relations in a typical setup
of a Power environment

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce IBM Power Systems, and AIX.
Details — The purpose of this unit is to introduce Power Systems and AIX, including their key
capabilities, for new AIX system administrators.
After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Define terminology and concepts of IBM Power System servers, virtualization, HMC, and AIX
• Identify the components and their relationships in a typical setup of a Power environment.
Additional information — The prerequisite for this class is the first-level LPAR course (AN11).
However, in reality, many students jump straight into this class. For some students, the material in
the introduction acts as a refresher. For students new to Power Systems and AIX, it should help put
the big picture into context before concentrating on AIX administration.
Transition statement — Let us start by providing an overview of AIX.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

AIX overview
IBM Power Systems

• IBM’s proprietary operating system based on UNIX System V.


– Also has BSD compatible commands and programming interface extensions
• Advanced Interactive Executive (AIX) runs on proprietary hardware
(H/W) called IBM Power Systems.
– Eighth generation of Power, based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer
(RISC) technology
• Most Power Systems today run many instances of AIX in partitions that
are known as logical partitions (LPAR).
– This is H/W partitioning that is managed by the system firmware, Power
Hypervisor
LPAR:
AIX1

LPAR:
AIX2

LPAR:
AIX3

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-2. AIX overview AN14G5.0

Notes:
Advanced Interactive Executive (AIX) is IBM's proprietary UNIX OS based on UNIX System V
with 4.3BSD-compatible command and programming interface extensions.
Announcement Letter Number 286-004 dated January 21, 1986:
• “The AIX Operating System is based on INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation's IN/ix, which, in
turn, is based on UNIX System V, as licensed by AT&T Bell Laboratories. Some portions of the
modifications and enhancements were developed by IBM; others were developed by
INTERACTIVE under contract to IBM.”
Workload partitions (WPAR) are virtualized, secure operating system environments, within a
single instance of the AIX operating system. Live Application Mobility is a capability of WPAR
technology, which allows partitions to move between systems with limited application downtime (for
example, 20 seconds).

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce AIX and its role in today’s POWER technology.
Details — Provide an overview to set the tone and put the technology into perspective. Differentiate
the generic term partition with the more specific term of logical partition. It is important that students
understand right from the beginning that, today, most AIX OSs live in LPARs. This is a key
message.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us provide an overview of additional AIX capabilities.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-5
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Additional AIX capabilities


IBM Power Systems

• Ease of use:
– SMIT and IBM Systems Director Console, in addition to command line
– Object Data Manager (ODM) for central configuration repository
• Reliability, availability, and serviceability:
– Resiliency that is built into design of components
– Dynamic changes to system without reboot
– High availability clustering with PowerHA
• Storage management:
– Logical Volume Manager
– Enhanced journaled file system
• Network Installation Manager
• Workload management and migration
– Workload Manager and Workload Partitions
• Security
– Role-based access, Trojan detection, system hardening, and more

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-3. Additional AIX capabilities AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Management tools
AIX provides several easy to use system administration tools. Foremost among them are SMIT
and the IBM Systems Director Console. These allow the system administrator to carry out
system administration tasks without having to know all of the line commands and their syntax
(options and arguments). These will be covered in the next unit.
• Reliability, availability, and serviceability
The IBM hardware and software is designed and tested to be reliable. Still, unanticipated
problems can occur in the field. To handle this, they provide extensive built-in failure detection
and related data collection capabilities to assist in a quick resolution of the problem. The
hardware is designed with redundant components to be able to be resilient through an
individual component failure. What would be permanent failures are reduced to temporary
failures and early notices are provided that a component needs servicing or replacement. Since
many problems are caused by user (system administrator or operator) errors, they build in
protections against such errors and provide tools such as SMIT to reduce the chance of error.
Administrative tasks that might require the operating system component to be cycled (or the
entire operating system shutdown) in non-AIX systems are designed to be accomplished

1-6 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty dynamically without any outage. Most hardware is not only redundant but hot-swappable. When
faced with a situation where you need to disrupt the application environment, there are ways to
relocate the application, non-disruptively, to an alternate platform.
• Storage management
AIX provides a built-in flexible and powerful storage manager. Applications work with logical
volumes, which can be dynamically allocated and later relocated across a collection of disks. If
needed, it provides software mirroring and striping. The file system services provide a file
system that is efficient, can grow to extraordinary size, and provides a collection of functional
capabilities. Later units will cover details of both LVM and JFS2.
• Network Installation Manager
AIX provides a built-in capability to centrally manage the remote installation, back up, restore,
and upgrade of the operating systems in your complex. This course makes extensive use of the
Network Installation Manager (NIM) facility.
• Workload management
The POWER-based processor server provides the ability to place each application in its own
logical partition. But sometimes it can be more efficient to have multiple applications share the
same logical partition (only one operating system kernel). To help provide isolation and
guaranteed resource allocation, AIX allows each application to run in a workload partition.
• Security
AIX provides state of the art security. Regular security alerts and fixes make sure that you have
plugged potential security holes before hackers have a chance to use them. Role assignments
provide a secure and flexible way to delegate administrative authority. Trusted Execution can
identify and block the execution of any trojans on your system, should a hacker manage to
break in. Several tools are provided to help provide a hardened system to avoid potential
break-ins. Transparent file encryption allows the user to selectively protect the files that are
important to be protected. And there is much more.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-7
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Identify AIX capabilities in which it might differ from other UNIX operating systems.
Details — Do not get into too much detail. These topics are better taught in detail later in the course
or in subsequent courses in the curriculum.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let’s start looking at the virtual environment where AIX is typically hosted.

1-8 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Logical partition overview


IBM Power Systems

• An LPAR is the allocation of system resources to create logically


separate systems within the same physical footprint.
• The resource allocation and isolation for a logical partition is
implemented in firmware that is called Power Hypervisor.
– Provides configuration flexibility
• Each partition has its own:
– Operating system
– Resources: Processors, memory, devices (defined in a profile)
• Partitions can consist of physical (real) or virtual devices.
– Or a combination of both

sys1 sys2 sys3 sys4


04:42 14:42 11:42 19:42

LPAR 1 LPAR 2 LPAR 3 LPAR 4

Power Hypervisor
System Hardware (memory, processors, devices)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-4. Logical partition overview AN14G5.0

Notes:
Logical partition (LPAR)
Logical partitioning is the ability to make a single system that runs as if it were two or more systems.
Each partition represents a division of resources in the Power System. The partitions are logical
because the division of resources is logical and not along physical boundaries.
Hypervisor Partitions are isolated from each other by firmware (underlying software) called the
POWER Hypervisor. The names POWER Hypervisor and Hypervisor is used interchangeably in
this course.
Each partition has its own environment, for example – IP address or time of day, just as any AIX
instance.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-9
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce the concepts of LPARs.
Details — Describe what is meant by logical partitions.
The visual shows different time zones and country flags to show that because LPARs are separate
operating environments, system variables such as the time zone, can be set in each operating
system of each LPAR.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at a typical system layout.

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Uempty

Typical Power system layout


IBM Power Systems

• LPAR configuration and control are completed through the Hardware


Management Console (HMC).
• The HMC connects to the service processors and the LPARs.
– A private network usually connects HMC and service processors.

Private Service
Processors Managed
network system
Secondary HMC
‘Backup’ LPAR 1

LPAR 2
Primary HMC Public/open SAN
network LPAR 3

LPAR 4

NIM Server Images

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-5. Typical Power system layout AN14G5.0

Notes:
The diagram shows a typical example of a Power System setup configuration. The HMC connects
to the servers through Ethernet adapters. The official term for a server that is managed by an HMC
is Managed System. The server is split into a number of Logical Partitions (LPARs) running AIX. A
Network Installation Manager (NIM) server is highly preferable to install and update the AIX LPARs
over the network. There can be a maximum of 2 HMCs connected to each system and each system
has two dedicated Ethernet ports that are reserved for this. It is recommended that the HMC to
Service Processor communication occurs through a private network that is reserved for that
purpose. The HMC also must have open network connectively to the LPARs if such features as
Connection Monitoring and Dynamic LPAR operations are to be achieved.
It is also preferable to have a second HMC connected for availability purposes.
Note: A failure of the HMC does not interfere in any way with the running managed system.
The service processor is a separate, independent processor that provides hardware initialization
during system load, monitoring of environmental and error events, and maintenance support.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-11
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show the group a typical Power System configuration.
Details — Introduce the big picture. Be sure to clearly explain the terminology, especially the term
Managed System. Point out that the public network provides access to the running LPARs (though
allocated network adapters) even if the HMC is down. The HMC is only needed if you require
access to the LPARs system console or you need to work with the system firmware (to define, start,
stop, or modify the LPARs). If an LPAR has a situation that requires HMC access and your only
HMC is down - that would be a problem. This is the reason for the backup HMC.
There can be many alternatives to the network design, such as a single open network (which is
what we typically use in the class lab environment). Details on setting up and connecting the
hardware are provided in the AN11 course.
Additional information —
Transition statement — The HMC is a key box; let us provide an overview. Note, this is not an
HMC course so point them to our LPAR class if more details are required.

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Uempty

HMC and LPAR capabilities


IBM Power Systems

• HMC centralizes system and LPAR management:


– Non-disruptive firmware updates
– Central service point for problem reporting and management
– Control LPAR status and resource allocation
– Access to LPAR system consoles
• Better resource utilization:
– Dynamic LPAR resource allocation
– Shared or dedicated processor pools
– Shared or dedicated network adapters
– Shared or dedicated storage adapters
– Shared or dedicated memory
• Workload relocation (entire LPAR):
– Live Partition Mobility
• Static Partition Mobility

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-6. HMC and LPAR capabilities AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR)
The term dynamic in DLPAR means we can add, move, or remove resources without having to
reactivate the partition. If there are partitions that need more or can do with fewer resources,
you can dynamically move the resources between partitions within the managed system without
shutting down the partitions. Both the source and the destination partitions must support the
dynamic partitioning operation.
• Processors and memory
Each running LPAR has an active profile that contains the resources that LPAR is entitled to.
For processor and memory settings, there is a maximum and a minimum range. These
boundaries cannot be exceeded when performing dynamic reallocation operations.
• Live Partition Mobility
Live Partition Mobility is a new capability that enables users to move partitions between systems
with no application downtime. Live Partition Mobility enables organizations to move LPARs from
CPU intensive servers to improve overall throughput based on requirements at a particular time.
This also allows us to use a maintenance window on a physical machine without the need for
any application downtime. The only interruption of service would be due to network latency. If
sufficient bandwidth is available, a delay of at most, a few seconds, is typically expected.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-13
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Point out some of the highlights of the POWER-based virtualization capabilities.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us take a closer look at how we work with the HMC.

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Uempty

The HMC (1 of 2)
IBM Power Systems

• An appliance for the management of POWER processor-


based servers
– IBM provided Intel based server (desktop or rack mount) running a
web-based application on a customized version of Linux
• Access through https (GUI) and SSH (command line)

• Acts as a focal point for collecting and servicing managed


system serviceable events
– Can be configured to call home to IBM for parts and service
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-7. The HMC (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
The HMC is an Intel-based server that runs a customized version of Linux (SuSE). Its main purpose
is to configure and control up to 48 managed systems.
The HMC also collects diagnostic and error information from the LPARs and Managed System and
logs them as Serviceable events. If configured, the HMC can send these reports to IBM through the
Electronic Service Agent (ESA).
You can access the HMC either through a web browser graphic interface (https) or through an ssh
protocol command-line interface.

Note

On entry level machines, such as POWER8 scale-out servers, if the system is to be used as a
non-partitioned system, then an HMC is not required. An HMC is mandatory for enterprise class
systems (Power 770 and above for POWER7, Power Systems E870 and above for POWER8). The
supported virtual machine configurations are:
• With an HMC (AIX, Linux, IBM i)

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

• Without an HMC:
- IVM (AIX, Linux, IBM i)
- PowerKVM (Linux)
- Full system partition (AIX, Linux, IBM i)
Note that not all systems support IBM i. Only certain models of POWER8 scale-out server support
PowerKVM.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the HMC.
Details — This page introduces the HMC. The most important points on this page are that the HMC
is needed for Power Systems that runs LPARs, and that the HMC is an independent system.
The first diagram supports the bullet “Access is through https …”
The second diagram supports the bullet “Acts as a focal point...”
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see the main HMC interface.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

The HMC (2 of 2)
IBM Power Systems

Managed
Systems

LPARs Proc and


running MEM
AIX resources
Navigation
area
Task
Pad

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-8. The HMC (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
The diagram in this visual shows the main view of a managed system – sys034. Operations such as
create, stop, and shutdown LPAR can be performed from the Tasks pad or bar, or by selecting the
LPAR itself. The view is highly customizable.
The navigation area (on the left) offers the main features of the HMC, such as:
• Systems plans for producing or deploying system configuration plans done during design
• HMC Management for configuring the HMC, users, roles, network setting, and other HMC
characteristics
• Updates, for updating the HMC and Managed System firmware
This view was taken from an HMC running v7.3.3.1. Pre-v7 HMCs ran WebSM, which was a much
different interface based on Java.

1-18 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the main interface.
Details — Describe the major parts of the HMC interface as shown in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us provide an example of virtualization technology.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-19
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Virtualization example
IBM Power Systems

AIX Virtual I/O Server


LPAR LPAR
Physical
Virtual Physical network
Virtual
Ethernet Virtual SEA Ethernet
Ethernet
ent0 Ethernet Layer 2 ent0
ent1
Switch Bridge
Virtual ent2
Ethernet
ent1
Hypervisor
Virtual
Virtual Physical
Client Device
Server Storage
Adapter vSCSI
Adapter Mapping
vtscsi0 Adapter
vhost0 fcs0

SCSI, SAS, FC physical disks


or logical volumes

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-9. Virtualization example AN14G5.0

Notes:
Virtualizing LPARs
The main benefits of virtualized I/O are as follows:
• Partitions can be created without requiring additional physical I/O resources. The new partitions
can be configured to use virtualized I/O resources,. This allows them to be configured in a
timely manner, since no physical reconfiguration of the system, that is, moving adapter cards
and cables, is required.
• Virtualized I/O allows an economical I/O model, since it allows multiple partitions to share
common resources. For example, multiple partitions can share a single physical adapter.
Without virtualized I/O, each partition would require its own adapter, even if the full capacity of
the adapter was not being utilized.
• The use of virtualized I/O facilitates server consolidation. It permits multiple client partitions to
reside on a single machine, and make efficient use of shared resources.

1-20 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)


The IBM Virtual I/O Server software enables the creation of partitions that use the I/O resources of
another partition. In this way, it helps to maximize the utilization of physical resources on Power
Systems. Partitions can have dedicated I/O, virtual I/O, or both. Physical resources are assigned to
the Virtual I/O Server partition in the same way physical resources are assigned to other partitions.
The virtual I/O server then provides access to these physical resources from the virtual client
LPARs.
While not shown in the visual, it is also possible to define virtual Fibre Channel (FC) adapters.
These allow the client LPAR to access the SAN through a physical FC in the Virtual I/O Server. The
Client LPAR virtual FC has its own unique port number (WWPN) to which the SAN can zone LUNs.
The Virtual I/O Server is a separate software product and is included as part of the PowerVM
Editions. It supports AIX Version 5.3, 6.1, 7.1, Linux, and IBM i as virtual I/O clients.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Provide an overview of partition virtualization.
Details — Introduce the information that is provided on the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us review what we covered with some checkpoint questions.

1-22 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. What is the name of the device that creates and controls


LPARs?

2. What term is used to refer to a server that is managed by


an HMC?

3. True or False: An AIX operating system can run in an


environment that has no real devices allocated.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-10. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-23
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. What is the name of the device that creates and controls


LPARs?
The answer is the HMC.

2. What term is used to refer to a server that is managed by


an HMC?
The answer is the Managed System.

3. True or False: An AIX operating system can run in an


environment that has no real devices allocated.
The answer is true.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

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V10.1
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Uempty

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

Introduction to AIX and IBM


Power Systems

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-11. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-25
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

1-26 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Define terminology and concepts of IBM Power System
servers, virtualization, HMC, and AIX
• Identify the components and their relations in a typical setup
of a Power environment

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 1-12. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 1. Introduction to AIX and IBM Power Systems 1-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

1-28 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty
Unit 2. AIX system management tools

Estimated time
00:40

What this unit is about


This unit describes the system management tools available in AIX, with a
particular focus on SMIT and the IBM Systems Director Console.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the benefits of the system management tools available with AIX
• Discuss the functionality of SMIT and IBM Systems Director Console for
AIX
• Explain how system management activity is logged
• Use SMIT (or equivalent function in IBM Systems Director Console)

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Systems Director Console for AIX
AIX Version 7.1 Operating System and Device
Management
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ib
m.aix.base/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the benefits of the system management tools
available with AIX
• Discuss the functionality of SMIT and IBM Systems Director
Console for AIX
• Explain how system management activity is logged
• Use SMIT (or equivalent function in IBM Systems Director
Console)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

2-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the benefits of the system management tools available with AIX
• Discuss the functionality of SMIT, and the new IBM Systems Director Console for AIX
• Explain how system management activity is logged
• Use SMIT (or equivalent function in IBM Systems Director Console)
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start by looking at a hierarchy of AIX system components and
tools.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

AIX administration
IBM Power Systems

Designed to make administration on AIX simple

System IBM
Management Systems Director
Interface Tool Console for AIX
(smit) (pconsole)

Text-based Web Interface

High-level commands

Low-level Intermediate-level
commands commands

System
System Kernel Resource Object Data ASCII
calls services Controller Manager files

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-2. AIX administration AN14G5.0

Notes:
IBM provides users on AIX with a great deal of flexibility and choice when it comes to administering
an AIX system. SMIT is a simple, but highly effective ASCII-based management tool that has been
in AIX since version 3. IBM Systems Director console is an attractive web-based offering in AIX.
Types of commands:
Commands are classified high-, medium-, or low-level:
• High-level commands: These are standard AIX commands, either shell/perl scripts, or C
programs, which can also be executed by a user. They execute multiple low-level or
intermediate-level commands to perform the system administrative functions.
• Intermediate-level commands: These commands interface with special AIX components such
as the System Resource Controller and the Object Data Manager. These commands are rarely
executed directly by a user.
• Low-level commands: These are AIX commands that correspond to AIX system calls or kernel
services. They are not normally executed directly by a user.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Highlight the available options.
Details — Provide your own thoughts and views on the tools available. This unit focuses on SMIT
and pconsole.
The basic idea behind both tools is that they present the system administrator with a menu-driven
front end, with built-in help information and lists. The tools can be used to carry out most system
administrative tasks.
Depending on the menus that are selected and the options that are entered, the tools build the
high-level command with all the correct options, and then execute the command when the user
specifies this action.
High-level commands, in turn, call lower-level commands, which interact directly with the system,
that is, the ODM, kernel, and so forth.
Additional information — WebSM is a Java-based GUI tool that was introduced in AIX 5.1. Some
users are familiar with the WebSM user interface if they have used version three to six of an HMC.
WebSM is no longer supported in AIX 7.1 and later versions of AIX. Because WebSM is based on
Java, there were difficulties in using it. The system admin needed to install a special client
application on a PC platform and keep its level synchronized with the level of the WSM server is
inconvenient. Its performance was also less than optimal. As a result, it was not used very much,
except when required, such as when the system administrator needs graphical access to an HMC
before version 7. The strategic replacement for WebSM is the IBM Systems Director Console for
AIX. Therefore, the course does not go into the details of administering or using WSM.
Transition statement — Let us look at SMIT.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-5
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Instructor Guide

SMIT
IBM Power Systems

• An interactive application that simplifies virtually every aspect


of AIX system administration.
• Part of AIX, SMIT is available by default.
• SMIT does not use any special hooks. Everything is based on
standard AIX commands and Korn shell functions.
– You can see exactly what commands it performs either before or after
execution.
– This is especially useful when you need to automate a repetitive task.
You can then use these commands in your own scripts.
• Text / ASCII based by default.
– If on a graphical display, such as the Virtual Network Computing (VNC)
viewer, and the DISPLAY variable is set, a Motif GUI version is
displayed.
– Most users prefer the text-based version that is called smitty.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-3. SMIT AN14G5.0

Notes:
Overview of SMIT
The System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) provides a menu-driven interface that provides
access to most of the common system management functions, within one consistent environment.
SMIT is an interactive application that simplifies virtually every aspect of AIX system administration.
It is a user interface that constructs high-level commands from the user's selections, and then
executes these commands on-demand. Those commands can be entered directly by the user to
perform the same tasks, or put into scripts to run over, and over again.
Occasionally, a system administrator runs AIX commands or edit ASCII files directly to complete a
particular system administration task. However, SMIT does make the most frequent or
complex/tedious tasks much easier with a greater degree of reliability.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — To introduce SMIT.
Details — Introduce SMIT, which is by far the most popular system management tool in AIX.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us have a look at the main menu.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-7
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Instructor Guide

SMIT main menu (text based)


IBM Power Systems

# smit
System Management

Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.

Software Installation and Maintenance


Software License Management
Manage Editions
Devices
System Storage Management (Physical & Logical Storage)
Security & Users
Communications Applications and Services
Workload Partition Administration
Print Spooling
Advanced Accounting
Problem Determination
Manage the AIX Cryptographic Framework
Performance & Resource Scheduling
System Environments
Processes & Subsystems
Applications
Installation Assistant
Electronic Service Agent
Using SMIT (information only)

F1=Help F2=Refresh F3=Cancel F8=Image


F9=Shell F10=Exit Enter=Do

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-4. SMIT main menu (text-based) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Main menu selections
The SMIT main menu enables you to select the administrative tasks to be performed. You can also
select online help on how to use SMIT.
Use of keys
In the ASCII mode, in order to select from the menus, you must use the up and down arrow keys.
This moves a highlighted bar over the menu items. Press Enter to select the highlighted item. You
can also use some of the keyboard function keys to perform other functions, such as exiting SMIT
or starting a shell.
Importance of TERM environment variable
When using SMIT in the ASCII mode, the menus and dialog panels sometimes come up distorted.
That is the result of not having an appropriate TERM variable value. Setting and exporting this
variable can solve the problem. For example, executing the command export TERM=vt320 might
solve the problem.

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Uempty General syntax:


smit [-options] [ FastPath ]
Start ASCII version:
# smitty
or
# smit –C
Log, but do not actually run, commands:
# smit -x
Redirect the log file and script file:
# smit -s /u/team1/smit.script –l /u/team1/smit.log
# smit -s /dev/pts/1 -l /dev/pts/2

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-9
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce the SMIT main menu and highlight the options.
Details — Explain how to open SMIT. There is an example in the notes. It might be helpful to
provide a demonstration.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see a dialog screen example.

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Uempty

Dialog screen
IBM Power Systems

# smit date
Change / Show Day and Time

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
YEAR (00-99) [08] #
MONTH (01-12) [10] #
DAY (1-31) [08] #
HOUR (00-23) [11] #
MINUTES (00-59) [23] #
SECONDS (00-59) [06] #

Shell exit,
useful to check
Command Current fast path:
something preview "date"
before execution
F1=Help F2=Refresh F3=Cancel F4=List
F5=Reset F6=Command F7=Edit F8=Image
F9=Shell F10=Exit Enter=Do

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-5. Dialog screen AN14G5.0

Notes:
Dialog screens and selector screens
A dialog screen allows you to enter values that are used in the operation performed. Some fields
are already completed from information that is held in the system. Usually, you can change this data
from the default values.
A selector screen is a dialog screen on which there is only one value to change. The value usually
indicates the object that is acted upon by the subsequent dialog and AIX command.
Entering data
To enter data, move the highlighted bar to the value you want to change. Then, either enter a value
or select one from a list. Fields that you can type in have square brackets [ ]. Fields that have data
that is larger than the field width, have angle brackets < >, to indicate that there is data further to the
left, right, or both sides of the display area.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-11
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Instructor Guide

Special symbols
Special symbols on the screen are used to indicate how data is to be entered:
• Asterisk (*): This is a required field.
• Number sign (#): A numeric value is required for this field.
• Forward slash (/): A path name is required for this field.
• X: A hexadecimal value is required for this field.
• Question mark (?): The value that is entered is not displayed.
• Plus sign (+): A pop-up list or ring is available.
An asterisk (*) in the leftmost column of a line indicates that the field is required. A value must be
entered here before you can commit the dialog and execute the command. In the ASCII version, a
plus sign (+) is used to indicate that a pop-up list is available. To access a pop-up list, use the F4
key. If a fixed number of options are available, use the Tab key to cycle through the options.
In the Motif version, a List button is displayed. Either click the button or press <Ctrl-l> to display a
pop-up window.
Use of particular keys
The following keys can be used while in the menus and dialog screens. Some keys are only valid in
particular screens. The keys that are only valid for the ASCII interface are marked (A). The keys
that are only valid for the Motif interface are marked (M).
• F1 (or ESC-1) Help: Show contextual help information.
• F2 (or ESC-2) Refresh: Redraw the display. (A)
• F3 (or ESC-3) Cancel: Return to the previous screen. (A)
• F4 (or ESC-4) List: Display a pop-up list of possible values. (A)
• F5 (or ESC-5) Reset: Restore the original value of an entry field.
• F6 (or ESC-6) Command: Show the AIX command that is executed.
• F7 (or ESC-7) Edit: Edit a field in a pop-up box or select from a multi-selection pop-up list.
• F8 (or ESC-8) Image: Save the current screen to a file (A) and show the current fast path.
• F9 (or ESC-9) Shell: Start a subshell. (A)
• F9 Reset: All fields. (M)
• F10 (or ESC-0): Exit: Exit SMIT immediately. (A)
• F10: Go to the command bar. (M)
• F12 Exit: Exit SMIT immediately. (M)
• Ctrl-l List: Give a pop-up list of possible values. (M)
• PgDn (or Ctrl-v): Scroll down one page.
• PgUp (or ESC-v): Scroll up one page.
• Home (or ESC-<): Go to the top of the scrolling region.
• End (or ESC->): Go to the bottom of the scrolling region.
• Enter: Execute the current command or select from a single-selection pop-up list.
• /text: Find the text in the output.
• n: Find the next occurrence of the text.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show a simple SMIT panel for command execution.
Details — Feel free to perform a live demonstration of more interesting SMIT functions.
This is a dialog screen and not a selector screen, as there is more than one option that is listed on
the screen.
Go through each symbol, as documented in the student notes, and ensure that all students are
clear about the symbols such as *, #, and so forth.
Also, go through all the function keys one at a time, explaining the uses of each one.
Other helpful hints that should be mentioned are that items of a list can sometimes be obtained with
the Tab key. Also, on a screen that holds more than one page of information, the <Ctrl-v> and
<Esc-v> key sequences are used to move up and down a page.
Ensure that all the key points in the student notes are covered.
Additional information —
Transition statement — When you press Enter, what happens?

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-13
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Output screen
IBM Power Systems

Command
completed No
successfully COMMAND STATUS Standard
error
Command: OK stdout: yes stderr: no

Before command completion, additional instructions may appear below.

Wed 8 Oct 11:23:06 2014

Standard Output
following command
execution
(Stdout)

F1=Help F2=Refresh F3=Cancel F6=Command


F8=Image F9=Shell F10=Exit /=Find
n=Find Next

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-6. Output screen AN14G5.0

Notes:
Fields on first line of output
The Command field can have the following values: OK, RUNNING, and FAILED.
The value of the stdout field indicates whether there is standard output, that is, whether there is
output that is produced as a result of running the command. The output is displayed in the body
section of this screen.
The value of the stderr field indicates whether there are error messages. In this case, there are no
error messages.
In the Motif version of SMIT, a representation of a person in the top right-hand corner of the screen
is used to indicate the values of the Command field.
Body of the screen
The body of the screen holds the output or error messages from the command. In this example,
there is output, but there are no error messages.

2-14 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Review the output panels of the SMIT command.
Details — Go through the output on the screen.
Additional information — You might want to tell some amusing anecdotes about the running
person in the graphical version.
Transition statement — A useful aspect of SMIT is the log feature; let us take a look.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

SMIT log and script files


IBM Power Systems

smit.log

smit
command smit.script
execution
smit.transaction
• $HOME/smit.log
– Records a log of all menu and dialog screens that are visited, all commands
that are executed, and their output
– Records any errors during the SMIT session
• $HOME/smit.script
– Shell script that contains all AIX commands that are executed by SMIT
• $HOME/smit.transaction
– SMIT transactions log
– Records date, description, and command script output of the commands that
were executed
SMIT output is redirected to
file: /tmp/new-script.
# smitty –xs /tmp/new-script No commands are run.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-7. SMIT log and script files AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Overview
SMIT creates three files in the $HOME directory of the user who is running SMIT. If these files
exist, then SMIT appends to them. These files can grow large over time, especially during
installations. The user must maintain and truncate these files, when appropriate.
• The smit.log file
The smit.log file contains a record of every SMIT screen, menu, selector, and dialog that is
visited, the AIX commands that are executed, and the output from these commands. When the
image key is pressed, the screen image is placed in the smit.log file. If there are error or
warning messages, or diagnostic or debugging messages from SMIT, then these are also
appended to the smit.log file.
• The smit.script file
The smit.script file contains the AIX commands that are executed by SMIT, preceded by the
date and time of execution. This file can be used directly as a shell script to perform tasks
multiple times, or it can be used as the basis for more complex operations.

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Uempty • The smit.transaction file


SMIT since AIX 5.2 has a file, smit.transaction. This file logs all the executed commands
similar to smit.script. The smit.script logs all commands, while smit.transaction logs
only command_to_executes, see smit.log file.
For example, the user backs up the system by using SMIT.
• smit.script file
#
# [Oct 13 2014, 20:00:19]
#
/usr/bin/mksysb '-i' '-A' /mnt/nm_sysb_13Oct14
• smit.transaction file
#=--------------------------------------------
# DATE: Oct 13 2014, 20:00:19
# DESCRIPTION: Back Up the System
#=--------------------------------------------
/usr/bin/mksysb '-i' '-A' /mnt/nm_sysb_13Oct14

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-17
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain the output files from SMIT.
Details — Explain that most AIX administrators start by relying heavily on SMIT. The smit.script
file is a great way of seeing what commands it runs. Over time, customers learn more about these
commands and put them into scripts.
Additional information — Since AIX 5L V5.3, SMIT creates an more output files,
$HOME/smit.transaction. This file is always created in the home directory. It is created to provide
some consistency with the web-based System Manager, which creates a
$HOME/websm.transaction file. While similar in format and usage as the smit.script file,
smit.transaction should include only the final cmd_to_exec, and none of the cmd_to_discover,
cmd_to_list, and so forth, output that might be included in smit.script.
Transition statement — The IBM Systems Director Console for AIX provides a good web
browser-based graphical interface. Let us look at that.

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Uempty

IBM Systems Director Console for AIX (pconsole)


IBM Power Systems

• Web-based management interface (starting with AIX 6.1)


• Enables converged consoles consistent with IBM Systems
Director:
– Integrated solutions console
– Lightweight infrastructure
• Includes links to SMIT tasks
How to check
• Requires Java v5 that it is
running
• Installed by default

# lssrc -s pconsole
Subsystem Group PID Status
pconsole pconsole 737388 active

# netstat -a |grep 5336


tcp 0 0 *.5336 *.* LISTEN

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-8. IBM Systems Director Console for AIX (pconsole) AN14G5.0

Notes:
• IBM Systems Director Console for AIX
The IBM Systems Director Console for AIX, also known as the Console, is a management
interface that allows administrators to manage AIX remotely through a browser. It provides web
access to common systems management tasks. The Console is included as part of AIX 6.1.
The only extra component that is required is a web browser.
The Console is named after the IBM Systems Director because it is built on the same graphical
user interface as the IBM Systems Director. Although the Console is named after the IBM
Systems Director, it is not a prerequisite. All components necessary to run the Console are
included in AIX.
The Console also includes menu links to the Systems Management Interface Tool (SMIT) and
Distributed Command Execution Manager (DCEM). DCEM is a facility to securely execute
SMIT operations or other commands on multiple machines at one time. This can improve
administrator efficiency by reducing the need to log in to multiple systems to run the same
systems management task.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-19
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

• Lightweight Infrastructure (lwi.runtime)


The Lightweight Infrastructure (LWI) is a small footprint, simple to configure, a secure
infrastructure for hosting web applications, web services, and other application-related
components. The LWI is based on Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) architecture and is
derived from WebSphere Everyplace Deployment 6.0 (WED). The LWI consists of the base
OSGi/Eclipse service platform plus extra custom components and bundles that support web
applications, web services, and the building of components.
• filesets installed to support pconsole
The filesets that support the pconsole capability are:
- sysmgt.pconsole.rte
- sysmgt.pconsole.apps.wdcem
- sysmgt.pconsole.apps.wrbac
- sysmgt.pconsole.apps.wsmit
- lwi.runtime

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an overview of pconsole.
Details — Do not try to explain all aspects of the Console, just give them the essentials and a feel
for the tool.
Additional information — It is the same interface structure and code that IBM uses for Systems
Director and WPAR Manager.
Transition statement — Let us look at the interface.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-21
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Instructor Guide

Console interface
IBM Power Systems

• Web browser-based access


– https://<hostname (or IP)>:5336/ibm/console (Defaults to SSL. Use 5335 for non-SSL.)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-9. Console interface AN14G5.0

Notes:
Logging in to the Console
IBM Systems Director Console for AIX relies on your AIX user account for user-logon security. If the
user ID that you provide is already logged in to the Console, the Console prompts you to choose
between logging out from the other session or returning to the login page. If you choose to log out
from the other session, the Console will not recover any unsaved changes that were made by that
user.
Use the Logout link in the console toolbar when you are finished using the Console to prevent
unauthorized access. If there is no activity during the login session for an extended time, the
session expires and you must log in again to access the Console. The default session timeout
period is 30 minutes.
If you encountered the login problem, check the following items:
• No user account on the target server?
- Have the administrator create an account.
• Password is expired or not set (new user account)?

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Uempty - Log in through local terminal or telnet, and set the password.
• Already logged in to console?
- Look for a warning message that gives you the option to terminate the previous session.
You can log in to the Console as root, which gives you the authority to perform all tasks, or you can
delegate certain tasks to non-root users. If the only user that you want to authorize as a console
user is root, no further setup is required.
The root ID has console administrator authorization, which authorizes them to launch any console
task. By default, console tasks are visible only to root. If you want to authorize non-root users to
perform console tasks, extra setup is required. You must authorize each user to access one or more
tasks that appear in the console navigation area. And you must assign each user the AIX
authorizations by using Role-Based Access Control for the actions that are performed by these
tasks.
Changing port values
IBM Systems Director Console for AIX uses the http: 5335 and https: 5336 ports. If you need to
change the port numbers, modify the following properties in the
/pconsole/lwi/conf/overrides/port.properties file and then restart pconsole to change these
ports:
• com.ibm.pvc.webcontainer.port=5335
• com.ibm.pvc.webcontainer.port.secure=5336
In addition, modify /pconsole/lwi/conf/webcontainer.properties. Change all occurrences of
5336 to the secure port you want to use.
Console security
By default, the IBM Systems Director Console for AIX provides a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
certificate that enables HTTPS connections between the IBM Systems Director Console for AIX
and the web browser client.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-23
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explore the console interface and how we log in.
Details — Provide an overview of the Console main interface. The default access is SSL, even if
non-SSL port 5335 is selected.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us break down the pconsole graphic user interface into its
components.

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Uempty

Console management view


IBM Power Systems

• Easy graphic interface Define


Toolbar start-up
Navigation pages
area

Work area

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-10. Console management view AN14G5.0

Notes:
Toolbar
The toolbar and banner area displays a common image across IBM System Director Console for
AIX installations. The Console toolbar provides the following functions:
• Displays user name, for example, Welcome root
• Help
• Logout
Help is available for the entire console or for a specific module in the console. To access console
help, perform the following steps:
• Select Help on the console toolbar. The help is displayed in a separate browser window.
• In the Help navigation tree, select the help set you want to view. For example, select Console
help to view topics that provide information for new console users. Use the console controls as
needed. To access help for a module on a page, on the title bar for the module, click the ? icon.
This icon is displayed only if help is available for the module. The help is displayed in a separate
browser window.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-25
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Instructor Guide

Navigation area
The Navigation area provides a tree to the tasks that are available in the console. Tasks are
grouped into organizational nodes that represent categories of tasks. For example, OS
Management or Settings, are organizational nodes. The organizational nodes can be nested in
multiple levels.
The navigation tree displays only tasks to which you have access. This is controlled by the Console
Roles and Role-based Access Control authorizations.
In this area, the following task categories can be accessed:
• Welcome
• My Startup Pages
• OS Management (AIX settings)
• Health
• Settings (Console settings)
When you select a task in the navigation tree, a page that is containing one or more modules for
completing the task is displayed in the work area.
Work area
When you initially log in to the console, the work area displays a Welcome page. After you launch a
task from the navigation tree, the contents of the task are displayed in a page in the work area. A
page contains one or more console modules that are used to perform operations. Each console
module has its own navigation controls. Some pages include a control to close the page and return
to the Welcome page.
Startup pages
Regular pconsole users might want to set up startup pages at login, rather than seeing the
Welcome page every time. To do this, simply select the page that you are interested in from the box
in the upper right hand area of the screen. Select add to my start-up pages. The next time you log
in, the page will be displayed in a tab.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the management options and how they can create start-up pages.
Details — It might be a good idea to run a live demonstration of this overview.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us briefly overview the task categories that are initially provided by
pconsole.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Console applications
IBM Power Systems

• OS Management (new SMIT-based tasks)


• Portlets/modules
– For example, system health
• Classical SMIT
– Classic-style SMIT menus for those who prefer a more traditional look
and feel
• Distributed Command Execution Manager (DCEM)
– Used to run commands on multiple systems in parallel
– Based on the standard UNIX dsh function
• On AIX, this is part of the Distributed System Management (DSM) product,
dsm.dsh, which is not installed by default but is on the base installation
media.
– Supports groups of systems
– Supports rsh and ssh authentication
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-11. Console applications AN14G5.0

Notes:
A number of applications exist within pconsole:
• Console management
This is the core of the application. Menu options are similar to SMIT but in a redesigned new
layout.
• Portlets/Modules
These are facilities within pconsole that provide system information and health details.
• Classical SMIT
Very useful for those who still prefer the look and feel of traditional SMIT.

2-28 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty • Distributed Command Execution Manager (DCEM)


This is a graphical wrapper around an existing UNIX dsh utility. It allows commands and scripts
to be executed on multiple hosts. For further information on dsh, see the AIX man page or IBM
Knowledge Center:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.cmds2/dsh.htm?lan
g=en

Console logging and tracing


The Systems Director Console log files are stored in html format in the /var/log/pconsole/logs
directory.
# ls /var/log/pconsole/logs
error-log-0.html error-log-4.html trace-log-2.html
error-log-0.html.lck error-log-5.html trace-log-3.html
error-log-1.html trace-log-0.html trace-log-4.html
error-log-2.html trace-log-0.html.lck trace-log-5.html
error-log-3.html trace-log-1.html
• Error log file
The system appends log messages to a single log file. A new log file is created each time when
you start Integrated Solutions Console. Logging messages are written to the file
error-log-0.html of the /logs subdirectory of the console installation. This file is always
locked by the console to write log messages.
• Trace log file
The system appends trace messages to a single log file. A new trace file is created each time
when you start Integrated Solutions Console. Trace messages are written to the file
trace-log-0.html of the /logs subdirectory of the console installation. This file is always
locked by the console to write trace messages.
Classical SMIT logs are similar in nature to regular AIX SMIT. The letter w is prefixed to the
standard SMIT log file names to differentiate these pconsole logs from the standard AIX SMIT logs.
There is no equivalent smit.transaction log produced through pconsole.

Classical SMIT logs


Classical SMIT logs are similar in nature to regular AIX SMIT. The letter w is prefixed to the
standard SMIT log file names to differentiate these pconsole logs from the standard AIX SMIT logs.
There is no equivalent smit.transaction log produced through pconsole.

DCEM logging
System Director Console places DCEM logs in $HOME/dcem/logs/dcem.log.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-29
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Instructor Guide

An example DCEM.log:
------------------------------------------------------------
Command name: Unspecified
Default user: root
Command definition:
export PATH=\$PATH;uname -a
Started: Tue Oct 14 17:06:34 2014
Ended: Tue Oct 14 17:06:35 2014
Successful targets:
DSH nodes:
statler.lpar.co.uk
waldorf.lpar.co.uk
Failed targets:
none
Targets not run:
none
Status:
Command execution completed.
------------------------------------------------------------

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Go through the applications that are available.
Details — Provide highlights of the main applications.
Additional information — Starting with AIX V7.1, the Cluster Systems Management (CSM)
software will no longer ship with AIX media. CSM is not supported by AIX V7.1. The csm.dsh fileset
is one of the filesets that were removed from AIX.
Starting with AIX 6.1 TL3 a new package is shipped with the base media called Distributed System
Management (DSM). In AIX 7.1 this new DSM package replaces the Cluster Systems Management
package (CSM), which is no longer available on AIX 7.1. Commands such as dcp and dsh are not
available on AIX 7.1 without installing the DSM package, which is not installed by default but is on
the base installation media. The DSM package is in the filesets dsm.core and dsm.dsh. For more
detail, refer to http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg247910.pdf, page 161 and 192.
The dsh command is a DSM Distributed Shell Utility.
Transition statement — OK, it is time to wrap up with the checkpoint questions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-31
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Instructor Guide

fileset

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. List the two main system management tools available on


AIX.

2. What is the purpose of the smit.script file?

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-12. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. List the two main system management tools available on


AIX.
The answers are SMIT and IBM Systems Director console
for AIX.

2. What is the purpose of the smit.script file?


The answer is to obtain the commands SMIT has just
executed.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-33
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

Using system
management tools in AIX

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-13. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

2-34 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-35
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the benefits of the system management tools
available with AIX
• Discuss the functionality of SMIT and IBM Systems Director
Console for AIX
• Explain how system management activity is logged
• Use SMIT (or equivalent function in IBM Systems Director
Console)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 2-14. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

2-36 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 2. AIX system management tools 2-37
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

2-38 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty
Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance

Estimated time
01:15

What this unit is about


This unit describes how to perform software installation and maintenance.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Define the package definitions and naming conventions
• Explain AIX software levels and states
• Determine the current installed level of the OS and individual filesets
• Install and manage software products and updates
• Recover from broken and inconsistent software states
• Explain how to download fixes by using Fix Central and SUMA

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX 7.1 Information
SG24-7910 IBM AIX Version 7.1 Difference Guide (Redbooks)
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ib
m.aix.base/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Define the package definitions and naming conventions
• Explain AIX software levels and states
• Determine the current installed level of the OS and individual
filesets
• Install and manage software products and updates
• Recover from broken and inconsistent software states
• Explain how to download fixes by using Fix Central and
SUMA

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

3-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the unit objectives.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start by seeing what AIX media is available.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

AIX media
IBM Power Systems

AIX Base (DVD or CD)


+ update CDs

AIX Expansion Pack

AIX InfoCenter

AIX Toolbox for Linux

Mozilla Firefox Browser

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-2. AIX media AN14G5.0

Notes:
Each of the products that are listed in this visual has a program ID number. At the time of
publication they were:
AIX v7.1 standard edition; program ID number: 5765-G98
• AIX v7.1 AIX Base
• AIX v7.1 Expansion Pack
• AIX v7.1 InfoCenter (DVD)
• AIX Toolbox for Linux
• Mozilla Firefox Browser
For virtual environments, a PowerVM license is required. PowerVM standard edition program ID
number: 5765-PVS. The following software is supplied:
• Virtual I/O Server V2.2
• Virtual I/O Server Expansion Pack

3-4 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty PowerVM Enterprise Edition also comes with the VIOS software. The Enterprise Edition is
everything the Standard Edition is plus it enabled Live Partition Mobility and Active Memory
Sharing.
The AIX Expansion Pack is a collection of extra software that extends the base operating system
capabilities. It contains filesets such as:
• Open Secure Sockets Layer (OpenSSL)
• Java 32- and 64 Bit
• iSCSI Target Device Driver
• List of Open Files (LSOF) and many more
The IBM Knowledge Center contains a list of support guides and help documentation. It is also
available online:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.base/kc_welcome_71.h
tm
Also, available online in the AIX toolbox (open source) filesets
http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/power/software/aix/linux/toolbox/download.html.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-5
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define exactly what software is available for AIX.
Details — Go through the core software stack available for Power Systems.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us define the structure of an LPP package.

3-6 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Software packaging definitions


IBM Power Systems

LPP
Base operating
system component

bos
Package
Base networking
bos.net package

TCP/IP collection
bos.net.tcp of filesets

bos.net.tcp.server
Fileset
TCP/IP server fileset
‘the smallest unit’

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-3. Software packaging definitions AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Licensed Program Product (LPP)
A collection of packages that form an installable product.
• Package
A package contains a group of filesets with a common function. It is a single, installable image.
AIX packages are a bundle of binaries that are glued together with the meta-information (name,
version, and dependencies).
• Fileset
A fileset is the smallest, individually installable unit. Generally, it is a single subsystem. For
example, bos.net.tcp.server is a fileset in the bos.net package. This image is a UNIX
Backup File Format file (BFF), created with the backup command. Files in an LPP can be listed
with: restore –Tvf <package> or extracted with restore –xvf <package>. (The backup and
restore utilities will be covered later in the course).

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-7
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

For example: To list the contents of bos.alt_disk_install.rte fileset contained in AIX 7.1 TL03
SP03:
# restore -Tqvf U859716.bff
New volume on U859716.bff:
Cluster 51200 bytes (100 blocks).
Volume number 1
Date of backup: Tue Dec 3 04:47:18 2013
Files backed up by name
User BUILD
0 ./
6263 ./lpp_name
0 ./usr
0 ./usr/lpp
0 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bos.alt_disk_install.rte/7.1.3.15
157942
./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bos.alt_disk_install.rte/7.1.3.15/liblpp.a
0
./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bos.alt_disk_install.rte/7.1.3.15/inst_root
8640
./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bos.alt_disk_install.rte/7.1.3.15/inst_root/libl
pp.a
259559 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bin/altlib
249318 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/migration/alt_disk_mig_lib
33476 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/migration/alt_disk_mig_posti
136621 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/migration/alt_disk_mig_prei
6548 ./usr/sbin/alt_blvset
54357 ./usr/sbin/alt_disk_copy
63768 ./usr/sbin/alt_disk_mksysb
46236 ./usr/sbin/alt_rootvg_op
14936 ./usr/lib/instl/jfs2j2
8577 ./usr/lpp/bos.alt_disk_install/bin/alt_import_oldvgs
40981 ./usr/sbin/nimadm
9727 ./usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_alt_disk_install
total size: 1096949
files archived: 20
Note: This is the only way, in AIX, to see which files are located within an LPP fileset before
installation.

3-8 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the packaging terminology.
Details — Ensure that everyone understands the association of each of the definitions.
• fileset: Smallest individual installable unit
• Package: Collection of filesets built to form one installable image, for example, bos.net
• LPP: One or more packages that are bundled together, for example, bos
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now we understand LPPs, some are grouped together as bundles. Let us
take a look.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-9
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Software bundles
IBM Power Systems

• A bundle is a collection of packages and filesets that are suited for a


particular environment.

• There are many predefined system bundles in AIX, which include:


– AllDevicesKernels
– Alt_Disk_Install
– openssh_client and openssh_server

• Full list is in /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles. Example:

# cat /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles/openssh_server.bnd
[ ... ]
I:openssl.base
I:openssl.license
I:openssl.man.en_US
I:openssh.base.server
I:openssh.man.en_US

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-4. Software bundles AN14G5.0

Notes:
Since there are thousands of filesets, having to determine which individual fileset you want on your
machine could be a time-consuming task. AIX has bundles, which offer a collection of filesets that
suit a particular purpose. For example, if you are developing applications, the App-Dev bundle
would be the logical choice to install.
Some filesets within a bundle are only installed if the prerequisite hardware is available. For
example, a graphic adapter is needed to run X11 and CDE. In some cases, bundles are equivalent
to product offerings. However, often they are a subset of a product offering or a separate
customized bundle. The bundles available can vary from AIX version to AIX version.

3-10 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce how LPPs can be grouped together into bundles.
Details — The standard bundle definitions that control what selections appear in SMIT or the
web-based System Manager are stored in /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles. The following are
examples of predefined bundles:
• Application Development Bundle (App-Dev)
- A collection of software packages that are used for developing application programs.
• Media-Defined Bundle (Media-Defined)
- filesets from the installation media.
• Other predefined system bundles are:
- CDE
- GNOME
- KDE
- devices
- wsm_remote
Additional information — Explain to students how to create bundles if they ask; this is a useful
feature of AIX – especially when driving a NIM server.
Transition statement — Now we understand LPPs and bundles, let us define AIX software levels.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-11
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

AIX software levels


IBM Power Systems

• There are four distinct software levels and management for AIX:
– Base level
– Technology level (TL)
– Service pack (SP)
– Interim fixes

Fix Packs
Interim
Base Technology + Service packs fixes
AIX Level level

(Contain APARs)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-5. AIX software levels AN14G5.0

Notes:
Base AIX level is OS version and release, as first installed.
Maintenance:
• Technology level (TL): A TL is a major maintenance update and contains fixes and functional
enhancements. TLs are released twice per year. The first TL is restricted to hardware features
and enablement, in addition to software service. The second TL includes new hardware
features and enablement, software service, and new software features, making it the larger of
the two yearly releases. Each TL is supported for up to two years from the introduction of the
update. This means that clients with a Software Maintenance Agreement for the AIX OS are
able to contact IBM support for defect support during that two-year period without having to
move up to the latest Technology Level update. In previous versions of AIX, Technology levels
were referred to as Maintenance Levels (MLs). The terms are often still used interchangeably.
• Service pack (SP): SPs contain service-only updates, also known as Program Temporary
Fixes (PTF), that are grouped together for easier identification. SPs are released between
Technology Levels and contain fixes for highly pervasive, critical, or security-related issues.
Service Packs are cumulative.

3-12 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty • Interim fixes (ifix): Generally, this term refers to a certified fix that is generally available to all
customers between regularly scheduled fix packs or other releases. It can contain fixes for one
or more product defects (APARs). Specifically for AIX, the term Interim Fix (IF) is used as a
replacement for emergency fix or efix. While the term emergency fix is still applicable in some
situations (a fix given in the middle of the night with minimal testing, for example), the term
Interim Fix is more descriptive in that it implies a temporary state until an update can be applied
that has been through more extensive testing. IF fixes often rectify security vulnerabilities.
• Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs): A formal report to IBM development, of a
problem that is caused by a suspected defect in a current unaltered release of an IBM program.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-13
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain the tiers of AIX software levels.
Details — Explain the details in the slide and notes.
Additional information — Ensure that all students are aware that once they build an AIX system,
their first task should be to bring it up to the latest TL and SP level.
Transition statement — Let us see how to discover the installed level (technology level, and
service pack) of the system.

3-14 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

What is my AIX version?


IBM Power Systems

• To obtain the AIX level, use the oslevel command.

# oslevel -s
7100-03-04-1441
Service Pack
AIX Level Release date
VRMF for example, 41st week
in 2014

Service Pack
Technology
Level

• To upgrade from one AIX version and release to another (for example,
AIX 6.1 to AIX 7.1) a migration must be performed.
• New TLs or SPs are applied through updates.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-6. What is my AIX version? AN14G5.0

Notes:
The oslevel command reports the level of installed AIX. With the -s option it provides detail in
dash delimited fields:
• AIX version and release
• Technology level
• Service pack
• Service pack release date, which is coded as the two-digit year followed by the two-digit week in
the year.
The visual shows 7100-03-04-1441. This means that the system is level AIX 7.1, technology level
3, service pack 4; and that the SP was released the 41st week of 2014.
Service packs and technology level fixes are applied to a running system. To update the system
with a new level, for example, from AIX 6.1 to 7.1, a new migration update must take place. This
involves system downtime.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — How to report the current OS level of the system.
Details — Explain the output of oslevel-s command. Ensure that they understand the difference
between migrating and updating the system.
Additional information —
Transition statement — How do we perform software and installation maintenance?

3-16 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Software installation and maintenance


IBM Power Systems

• All aspects of software installation and maintenance can be


performed from SMIT, the command-line, or systems
director console.
• Command-line interaction:
– lslpp: Lists installed software
– installp: Traditional AIX command for installing and maintaining
LPP packages
– rpm: RedHat Linux command for installing and maintaining rpm
filesets (part of the AIX Linux affinity)
– geninstall: A generic installer that installs software of various
package formats: installp, RPM, and ISMP

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-7. Software installation and maintenance AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lslpp and installp commands are vital for interacting, installing, and maintaining software on
AIX.
The rpm and geninstall commands are relatively new. These commands were introduced in AIX
5L as part of the AIX affinity for Linux applications, which included support for other software
formats like RPM and ISMP (InstallShield MultiPlatform).

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Provide an overview of software and installation maintenance.
Details — Generally speaking, most software installation and maintenance is carried out through a
combination of SMIT and command-line interaction (through installp). RPM is part of the Linux
affinity and is useful when manipulating rpm packages. The command geninstall was added at
AIX 5.1 to scope with various package types: LPP, RPM, ISMP (lots of Tivoli software is packaged
in this format).
Additional information —
Transition statement — Before we show how to install software, let us explain the concept of a
software repository.

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Uempty

Software repository
IBM Power Systems

• A location on disk, which contains AIX software


– Standard image directory is: /usr/sys/inst.images
– AIX filesets require a .toc file
• To copy software, for example from an AIX CD to disk, use:
– The SMIT facility: Copy Software to Hard Disk for Future Installation
– Or the AIX commands: bffcreate or gencopy
Copy Software to Hard Disk for Future Installation

[Entry Fields]
* INPUT device / directory for software /dev/cd0
* SOFTWARE package to copy [all] +
* DIRECTORY for storing software package [/usr/sys/inst.images]
DIRECTORY for temporary storage during copying [/tmp]
EXTEND file systems if space needed? yes +
Process multiple volumes? yes

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-8. Software repository AN14G5.0

Notes:
Generally, it is useful and sometimes necessary, for example when building and managing a NIM
server to store software to disk. AIX refers to this as a software repository. The default software
repository is sometimes referred to as the default installation image directory. Its location on AIX is
/usr/sys/inst.images. However, it is advisable to create and manage a repository in a separate
file system that is not contained in the AIX root volume group.
• The table of contents (.toc) file
This is a mandatory file that is required for installing and updating packages on AIX. If the
command-line installp is used, then the user must manually create the .toc file. This is
done by using the inutoc command. To create a .toc file in the current directory, type:
inutoc. SMIT automatically creates a .toc file when copying software files to disk and before
installing LPPs.
• Difference between bffcreate and gencopy
The bffcreate utility works with installation image files in backup file format (bff) only. The bff
format is the native AIX software packaging. This is also often referred to as installp format
because the installp utility is used to install software that uses this format.
The gencopy utility works with software products of various packaging formats (installp, RPM,
ISMP).

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-19
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain the concept of a software repository.
Details — Refer to the details in the visual and notes. Go through the example that is explaining
how to copy the contents of an AIX CD to disk.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us explain software states, apply, and commit.

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Uempty

Software states
IBM Power Systems

• The base installation of software is always in a committed


state.
– Committed is a permanent state.
• When updates are installed, they can be either applied or
committed.
– Applied software can be rejected or committed later.
7.1.0.1
bos.perf.tools Action: Install and Commit
Committed
7.1.0.1

7.1.0.1 Saved

7.1.0.1
bos.perf.tools
Action: Apply Committed
7.1.0.2 Reject
7.1.0.2 Applied or
Commit
7.1.0.2
Committed
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-9. Software states AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Committed state and the initial installation
AIX has a number of software states. When you are installing software for the first time, the
software automatically installs to a committed state. This means that there is only one level of
that software product that is installed on your system.
• Applied state versus committed state for maintenance
When you are installing a set of fixes or upgrading to a new technology level on your system,
you have the option of installing the software either in the committed state or the applied state.
The applied state allows you to maintain two levels of the software on your system. When
software is installed in the applied state, the older version is saved on the disk and is
deactivated, while the newer version is installed and becomes the active version.
The applied state gives you the opportunity to test the newer software before committing to its
use. If it works as expected, then you can commit the software, which removes the old version
from the disk. If the newer version is causing a problem, you can reject it, which removes the
newer version and reverts back to the old version.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the applied and committed states.
Details — Go through the process of applying, committing, and rejecting software.
A fix can be applied only to a fileset that is in a committed state. If the fileset is in an applied state,
you must first commit that previous level before applying the new level.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we list the version and states of AIX installed software.

3-22 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Software listing and versioning


IBM Power Systems

• Software listing is done with the lslpp command.


# lslpp -L bos.net.tcp.client
Fileset Level State Type Description(Uninstaller)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
bos.net.tcp.client 7.1.3.16 C F TCP/IP Client
Support

Version Release Modification Fix


State codes:
A -- Applied. AIX Migration smit update_all
B -- Broken.
C -- Committed.
E -- EFIX Locked.
O -- Obsolete. (partially migrated to newer version) C & F are State
? -- Inconsistent State...Run lppchk -v. and Type
codes.
Type codes:
F -- Installp Fileset
P -- Product
C -- Component
T -- Feature
R -- RPM Package
E -- Interim Fix

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-10. Software listing and versioning AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lslpp command displays information about installed filesets or fileset updates. Each fileset has
a version number that is associated with it (in the format of Version.Release.Modification.Fix), a
state code, and a type code.
For the example of:
bos.net.tcp.client 7.1.3.16 C F TCP/IP Client
• The version and release is 7.1
• The mod level is 3
• The fix level is 16.
The following two codes that represent the state and type of fileset have legends for the codes at
the bottom of the lslpp -L report.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-23
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain how to list the level and states of an LPP fileset.
Details — Review the lslpp command and associated output.
Additional information — Do not forget to point out State and Type codes. You might want to
explain some other lslpp flags.
Transition statement — Let us see how to find out what files are in an LPP and what LPP a file
belongs to.

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Uempty

lslpp, filesets, and files


IBM Power Systems

• Switches -f and -w are very useful lslpp flags.


# lslpp -f alex.grumpy.rte List files in an
Fileset File LPP fileset.
---------------------------------------------------------
Path: /usr/lib/objrepos
alex.grumpy.rte 1.0.0.5
/usr/local/grumpy/grumpyrecovery
/usr/local/grumpy/README
/usr/local/grumpy/grumpystart
/usr/sbin/gfunctions
/usr/local/grumpy/grumpycheck
/usr/local/grumpy/grumpystop
To which
fileset does a
# lslpp -w /usr/local/grumpy/grumpystart file belong?
File Fileset Type
-----------------------------------------------------------
/usr/local/grumpy/grumpystart alex.grumpy.rte File

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-11. lslpp, filesets and files AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lslpp command has many useful flags. It is also possible to see when a particular LPP was
installed by using the –h flag. See lslpp man page for more information.
A situation might arise where you want to use a particular command, but it is not installed on the
system and you are not sure what LPP fileset to install to be able to use the binary. To help with this
problem, you can use the which_fileset command. The which_fileset command searches the
/usr/lpp/bos/AIX_file_list file for a specified file name or command name, and prints out the
name of the fileset that the file or command is shipped in. The /usr/lpp/bos/AIX_file_list file is
large and not installed automatically. You must install the bos.content_list fileset to receive this
file.
Example:
# which_fileset shutdown
/etc/shutdown -> /usr/sbin/shutdown bos.compat.links 7.1.0.0
/usr/sbin/shutdown bos.rte.control 7.1.0.0

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-25
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain how to find out what files are in an LPP and what LPP a file belongs to.
Details — Introduce the –f and –w flags to the lslpp command. Some users might find
which_fileset useful so I included it in the student notes as supplement information only.
Additional information — alex.grumpy.rte is an application that is written in C and packaged as
an LPP fileset. Many development organizations package their own products into LPPs. If you know
how to, then explain it to the students. If not, just proceed.
Transition statement — Let us see how to install new software.

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Uempty

Installing new software using SMIT


IBM Power Systems

• smit install_all
Install and Update from ALL Available Software

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* INPUT device / directory for software .
* SOFTWARE to install [] +
PREVIEW only? (install operation will NOT occur) no +
COMMIT software updates? yes +
SAVE replaced files? no +
AUTOMATICALLY install requisite software? yes +
EXTEND file systems if space needed? yes +
OVERWRITE same or newer versions? no +
VERIFY install and check file sizes? no +
DETAILED output? no +
Process multiple volumes? yes +
ACCEPT new license agreements? no +
Preview new LICENSE agreements? no +
[MORE...7]

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-12. Installing new software using SMIT AN14G5.0

Notes:
There are two fast paths worth remembering when it comes to software and SMIT:
• install_all to install new software
• update_all to update current software
Before the screen shown in the visual, you are asked to select the “INPUT device / directory for
software”. The input device could be tape (/dev/rmt0), optical media (/dev/cd0), or a directory.
The period (.) in the example indicates the directory that you currently reside in.
The default behavior when installing new software is to commit. To first apply software rather than
commit, change the COMMIT software updates? field to no.
The SMIT software installation panel uses the geninstall command to be able to handle various
software packaging formats.
If you don't change the ACCEPT new license agreements field to yes, then the software is not
installed. You always must change this field before the installation.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to install software on AIX.
Details — Go through the SMIT panel. Highlight the key fields:
•INPUT device / directory for software
•SOFTWARE to install
•PREVIEW only?
•COMMIT software updates?
•SAVE replaced files?
•AUTOMATICALLY install requisite software?
There is an option for updating WPAR software which is not shown on the visual.
Additional information — Optionally, but recommended, explain that .toc files are created
automatically when using SMIT.
Transition statement — Let us see how to install software by using the command line.

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Uempty
Installing software using command line:
Examples
IBM Power Systems

• installp
-a (apply), -c (commit), -p (preview), -g (apply prerequisites), -X
(expand file systems, if needed), -Y (accept license agreements),
-d (device or directory location of software), -q (quiet mode)
# installp -acpgXYd . bos.rte.install
# installp -acpgXYd /TL03_SP04 all

• geninstall
-I (use installp flags, as described above), -p (preview), -d
(device or directory location of software)
# geninstall -I "-acgXY" -p -d . bos.rte.install
# geninstall -I "-acgXY" -p -d /TL03_SP04 all

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-13. Installing software using command line: Examples AN14G5.0

Notes:
The installp command handles software that is packaged in the traditional AIX bff format. The
geninstall command determines the type of packaging and start the appropriate utility to handle
the selected packages. For example, it would start the rpm command if the software was packaged
in that format.
The installp and geninstall commands install and update software from the command line on
AIX. They both accept many flags; the popular flags are shown in the visual. For geninstall, the
installp command is started if the software is in AIX bff format rather than rpm; in that case, the
needed installp options are passed to the geninstall command as the value of the I flag.
Following are partial descriptions of the flags (see the man pages for full details):
• -a
Applies one or more software products or updates. This is the default action. This flag can be
used with the -c flag to apply and commit a software product update when installed.
• -c
Commits all specified updates that are currently applied but not committed.
•-d <device or directory>

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-29
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Specifies where the installation media can be found. This can be a hardware device such as
tape or DVD, it can be a directory that contains installation images, or it can be the installation
image file itself.
• -g
When used to install or commit, this flag automatically installs or commits, respectively, any
software products or updates that are requisites of the specified software product.
• -p
Performs a preview of an action by running all preinstallation checks for the specified action.
• -X
Attempts to expand any file systems where there is insufficient space to do the installation. This
option expands file systems based on current available space and size estimates that are
provided by the software product package.
• -Y
Agrees to required software license agreements for software to be installed.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to install software on AIX by using the command line.
Details — Go through the installp and geninstall examples in the visual.
The first installp example assumes that the current working directory is a software repository
(notice the use of the dot as the first argument). That example is installing one particular fileset
(second argument). The second installp example is explicitly identifying the /TL03_SP04 directory
as the software repository to use and to install all filesets in that repository (they are likely part of the
TL03 SP4 fixpack). The geninstall examples are for doing the same two installs.
Be sure to explain that the geninstall has logic to handle non-installp formatted software such as
RPMs.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us introduce RPM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-31
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

RedHat Package Manager filesets


IBM Power Systems

• IBM provides strong Linux affinity within AIX.


• Many useful packages for AIX come in RPM format:
– Developed by Red Hat, now used in many Linux flavors
– Examples (included within the Linux Toolbox for AIX):
• cdrecord
• mkisofs
• apache
• Bash
List
packages
Remove
package
– # rpm –qa
# rpm –qa
– # rpm -e cairo-1.0.2-6
# rpm -e cairo-1.0.2-6
Install
– # rpm -i bash-3.2-1.aix.ppc.rpm
package
# rpm -i bash-3.2-1.aix.ppc.rpm

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-14. RedHat Package Manager filesets AN14G5.0

Notes:
In addition to the ability to run a Linux operating system on IBM Power Architecture technology, IBM
provides strong Linux affinity within the AIX OS. This affinity enables faster and less costly
deployment of multi-platform, integrated solutions across AIX and Linux platforms. Linux packages
can be installed and manipulated on AIX by using the RedHat Package Manager as shown in the
visual.
AIX affinity with Linux includes Linux application source compatibility, compliance with emerging
Linux standards, and a GNU Linux build-time environment with GNU and other open source tools
and utilities that combine to facilitate the development and deployment of Linux applications on the
AIX OS. This AIX affinity with Linux allows Linux programs to be easily recompiled for native
execution on the AIX OS. This approach allows you to benefit from the capabilities of Linux
applications that are combined with the industrial strength foundation and performance advantages
that are afforded to native AIX applications.
Quick guide to RPM:
• To install: rpm -i <packagefilename>
• To upgrade (works for installation as well): rpm -U <packagefilename>

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Uempty • To remove/deinstall: rpm -e <packagename> (As in foo, not foo.ppc.rpm)


• To query an installed package: rpm -q <packagename>
• To query all installed packages: rpm -qa
• To list files in a package: rpm -ql <packagename>
• To list requirements for a package: rpm -q --requires
• To find package providing requirements: rpm -q --whatprovides
• To query an uninstalled RPM: rpm -qp <packagefilename>
• To get help: rpm –help

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-33
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce RMP and Linux affinity within AIX.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and notes.
Additional information — IBM’s goal is to enable customers to be able to select the proper
applications, operating environments, and technologies that fit the business, rather than having
customers compromise the business to fit a single environment or technology.
The rpm options that are shown in the visual are as follows:
• -qa: query all
• -e: erase
• -i: install
• --nodeps: no dependency check
Dependencies between lpp and RPM packages:
If an RPM requires a shared library from AIX that was not installed at the time that rpm.rte was
initially installed, then you can run /usr/sbin/updtvpkg to update RPM's database (in
/var/opt/freeware/lib/rpm) of the software that is installed by installp.
Also, note that rpm command does not support automatic installation of requisites and does not
automatically expand file systems.
Transition statement — Let us see how to update the system.

3-34 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Applying patches to the system


IBM Power Systems

• Ideally, all systems should be at the latest fix pack (TL and SP level).
• IBM recommends installing the complete fix pack.
• System updates can be applied through smit update_all or using
geninstall or installp commands.
Some items
# smitty update_all were removed
for clarity.
* INPUT device / directory for software /updates
* SOFTWARE to update _update_all
PREVIEW only? (update operation will NOT occur) yes +
COMMIT software updates? no +
SAVE replaced files? yes
[...]

• Updates can first be applied and then committed later.


– This enables you to roll back if needed.
– Once software is committed, there is no going back without removal and reinstall.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-15. Applying patches to the system AN14G5.0

Notes:
In the past, AIX system administrators would often download and install individual filesets on a
system. This caused the software be at mixed levels and sometime created more problems than it
solved. Now, IBM allows fixes to be downloaded in a fix pack, containing:
• Technology level (also known as Maintenance level in previous releases)
• Service Pack
AIX updates are provided as Technology Level packages or Service Packs. In accordance with
'Enhanced Service Strategy Releases', these generally available updates have been tested to
operate best when all updates in a fix pack are installed. IBM recommends installing the complete
fix pack.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-35
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to patch an AIX system.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and the notes.
Additional information — The install_all_updates command is similar to running smitty
update_all, but it works from the command line. For example:
# install_all_updates -d /updates -p -x
Transition statement — Let us see an update example that uses the command line.

3-36 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Applying patches, apply, commit, reject


IBM Power Systems

• installp example:
# lslpp -L |grep -i cluster |grep pdf
cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf 5.4.0.0 C F HAES PDF Documentation
Apply
# installp -aB -d . cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf
update
# lslpp -L |grep -i cluster |grep pdf (-aB)
cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf 5.4.1.0 A F HAES PDF Documentation
Note: installp –s lists all Applied software on the system

# installp –r cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf Reject


(-r)
# lslpp -L |grep -i cluster |grep pdf
cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf 5.4.0.0 C F HAES PDF Documentation

OR
# installp –c all Commit all
applied
Installation Summary software (-c)
--------------------
Name Level Part Event Result
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf 5.4.1.0 USR COMMIT SUCCESS

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-16. Applying patches, apply, commit, reject AN14G5.0

Notes:
The visual shows a fileset update being applied to cluster.doc.en_US.es.pdf. This can be done
with system management tools like SMIT, geninstall, or installp commands. It is often useful to
remember key installp flags. The flags, -aB mean apply and update the fileset. Once applied the
update can be rejected (-r) or committed (-c).
In this example, the filesets are stored in a software repository on disk in which we are currently
located. Hence the device location (-d) is set to “dot” (the current directory).

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-37
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show updates from the command line.
Details — Point out that it is often useful to first apply updates and test before committing them,
especially when installing TLs/SPs.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we list fixes.

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Uempty

Listing fixes (APARs) installed on the system


IBM Power Systems

• TLs and SPs apply fixes (APARs) to AIX.


• You can list these fixes with the instfix command.
– instfix is useful for listing and searching through applied updates on the
system.
# instfix –i
All filesets for IV00149 were found.
All filesets for IV00151 were found.
All filesets for IV00152 were found.
All filesets for IV00153 were found.
All filesets for IV00154 were found.
…… Lines were removed for clarity ……

# instfix -ik IV00149


All filesets for IV00149 were found.

• Interim fixes between services packs, including service advisories, is


now done through interim fix management.
– emgr command
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-17. Listing fixes (APAR's) installed on the system AN14G5.0

Notes:
Fixes displayed with the instfix –i command are installed through Technology Level and Service
Pack updates. In previous versions of AIX, interim fixes, between Maintenance level releases, were
installed through instfix itself. In AIX7, instfix is really a legacy command. It is only useful for
listing and searching through applied updates on the system.
Necessary fixes that are not part of a TL or SP, are handled through interim fix management.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-39
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to list fixes (APARs) installed on the system.
Details — instfix is still a useful command for listing installed fixes on the system.
Additional information —
Transition statement — How do we patch the system when we are at the latest TL and SP?

3-40 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Interim fix management


IBM Power Systems

# emgr -pe 744A_610.071105.epkg.Z Preview


Installation
…. Lot of output is produced, removed for clarity!
EPKG NUMBER LABEL OPERATION RESULT
=========== ============== ================= ==============
1 744A_610 INSTALL PREVIEW SUCCESS

# emgr -e 744A_610.071105.epkg.Z Install


ifix
# emgr -l List
installed
ID STATE LABEL INSTALL TIME ABSTRACT
ifixes
=== ===== ========== ================== ======================================
1 *Q* 744A_610 10/10/08 23:30:49 Kernel fix for 0744A_610

# emgr –r –L 744A_610 Remove


Log file is /var/adm/ras/emgr.log ifix

EFIX NUMBER LABEL OPERATION RESULT


=========== ============== ================= ==============
1 744A_610 REMOVE SUCCESS

ATTENTION: system reboot is required. Please see the "Reboot Processing"


sections in the output above or in the /var/adm/ras/emgr.log file.

Return Status = SUCCESS

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-18. Interim fix management AN14G5.0

Notes:
The interim fix (ifix) management solution enables users to track and manage ifix packages on a
system. An ifix package might be an interim fix, debug code, or test code that contains commands,
library archive files, or scripts that run when the ifix package is installed.
The ifix management solution consists of the following commands:
• ifix packager (epkg)
• ifix manager (emgr)
The epkg command creates ifix packages that can be installed by the emgr command. The emgr
command installs, removes, lists, and verifies system ifixes.
It is important to examine the state field after installing an interim fix. The codes for the state field
are documented in the AIX Installation and Migration manual. In the above example, the state
value of Q means that a reboot is necessary for this fix to be effective.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-41
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce ifix management.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and the notes.
Additional information — The documentation states:
“Q=REBOOT REQUIRED: The interim fix was installed successfully and requires a reboot to fully
integrate into the target system. After you reboot the target system, emgr changes the interim fix
state to STABLE.
Transition statement — Let's see how we can remove software.

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Uempty

Removing installed software


IBM Power Systems

• # smit remove
Remove Installed Software

[Entry Fields]
* SOFTWARE name [cluster.es.cspoc.cmds] +
PREVIEW only? (remove operation will NOT occur) yes +
REMOVE dependent software? yes +
EXTEND file systems if space needed? no +
DETAILED output? no +
[ ... ]

• Removing software from the command line


– Remove the Firefox web browser
# installp -u Firefox.base.rte

– (Preview) Remove all X11 software with associated prerequisites


# installp -upg X11*

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-19. Removing installed software AN14G5.0

Notes:
Software can be removed by using system management tools or the command line. The installp
–u flag, removes the specified software product and any of its installed updates from the system.
The product can be in either the committed or broken state. Any software products that depend on
the specified product must also be explicitly included in the input list unless the -g flag is also
specified. Removal of any bos.rte fileset is never permitted.

Note

The removal of LPP filesets does not necessarily mean that the process will delete all files included
in the filesets. This depends on how the LPP filesets are constructed.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-43
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain how to remove software from AIX.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how to recover from broken, inconsistent filesets.

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Uempty

Recovering from broken or inconsistent states


IBM Power Systems

• To list broken or inconsistent filesets, use the lppchk


command.
# lslpp -L |grep Firefox.base.rte
Firefox.base.rte 1.5.0.12 ? F Firefox Web Browser
Look for ?
or B.
# lppchk -v
lppchk: The following filesets need to be installed or corrected to bring
the system to a consistent state:
Display
Firefox.base.rte 1.5.0.12 (APPLYING) inconsistent
filesets.

# installp -C

installp: Cleaning up software for: Perform a clean-up


Firefox.base.rte 1.5.0.12 operation. fileset is
removed.
Installation Summary
--------------------
Name Level Part Event Result
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Firefox.base.rte 1.5.0.12 USR CLEANUP SUCCESS

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-20. Recovering from broken or inconsistent states AN14G5.0

Notes:
If the process of installing, updating, or removing software from the system is interrupted or fails,
the outcome is likely to be either broken or inconsistent filesets on the system. To detect this, use
the lppchk command.
If all is OK, the command returns null, otherwise broken or inconsistent filesets are displayed. To
clean up from any such operation, use the installp command with the –C option (clean-up) and
then retry the original operation again. If the failed operation was an uninstall, remove the software
manually by using installp –u <fileset>.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-45
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to recover from broken, inconsistent software states.
Details — Go through the example in the visual and notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us introduce SUMA.

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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
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Uempty

Service update management assistant


IBM Power Systems

• Excellent tool for downloading fixes:


– Optional: Tasks can be automated or driven by ksh scripts
• Not installed by default in AIX 7.1:
– bos.suma
– Prerequisites of bos.ecc_client.rte and Java6.sdk
• Access: smit suma
• Can be used to download:
– By PTF
– Technology level
– Service pack
– All latest fixes
• Internet access must be available from the service update management
assistant (SUMA) host.
• Has many configuration parameters

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-21. Service update management assistant AN14G5.0

Notes:
SUMA is an excellent tool for quickly downloading fixes with minimum fuss directly onto an AIX
server or NIM server.
The bos.suma fileset is not installed by default and has prerequisites of bos.ecc_client.rte and
Java6.sdk.
Why SUMA?
Fix automation, the ability to get maintenance fixes onto a system automatically, is becoming a
focus area for IT system administrators. As system administration becomes more complex and time
consuming, it is often a roadblock that prevents systems from being up to date with current software
fixes. Clients want the increased security and reliability benefits, as well as the reduced downtime
and total cost of ownership that comes with keeping current fixes on a system. To meet these client
demands, SUMA has automated the process of determining which fixes are available, discovering
which of the available fixes a system needs, and downloading the necessary fixes onto a system,
thereby reducing both the complexity and the time that is spent on system administration to perform
these tasks.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-47
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce SUMA.
Details — SUMA is a great tool for downloading patches without using a web browser on a PC. The
only downside is security, as the server is Internet facing. This is the main reason many customers
do not use it.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let's see the task configuration details.

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Uempty

SUMA base configuration


IBM Power Systems

• Base configuration
– # smit suma_config_base
Base Configuration

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
Screen output verbosity [Info/Warnings/Errors] +
Logfile output verbosity [Verbose] +
Notification email verbosity [Info/Warnings/Errors] +
Remove superseded filesets on Clean? yes +
Remove duplicate base levels on Clean? yes +
Remove conflicting updates on Clean? Yes +
Fixserver protocol https +
Download protocol http +
Maximum log file size (MB) [1] #
Download timeout (seconds) [180] #

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-22. SUMA base configuration AN14G5.0

Notes:
The Base Configuration menu allows SUMA global configuration settings to be viewed or
changed. These settings are used for each SUMA task that is run and allow specification of values
for items such as:
• Screen, logfile, and email verbosity levels
• Flag options for the lppmgr command to help manage the size of a download repository
• Download protocol
• Download timeout setting
A clean operation removes unnecessary files from the repository by using the lppmgr command.
The global configuration settings can be viewed from the command line, with the suma -c
command.
In AIX 7.1, use of HTTP or HTTPS proxy connections requires that the ECC service connection be
configured. This is shared with Service Agent and Inventory Scout.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-49
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show SUMA base global configuration.
Details — Show the configuration details. Highlight the main fields that you think are of interest and
might consider changing. The HTTP proxy configuration is of interest to facilities that want to use
SUMA but does not allow direct connection to the IBM server.
Additional information — SUMA used to support the ftp protocol for download. In AIX 7.1, it is no
longer supported; it only supported http (uses a multi-threaded download director protocol) and
https (single threaded). In AIX 6, SUMA supported suma command configuration options of
HTTP_PROXY and HTTPS_PROXY. These are disabled in AIX 7.1. In AIX 7.1, SUMA uses the
ECC service connection proxy configuration.
Transition statement — Let us look at some command-line examples.

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Uempty

SUMA command-line execution


IBM Power Systems

• SUMA command-line examples: Request type =


service pack
– Download specific service pack:
# /usr/sbin/suma -x -a RqType=SP -a Action=Download \
-a RqName='7100-03-04-1441'

– Download technology level 9 for AIX 6.1 on Wednesday at 11:00 PM:


# /usr/sbin/suma -s "0 23 * * 3" -a RqType=TL –a Action=Download \
-a RqName='6100-09'
Task ID 1 created.
List all
scheduled
# suma -l SUMA tasks

– Download latest fixes for the currently installed AIX TL:


# /usr/sbin/suma -x -a Action=Download -a RqType=Latest

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-23. SUMA command line execution AN14G5.0

Notes:
SUMA tasks can be initiated through the command line. This is most useful when producing scripts
to automatically download fixes. SUMA uses cron when scheduled tasks are created. In the
schedule example above, the following entry is added to root's crontab:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-51
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

0 23 * * 3 _SUMA=cron /usr/suma/bin/suma -x 1
The output of command:
# suma -l
1:
DisplayName=
Action=Download
RqType=TL
RqName=6100-09
RqLevel=
PreCoreqs=y
Ifreqs=y
Supersedes=n
ResolvePE=IfAvailable
Repeats=y
DLTarget=/aix/FIXES
NotifyEmail=root
FilterDir=/aix/FIXES
FilterML=6100-09
FilterSysFile=localhost
MaxDLSize=-1
Extend=y
MaxFSSize=-1
For further information, see the SUMA man page.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show SUMA tasks that is driven from the command line.
Details — Go through the examples in the visual.
Additional information — SUMA is an easy tool to drive. Feel free to demonstration further
examples and SMIT screens.
Transition statement — If you do not want to use SUMA, or cannot, then you can obtain software
maintenance directly from the IBM website. Let us examine what we would see at that website.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-53
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Fix Central website


IBM Power Systems

• To download fixes: http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-24. Fix Central website AN14G5.0

Notes:
AIX fixes are generally available on the Internet at Fix Central. Fixes at any level, from AIX 4.3.3 to
the present version, can be downloaded.
Each IBM client accessing Fix Central is required to have an individual IBM ID to download fixes
(some exemptions can apply). If not already registered, the registration is quick and simple and
provide users with a customized experience to better serve their needs. To register go to:
https://www.ibm.com/account/profile
On the My IBM Profile page, click Register to create a new account.

3-54 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce Fix Central for downloading fixes.
Details — Introduce Fix Central website.
One of the useful Fix type categories is Fix Recommendations. FLRT is web-driven tool that
enables you to select your machine type and software components and levels. It then produces an
easy to read report, which provides recommendations, notices, and status compliance. It covers not
only AIX levels but also System Firmware, HMC, VIOS, PowerHA levels, and more.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us go over some checkpoint questions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-55
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. Which of the following states must your software be in, in order for you
to be able to use it? (Select all that apply.)
a. Applied state
b. Removed state
c. Install state
d. Commit state

2. What command is used to list all installed software on your system?

3. Which of the following can you install as an entity?


a. Ifix
b. LPP
c. Package
d. Bundle
e. All of the above

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-25. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. Which of the following states must your software be in, in order for you
to be able to use it? (Select all that apply.)
a. Applied state
b. Removed state
c. Install state
d. Commit state
The answers are Applied state and Commit state.

2. What command is used to list all installed software on your system?


The answer is lslpp –l or –L.

3. Which of the following can you install as an entity?


a. Ifix
b. LPP
c. Package
d. Bundle
e. All of the above
The answer is all of the above.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-57
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

AIX software
installation and
maintenance

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-26. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

3-58 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-59
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Define the package definitions and naming conventions
• Explain AIX software levels and states
• Determine the current installed level of the OS and individual
filesets
• Install and manage software products and updates
• Recover from broken and inconsistent software states
• Explain how to download fixes by using Fix Central and
SUMA

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 3-27. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

3-60 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 3. AIX software installation and maintenance 3-61
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

3-62 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty
Unit 4. System configuration and devices

Estimated time
00:45

What this unit is about


This unit describes how to list and understand the system configuration and
manipulate devices.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Explain device terminology
• Display the system configuration
• Use common device commands
• Explain device configuration and control
• Identify device locations
- Interpret physical and virtual location codes

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX 7.1 Information
AIX Version 7.1 Operating System and Device
Management
Note: References listed as Online are available through the IBM Knowledge
Center at the following address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.b
ase/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Explain device terminology
• Display the system configuration
• Use common device commands
• Explain device configuration and control
• Identify device locations
– Interpret physical and virtual location codes

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

4-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the unit objectives.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start by explaining key device terminology.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

System configuration and device overview


IBM Power Systems

• Understanding the configuration of the system is important.


– The configuration should be documented and updated regularly.
• All devices have attributes, some of which can be changed.
– lsattr lists device attributes.
– chdev changes device attributes.
• AIX devices can be physical or virtual.
– An AIX partition does not need to have any physical devices!
• Most devices within AIX are self-configured through cfgmgr.
• Device states can be controlled using mkdev and rmdev
commands.
– This includes virtual devices.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-2. System configuration and device overview AN14G5.0

Notes:
System configuration is important. We need to understand what devices we have at our disposal
and where these devices are physically located within each box or drawer. This is important when
devices fail, especially disks! Taking out the wrong disk in the system due to failure might result in
data corruption.
An AIX partition does not need to have any real devices. In today's Power Systems environments,
virtual LPARs are fast becoming the norm. Virtualization is a large topic and is covered in a
separate LPAR and virtualization education track. It is beyond the scope of the course.

4-4 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an overview into system configuration and devices.
Details — This visual provides an introduction into the rest of the unit.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us introduce our audience to the commands that are used to list and
document the system configuration, starting with prtconf.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-5
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

prtconf (1 of 2)
IBM Power Systems

• Shell script that collects system information


# prtconf
System Model: IBM,8233-E8B
Machine Serial Number: 100603P
Processor Type: PowerPC_POWER7
Processor Implementation Mode: POWER 7
Processor Version: PV_7_Compat
Number Of Processors: 2
Processor Clock Speed: 3000 MHz
CPU Type: 64-bit
Kernel Type: 64-bit
Some items were
LPAR Info: 15 sys304_118_MA
removed for
Memory Size: 1024 MB
Good Memory Size: 1024 MB
clarity.
Platform Firmware level: AL710_099
Firmware Version: IBM,AL710_099 Output is
continued on the
Network Information next page.
Host Name: sys304_118
IP Address: 10.6.52.118
Sub Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 10.6.52.254

Paging Space Information


Total Paging Space: 512MB
Percent Used: 10%

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-3. prtconf (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
prtconf is a useful command that displays an overview of the system configuration. This is
particularly useful for documentation purposes. One should run this command regularly and save or
print the output.

4-6 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show students how to list and view the system configuration in one simple command.
Details — Let us start with the big picture and then drill down into the details.
Additional information — This can also be invoked with the command lsconf.
Solaris also has a prtconf command that provides a similar service.
Transition statement — Let us now see the continuation of the prtconf command.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-7
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

prtconf (2 of 2)
IBM Power Systems
INSTALLED RESOURCE LIST

The following resources are installed on the machine.


+/- = Added or deleted from Resource List. Device listing
* = Diagnostic support not available. including “physical
location codes” Second half of
Model Architecture: chrp
Model Implementation: Multiple Processor, PCI bus
the output is
identical to
+ sys0 System Object lscfg
+ sysplanar0 System Planar
* pci6 U78A0.001.DNWHNC6-P1 PCI Bus
+ usbhc0 U78A0.001.DNWHNC6-P1 USB Host Controller (33103500)
+ usbhc1 U78A0.001.DNWHNC6-P1 USB Host Controller (33103500)
+ usbhc2 U78A0.001.DNWHNC6-P1 USB Enhanced Host Controller (3310e000)
* pci2 U5877.001.00H0301-P1 PCI Express Bus
+ ent4 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C5-T1 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-Express Adapter (14104003)
+ ent5 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C5-T2 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-Express Adapter (14104003)
* pci1 U5877.001.00H0301-P1 PCI Express Bus
+ fcs2 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T1 8Gb PCI Express Dual Port FC Adapter (df1000f114108a03)
* fcnet0 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T1 Fibre Channel Network Protocol Device
+ fscsi1 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T1 FC SCSI I/O Controller Protocol Device
+ hdisk4 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T1-W500507680140581E-L4000000000000 MPIO IBM 2145 FC Disk
+ hdisk5 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T1-W500507680140581E-L5000000000000 MPIO IBM 2145 FC Disk
+ fcs3 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T2 8Gb PCI Express Dual Port FC Adapter (df1000f114108a03)
* fcnet1 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T2 Fibre Channel Network Protocol Device
+ fscsi2 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C3-T2 FC SCSI I/O Controller Protocol Device
* vio0 Virtual I/O Bus
* vscsi0 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C35-T1 Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* hdisk3 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C35-T1-L8400000000000000 Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* hdisk2 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C35-T1-L8300000000000000 Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* hdisk1 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C35-T1-L8200000000000000 Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* hdisk0 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C35-T1-L8100000000000000 Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* ent1 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C2-T1 Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* vsa0 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C0 LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
* vty0 U8233.E8B.100603P-V15-C0-L0 Asynchronous Terminal

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-4. prtconf (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
The last function prtconf performs is to run the lscfg command as shown in the visual. Although
the prtconf –v flag can be used to display detailed vital product data (VPD) information, the output
on the previous page is omitted. To get around this problem, simply make a copy of the prtconf
script to prtconfVPD and append a –v flag to the last lscfg command at the end of the script.
As follows:
# tail `which prtconf`
done
fi
#devices information
lscfg ######## APPEND –v here !!! ###########
fi

4-8 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show the rest of the prtconf command output.
Details — Highlight that the second half of prtconf is the lscfg command. However, in reality, you
really want the VPD information in case you need to log a call with an IBM hardware engineer. Tell
the students that they can edit the ksh script as shown in the notes.
At this stage, the meaning of the location code is not important, only that it exists and points to the
physical location of that device. The interpretation of the code will be explained later in the unit.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us now look at the lscfg command.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-9
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

lscfg
IBM Power Systems

• lscfg can be used to display vital product data (VPD) information for
devices.
– IBM customer engineers (CEs) need this to order and replace failed
components.
Physical
location code
# lscfg -v -l ent4
ent4 U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C5-T1 2-Port
10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-Express Adapter (14104003)

VPD
2-P NIC-TX PCI-e:
information
EC Level....................D76567
Part Number.................46K6601
Manufacture ID..............YL1026
FRU Number..................46K6601
Network Address.............00145E76B484
ROM Level.(alterable).......EP0170
Hardware Location Code......U5877.001.00H0301-P1-C5-T1

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-5. lscfg AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lscfg command displays configuration, diagnostic, and vital product data (VPD) information
about the system.
Use the lscfg command to display vital product data (VPD) such as part numbers, serial numbers,
and engineering change levels. VPD data is required for hardware engineers when they need to
order replacement parts due to failures.

4-10 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an overview and insight into the lscfg command.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at the lsdev command.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-11
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

lsdev
IBM Power Systems

• lsdev displays device information that is including the device


state. Software (AIX)
location codes
# lsdev |grep ent
ent0 Available 02-08 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter (14108902)
ent1 Available 02-09 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter (14108902)
ent2 Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
ent3 Available Shared Ethernet Adapter

# lsdev -Cc disk


hdisk0 Available 03-08-01-8,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk1 Available 01-00-02 MPIO Other FC SCSI Disk Drive
hdisk2 Available 00-08-00 SAS Disk Drive
-Cc : list by class
# lsdev -Cl proc2 -Cl : list by device name
proc2 Available 00-02 Processor

# lsdev -p pci5
ent8 Available 05-08 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter (14108902)
ent9 Available 05-09 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter (14108902)
Child
devices

Device state
Locating the
# lsdev –Cl cd1 –F parent parent
ide0 device

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-6. lsdev AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lsdev command displays information about devices in the device configuration database.
The -C flag requests information about all the customized devices. Newer versions of AIX assume
customized devices if neither -P nor -C are coded. Any combination of the -c Class, -s Subclass,
-t Type, -l Name, -p Parent, and -S State flags selects a subset of the customized devices.
A -P flag displays information about a device that is supported by the system. Any combination of
the -c Class, -s Subclass, and -t Type flags selects a subset of the supported devices.
Commonly used classes include disk, cdrom, adapter, and if (interface).
A simple script that can be useful in seeing the full parentage of a device is:
# cat parent.device
DEV=$1
while test $? -eq 0
do
printf "$DEV "; DEV=`lsdev -Cl $DEV -F parent`
done 2> /dev/null

4-12 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an overview and insight into the lsdev command.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now let us see how to list and change device attributes.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-13
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

lsattr and chdev commands


IBM Power Systems

• Use lsattr to view and chdev change device attribute data.


# lsattr -El rmt0

block_size 1024 BLOCK size (0=variable length) True


compress yes Use data COMPRESSION True Current block
density_set_1 71 DENSITY setting #1 True size = 1KB
density_set_2 38 DENSITY setting #2 True
extfm yes Use EXTENDED file marks True
mode yes Use DEVICE BUFFERS during writes True
ret no RETENSION on tape change or reset True True indicates
ret_error no RETURN error on tape change or reset True that the attribute
size_in_mb 36000 Size in Megabytes False is user settable

• To display a specific attribute:


– lsattr –E –l rmt0 -a block_size
• Tapes cannot be read when the tape device has a different block size.
– Changing the value to 0 (variable) can help overcome this problem.
# chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=0 Set block
rmt0 changed size to 0

# lsattr -El rmt0 -a block_size Block size


block_size 0 BLOCK size (0=variable length) True was changed

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-7. lsattr and chdev commands AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lsattr command displays information about the attributes of a given device or type of device.
The chdev command changes the characteristics of the specified device with the given device
logical name that is specified with the -l <Name> flag. The device can be in the defined, stopped, or
available state. Some changes might not be allowed when the device is in the available state. When
changing the device characteristics, you can supply the flags either on the command line, or in the
specified -f <File> flag.

4-14 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to list and change device attributes.
Details — Provide an overview and insight into the lsattr and chdev commands.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now that we have covered the essential commands, let us explore device
states.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Device states
IBM Power Systems

• Undefined
– The device is unknown to the system.
• Defined
– The device is known to the system but it is unavailable for use.
• Available
– The device is available and ready for use.
• Stopped
– The device is unavailable but remains known by its device driver.

• The mkdev and cfgmgr commands make devices available


for use.
• The rmdev command can make devices unavailable for use
and completely remove them from the system.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-8. Device states AN14G5.0

Notes:
Device states
• Undefined is not a state one can see assigned in the system, more of a reference statement. It
refers to a device that is supported, but is not configured.
• Defined means that the device is known to the system. It has been allocated a logical device
name, a location code, and attributes have been assigned to it. However, it is still unavailable
for use.
• Available means that the device is fully configured and is ready for use.
• Stopped means that the device is configured, but not available for use by applications.
• When a device is first identified, it is configured and put into the Available state. Available
devices can be put into the defined or undefined state by using the rmdev command. Devices
can be configured with both the mkdev or cfgmgr commands.
cfgmgr
The cfgmgr command configures devices and optionally installs device software into the
system. It can be run at any time.

4-16 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain device states.
Details — It is important that students understand that whenever a device is configured by using
the mkdev and cfgmgr commands, it is Defined or Available. When a device is made available, the
device driver is loaded into the kernel. The rmdev command without the -d option is used to take a
device from the Available to the Defined state (unloading the device driver). When using the -d
option, the rmdev command removes the device from ODM.
In the next visual, we will see these commands in action.
Additional information — The stopped device state is rarely seen. Few devices support this state.
In this case, the device resides in the customized database and the device driver is loaded, but the
application cannot use the device.
Transition statement — Let us walk through an example of how to apply these commands.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

/dev directory, device configuration, and control


IBM Power Systems

• On UNIX platforms, access to devices is provided through special


device files that reside in the /dev directory.
# lsdev -Cc tape; ls -l /dev/*rmt0*
/dev/*rmt0* not found Tape drive is
configured by loading
# cfgmgr the device into the
kernel (/unix).
# lsdev -Cc tape
rmt0 Available 04-08-01-2,0 LVD SCSI 4mm Tape Drive

# ls -l /dev/*rmt0*
crw-rw-rw- 1 root system 37, 0 13 Oct 14:43 /dev/rmt0
crw-rw-rw- 1 root system 37, 1 13 Oct 14:43 /dev/rmt0.1
……. Removed rmt0.2 through rmt0.6
crw-rw-rw- 1 root system 37, 7 13 Oct 14:43 /dev/rmt0.7

# rmdev -l rmt0
rmt0 Defined
Minor number.
# mkdev -l rmt0 The Kernel references Certain devices like
rmt0 Available the tape device tapes can behave in
through the major different ways.
# rmdev -l rmt0 -d number (37).
rmt0 deleted

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-9. /dev directory, device configuration, and control AN14G5.0

Notes:
The visual shows a tape drive that is connected to a system but is undefined. The cfgmgr command
is run to configure and make the device available. Once available, special device files are created in
/dev directory. Some devices like tapes have several special files. Each file is assigned a major and
minor number. Major and minor numbers are used by the operating system to determine the actual
driver and device to be accessed by the user-level request for the special device file.
For example, when writing files to a tape, the difference between tar –cvf /dev/rmt0
myfiles.tar and tar –cvf /dev/rmt0.1 myfiles.tar is that rmt0 will result in the tape
rewinding after the operation, whereas with rmt0.1, the tape will not rewind after the write
operation.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show cfgmgr, /dev, and major/minor numbers. Also, show rmdev and mkdev
commands in action.
Details — Go through the information in the visual and notes. Students will probably notice in place
of a file size there are two numbers: major and minor numbers. Provide them with a simple
explanation.
Additional information — The major identifies the kernel driver that is used to communicate with
the device. The minor number can have different functions such as which instance of the device,
and maybe special handling. In LVM storage, the major number represents the VG and minor
number the LV.
Transition statement — Let us explain device addressing.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-19
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Device addressing
IBM Power Systems

• The address of a device allows you to identify its location.


• Physical location codes uniquely identify a specific component in a
server or accessed by a server.
– Assigned by the system firmware.
• Example hdisk0: U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P2-D5 (SAS drive)

• Operating system location codes uniquely identify a component only


within an AIX instance.
– Assigned by AIX.
– Not as useful or meaningful as physical codes on POWER5 or later systems.
– Virtual devices do not have AIX location codes.
– Note: Address conventions differ between models and types (adapters, SCSI,
non-SCSI).
• Example: hdisk0: 00-08-00 (SAS drive)

• Both physical and AIX codes can be seen side by side with:
– lsdev –CHF "name, status, physloc, location"

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-10. Device addressing AN14G5.0

Notes:
Every device is assigned a physical location code when it is attached to the system. These codes
are critical. If a device has a problem such as a disk failure, an error report is generated, which
identifies the device and its location. You can use this information to replace the failed disk drive.
It is important not to confuse physical location codes with AIX location codes. Before LPAR
technology was introduced into Power Systems, there were only AIX location codes, and they
remain today for legacy purposes. On POWER based processor servers that can be partitioned,
you need to use physical location codes.

Note

Virtual devices do not have OS location codes.

4-20 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain device addressing.
Details — Compare an AIX location code to a physical location code. Use the example to point out
the portion of the physical location code that contains the machine type, model, and serials number
(dot delimited).
OS codes are not that useful with today's technology, so ensure that the focus is on physical
addressing. The physical address needs to be understood in order to locate a failing device.
Additional information — AIX location codes were developed to identify physical locations before
POWER4 appeared. AIX internal device management is still dependent on this code structure so it
will not go away.
Transition statement — Let us examine and explain some physical location code examples.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Physical location code examples


IBM Power Systems

• Physical location code format


– Unit_type.Model_no.Serial_no-additional device information
• Examples:
hdisk0 U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P2-D5 SAS Disk Drive

SAS Planar (P2), Device slot reference 5, disk is in the CEC

ent1 U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P1-C4-T2 2-Port 10/100/1000 PCI-X Adapter

System planar (P1), Card slot No 4, 2nd port, adapter is in the CEC

hdisk0 U7311.D20.6516D3C-P1-C04-T2-L8-L0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk

Planar 1 (P1), PCI slot No 4, 2nd port, SCSI ID 8,0, disk is in an attached SCSI 7311-D 20
I/O Drawer.

hdisk5 U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P1-C3-T1-W500507630E801223-L4011402700000000 FC SCSI Disk

System planar (P1), Card slot No 3, Port 1, W = WW unique name of an FC adapter (where
the FC adapter is in a remote storage subsystem), L = LUN ID. The disk is a logical
device (identified by the LUN ID) in the remote storage subsystem.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-11. Physical location code examples AN14G5.0

Notes:
The visual shows how to interpret physical location code information.
The example system is an older model Power 550, but the principle applies to all POWER Servers.
This server has a single system enclosure.
• U78A0 identifies the CEC within the system enclosure.
• The model number for a CEC is always: 001.
• DNWGGRX is the serial number of the CEC.
Power Systems usually has I/O expansion drawers, or in the case of the larger machines,
expansion frames that contains I/O drawers. U7311.D20 is a popular remote I/O drawer (RIO) for
low- to mid-range systems. 6516D3 is the serial number that is assigned to the drawer.

4-22 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Power hardware-specific terminology


• Central electronics complex (CEC) is the main system unit that contains system processors,
memory, and remote I/O connections.
• System planar is the main component of the CEC where all processor cards, memory dimms,
and I/O attachments are interconnected together.
• RIO and 12X provide high-speed connectivity between the system enclosure (contains the
CEC) and any I/O drawer enclosures. RIO and 12X are comprised of special cables, adapters,
and protocols, which allow the I/O drawers to effectively act as extensions of the system
enclosure’s internal buses. An I/O drawer can consist of PCI slots/adapters, disks, or both,
depending on the type of I/O drawer. The I/O drawers connect to the system enclosure through
either a RIO or 12X GX adapter, which sits on the system enclosure’s GX+ bus.
• System Ports are the two serial ports on the system planar. In an operating system
environment, the two system ports become host virtual system ports and are only available for
specific limited functions. For example, the two integrated system ports on a p550 are limited to
serial connected TTY console functionality and IBM approved call-home modems. These
system ports do not support other general serial connection uses, such as UPS, PowerHA
heartbeat, printers, mice, If you need multi-purpose serial port functions, optional PCI adapters
are available.
• GX+: Each POWER6 processor provides a GX+ bus, which is used to connect to an I/O
subsystem or Fabric Interface card.
• IVE: The POWER6 and higher processor-based servers extend the virtualization technologies
that are introduced in POWER5 by offering the Integrated Virtual Ethernet (IVE) adapter. IVE,
also called Host Ethernet Adapter (HEA) in other documentation, enables an easy way to
manage the sharing of the integrated high-speed Ethernet adapter ports. It is a standard set of
features that are part of POWER6 and early POWER7 processor-based servers. IVE is
discontinued in new models POWER7 processor-based servers.
• PCI, which stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect, is an industry-standard bus for
attaching peripherals to computers.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-23
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Teach students how to read physical location codes.
Details — Go through the examples in the visual. Point out the machine type and model (MTM) and
serial portion of each location code. Point out the planar ID. Compare the remaining location code
positions for devices, which are integrated on the planar versus those that are accessed through
the adapter; specifically, point out the “card” portion of the code. Explain how the final part of the
location code varies widely according to the type of device. Explain the examples that are shown.
Additional information —
Transition statement — It is likely that students will be working with virtual partitions. Therefore, let
us briefly look at a virtual devices code example.

4-24 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Virtual location codes example


IBM Power Systems

– Client (AIX) partition Virtual devices are easily


recognized by the virtual ID
reference. This value is the LPAR
# uname –L ID as shown with the uname
2 sys124_v1_T1 command.

vscsi0 U8204.E8A.652ACD2-V2-C12-T1 Virtual SCSI Client Adapter


hdisk1 U8204.E8A.652ACD2-V2-C12-T1-L810000000000 Virtual SCSI Disk Drive

Virtual client disk, Virtual (LPAR) ID 2, virtual card slot 12.

– VIOS HMC profile


Virtual SCSI adapter definition

Note: In this example, the HMC profile is required


to show the client-server virtual disk relationship.

– VIOS partition
vhost0 U8204.E8A.652ACD2-V1-C12 Virtual SCSI Server Adapter

Virtual Server adapter, Virtual (LPAR) ID 1, virtual card slot (Adapter ID) 12

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-12. Virtual location codes example AN14G5.0

Notes:
Virtual devices are assigned location codes in a similar format to physical devices. The format is:
Unit_type.Model_no.Serial_no-virtual_planar_number-virtual_card_slot_number-[port]
-[LUN]
The visual shows a VIOS presenting a virtual disk (hdisk1) to a VIO Client. In order to do this, the
first step is to create a virtual server adapter, on the HMC for the VIOS and also a VIO client adapter
for the AIX partition. Each adapter has an assigned ID.
The vhost device in the VIOS symbolizes the virtual server adapter. In the example: V1 represents
a virtual device with an assigned ID of one. C12 represents the virtual card slot number, which is
always equal to the adapter ID as defined on the HMC.
The vscsi device on the virtual client symbolizes the client adapter. In the example, V2 again
represents a virtual device with an assigned ID of two. C12 represents the virtual card slot number,
which is also equal the adapter ID as defined on the HMC. T1 specifies the port number of the
adapter.
The client disks that are associated with the virtual client adapter will always inherit the location
code definition plus one more field, the LUN ID (L81000000000). In this example, eight is the SCSI

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-25
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

ID of the physical disk in the VIOS. One represents the first disk on the adapter to be presented to
the client.

4-26 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an example of virtual location codes.
Details — The visual is not intended to provide a lesson in virtualization, but to enable students to
identify and interpret a virtual location code. Go through the example provided. Point out how one
can recognize a virtual device by using the physical location code. In this example, the virtual SCSI
adapter HMC definition from the VIOS is required to show the mapping between the client disk and
adapter in the client partition, to the server adapter in the VIOS partition.
Additional information — Do not get stuck here explaining virtualization beyond basic concepts.
Focus solely on the location code explanation. Virtual devices and virtualization are generally
beyond the scope of this class. Some students are going to be curious here and might want to ask
many questions. If so, point them towards the LPAR classes.
Transition statement — Let’s see who has been listening. It is time for the checkpoint.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. What does the following location code mean?


fcs0 U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P1-C3-T1 4Gb FC PCI Express Adapter

2. True or False: cfgmgr is a binary executable that runs at


system initialization time to configure devices on the
system.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-13. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

4-28 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. What does the following location code mean?


fcs0 U78A0.001.DNWGGRX-P1-C3-T1 4Gb FC PCI Express Adapter

The answer is port 1 of a 4 Gb Fibre Card, which is


connected to planar 1, card slot 3, in Power 550 CEC
(U78A0).

2. True or False: cfgmgr is a binary executable that runs at


system initialization time to configure devices on the
system.
The answer is true.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-29
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

System configuration
and devices

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-14. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

4-30 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-31
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Explain device terminology
• Display the system configuration
• Use common device commands
• Explain device configuration and control
• Identify device locations
– Interpret physical and virtual location codes

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 4-15. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

4-32 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 4. System configuration and devices 4-33
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

4-34 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty
Unit 5. TCP/IP networking

Estimated time
00:40

What this unit is about


This unit describes the essential Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) and networking concepts that are required in order to work
with and configure TCP/IP in AIX.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the TCP/IP startup flow on AIX
• Configure TCP/IP basic functions on AIX
• Explain the difference between ODM and bsdnet methods

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 System Management: Operating system
and device management
AIX Version 7.1 Networks and communication
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.b
ase/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-1


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the TCP/IP startup flow on AIX
• Configure TCP/IP basic functions on AIX
• Explain the difference between ODM and bsdnet methods

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

5-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the objectives of the unit.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start with a discussion of network interface cards, specifically the
most common type of adapter - Ethernet adapter.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-3


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Instructor Guide

Ethernet adapters and interfaces


IBM Power Systems

• Each adapter (entX) has two interfaces (enX and etX).


– enX interface uses the ‘standard DIX’ Ethernet frame format.
• Originally designed by Digital, Intel, and Xerox
– etX interface uses IEEE802.3 frame format.
Network Adapter Card port Interface: en0
adapter device: ent0 Interface: et0
(Layer 1 and 2 physical device) (Layer three logical devices)

MAC
Address
# lsdev -Cl ent0
ent0 Available 01-08 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter
# lscfg -v -l ent0 |grep Network IP addresses
are assigned to
Network Address.............001125BF9018 the interfaces.
In this case,
# lsdev -Cc if en0.

en0 Available 01-08 Standard Ethernet Network Interface


et0 Defined 01-08 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Network Interface

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-2. Ethernet adapters and interfaces AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Brief history of Ethernet
The original Ethernet is called Experimental Ethernet today. It was developed by Robert
Metcalfe in 1972 (patented in 1978) and was based in part on the ALOHAnet protocol. The first
Ethernet that was generally used was DIX Ethernet (known as Ethernet II) and was derived
from Experimental Ethernet. Today, there are many different standards, under the umbrella of
IEEE 802.3, and the technical community has accepted the term Ethernet for all of them. The
standardization for 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ba) was completed in June
2010. For further information, see http://www.ieee802.org/3.
• Configuration of adapters and interfaces
In AIX, when cfgmgr discovers an Ethernet adapter, it creates an ent# device object to
represent that adapter in the ODM customized device database (the numeric suffix is
incremented for each instance of that type of adapter). cfgmgr Runs a method (a program)
which does additional configuration that is specific to the type of adapter. In the case of an
Ethernet adapter, the method creates two interface devices, en# and et# (where the numeric
suffix always matches the numeric suffix of the adapter upon which they are based). The en#
interfaces use the DIX Ethernet protocol and frame structure. The et# interface uses the IEEE

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V10.1
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Uempty 802.3 Ethernet protocol and frame structure. Of course, all of these devices are also defined to
the kernel.
The interfaces are initially placed in a defined state without any IP configuration. When you
configure the interface with an IP address and netmask, the interface state is changed to
available.
These interfaces are not interchangeable. An interface that uses IEEE 802.3 cannot talk to an
interface on another machine that is using DIX. A common error is to accidentally configure et0
instead of en0. Since most hosts on the local network use only DIX, the misconfigured machine
cannot talk to any of them. Some routers dynamically adjusts to whichever format they receive.
• Ethernet adapter support on AIX
- TX 10/100/1000Mb up to 100m that uses traditional copper
- SX 1000Mb up to 550m that uses multi-mode fiber
- LX 1000Mb up to 5km that uses single-mode fiber (can also run on multi-mode fiber)
- SR (short range) 10Gb up to 300m that uses multi-mode fiber
- LR (long range) 10Gb up to 25km that uses single-mode fiber
Almost all cases, on AIX, you will configure the en (DIX) interface (et interfaces are rarely (if at all)
used).

Note

Fiber versus Fibre. When writing about networks and Fiber, it is important to know when to use the
correct spelling. Fiber refers to the medium (wire), whereas Fibre refers to the protocol, as in, Fibre
channel.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-5


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Provide an introduction to Ethernet adapters.
Details — Provide a little Ethernet history to the students. Give a brief overview of the adapter
support in AIX. Ensure that students understand that the adapter is both a layer 1 and 2 device, and
that for each adapter, there are two layer 3 interfaces, enX and etX. In the visual, en0 is shown as
available. Explain that it is made available when an IP address is assigned to it.
Additional information — Traditional copper (TX) is inexpensive. However, to go further distances
and higher speeds, Fiber is required.
Transition statement — Once the interface devices have been created, we are ready to configure
the interfaces. How is this typically done in AIX?

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Uempty

How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• There are many ways. However, in most cases you start with:
# smit mktcpip
A one stop
Minimum Configuration & Startup shop for TCP/IP
config on AIX.
To Delete existing configuration data, use Further Configuration
menus
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
[Entry Fields]
* HOSTNAME [waldorf]
* Internet ADDRESS (dotted decimal) [10.47.1.18]
Network MASK (dotted decimal) [255.255.0.0]
* Network INTERFACE en0
NAMESERVER
Internet ADDRESS (dotted decimal) [10.47.1.33]
DOMAIN Name [lpar.co.uk]
Default Gateway
Address (dotted decimal or symbolic name) [10.47.0.1]
Cost [0] #
Do Active Dead Gateway Detection? no +
Your CABLE Type N/A +
START Now no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-3. How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
AIX provides a Minimum Configuration and Startup SMIT panel for configuring TCP/IP on the
system. The command with fast path is:
# smit mktcpip
It does many configurations all on one panel. The essential items that you will require are:
• Interface to be configured (provided on a previous selection panel)
• Host name of the machine:
- Issues the hostname command.
• IP address and network mask:
- Issues the ifconfig command to define the interface.
- Updates /etc/hosts with the host name as the name resolution for the IP address.
• Default gateway (if connecting outside local network):
- Issues the route command to update the routing table.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-7


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Desirable items are:


• DNS parameters (namserver and domain name):
- This information populates the /etc/resolv.conf file, as follows:
nameserver 10.47.1.33
domain lpar.co.uk
- This does not update the name server with your machine’s information. Contact the name
server administrator to have your IP address and host name added.
CABLE Type is generally not required and can be left as N/A. START Now refreshes or starts, the
TCP/IP subsystems.

Note

The TCP/IP subsystems should already be running!

All of these can be configured separately by running smit tcpip and selecting Further
Configuration. On that menu, there are separate items for name resolution, routing specification,
interface definition, and more.

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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce smitty mktcpip as a one stop shop for TCP/IP configuration.
Details — Use the visual to explain how to use smit mktcpip to configure TCP/IP on AIX.
Introduce most of the options in the panels.
Additional information — You might get questions on active dead gateway detection as shown in
the SMIT screen. Explain that we do not have time to cover multipath routing and dead gateway
detection in this course. These are covered in the AIX TCP/IP course: AN21.
Transition statement — What about multi-homed boxes?

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-9


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Instructor Guide

How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• smit mktcpip should be used only for the first adapter


• Subsequent adapters should be configured with:
# smit chinet
Change / Show a Standard Ethernet Interface

[Entry Fields]
Network Interface Name en1
INTERNET ADDRESS (dotted decimal) [192.168.0.1]
Network MASK (hexadecimal or dotted decimal) [255.255.255.0]
Current STATE up +
Use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)? yes +
BROADCAST ADDRESS (dotted decimal) []
Interface Specific Network Options
('NULL' will unset the option)
rfc1323 []
tcp_mssdflt []
tcp_nodelay []
tcp_recvspace []
tcp_sendspace []
Apply change to DATABASE only no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-4. How is TCP/IP configured on AIX? (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
If SMIT is being used to configure further interfaces, you should use the fast path:
# smit chinet
All fields are optional, but essential items are:
• IP address and network mask
• Interface to be configured
• State of the interface

Note

Default of state of the interface is DOWN, so do not forget to switch this to UP. This is a common
configuration error.

The interface specific network options (ISNO) are beyond the scope of this class.
Note that you need to separately configure name resolution for the interface.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Clarify how to add IP configuration to a server with multiple adapters.
Details — Talk through the options that are highlighted in blue. The interface specific network
options (ISNO) are beyond the scope of this course. Do not forget to point out that the adapter state
is down by default. Most people miss this.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at what the SMIT panel is doing, under the covers.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-11


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Instructor Guide

SMIT, ODM, and the kernel


IBM Power Systems

SMIT ODM database

interface objects
chdev /etc/rc.net
inet0 object (bootup_option=no)
mkdev
rmdev

netinet kernel
extension

ifconfig Interface ifconfig


configuration
route route
Route table
hostname hostname
Host name
value

netstat or ifconfig

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-5. SMIT, ODM, and the kernel AN14G5.0

Notes:
Introduction
The visual shows the relationship between permanent configuration information that is stored in the
ODM, current configuration information that is stored in kernel memory, and commands and
facilities that can be used to change these two configurations.
SMIT and chdev
SMIT simply runs high-level commands, which we can run ourselves. Specifically, it runs
(depending on the situation) either the chdev, mkdev, or rmdev commands. These high-level
commands not only update the ODM database, but also run standard UNIX commands (such as
ifconfig, route, and hostname) to update the kernel.
Management of network-related information
Network configuration information that is stored in kernel memory can be defined, modified, and
deleted directly by using the ifconfig, hostname, and route commands. The main issue here is
that this information is not automatically persistent through reboots. To ensure persistence, one
would need to place the command in a boot script such as at the end of /etc/rc.net to reissue the

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Uempty command at each reboot. Making changes directly with the one of these UNIX commands is an
excellent choice when you want the change to be temporary.
The AIX approach is to store the network configuration information as attributes of network-related
objects in the ODM database. When /etc/rc.net runs at reboot, it reads the ODM database and
issues the necessary ifconfig, route, and hostname commands to create the desired
configuration in the kernel.
The two main ways of updating network-related ODM objects are SMIT or the chdev command.
Displaying the network configuration
Since it is possible to directly update the kernel network configuration and bypass the ODM, it is
important to understand what source is being accessed when you display network information.
When viewing panels in SMIT or when using the lsattr command, you are being shown the
information in the ODM. If the kernel has been updated, this information might not be showing the
effective configuration. On the other hand, the standard UNIX commands of netstat, ifconfig,
and hostname display what is configured in the kernel.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-13


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe the relationship between the SMIT, the ODM, and the kernel.
Details —
Additional information — The diagram lists both interface objects and the inet0 object as being
updated. Here are examples of the type of information that is kept in each type of object:
• Network adapters (ent, tok, atm, …)
- Alternate hardware address
- Media speed
• Network interfaces (en, et, tr, at, …)
- IP address
- Netmask
- Aliases, if any
- Maximum transmission unit (MTU)
• netinet kernel extension (inet0)
- Hostname
- Static routes
- Authentication methods
Transition statement — The current slide emphasizes how the ODM is used at system restart to
reestablish our network configuration in the kernel. What if you do not want to use this method? Let
us look at the system startup procedures in more detail.

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Uempty

TCP/IP startup
IBM Power Systems

AIX initialization
# chdev -l inet0 -a bootup_option={yes|no}
init runs
• cfgmgr runs configuration methods including cfgrcnet
rc.boot phase 3
from /etc/inittab • cfgrcnet configures inet0 and the network interfaces
• cfgrcnet checks the inet0 bootup_option attribute
í bootup_option=no (default)
cfgrcnet runs /etc/rc.net
(network configuration that is read from ODM)
– bootup_option=yes
cfgrcnet runs /etc/rc.bsdnet
(network configuration in rc.bsdnet)

init runs rc.tcpip starts selected network daemons:


/etc/rc.tcpip dhcp
from /etc/inittab syslogd
lpd
sendmail
portmap
inetd
. . .

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-6. TCP/IP startup AN14G5.0

Notes:
TCP/IP startup is initiated from the inittab processing. /sbin/rc.boot calls cfgmgr during the
second phase processing. cfgmgr, in turn runs the cfgrcnet method. The cfgrcnet method
examines the inet0 bootup_option attribute to determine how to configure networking in the kernel.
The default value is no. This results in running /etc/rc.net to configure the kernel. /etc/rc.net
first reads the ODM and use the information that is found to configure the kernel. If you want to
bypass using the ODM, you would need to change the bootup_option attribute value to yes. In this
case, the cfgrcnet method runs /etc/rc.bsdnet instead; the only kernel network configuration
would be whatever you provide as contents of that script.
TCP/IP subsystems are started from /etc/rc.tcpip script. This script can be edited directly to
comment or uncomment subsystem startup. The SMIT panels for managing the subsystem provide
options to either start now, start at system restart, or both. SMIT will update /etc/rc.tcpip
appropriately for the selected option. One of the important daemons started by /etc./rc.tcpip is
the super daemon (inetd). The inetd daemon is responsible for loading network programs upon
request, such as ftp and telnet (among others).
Once the core TCP/IP subsystems have been initialized, further TCP/IP-based applications such as
NFS, NIM, and PowerHA can be started from scripts that are listed later in the inittab.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-15


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Instructor notes:
Purpose — Highlight how TCP/IP starts-up on AIX.
Details — Give the audience an overview of the critical TCP/IP files that are used during start-up.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at the different user interfaces for managing our network
definitions.

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Uempty

Command line TCP/IP configuration


IBM Power Systems

• There are two ways to configure network resources:


– AIX ODM (chdev or SMIT)
– Directly, using BSD UNIX commands: hostname, ifconfig, route (valid until
reboot, unless coded in startup script)

• Setting the hostname:


– ODM: # chdev –l inet0 –a hostname=sys1
– Directly: # hostname sys1

• Defining an IP address for an adapter:


– ODM: # chdev -l en0 -a netaddr=192.168.0.1 –a \
netmask=255.255.255.0 -a state=up
– Directly: # ifconfig en0 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0 up

• If the direct method is used, in order to make persistent through reboot, place
the commands at the end of:
– /etc/rc.net (overrides any matching ODM configuration)
– /etc/rc.bsdnet (if inet0 bootup_option=yes)

• Can use hostname and ifconfig for display of values


© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-7. Command line TCP/IP configuration AN14G5.0

Notes:
As well as SMIT, TCP/IP configuration can be driven from the command line. There are two ways to
handle this:
• The AIX way, in which configuration is stored in the AIX internal database (ODM). This way, the
configuration remains after shutdown/restart.
• The traditional BSD UNIX way. This way configuration does not survive restarts unless the
commands are entered into a startup script such as the /etc/rc.net file.
The /etc/rc.net file is run by cfgmgr during system boot. The /etc/rc.net file configures AIX
style configuration and optionally traditional BSD UNIX configuration. If only traditional BSD style
networking is required, then the following command can be run: # chdev -l inet0 -a
bootup_option=yes. Doing this, causes AIX to process the /etc/rc.bsdnet instead of rc.net file
at boot time. Commands such as hostname, ifconfig, route and so on, should be appended to
/etc/rc.bsdnet as appropriate.
Even if using the ODM method, the hostname and ifconfig commands are still of great use in
displaying the current kernel network configuration.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-17


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Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to configure AIX from the command line.
Details — It is important for students to understand the different configuration methods available on
AIX.
Sometimes, it is preferable to do some things manually, like routing. One real world example: In a
mission critical environment, an AIX server crashed and was subsequently set to reboot. On reboot,
the system did not come up. This happened during hours when only basic first line support staff
were on hand. They were not able to fix the problem. On investigation, a route had become
corrupted in the ODM causing a hard mount to get stuck. The route was not be able to remove from
the ODM by using the standard SMIT panels. This took some time for experienced personnel to
solve. Subsequently, all routing was done manually and documented in the /etc/rc.net file. No
further routing problems occurred.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us next look at how we can control name resolution.

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Uempty

Name resolution
IBM Power Systems

• Name resolution methods: Local, DNS, NIS, and LDAP.


• Local - /etc/hosts file (edit or smit hosts):
127.0.0.1 loopback localhost
10.10.1.1 system1 nimserver
10.10.1.2 system2

• DNS - /etc/resolv.conf (edit or smit resolv.conf)


domain lpar.co.uk
nameserver 10.47.1.33

• The name resolution order is:


– Default order: bind (DNS), NIS=auth, local
– Override with /etc/netsvc.conf, append:
• hosts = local, bind
– Override both with environment variable NSORDER:
• # export NSORDER=local,bind
• Display resolution with: # host <name or IP addr>
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-8. Name resolution AN14G5.0

Notes:
Systems use different methods for mapping host names to IP addresses. The method depends
upon the environment in which a system is going to participate.
• Flat Network: This method provides name resolution through the file /etc/hosts and works
well in small, stable environments.
• Domain Name Server (DNS): DNS is a system that allows name and IP lookups, in a tree-like
database structure. It was created due to the growth of the Internet and designed for large
networks.
• Network Information System (NIS) Server: This method provides a centralized server for
administration of configuration, and other files, within a LAN environment.
• Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Server: LDAP is an application protocol for
querying and modifying directory services that run over TCP/IP. Tivoli Directory Server (TDS) is
IBM's version of an LDAP server.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-19


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Instructor Guide

Default name resolution


The existence of /etc/resolv.conf determines how a system resolves host names and IP
addresses within a domain or flat network.
• If /etc/resolv.conf exists, the system attempts to query a DNS server.
• If /etc/resolv.conf does not exist, the system checks to see whether NIS is being used and if
the server is available. NIS is authoritative. This means, that if the NIS client subsystem is
running, and it is not successful in obtaining an answer, then the process stops.
• Finally, the local /etc/hosts file is checked.
Overriding the default name resolution
The default name resolution can be overwritten in two ways:
• Append to the /etc/netsvc.conf file and specify host ordering. Use the hosts attribute
followed by the name of the resource to use. The resources that are listed depend on what
name resolution processes are running on the network.
• Create an environment variable NSORDER. NSORDER overrides any name resolution that is
specified in the /etc/netsvc.conf file.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain how name resolution works on AIX.
Details — Explain how name resolution can be achieved on AIX, the default order, and how it can
be changed.
Additional information — Changing the order differs between UNIX implementations. It is
generally a good idea if name resolution order is changed, to set both /etc/netsvc.conf and
NSORDER just in case the environment table gets cleared.
Do not get too involved with DNS, NIS, and LDAP topics. These are beyond the scope of the class.
Transition statement — Finally, let us look at the support for the NFS facility.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-21


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Instructor Guide

Network file system


IBM Power Systems

• File sets:
– Server: bos.net.nfs.server
– Client: bos.net.nfs.client
• Server configuration
– Starting and stopping NFS daemons (now and at system restart)
• /usr/sbin/mknfs -B or smit mknfs
• /usr/sbin/rmnfs -B or smit rmnfs

# lssrc –g nfs
biod nfs 352444 active
nfsd nfs 221328 active
rpc.mountd nfs 315524 active
rpc.statd nfs 364738 active
rpc.lockd nfs 258262 active

– Export directory trees


• /usr/sbin/mknfsexp or smit mknsfexp
/etc/exports exportfs -a /etc/xtab rpc.mountd
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-9. Network file system AN14G5.0

Notes:
The mknfs command configures the system to run the NFS daemons. The mknfs command accepts
the following flags:
• -B: Adds an entry to the inittab file to run the /etc/rc.nfs file on system restart and runs the
/etc/rc.nfs file immediately to start the NFS daemons.
• -I: Adds an entry to the inittab file to run the /etc/rc.nfs file on system restart.
• -N: Starts the /etc/rc.nfs file to start the NFS daemons immediately, when started this way,
the daemons run until the next system restarts.
When NFS is started, the following daemons are started:
• The biod daemon runs on all NFS client systems. When a user on a client wants to read or
write to a file on a server, the biod daemon sends this request to the server. The biod daemon
is activated during system startup and runs continuously.
• The nfsd daemon runs on the server and handles client requests for file system operations.
• The rpc.mountd daemon answers client requests to mount file systems. The mountd daemon
finds out which file systems are available by reading the /etc/xtab file. The /etc/xtab file is

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Uempty created when file systems are exported on the server. This process is covered in the next
visual.
• The rpc.statd and rpc.lockd daemons work together to main stateful locking. NFS
implements an advisory locking mechanism, meaning if a program, and does not pay any
attention to the locking messages it receives, it can go ahead and access the file. When a
server crashes, the locking information is recovered. The status monitor maintains information
on the location of connections as well as the status in the /etc/sm directory, the /etc/sm.bak
file, and the /etc/state file. When restarted, the statd daemon queries these files and tries to
reestablish the connection it had before termination.
The rmnfs command changes the configuration of the system to stop running NFS daemons. It
accepts the same flags as mknfs.
In order to configure an NFS server, you must first decide:
• What directories you want to export
• Which clients you want to have access the directories and files
• The permissions (for example, read-write, read-only) clients will have when accessing the files
Only when the NFS subsystem is activated, by using the mknfs command, can directories be made
available. When the /etc/export file has been configured, the exportfs command is used to
make the directories available for client mounting. The exportfs -a command exports all items
that are listed in the /etc/exports file and automatically copies the entries to the /etc/xtab file.
/etc/xtab file entries are used by the system and always reflect what is currently exported. This
leaves the /etc/exports file available for updating at any time. The /etc/xtab file must never the
edited directly.
An easy way to maintain the NFS export list is to use SMIT or the AIX commands that are issued by
SMIT. These commands are mknfsexp, chnfsexp, and rmnfsexp. The SMT panels will simplify the
creation of otherwise complicated entries in the /etc/exports files. The panel (and the underlying
AIX command) provides an option to specify whether you want to only update /etc/exports or
also export the change to /etc/xtab.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-23


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Provide an overview to NFS.
Details — Go through the details that are provided in the visual.
Additional information — NFS version support is not relevant. The focus, is on NFS version 3,
which is the default.
Transition statement — Let us review what we have covered with some checkpoint questions.

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Uempty

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. When you use smit mktcpip, SMIT updates:


a. Only the ODM
b. Only the kernel
c. /etc/rc.net
d. Both the ODM and the kernel

2. True or False: You can choose to configure either en0 or et0 since they
both map to the same Ethernet adapter port.

3. True or False: The core TCP/IP daemons are typically started by


/etc/rc.tcpip at system restart.

4. True or False: You can choose to bypass the ODM and use BSD
commands in a startup script by setting the inet0 bootup_option
attribute to yes.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-10. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-25


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. When you use smit mktcpip, SMIT updates:


a. Only the ODM
b. Only the kernel
c. /etc/rc.net
d. Both the ODM and the kernel
The answer is both the ODM and the kernel.

2. True or False: You can choose to configure either en0 or et0 since they both map
to the same Ethernet adapter port.
The answer is false. You must configure the interface whose protocol matches the
other hosts on your network (likely en0 using DIX).

3. True or False: The core TCP/IP daemons are typically started by /etc/rc.tcpip
at system restart.
The answer is true.

4. True or False: You can choose to bypass the ODM and use BSD commands in a
startup script by setting the inet0 bootup_option attribute to yes.
The answer is true.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

TCP/IP
implementation

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-11. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-27


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the TCP/IP startup flow on AIX
• Configure TCP/IP basic functions on AIX
• Explain the difference between ODM and bsdnet methods

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 5-12. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 5. TCP/IP networking 5-29


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

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Uempty
Unit 6. System startup and shutdown

Estimated time
01:00

What this unit is about


This unit describes how to start up and shut down the managed system and
AIX partitions.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the logical partition and AIX startup process
• Activate the AIX partitions
• Describe the AIX startup modes
• Describe the role of the System Resource Controller and how to manage
subsystems
• Explain how to shut down the AIX partitions

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Operating System and Device
Management
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ib
m.aix.base/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the logical partition and AIX startup process
• Activate the AIX partitions
• Describe the AIX startup modes
• Describe the role of the System Resource Controller and how
to manage subsystems
• Explain how to shut down the AIX partitions

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the objectives of this unit.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start with the different modes of AIX startup.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Startup modes for AIX (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• The two most popular start-up modes are:


– SMS mode (the firmware menu)
– Normal mode

• SMS mode is used for:


– Selecting the boot device or setting remote IPL parameters
– Booting into Service (Maintenance) mode, for example:
• To fix a machine that will not boot
• Recover root password

SMS top-level
PowerPC Firmware
Version AL730_122 firmware menu
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2008 All rights reserved.
----------------------------------------------------------------
Main Menu
1. Select Language
2. Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
3. Change SCSI Settings
4. Select Console
5. Select Boot Options

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-2. Start-up modes for AIX (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
System Management Services
To boot into SMS, either press the 1 key shortly after partition activation, or set the partition to
specifically SMS boot. To do this, click the Advanced button on activation and set the boot mode to
SMS.
SMS is the Power System firmware menu. The code is shipped with the hardware. This resource
can be used to select the boot device, or change the order of the bootlist and boot the system into
Service mode, if maintenance is required.
Service mode enables the user to run diagnostics or access the system in single-user mode.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the startup modes for AIX.
Details — There are several startup modes for AIX. However, most of the time, the system is
booted in normal mode. To build the system, or to boot into maintenance mode to fix problems, it is
often necessary to boot into SMS mode (the system firmware). The others boot options are rarely
used.
Give an overview of SMS booting and why one would want to do it.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us continue with normal mode and the other options.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-5
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Instructor Guide

Startup modes for AIX (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• Normal mode
– AIX boots into multi-user mode (run level 2).
– Users can log in, the system can be configured, and applications can
start.
– The bootlist command can change the start-up boot device list.

# bootlist -m normal -o Displays the current


hdisk0 blv=hd5 boot device (hdisk0)

# bootlist –m normal hdisk0 hdisk1


Changes the current
normal bootlist to boot
from hdisk1 if hdisk0 is
• Other less common start-up modes: not available or bootable
– Diagnostic with default boot list
• Boot to service mode that uses default boot list (has optical drive first)
– Diagnostic with stored boot list
• Boot to service mode that uses a user customized bootlist
– Open firmware
• Open firmware prompt; used by service/support personnel to obtain low-level
debug information

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-3. Start-up modes for AIX (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Start-up modes that are listed in the HMC LPAR activation Advanced panel:
• Normal: The logical partition starts up as normal. This is the mode that you use to perform most
everyday tasks. When the machine does a normal boot, it completes the full AIX boot sequence
and start processes, enables terminals, and generates a login prompt, to make it available for
multi-user access. It also activates the disks, sets up access to the files and directories, starts
networking, and completes other machine-specific configurations.
• Diagnostic with default boot list: The logical partition boots in service mode by using the
default boot list that is built into the system firmware. This mode is normally used to either boot
to diagnostics from a hard disk, or to boot off bootable media (a diagnostics CD or installation
media).
• Diagnostic with stored boot list: The logical partition performs a service mode boot by using
the service mode boot list that is saved in NVRAM.
• Open Firmware OK prompt: The logical partition boots to the open firmware prompt. This
option is used by service personnel to obtain additional debug information.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Continuation of startup modes.
Details — Cover normal mode booting. Briefly mention that they can display or modify the bootlist.
But that topic will be covered thoroughly in a later unit.
Briefly highlight the other boot options, and explain that we will cover them more completely later in
the course. They are only listed at this point for completeness. They are not used as often these
days as one would typically boot into SMS, and then just select the boot device.
Additional information — The bootlist command can include a network adapter, but then must
also provide network parameters. The only situation where this would be used is if needing to
network boot that uses a boot server such as a NIM server. More often these network boots are
controlled though an SMS configuration (covered later in the AIX Installation unit). An example of
using bootlist to identify a network adapter and the associated network parameters is:
# bootlist -m normal ent0 bserver=10.47.1.33 client=10.47.1.101
Transition statement — Let us look at how we start a partition from the HMC.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-7
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Instructor Guide

AIX partition activation (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

# ssh hscroot@<hmc> chsysstate -m <ms_name> -r lpar \


-o on -n <lpar> -f <profile name> -b sms

To activate
into SMS

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-4. AIX partition activation (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Activating a partition
To activate a partition from the HMC Server Management application, select the partition name and
choose Activate from the menu. An Activate Logical Partition screen appears from which the user
can select the start-up profile.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how an AIX partition is activated.
Details — Go through the visual and explain how to start an AIX partition.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us continue with our examination of partition activation.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-9
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Instructor Guide

AIX partition activation (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

AIX Version 7
Copyright IBM Corporation, 1982, 2013
Console login:

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-5. AIX partition activation (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Activating a partition (continued)
Partitions can have one or many profiles that are assigned, one of which is the default. Profiles
contain the attributes of the partition such as process and memory requirements, and assigned
devices. A profile must always be specified when starting a partition.
The Activate Logical Partition panel presents you with two options.
• One is to open a virtual console session to your LPAR.
• The other is an Advanced button that enables users to set the start-up mode. A default start-up
mode is contained within the profile.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how an AIX partition is activated (continued).
Details — Following the activate action, the profile must be chosen to boot from. In the visual, there
is just one profile (and most cases) the profile is already selected, shown as an02. Explain to
students that it is the profile that contains the attributes, such as processing units, memory, and
devices. Mention also the Advanced button, which shows the boot mode options that are
mentioned earlier.
Once the partition is running, we can log in, either remotely (tn, ssh, and so on) or by using a virtual
console session as shown on the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — In a normal boot, control is eventually passed to the init process, which
runs the programs that are listed in the /etc/inittab file. Let us look at how AIX uses this common
UNIX facility.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-11
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Instructor Guide

/etc/inittab
IBM Power Systems

Format of the line: id:runlevel:action:command[#comment]


init:2:initdefault:
brc::sysinit:/sbin/rc.boot 3 >/dev/console 2>&1 # Phase 3 of system boot
powerfail::powerfail:/etc/rc.powerfail 2>&1 | alog -tboot > /dev/console
mkatmpvc:2:once:/usr/sbin/mkatmpvc >/dev/console 2>&1 Default runlevel 2
atmsvcd:2:once:/usr/sbin/atmsvcd >/dev/console 2>&1 is multiuser mode
tunables:23456789:wait:/usr/sbin/tunrestore -R > /dev/console 2>&1 # Set tunables
rc:23456789:wait:/etc/rc 2>&1 | alog -tboot > /dev/console # Multi-User checks
rcemgr:23456789:once:/usr/sbin/emgr -B > /dev/null 2>&1
fbcheck:23456789:wait:/usr/sbin/fbcheck 2>&1 | alog -tboot > /dev/console
srcmstr:23456789:respawn:/usr/sbin/srcmstr # System Resource Controller
rctcpip:23456789:wait:/etc/rc.tcpip > /dev/console 2>&1 # Start TCP/IP daemons
rcnfs:23456789:wait:/etc/rc.nfs > /dev/console 2>&1 # Start NFS Daemons
sniinst:2:wait:/var/adm/sni/sniprei > /dev/console 2>&1
cron:23456789:respawn:/usr/sbin/cron SRC master is
qdaemon:23456789:wait:/usr/bin/startsrc -sqdaemon parent to many
writesrv:23456789:wait:/usr/bin/startsrc -swritesrv
uprintfd:23456789:respawn:/usr/sbin/uprintfd
subsystems
shdaemon:2:off:/usr/sbin/shdaemon >/dev/console 2>&1 # High availability daemon
l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 2
l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3 SRC subsystem
l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4 start example
l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5 Support for
l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 6
[ . . . ]
rc.d scripts

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-6. /etc/inittab AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Overview
The init process uses the inittab to start other processes in the system. The inittab file
designates which programs to run. In this and in the structure of the inittab, it does not differ
much from other UNIX operating systems. But there are some unique aspects to how AIX uses
and works with the inittab.
• Format of entries
The individual line entries in /etc/inittab contain the following fields:
- Id: Up to 14 characters that identify the process.
- Runlevel: Defines the run levels for which the process is valid. AIX uses run levels of 0-9. If
the telinit command is used to change the run level, a SIGTERM signal is sent to all
processes that are not defined for the new run level. If, after 20 seconds, a process has not
terminated, a SIGKILL signal is sent. The default run level for the system is 2, which is AIX
multiuser mode.

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Uempty - Action: How to treat the process. Valid actions are:


• respawn: If the process does not exist, start it. If the process dies, then restart it.
• wait: Start the process and wait for it to finish before reading the next line.
• once: Start the process and immediately read the next line. Do not restart it if it stops.
• sysinit: These commands are to be run before trying to access the console.
• off: Do not run the command.
• Command: Use the AIX command to run to start the process.
• Run levels
AIX uses a default run level of 2. This is the normal multi-user mode. You might want to perform
maintenance on your system without having other users logged in. The command shutdown -m
places your machine into a single user mode and terminates all logins. Once the machine
reaches the single user mode, you are prompted to enter the root password. When you are
ready to return to normal mode, type telinit 2.
• System resource controller
Many of the daemons that start at boot time are defined to the system resource controller
(SRC). Before these subsystems can be started, the SRC master process (srcmstr) must be
started by the init process. After the SRC master is started, the subsystems are started by
entries in the inittab (either directly or through startup scripts such as rc.tcpip), which invoke
the SRC master to start specific subsystems.
• Support for rc.d scripts
Traditionally, AIX invoked scripts directly out of the inittab. AIX provided an ability (common in
other UNIX operating systems) to invoke start (S) and stop (K) scripts that are stored under the
/etc/rc.d directory.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-13
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Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how AIX uses the /etc/inittab file.
Details — The students should already be familiar with the inittab. You need to focus on how AIX
differs from other UNIX operating system in its use. Do not explain the structure of the entries. Point
out the items that have call-outs pointing to them, but do not spend a lot of time explaining them in
detail; these are covered in more detail on the following visuals. This slide is basically providing a
context for the topics that follow.
Additional information — The inittab file is reread by the init daemon every 60 seconds. The
telinit q command is only needed if you cannot wait for the next 60-second check. The inittab
is read top to bottom. This is why the wait action is important. There are dependencies in this file
like rcnfs and rctcpip. NFS, stands for network file system, which allows sharing of file systems
across the network. NFS cannot work if the line above it (rctcpip), which starts networking, is not
started and completed. Notice that rctcpip's start action is wait.
Transition statement — How many run levels do we have and is there any run level control over
and above inittab?

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Uempty

/etc/inittab management and run levels


IBM Power Systems

• Run levels on AIX:


– 0 and 1: Reserved for future use
– 2 Multi-user mode (default level of init entry)
– 3 through 9: Free to be defined by the administrator

• Best practice: Use high-level commands to edit the inittab


– mkitab, chitab, rmitab

• The telinit command accepts an argument to control init:


– A run level to switch to
– S, s, M, m, results in the system to entere single user mode
– Q, q, re-examines and processes the /etc/inittab file on request

• /etc/rc.d scripts are supported:


– Few AIX system facilities currently use this
• Two examples are ssh and WPARs
– Part of Linux affinity environment

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-7. /etc/inittab management and run levels AN14G5.0

Notes:
Run levels
Run levels define the behavior of init, and by extension, those processes that run on the system
when it is at any given level. A run level is a software configuration that allows only a selected group
of processes to exist. The system can be at one of the following run levels:
• 0-9
Tells the init command to place the system in one run level 0-9.
When the init command requests a change to run levels 0-9, it kills all processes at the current
run levels and then restarts any processes that are associated with the new run levels.
• 0-1
Reserved for the future use of the operating system.
• 2
Contains all of the terminal processes and daemons that are run in the multiuser environment.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-15
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Instructor Guide

In the multiuser environment, the /etc/inittab file is set up so that the init command creates
a process for each terminal on the system. The console device driver is also set to run at all run
levels so the system can be operated with only the console active.
• 3-9
Can be defined according to the user's preferences.
• S,s,M,m
Tells the init command to enter the maintenance mode. When the system enters maintenance
mode from another run level, only the system console is used as the terminal.
• a,b,c,h
Tells the init command to process only those records in the /etc/inittab file with a, b, c, or h
in the run level field. These four arguments, a, b, c, and h, are not true run levels. They differ
from run levels in that the init command cannot request the entire system to enter run levels a,
b, c, or h. When the init command finds a record in the /etc/inittab file with a value of a, b,
c, or h in the run level field, it starts the process. However, it does not kill any processes at the
current run level. Processes with a value of a, b, c, or h in the run level field, are started in
addition to the processes already running at the current system run level. Another difference
between true run levels and a, b, c, or h, is that processes started with a, b, c, or h are not
stopped when the init command changes run levels. There are three ways to stop a, b, c, or h
processes:
- Type off in the Action field.
- Delete the objects entirely.
- Use the init command to enter maintenance state.
Modifying /etc/inittab
The /etc/inittab file lists the processes that init starts, and it also specifies when to start them.
If this file gets corrupted, the system cannot boot properly. Because of this, it is a good idea to keep
a backup of this file. This file should never be edited directly. Use lsitab, chitab, and mkitab
commands. After editing the /etc/inittab file, force the system to reread the file by using the
telinit q command.
To list the inittab type: lsitab –a
To add an entry into the inittab, type:
mkitab [ -i Identifier ] { [ Identifier ] : [ RunLevel ] : [ Action ] : [
Command ] }
• Example: mkitab "tty002:2:respawn:/usr/sbin/getty /dev/tty2"
To change an entry in the inittab, type:
chitab { [ Identifier ] : [ RunLevel ] : [ Action ] : [ Command ] }
- Example: chitab "tty002:4:respawn:/usr/sbin/getty /dev/tty"
Run level control scripts
Run level scripts enable system administrators to start and stop selected applications and services,
or perform tasks during system start-up, shutdown, or during run level change. Run level scripts

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Uempty need to be created in the subdirectory of /etc/rc.d that is specific to the run level. Scripts
beginning with K are stop scripts, while scripts beginning with S are start scripts. Below is an
example (recursive) listing of the /etc/rc.d directory on an AIX system with open ssh installed:
/etc/rc.d # ls -R
init.d rc rc2.d rc3.d rc4.d rc5.d rc6.d rc7.d rc8.d rc9.d
./init.d:

./rc2.d:
Ksshd Kwpars S00ct_boot Ssshd

./rc3.d:

./rc4.d:

./rc5.d:

./rc6.d:

./rc7.d:

./rc8.d:

./rc9.d:
By default, there is not much in AIX that uses rc.d scripts and what there is only for the AIX default
run level of 2.
The traditional AIX design is to place startup scripts as regular entries in the inittab. The SRC
groups provide an easy way to stop and start groups of subsystems without playing with run levels.
The shutdown command handles stopping the subsystems and (traditionally) any special shutdown
logic is placed in /etc/rc.shutdown.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-17
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Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce and explain run levels.
Details — Go through the main points in the visual (supporting detail in the student notes). The
inittab control commands are unique to AIX. Try to make them understand the rationale behind the
AIX differences. Remember that the focus is not on teaching everything from scratch, but only on
how AIX is different.
Additional information — Other UNIX systems often have many different predefined run levels, so
the concept of having only run level 2 might seem strange to the students. The other UNIX
operating systems also make heavier use of the /etc/rc.d stop and start scripts.
The only difference (from traditional UNIX) for the telinit argument is the use of M or m as
alternatives to S and s. That is why they are highlighted in the visual.
The most common inittab changes are from software installation and configuration, rather than
manual changes. New software often adds itself to the inittab (or one of the existing startup
scripts) through a method that is part of the file set installation or as part of the logic when
configuring that facility. The itab commands that are listed above provide an easy and safe method
for doing this in a script.
Transition statement — Let us take a closer look at one of the AIX facilities that is used by
inittab entries to start subsystems: the System Resource Controller.

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Uempty

System resource controller


IBM Power Systems

• Provides a single interface to control subsystems


• Controls individual subsystems or groups of subsystems
# ps -ef |grep src SRC
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD Master
root 172178 1 0 18 Sep - 0:00 /usr/sbin/srcmstr process
# ps -T 172178
PID TTY TIME CMD Parent
172178 - 0:00 srcmstr PID = init
151672 - 0:01 |\--syslogd
163968 - 0:00 |\--inetd
303160 - 0:00 | \--rlogind
Subsystem
512170 pts/0 0:00 | \--ksh
463024 pts/0 0:00 | \--ps
168088 - 0:00 |\--portmap
180418 - 0:00 |\--IBM.ServiceRMd
188650 - 1:24 |\--rmcd
Subserver
200856 - 3:47 |\--clstrmgr
204904 - 0:00 |\--tftpd
176288 - 0:00 | \--tftpd
213102 - 0:00 |\--sshd
221334 - 0:00 |\--snmpdv3ne
254124 - 0:00 |\--IBM.DRMd
262276 - 0:59 |\--IBM.CSMAgentRMd
417800 - 0:00 \--ctcasd

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-8. System resource controller AN14G5.0

Notes:
Purpose of the system resource controller
The system resource controller (SRC) provides a set of commands to make it easier for the
administrator to control subsystems. A subsystem is a daemon, or server, that is controlled by the
SRC. A subserver is a daemon that is controlled by a subsystem. Daemon commands and daemon
names are usually denoted by a d at the end of the name. For example, inetd is a subsystem and
can be controlled through SRC commands. rlogind is a subserver, which is started by the inetd
subsystem as shown in the visual.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-19
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce the SRC.
Details — The information below might be helpful if students ask for further discussion on the
differences between subsystem groups, subsystems, and subservers.
Subsystem groups: A subsystem group is a group of any specified subsystems. Grouping
systems together allows the control of several subsystems at one time.
Examples are: TCP/IP, NIS, and NFS.
Subserver: A subserver is a program or process that belongs to a subsystem. A subsystem can
have multiple subservers and is responsible for starting, stopping, and providing status of
subservers.
Additional information — Ensure that the students understand the big picture. If the students
have terminals available to them, you might want to have them type in lssrc -a to show them the
grouping. These groupings are established in the ODM.
Transition statement — Let us identify some of the commands that the SRC uses to control the
subsystems.

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Uempty

Listing subsystems
IBM Power Systems

• The lssrc command is used to list subsystems.


# lssrc -a
Subsystem Group PID Status
syslogd ras 151672 active
portmap portmap 168088 active
inetd tcpip 163968 active
tftpd tcpip 204904 active
sshd ssh 213102 active
ctrmc rsct 188650 active
snmpd tcpip 221334 active
clcomdES clcomdES 225414 active
clstrmgrES cluster 200856 active
ctcas rsct 417800 active
qdaemon spooler inoperative
writesrv spooler inoperative
lpd spooler inoperative

…. Removed for clarity …..

# lssrc –g tcpip |grep active


Subsystem Group PID Status
inetd tcpip 163968 active
tftpd tcpip 204904 active
snmpd tcpip 221334 active

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-9. Listing subsystems AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Introduction
In this section, we discuss some examples of SRC commands.
• Listing SRC status
The lssrc command is used to show the status of the SRC subsystems. In the example that is
shown on the visual, we are checking the status of all subsystems by using the -a flag and the
TCP/IP group by using the -g flag.
• Specifying a subsystem or subsystem group
The -s and -g flags are used to specify subsystems or subsystem groups, respectively.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-21
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Instructor notes:
Purpose — Introduce the lssrc command.
Details — Go through each example on the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we can stop, start, and refresh subsystems.

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Uempty

SRC control
IBM Power Systems

• Controlling subsystems
# stopsrc -s inetd
0513-044 The /usr/sbin/inetd Subsystem was requested to stop.

# startsrc -s inetd
0513-059 The inetd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is
311374.

# refresh -s inetd
0513-095 The request for subsystem refresh was completed
successfully.

Not all subsystems support


being refreshed

# refresh -s sshd
0513-005 The Subsystem, sshd, only supports signal
communication.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-10. SRC control AN14G5.0

Notes:
If a change is made to a subsystem configuration, then the subsystem needs to be refreshed. For
example, if the entry for the ftp service is disabled in the inetd.conf file, then the inetd
subsystem needs to be refreshed by using the refresh command. Not all subsystems can be
refreshed. If this is the case, simply use the stopsrc and startsrc commands.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-23
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Instructor notes:
Purpose — To show how we can control subsystems.
Details — Go through the examples on the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we shut down an AIX partition.

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Uempty

AIX partition shutdown (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• The shutdown command, by default:


– Warns users and waits one minute (default) before proceeding.
– Runs /etc/rc.shutdown and /etc/rc.d K scripts.
– Signals SRC subsystems to stop and then kills remaining processes.
– Synchronizes disks and unmounts file systems.
– Halts the operating system.
Do a fast shutdown,
# shutdown -Fr
bypassing the
messages to users,
SHUTDOWN PROGRAM and reboot the
Thu 9 Oct 20:15:49 2014 system.
0513-044 The sshd Subsystem was requested to stop.
Wait for 'Rebooting...' before stopping.
Oct 9 2014 20:15:50 /usr/es/sbin/cluster/utilities/clstop: called with
flags -f -y -s -N -S
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, clinfoES, is currently inoperative.
Error logging stopped...
Advanced Accounting has stopped...
Process accounting stopped...
Stopping NFS/NIS Daemons

Connection closed.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-11. AIX partition shutdown (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Introduction
The smit shutdown fast path or the shutdown command is used to shut down the system cleanly. If
used with no options, shutdown displays a message on all enabled terminals (by using the wall
command). Then after one minute, it disables all terminals, kills all processes on the system, syncs
the disks, unmounts all file systems, and then halts the system.
Some commonly used options
You can also use shutdown with the -F option for a fast immediate shutdown (no warning), -r to
reboot after the shutdown or -m to bring the system down into maintenance mode. The -k flag
specifies a “pretend” shutdown. It appears to all users that the machine is about to shut down, but
no shutdown actually occurs.
Using the halt command is not the same as using the shutdown -F and using the reboot
command is not the same as using shutdown -Fr. Use the shutdown command if you are not
certain of the safety of using halt or reboot.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-25
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Shutting down to single-user mode


Use the following command to shut down the system to single-user mode:
# shutdown -m
Creating a customized shutdown sequence
If you need a customized shutdown sequence, you can create a file that is called
/etc/rc.shutdown. If this file exists, it is called by the shutdown command and is run first, “that is
before normal shutdown processing begins.” This is useful if, for example, you need to close a
database before a shutdown. If rc.shutdown fails (nonzero return code value), the shutdown is
terminated.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — To describe how to shut down an AIX partition.
Details — Describe the syntax and use of the shutdown command. Other flavors of UNIX handle
this differently.
Additional information — In some cases, the other UNIX systems have a shutdown command
only in newer versions of the system and even then the functionality is not the same. For example,
in HP/UX, you need to first set the run level to 0 and then run shutdown. Run level 0 dependent
systems often depend upon the /etc/rc.d scripts to handle the termination of the subsystems and
applications.
Even if a Solaris admin had migrated to a version that uses the shutdown command, they might still
be using the traditional halt command. In some cases, the shutdown command can be used for a
normal shutdown, but the reboot command is used to achieve a reboot. The reboot command
should not be used in AIX unless you are in a state with no activity (such as maintenance mode with
no active task or disk I/O).
Transition statement — Now we understand how to shut down AIX from the command line. Let us
see how we can do this from the HMC.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

AIX partition shutdown (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• AIX shutdown can also be initiated from the HMC.


# ssh hscroot@<hmc> chsysstate -o osshutdown

Do a fast
shutdown:
shutdown -F

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-12. AIX partition shutdown (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
From the HMC, the following shutdown options are supported. Generally, best practice is to shut
down AIX from within the partition.
• Delayed: The HMC shuts down the logical partition by using the delayed power-off sequence.
This allows the logical partition time to end jobs and write data to disks. If the logical partition is
unable to shut down within the predetermined amount of time, it ends abnormally and the next
restart might be longer than normal.
• Immediate: The HMC shuts down the logical partition immediately. The HMC ends all active
jobs immediately. The programs running in those jobs are not allowed to perform any job
cleanup. This option might cause undesirable results if data has been partially updated. Use this
option only after a controlled shutdown has been unsuccessfully attempted.
• Operating System: The HMC shuts down the logical partition normally by issuing a shutdown
command to the logical partition. During this operation, the logical partition performs any
necessary shutdown activities. This option is only available for AIX logical partitions.
• Operating System Immediate: The HMC shuts down the logical partition immediately by
issuing a shutdown -F command to the logical partition. During this operation, the logical

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Uempty partition bypasses messages to other users and other shutdown activities. This option is only
available for AIX logical partitions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-29
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe how to shut down an AIX partition from the HMC.
Details — Go through the options in the visual. Using your own experience, discuss the relative
merits of HMC versus command line.
Warn students that they should use the proper shutdown command in the operating systems, either
by logging in or using the HMC operating system options that are shown on the visual. Using one of
the two hypervisor options might corrupt the operating system and should be used only if the
partition is no longer responding. For other operating systems such as the VIOS, IBM i, and Linux,
the recommendation is to log in to the operating system and shut it down normally.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us review with some checkpoint questions.

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Uempty

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. When starting a partition with an operating system that


lacks a correctly configured network interface, how can you
log in to the system?

2. Which AIX feature can be used to stop and start


subsystems and groups of daemons?

3. True or False: The reboot command can be used


interchangeably with the shutdown –Fr command.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-13. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-31
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. When starting a partition with an operating system that lacks a


correctly configured network interface, how can you log in to the
system?
The answer is at the HMC Activate Logical Partition – Advanced
panel, specify that a virtual terminal be started as part of the
activation process. When the system finishes booting, a login prompt
will appear in the virtual terminal window.

2. Which AIX feature can be used to stop and start subsystems and
groups of daemons?
The answer is the System Resource Controller (SRC).

3. True or False: The reboot command can be used interchangeably


with the shutdown –Fr command.
The answer is false.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

System startup and


shutdown

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-14. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-33
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the logical partition and AIX startup process
• Activate the AIX partitions
• Describe the AIX startup modes
• Describe the role of the System Resource Controller and how
to manage subsystems
• Explain how to shut down the AIX partitions

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 6-15. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 6. System startup and shutdown 6-35
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

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Uempty
Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions

Estimated time
00:20

What this unit is about


This unit describes the basic resource configuration rules for partitions.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the following partition concepts:
- Partition type
- Partition ID and partition name
- Partition profiles
• Describe basic processor and memory configuration options
• Define Minimum, Maximum, and Desired settings for memory and
processors
• Describe I/O concepts and the Required and Desired settings
• Use the Create Partition wizard to create a basic partition and a default
profile

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Links to Information Centers:
http://www.ibm.com/support/publications/us/library
The following documents can be accessed from the IBM Resource link:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/resourcelink
SA76-0098 Logical Partitioning Guide
SA76-0085 Operations Guide for the HMC and Managed Systems
The following document can be accessed from redbooks.ibm.com:
SG24-7940 IBM PowerVM Virtualization Introduction and Configuration
SG24-7491 IBM Power Systems HMC Implementation and Usage
Guide

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the following partition concepts:
– Partition type
– Partition ID and partition name
– Partition profiles
• Describe basic processor and memory configuration options
• Define Minimum, Maximum, and Desired settings for memory
and processors
• Describe I/O concepts and the Required and Desired settings
• Use the Create Partition wizard to create a basic partition and
a default profile

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:
The objectives list what you should be able to do at the end of this unit.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe the objectives for this unit.
Details — This unit describes basic things that you need to know to configure a basic partition.
Additional information —
Transition statement — First, let us look at what is required to define an LPAR.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-3
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Instructor Guide

Creating partitions and profiles


IBM Power Systems

• Partition type
– Select AIX or Linux environment (rather than VIO server).
• Partition name and ID:
– Partitions are assigned an LPAR ID.
– Partitions and profiles have names (easily changed).
• Partition profiles:
– Define characteristics of the partition (such as boot mode).
– Define resource allocated to the LPAR environment:
• Processors
• Memory
• Adapters (devices)
– An LPAR can have multiple profiles.
– LPAR activation must select one profile.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-2. Creating partitions and profiles AN14G5.0

Notes:

Partitions and profiles


A partition has a name and an ID number that is stored in a table. Partition profiles are like a
configuration file that lists resource configurations and attributes.
System profiles are different. System profiles are a list of partitions and the partitions’ profiles to
provide an easy way to either validate that all of the partitions can run simultaneously with no
resource contention issues, or to easily start a certain set of partitions.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the basic components of a logical partition definition.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — One of the most important aspects of the partition definition is the profile,
which defines the resources that are seen by the operating system. Let us look at the types of
resources and how to configure them in the profile.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-5
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Instructor Guide

Memory and processor allocation


IBM Power Systems

• Memory allocation:
– Recommend a minimum of 512 MB for running AIX
– Allocated in logical memory blocks (LMB)
– LMB size for a server is configurable between 16 MB and 256 MB
• Processor allocation:
– Dedicated (whole processors) or portion of shared processor pool
– Increments in 0.01 processing units
• For each partition, configure for memory and processors:
– Minimum:
• Partition will not start if this amount is not available
• Partition can be dynamically decreased to this amount
– Desired:
• Partition will use up to this amount upon activation if available
– Maximum:
• Partition can be dynamically increased to this amount

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-3. Memory and processor allocation AN14G5.0

Notes:

Memory configuration
The smallest amount of memory that can be defined for a partition is 128 MB of memory. The
minimum amount of memory that allows the operating system to boot depends on the I/O resources
that are configured. The amount of memory for the smallest configuration for AIX to boot is 512 MB.
Physical and virtual adapters require memory, so the more devices that are configured in the
operating system, the larger the memory requirement.
Memory is allocated in units of the system’s logical memory block (LMB), which ranges from 16 MB
to 256 MB. While configurable, the default amount depends on the size of the server’s physical
memory.

Processor allocation
A dedicated processor logical partition can have as little as one dedicated processor, as much as all
of the processor resources in the system, or any number between.

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Uempty By default, any processors that are not dedicated to an LPAR are in the shared processor pool.
Partitions can be configured to share these processors and be entitled to a proportion of the
processing power in that shared pool. This can be as small as 1/10 of a processor (POWER7 and
earlier processors) or as large as all the processors in the shared pool. With POWER7+ servers,
each LPAR can have a minimum entitlement of 1/20 of a processor, allowing 20 LPARs per core.
A dedicated processor can be assigned to only one active partition at a time. Shared processing
units are accessed from the single Shared Processor Pool.

Minimum, desired, and maximum


For processor and memory allocations, you specify three values. These are used to determine what
the actual partition allocation will be.
• Desired
Desired is the most important of the values. The system attempts to allocate the desired amount
when the partition is activated. If it cannot allocate the desired amount, then it allocates as much
as it can up to the desired amount.
• Minimum
The minimum is also important in the activation of the partition. The system must be able to
allocate the minimum amount or the partition will not start.
For partitions that support dynamic partitioning, allocation cannot be reduced to below the
minimum amount.
• Maximum
The maximum is the largest amount of processors or memory that the partition can have if you
add the resource dynamically. The maximum memory amount is also used to determine the size
of the hardware page table. If the maximum amount of memory is configured unnecessarily
large, then the size of the hardware page table will be unnecessarily large, wasting memory that
is dedicated to the Hypervisor.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-7
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Cover the memory and processor allocations as specified in the profile.
Details — Cover what is in the visual.
Obviously, there is much more than what is covered here, especially when it comes to the virtual
resources, but this is just the basics. The student should attend the virtualization curriculum
(starting with AN11) to get the full training.
Describe the minimum, desired, and maximum settings. Describe the desired versus required
settings for adapters.
Give an example of where the actual processors or memory might be somewhere in between the
minimum and desired settings. For example, if the memory minimum is 2 GB, the desired is 3 GB,
but there is only 2.25 GB available, then the partition would take the 2.25 GB if using shared
processors.
The official AIX minimum memory allocation is 512 MB but this is for a partition with little I/O
resources and it still may fail to boot. In actual practice, you should allocate at least 768 MB or 1 GB
as the minimum. For example, one LHEA logical port requires 102 MB of memory and some
physical adapters require 512 MB. In addition, any applications that are running are likely to need
more memory for the best performance.
Students learn how to design and construct the entire picture when they attend the virtualization
courses.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us next look at adapter allocations.

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Uempty

Adapter allocation
IBM Power Systems

• Allocation by individual slots:


– Entire adapter dedicated to LPAR
– All adapter ports assigned to the one LPAR
– All accessed devices assigned to the one LPAR

• Slot allocation can be Required or Desired.

• Adapters can be virtual:


– Virtual Ethernet adapters (on server’s virtual Ethernet)
– Virtual SCSI adapters (access VIOS storage)
– Virtual FC (use VIOS physical FC using NPIV)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-4. Adapter allocation AN14G5.0

Notes:

Physical I/O resources


What is allocated to a partition for I/O device access is the adapter slot and the slot is where the
adapter is connected to the PCI bus. Examples of adapters include: an IDE controller with a
CD-drive, an Ethernet adapter, and a Fibre Channel storage adapter. When a storage adapter is in
the allocated slot, the LPAR has dedicated access to the storage devices that are connected to that
adapter. For example: You cannot take a single SCSI controller with three disks on the SCSI bus
and allocate each disk to a different LPAR. Whichever partition is allocated the adapter is the
partition that has access to the disks on that bus. The same applies to a single HBA connected to
the SAN.

Required versus desired


The partition starts only if all of the required slots are available and it attempts to assign those that
are desired. Slots that are required cannot be dynamically removed or moved from the partition.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-9
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Instructor Guide

Virtual devices
If there is a single physical storage adapter with many disks, it would be good to be able to provide
access to that adapter from multiple logical partitions. This can be done by allocating the physical
adapter to a Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and then providing the client logical partitions access to the
devices through virtual adapters. The allocation of a virtual adapter is really the creation of virtual
adapter definition.

Virtual SCSI adapter


Virtual SCSI is a type of virtual device in which a Virtual I/O Server is configured to allow other
partitions to use its disks or optical devices. The client LPAR sees a vscsi device that acts almost
exactly like a real physical SCSI adapter. The virtual SCSI device that appears under the vscsi
adapter looks and acts just like a SCSI device. The actual devices that are controlled by the VIOS
do not need to be SCSI type devices; for example, the optical media drive can be an IDE type
device or the disk drive might be a LUN in the SAN accessed over a Fibre Channel adapter. The
disks can be whole disks or logical volumes on the Virtual I/O Server. When the client views the
devices from its operating system, it appears as a regular hdisk, rmt, or cd device.
The VIOS and its clients communicate over a pair of virtual SCSI adapters through the Hypervisor:
a server adapter at the VIOS and a client adapter at the client LPAR. When allocating the client
virtual SCSI adapter, you need to specify which VIOS partition and what server adapter to connect
to.

Virtual Ethernet adapter


Virtual Ethernet adapters can be configured in multiple partitions on the same server and these
adapters appear as ent devices to the AIX operating system. The Power Hypervisor acts as a
virtual Ethernet switch to support communication between the virtual Ethernet adapters. The Power
Hypervisor can support multiple VLANs and the virtual Ethernet adapter allocation includes the
specification of what VLAN to use, through a VLAN ID. To connect this virtual Ethernet to an outside
network, a bridge can be configured in a Virtual I/O Server that is called a Shared Ethernet adapter.

Virtual Fibre Channel adapter


A client Virtual Fibre Channel adapter can be configured on a client LPAR with a matching server
virtual FC on a VIOS that in turn is related to a physical FC adapter allocated to that VIOS. This
provides the client LPAR with access to the SAN, where the virtual FC has its own unique WWPN
and can have LUNS zoned directly to it. The client virtual FC appears to be another port in an
N-port ID Virtualization (NPIV) configuration.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain LPAR adapter allocations.
Details — Point out that they will be using virtual adapters in the lab. For the virtual Ethernet, we
will have all partitions defined on the same VLAN and they will specify a VLAN ID of 1. For the
virtual SCSI, explain that while there is a client/server relationship between the VIOS and the client
LPAR, they will only build the client side of this. There will only be one VIOS to choose from and we
will provide them with the adapter ID of server side adapter ID.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Having covered some basic concepts, let us see how we use the HMC to
define the LPAR using the Create Logical Partition wizard.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-11
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Create Logical Partition wizard


IBM Power Systems

Select a server and run:


Configuration > Create Partition > AIX or Linux

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-5. Create Logical Partition wizard AN14G5.0

Notes:

Introduction
The first step in creating partitions is to power on your managed system. You do this from the
System Management > Servers work pane on the HMC.
All of the managed system power-on options bring your system up to a state where partitions can
be created.
Once the Power Hypervisor is active, you can create Logical Partitions. Select the server and then,
from the tasks menu, run the Configuration > Create Partition > AIX or Linux task to create AIX
or Linux type partitions. Other options are to create a Virtual I/O Server or an IBM i partition.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe how to use the HMC GUI interface to launch the Create Logical Partition
wizard for a selected managed system.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Once the wizard is started, you are presented with a series of panels. Let
us see what kind of information is requested on these panels.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-13
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Create Logical Partition wizard steps


IBM Power Systems

• The Create Logical Partition wizard presents a series of


panels prompting for information:
– Partition ID (can accept default) and Partition Name
– Profile name (often set to default or normal)
– Shared versus Dedicated processors
– Processor allocation amount
– Memory allocation amount
– Select adapter slots to allocate
– Create virtual adapters
– Allocate Logical Host Ethernet Adapter or SR-IOV ports (depending on
the model)
– Optional settings (such as boot mode)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-6. Create Logical Partition wizard steps AN14G5.0

Notes:
Introduction
To access the Create Partition menu, select the server name in the Work pane table (click the
Select column). Then run the Configuration > Create partition > AIX or Linux task. This starts
the Create Logical Partition wizard that walks you through defining the characteristics of the
partition.
Partition IDs
The first screen in the Create Logical Partition wizard allows you to set the partition ID and the
partition name. The partition ID defaults to the next available number, but you can override it. The
maximum LPAR ID number depends on the number of processors installed.
Partition name
The partition name can be long and contain spaces. If you plan to use the command-line interface
on the HMC, the partition names should be easy to type. If spaces are used, quotations must be
used on the command-line.

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Uempty Partition profile name


A partition must have at least one partition profile, which contains the resource configuration
information. When you create a partition, you create the default profile.
Set processor type
The first question about processors to answer in the wizard program is whether the partition will use
shared or dedicated processors. What you are prompted for next depends upon your answer.
Dedicated processors
Dedicated processors are allocated in whole numbers from one to the total number of physical
processor cores.
Shared processors
Configure the quantity of processing units for this partition. For this course, we will leave all of the
advanced processor options (virtual processors and uncapped status and weight) at the default
values.
Allocate memory
Set the minimum, desired, and maximum settings. The granularity for setting the memory amount is
the LMB size. If the server is configured with a shared memory pool, the first question will be
whether you want to use physical or shared memory.
Allocating I/O slots
All of the installed the buses and slots are displayed for the system. To allocate slots to the partition,
select a slot and click either Add as required or Add as desired.
Configuring virtual adapters
On the Virtual Adapters screen, use the Actions menu to create a new virtual adapter.
• The virtual Ethernet adapter is on a virtual Ethernet that is specified with a VLAN ID for which
the Hypervisor acts as the network switch. If the Virtual I/O Server is configured with a special
bridge device called the Shared Ethernet adapter, then the internal server virtual Ethernet traffic
can be bridged to an external network.
• The virtual SCSI client adapter is associated with a matching virtual SCSI server adapter on the
Virtual I/O Server. This allows storage that is allocated to the VIOS to be provisioned to client
LPARs.
• The virtual Fibre Channel client adapter is associated with a virtual FC adapter on the Virtual I/O
Server. This allows client LPARs to access LUNs on a SAN subsystem.
Logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA)
This LHEA is the integrated physical Ethernet adapter on most POWER6 processor-based servers
and some POWER7 processor-based servers. This adapter can be shared with up to 16 or 32
partitions depending on the LHEA model. Each partition configures a logical port, which is
associated to a physical port. All partitions that are assigned to the same physical port share the
bandwidth of that port. You will not work with the LHEA in this course.
SR-IOV
The Shared Root I/O Virtualization adapter functions basically like the LHEA with minor differences.
It is available on some POWER7+ and POWER8 processor-based servers.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Optional settings
This panel allows you to modify various optional settings. For this course, the only one that we
focus on is the boot mode. While you might set the profile to boot in a mode other than normal, you
will almost always leave it set to normal boot mode. You can override this each time that you
activate the partition if you want some other boot mode.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe the sequence of wizard panels.
Details — The details in the visual are intentionally sparse. Cover each bullet but keep the
description very brief. This is effectively a lab introduction visual. The exercise instructions provide
details with screen captures for most of the panels.
Point out that we will use shared processors and virtual adapters (Ethernet and SCSI). They will not
allocate LHEA ports.
Once they create the new LPARs, they will install AIX in those LPARs as part of the next unit’s
exercise.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us review some of what we covered with checkpoint questions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. Match the terms Minimum, Desired, and Maximum to the proper


description:
a. This is the upper limit of processors or memory that cannot be exceeded when
using dynamic operations.
b. This is the lower limit of processors or memory when using dynamic operations.
c. This is the amount of processors or memory that a partition receives if there are
more than enough resources on the system when the partition is activated
(starts).

2. True or False: The amount of desired processors must always be


greater than or equal to the amount of minimum processors.

3. What is the minimum amount of memory that is recommended for an


AIX V5.3 (or later) partition?

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-7. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Check students’ understanding of concepts in this unit.
Details — Give the students 5 minutes to complete both pages of Checkpoint questions. Solution:

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. Match the terms Minimum, Desired, and Maximum to the proper description:
a. This is the upper limit of processors or memory that cannot be exceeded when using
dynamic operations.
The answer is maximum for the upper limit.
b. This is the lower limit of processors or memory when using dynamic operations.
The answer is minimum for the lower limit.
c. This is the amount of processors or memory that a partition receives if there are more
than enough resources on the system when the partition is activated (starts).
The answer is desired if there is more than enough resources.
The answers are maximum for the upper limit, minimum for the lower limit, and desired if
there is more than enough resources.

2. True or False: The amount of desired processors must always be greater than or
equal to the amount of minimum processors.
The answer is true.

3. What is the minimum amount of memory for an AIX V5.3 (or later) partition?
The answer is the recommendation is 512 MB. What firmware enforces is:
128 MB, or if the LMB size of the partition is 256 MB, then the minimum would be
256 MB.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-19
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Instructor Guide

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

Configuring logical partitions

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-8. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Practice the skills that were learned in this unit.
Details — Have the students open to the exercise for this unit in the Exercise Guide.
Additional information — Check the instructor notes in the exercise to see whether you need to
provide any information such as logins, passwords, or IP addresses for the activities.
Transition statement — Let us summarize what we learned in this unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the following partition concepts:
– Partition type
– Partition ID and partition name
– Partition profiles
• Describe basic processor and memory configuration options
• Define Minimum, Maximum, and Desired settings for memory
and processors
• Describe I/O concepts and the Required and Desired settings
• Use the Create Partition wizard to create a basic partition and
a default profile

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 7-9. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:
More summary information:
• Partition concepts:
- Partition identification with LPAR ID and LPAR name
- Partition profiles contain resource configuration information
• Processors, memory, I/O slots
• Minimum, Maximum, and Desired settings for memory and processors
• Required and Desired settings for I/O slots
• Create Partition wizard leads you through creating partitions and profiles

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Review each objective and check in with the students that they feel that they have met
these objectives.
Details —
Additional information — Review Questions: Review questions are used at the beginning of each
class day to review concepts that were learned during the previous day.
You can use the following questions as review for this unit:
1. What is the minimum amount of memory that you can configure in an AIX or Linux partition?
Answer: The HMC enforces a minimum of 128 MB, but at least 512 MB is required for a small
AIX installation to boot.
2. What are the minimum and maximum memory settings used for?
Answer: These are the lower and upper bounds for DLPAR operations. The maximum amount
also sets the page table size for the partition. The minimum amount must be met when the
partition activates or the activation fails.
Transition statement — The next unit covers installing AIX into a logical partition.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 7. Basics of configuring logical partitions 7-23
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

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Uempty
Unit 8. AIX installation

Estimated time
01:20

What this unit is about


This unit describes the process of installing the AIX 7.1 operating system.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• List the installation methods for AIX
• List the steps necessary to install the AIX base operating system
• Install and understand all the options when installing AIX from optical
media
• Carry out post installation tasks

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Installation and migration
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.in
stall/insgdrf-kickoff.htm
SG24-7910 IBM AIX Version 7.1 Difference Guide (Redbooks)
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.nsf/RedbookAbstracts/sg247910.ht
ml?Open
GI11-9815 AIX Version 7.1 Release Notes
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=pub1gi11981500
GI11-9835 AIX Version 7.1 Expansion Pack Release Notes
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=pub1gi11983500

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-1


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Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• List the installation methods for AIX
• List the steps necessary to install the AIX base operating
system
• Install and understand all the options when installing AIX from
optical media
• Carry out post installation tasks

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

8-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• List the installation methods for AIX
• List the steps necessary to install the AIX base operating system
• Install and understand all the options when installing AIX from optical media
• Carry out post installation tasks
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us start by defining the installation methods for AIX.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-3


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Installation methods for AIX 7


IBM Power Systems

• Pre-installation option (for a new system order)


• DVD
– Use physical media that are loaded in physical optical drive that is
allocated to the AIX partition
– Use physical media that are loaded in physical optical drive that is
allocated to a VIOS partition, and mapped to the AIX partition as a virtual
optical drive
• Physical media can be obtained from IBM, or created by downloading an ISO image
from ESS and burning to blank media
– Place an ISO image into a virtual media repository then load it in a virtual
optical device that is mapped to the client partition.
• ISO image can be downloaded from ESS, or created from copying physical media
• Network
– Network Installation Manager (NIM)
– Details are covered in IBM training course: AIX Installation Management
(AN22G)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-2. Installation methods for AIX 7 AN14G5.0

Notes:
When a Power Systems order is placed with IBM, or a Business Partner, there are options to have
the system preconfigured. This pre-configuration consists of LPAR creation and installation of OS
software that includes AIX.
AIX 6 and AIX 7 are delivered, by default, on DVD media. Optionally, AIX 6 can also be ordered on
CD (one through eight disks).
Another option is that downloading the ISO image from Entitled Software Support (ESS) website if
you have a valid IBM ID. You can burn the ISO image to a blank media then install from it, or copy
the ISO image to a virtual media repository. And you can load it into a virtual optical drive that is
served from the VIOS.
• ESS website: (IBM ID is required)
https://www-304.ibm.com/servers/eserver/ess/ProtectedServlet.wss
In an LPAR environment, NIM is a popular method of installing and updating AIX. NIM is a large
topic and is covered in-depth in the AN22 education class.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Installation options for AIX.
Details — The preinstall option is a good choice to ensure that the hardware is working when the
machines are delivered. Most customers choose to configure the systems upon delivery.
Additional information — Talk briefly about NIM and be prepared to answer any questions. The
focus of this unit is install through optical media.
AIX base ISO images can be obtained by contacting Entitled Software Support (ESS) at
1-800-879-2755 option 2, option 2. The representatives should be able to verify entitlement and
guide customers on how to download the ISO image.
After the AIX ISO image is downloaded, the image can be stored in the /home/padmin directory of
the VIO server.
• The URL of “How to download ISO images of AIX install media”:
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/wikis/home?lang=en#!/wiki/Power%20Syste
ms/page/How%20to%20download%20ISO%20images%20of%20AIX%20install%20media
• The URL of “How to configure a VIOS Media Repository/Virtual Media Library (example, AIX
Install/Restore)”:
https://www-304.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T1013047
Transition statement — Let us see how to build an AIX system from optical media.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-5


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Instructor Guide

AIX installation in a partition (DVD)


IBM Power Systems

• Steps:
Assume that a partition and partition profile have already been created.
1. Place the AIX DVD in the drive.
2. Activate the partition to SMS and open terminal window.
3. Select to boot device by using SMS menus in the terminal window.
4. Interact with the AIX installation menus.

• Note, the partition must either:


– Have PCI slot that controls a drive, which reads CD-ROMs.
OR
– Be allocated a CD-ROM device though a VIOS server (as a virtual
optical SCSI device).

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-3. AIX installation in a partition: DVD or CD AN14G5.0

Notes:
To install AIX into a partition, the partition and profile must first be created through the HMC. The
partition must have access to a device slot that contains the optical media drawer. If a virtualized
environment is to be deployed, then the VIOS partition probably owns the optical device. In that
case, it is still possible to make this CD available to a partition as a virtual optical SCSI device. In
VIOS version 1.5, a new feature was added that allows a media ISO image to be allocated to
multiple partitions, through the file-backed virtual optical device feature.
To install AIX from the optical drive, either boot into SMS mode and choose to boot from the optical
media device, or start the partition with the “Diagnostic with default boot list”. Then, follow and
interact with the menus.

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Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce how to install AIX from optical media.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and student notes. Obviously, in a multi-partitioned
environment, it is not feasible to install from optical media.
Additional information — Mention, at a high level, only that in a virtual environment, the CD or
ISO image can be made available to clients.
Transition statement — Let us go through the details of installing from optical media.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-7


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Instructor Guide

Installing AIX from DVD (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• Boot partition into SMS mode and select DVD.


PowerPC Firmware
Version SF240_338
SMS 1.6 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2005 All rights reserved.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Main Menu
1. Select Language
2. Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load) #then select the adapter & IP Parameters
3. Change SCSI Settings
4. Select Console
5. Select Boot Options

Multiboot
1. Select Install/Boot Device

Select Device Type


3. CD/DVD

Select Media Type


9. List All Devices Select the CD-ROM
drive from the list.
Select Device
Device Current Device
Number Position Name
1. - SCSI CD-ROM
( loc=U8204.E8A.65BF831-V11-C11-T1-W8200000000000000-L0 )

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-4. Installing AIX from DVD (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
When SMS starts, choose option 5, followed by the boot device (in this case CD/DVD). Then, the
system displays all devices of this type. In the visual, there is only one such device. Select this
device number and then press Enter.

8-8 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Installing AIX from optical media – selecting the boot device from SMS.
Details — Go through the example in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us proceed to SMS, page 2.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-9


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Instructor Guide

Installing AIX from DVD (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

Select Task

SCSI CD-ROM
( loc=U8204.E8A.65BF831-V11-C11-T1-W8200000000000000-L0 )

1. Information
2. Normal Mode Boot
3. Service Mode Boot

Are you sure you want to exit System Management Services?


1. Yes
2. No

• The system will now boot from the DVD.


******* Please define the System Console. *******

Type a 1 and press Enter to use this terminal as the


system console.

>>> 1 Type 1 and press Enter to have English during install.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-5. Installing AIX from DVD (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Once the optical media device is selected, you need to perform a normal boot and exit SMS as
shown in the visual. Then, the partition proceeds and boots from the optical media drive. The first
interactive step is to type <1>, and then press Enter to use the terminal as the system console.

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Installing AIX from DVD/CD, selecting the boot device from SMS.
Details — Go through the example in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see the install main menu.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-11


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Instructor Guide

Installation and Maintenance


IBM Power Systems

• Main Installation and Maintenance menu


Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance

Type the number of your choice and press Enter. Choice is indicated by >>>.

>>> 1 Start Install Now with Default Settings

2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install

3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery

4 Configure Network Disks (iSCSI)

88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu

>>> Choice [1]: 2

• Best practice, always look first at the install options (2)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-6. Installation and Maintenance AN14G5.0

Notes:
If option 1 is selected, a default system installation occurs. However, in most cases, you might want
to see and change the default settings. To do this, type a <2> and press Enter. Select 88 to display
help on this or any subsequent installation screen.

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Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the Installation and Maintenance main menu.
Details — The first option starts the installation by using the default settings. If you want to view or
alter the current settings, then you need to select the second option, which is discussed in this unit.
The third option allows for maintenance tasks such as going into a maintenance shell, copying the
system dump, carrying out an image backup.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see the menu options following the selection of option 2.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-13


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Instructor Guide

Installation and Settings


IBM Power Systems

• Installation and Settings menu


Installation and Settings

Either type 0 and press Enter to install with current settings, or type the
number of the setting you want to change and press Enter.

1 System Settings:
Method of Installation.............New and Complete Overwrite
Disk Where You Want to Install.....hdisk0

2 Primary Language Environment Settings (AFTER Install):


Cultural Convention................English (United States)
Language ..........................English (United States)
Keyboard ..........................English (United States)
Keyboard Type......................Default

3 Security Model.......................Default

4 More Options (Software install options)

>>> 0 Install with the current settings listed above.

+-----------------------------------------------------
88 Help ? | WARNING: Base Operating System Installation will
99 Previous Menu | destroy or impair recovery of ALL data on the
| destination disk hdisk0.
>>> Choice [0]:

• Let’s explore each option in more detail.


© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-7. Installation and Settings AN14G5.0

Notes:
The Installation and Settings menu enables you to set the key options and configuration settings to
be deployed during installation.

8-14 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — View the Installation and Settings menu.
Details — Use this visual as a springboard to the following visuals, which show how the system
settings (Option 1), the primary language environment (Option 2), the security model (Option 3),
and More Options (Option 4) can be changed.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us first consider Option 1, the different methods of installation.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-15


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Instructor Guide

Method of installation
IBM Power Systems

• Choose option 1 for a fresh installation.


Change Method of Installation

Type the number of the installation method and press Enter.

>>> 1 New and Complete Overwrite


Overwrites EVERYTHING on the disk selected for installation.
Warning: Only use this method if the disk is totally empty or if there
is nothing on the disk you want to preserve.

2 Preservation Install
Preserves SOME of the existing data on the disk selected for
installation. Warning: This method overwrites the usr (/usr),
variable (/var), temporary (/tmp), and root (/) file systems. Other
product (applications) files and configuration data will be destroyed.

3 Migration Install
Upgrades the Base Operating System to the current release.
Other product (applications) files and configuration data are saved.

88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu

>>> Choice [1]:

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-8. Method of installation AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Changing the method of installation
When you select Option 1 in the Installation and Settings menu to change the method of
installation, the Change Method of Installation submenu that is shown in the visual is displayed.
The contents of which depends on the current state of the machine.
• Complete Overwrite Install
On a new machine, New and Complete Overwrite is the only possible method of installation. On
an existing machine, if you want to completely overwrite the existing version of the Base
Operating System (BOS), then you should use this method.
• Preservation Install
Use the Preservation Install method when a previous version of BOS is installed on your system
and you want to preserve the user data in the root volume group. This method removes only the
contents of /usr, / (root), /var, and /tmp. The Preservation Install option preserves page and
dump devices as well as /home and other user-created file systems. System configuration must
be done after doing a preservation installation.

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Uempty • Migration Install


Use the Migration Install method to upgrade from one version and release of AIX to a different
version and release, while preserving the existing root volume group. For example, when
migrating from AIX 6.1 to an AIX 7.1. This method preserves all file systems except /tmp, as
well as the logical volumes and system configuration files. Obsolete or selective fix files are
removed.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-17


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the different installation methods.
Details — Explain each type of installation method. For this course, you should choose New and
Complete Overwrite.
Additional information —
Transition statement — The next setting to consider, is on which disks the operating system is
going to be installed.

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Uempty

Installation disks
IBM Power Systems

• Select disks to be used for the installation.


Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install

Type one or more numbers for the disk(s) to be used for installation and press
Enter. To cancel a choice, type the corresponding number and Press Enter.
At least one bootable disk must be selected. The current choice is indicated
by >>>.

Name Location Code Size(MB) VG Status Bootable

>>> 1 hdisk0 none 6528 rootvg Yes Note: Some SAN


2 hdisk1 none 6528 rootvg Yes
3 hdisk2 none 6528 none Yes
disks might appear
4 hdisk3 none 6528 none Yes non-bootable. If so,
change the setting
on the disk
>>> 0 Continue with choices indicated above subsystem for the
55 More Disk Options LUNs.
66 Devices not known to Base Operating System Installation
77 Display More Disk Information
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
Name Device Adapter Connection Location
>>> Choice [0]:
or Physical Location Code
>>> 1 hdisk0 U9113.550.65F2E7F-V11-C2-T1-L810000000000
2 hdisk1 U9113.550.65F2E7F-V11-C2-T1-L820000000000
3 hdisk2 U9113.550.65F2E7F-V11-C6-T1-L830000000000
4 hdisk3 U9113.550.65F2E7F-V11-C6-T1-L810000000000

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-9. Installation disks AN14G5.0

Notes:
Selecting installation disks
After you select the type of installation, you must then select the disks that are to be used for the
installation. A list of all the available disks is displayed, similar to the one shown.
This screen also gives you the option to install to an unsupported disk by adding the code for the
device first.
When you finished selecting the disks, type <0> in the Choice field and press Enter.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-19


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define how disks can be selected for installation.
Details — After booting from an external media or over the network, BOS install announces its
intentions to install the AIX BOS onto the default disks and asks the user if it is acceptable. The
default disks are where the operating system was previously located. If the user does not want to
use the default disk, then the user can select a target disk. All disks that are available are displayed
with a single option to use a supplemental third-party target device. If the supplemental device
option is selected, the BOS install prompts the user to load the device configuration support drivers.
Option 77 on this menu displays the Physical Volume ID, which is what is found in the ODM. This
information is provided in case that a student asks what this option displays.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look how we define the primary language environment.

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Uempty

Set Primary Language Environment


IBM Power Systems

• Default language environment is en_US (US English).


Set Primary Language Environment

Type the number for the Cultural Convention (such as date, time, and
money), Language, and Keyboard for this system and press Enter, or type
159 and press Enter to create your own combination.

Cultural Convention Language Keyboard

1 C (POSIX) C (POSIX) C (POSIX)


2 Albanian English (United States) Albanian
3 Arabic (Algeria) English (United States) Arabic (Algeria)
4 Arabic (Bahrain) English (United States) Arabic (Bahrain)
5 Arabic (Egypt) English (United States) Arabic (Egypt)
6 Arabic (Jordan) English (United States) Arabic (Jordan)
7 Arabic (Kuwait) English (United States) Arabic (Kuwait)
8 Arabic (Lebanon) English (United States) Arabic (Lebanon)
9 Arabic (Morocco) English (United States) Arabic (Morocco)
>>> 10 MORE CHOICES...

88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu

>>> Choice [10]:

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-10. Set Primary Language Environment AN14G5.0

Notes:
At this point in the installation process, you can change the language and cultural convention that is
used on the system after installation. This screen displays a full list of supported languages.
It is recommended that if you are going to change the language, change it at this point rather than
after the installation is complete. Whatever language is specified at this point is obtained from the
installation media.
Cultural Convention determines the way numeric, monetary, and date and time characteristics are
displayed.
The Language field determines the language that is used to display text and system messages.
The Keyboard field determines the mapping of the keyboard for the selected language convention.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-21


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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define how the primary language environment after the installation is set.
Details — The visual shows the list of language environments that can be selected. The
environment is governed by three settings:
• Cultural Conventions, which governs such things as the date format, the monetary symbol,
the sorting collation order, and so forth.
• Language, which sets the language for the messages.
• Keyboard, which governs the character set that is available.
In reality, this screen displays many language options. Users can also create their own specific
combinations by typing 159.
If English (United States) is chosen, a second menu is displayed. On this menu, choose the type of
keyboard being used: 1 for the default keyboard and 2 for the 122-key keyboard.
Point out that C(POSIX) is an English-based POSIX standard compliant language environment.
This is often sufficient for many systems.
Additional information — The language in which the system runs should be selected at this point,
if at all possible. If a different language is needed after installation is complete, the install media
needs to be available in order to install the appropriate new language file sets.
Transition statement — Let us look at the security options.

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Uempty

Security Models
IBM Power Systems

• These settings are beyond the scope of this class.


– Covered in course: Implementing AIX Security Features
• Security models are all set to NO by default.
Security Models

Type the number of your choice and press Enter.

1. Trusted AIX............................................. No

2. Other Security Options (Trusted AIX and Standard)


Security options vary based on choices.
LSPP, SbD, CAP/CCEVAL, TCB
1. Secure by Default....................................... No

2. CAPP and EAL4+ Configuration Install.................... No

3. Trusted Computing Base Install.......................... No

>>> 0 Continue to more software options.

88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu

>>> Choice [0]:

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-11. Security Models AN14G5.0

Notes:
Type <1> and press Enter to change the selection for Trusted AIX. Trusted AIX enables Multi Level
Security (MLS) capabilities in AIX MLS is also referred to as label-based security.
As compared to regular AIX, Trusted AIX label-based security implements labels for all subjects
and objects in the system. Access controls in the system are based on labels that provide for an
MLS environment and include support for the following:
• Labeled objects: Files, IPC objects, network packets, and other labeled objects
• Labeled printers
• Trusted Network: Support for RIPSO and CIPSO in IPv4 and IPv6
Note that once you choose this mode of installation, you are not able to go back to a regular AIX
environment without performing an overwrite install of regular AIX. Evaluate your need for a Trusted
AIX environment before choosing this mode of install.
Do not forget standard AIX provides a set of security features to enable information managers and
administrators to provide a basic level of system and network security. The primary AIX security
features include the following:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-23


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Instructor Guide

• Log in and password controlled system and network access


• User, group, and world file access permissions
• Access control lists (ACLs)
• Audit subsystem
• Role-based Access Control (RBAC)
Trusted AIX builds upon these primary AIX operating system security features to further enhance
and extend AIX security into the networking subsystems.
Type <2> and press Enter to continue to other security options. For Trusted AIX, the choice is
LSPP/EAL4+ configuration. For standard AIX, the choices are Secure by Default, CAPP/EAL4+,
and Trusted Computing Base.

Attention: Evaluate your need for any security options before making your choice. Additional
information is available in your security documentation.

For more training on AIX installation security options, attend the IBM training course:
Implementing the AIX Security Features (course codes AU47 or AN57).

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the security options available during AIX installation.
Details — This section is for advanced users. You should cover the details only briefly, if at all!
Additional information — Some additional information that might be of help if you get questions:
For a detailed guide into Trusted AIX, see
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.security/trusted_aix.htm
.
LSPP: Labeled Security Protection Profile (LSPP) is a protection profile within the common criteria.
It is a set of security, functional, and assurance requirements for IT products. The LSPP
requirements are derived from the B1 class of the US Department of Defense security standard
called Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), which was originally published in
1985.
EAL4: (Methodically Designed, Tested, and Reviewed). EAL4 permits a developer to gain
maximum assurance from positive security engineering based on good commercial development
practices that, though rigorous, do not require substantial specialist knowledge, skills, and other
resources. EAL4 is the highest level at which it is likely to be economically feasible to retrofit an
existing product line. Therefore, eAL4 is applicable in those circumstances where developers or
users require a moderate to high level of independently assured security in conventional commodity
TOEs and are prepared to incur additional security-specific engineering costs. Commercial
operating systems that provide conventional, user-based security features are typically evaluated at
EAL4.
Secure by Default is a minimal install with high security settings applied.
CAPP/EAL4+ install is a minimal install, which controls access to the system.
Trusted Computing Base adds the trusted path, and enables the trusted shell and system integrity
checking.
If students are interested in security, point them to AN57.
Transition statement — Let us look at the software install options.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-25


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Instructor Guide

Software install options


IBM Power Systems

• Further install and software options

Install Options

1. Graphics Software................................................ Yes


2. System Management Client Software................................ Yes
3. Create JFS2 File Systems......................................... Yes
4. Enable System Backups to install any system...................... Yes
(Installs all devices)

>>> 5. Install More Software

Install More Software

1. Firefox (Firefox CD).............................. No


2. Kerberos_5 (Expansion Pack)....................... No
3. Server (Volume 2)................................. No

0 Install with the current settings listed above.

88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-12. Software install options AN14G5.0

Notes:
When Graphics Software Install option is Yes, X11, CDE, Java, and other software dependent on
these packages is installed.
System Management Client Software includes Java, service agent, lwi, and pconsole.
The default action, since AIX 5.3, is to create all logical volumes in rootvg by using JFS2 file
systems.
Enabling System Backups to install on other systems, installs all devices code and drivers.
Otherwise, only device drivers necessary to your system hardware configuration are installed. This
is the preferred option, and it is useful if you want to clone the image to another system that differs
in type or device layout.
To install more software, select option 5 and press Enter.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide additional information on the Install options.
Details — Go through the details on the visual and notes.
Additional information — The file sets included in the Server (Volume 2) option are:
• Networking
bos.net.nfs.server
bos.net.nis.server
• Performance Tools
bos.perf.diag_tool
bos.perf.tools
perfagent.tools
bos.sysmgt.trace
bos.sysmgt.quota
bos.terminfo.print.data
• Accounting Services
bos.acct
Transition statement — That is all the options. Let us see the summary page before the actual
install.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-27


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Install summary and installation


IBM Power Systems

Overwrite Installation Summary


Disks: hdisk0
Cultural Convention: en_GB
Language: en_US
Keyboard: en_GB
JFS2 File Systems Created: Yes
Graphics Software: Yes
System Management Client Software: Yes
Enable System Backups to install any system: Yes

Optional Software being installed:

>>> 1 Continue with Install


+-----------------------------------------------------
88 Help ? | WARNING: Base Operating System Installation will
99 Previous Menu | destroy or impair recovery of ALL data on the
| destination disk hdisk0.
>>> Choice [1]:

Installing Base Operating System

Please wait...

Approximate Elapsed time


% tasks complete (in minutes)

3 0 Making logical volumes

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-13. Install summary and installation AN14G5.0

Notes:
Before installation, a summary page is displayed. If you are ready to proceed with your options,
select 1 and press Enter to continue and the system installation begins. It takes approximately 1
hour to build the partition from DVD or CD media.

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — To introduce the install summary page and BOS install.
Details — As per the material.
Additional information —
Transition statement — What happens post install?

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-29


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Accept License Agreements


IBM Power Systems

Software License Agreements

Show Installed License Agreements


Accept License Agreements

Accept License Agreements

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
ACCEPT Installed License Agreements yes +

Software Maintenance Agreement

View Software Maintenance Terms and Conditions


Accept Software Maintenance Terms and Conditions

Accept Software Maintenance Terms and Conditions

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
ACCEPT Software Maintenance Agreements? yes +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-14. Accept License Agreements AN14G5.0

Notes:
When AIX installation is complete, the user must accept both Software and Maintenance License
agreements, as shown in the visual.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Accepting license agreements.
Details — They must be accepted, as per the examples that are shown in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Once we finished the installation, we want to do some minimal
configuration of the system.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-31


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

AIX installation: Post steps


IBM Power Systems

• Post-install tasks:
– Accept the license agreement.

– Optional: Using the installation assistant:


• Set root password
• Set date and time
• Configure network

– Exit from installation assistant.

– Update for the operating system to the latest TL and SP level.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-15. AIX installation: Post steps AN14G5.0

Notes:
The installation is not finished until you complete the post setup in the operating system. Once AIX
is installed, the system reboots. Several post installation steps are required. First, you must accept
both the software and maintenance license agreements. Finally, the installation assistant starts.
Although optional, it is recommended that you use the installation assistant at a minimum to set the
root password, date and time, and configure the network parameters accordingly.
Once AIX is installed, you should update it to the latest technology level and service pack. These
can be downloaded from fix central: http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral

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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe the post installation steps.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now that we finished a walk-through of the entire install process (starting
with boot from installation media), let us see how the process differs if using a NIM server.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-33


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

AIX installation in a partition by using NIM: NIM


overview
IBM Power Systems

• What is NIM?
– Centralized Installation and Management of AIX over a network

Client
systems

LPAR 1

Public/Open LPAR 2
NIM Server network

NIM resources LPAR 3


lpp_source
SPOT LPAR 4

Client definitions
LPAR1
LPAR2

Actions:
• Resources are allocated to clients
• Clients are set for a BOS operation

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-16. AIX installation in a partition using NIM: NIM overview AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Network Install Manager (NIM) introduction
NIM can be used to manage the installation of the Base Operating System (BOS) and optional
software on one or more networked machines. NIM gives you the ability to install and maintain
the AIX operating system, and any additional software, and fixes that can be applied over time.
NIM allows you to customize the configuration of machines both during and after installation.
NIM eliminates the need for access to physical media, such as tapes and optical media, once
the NIM master is loaded. You use the NIM master to load other network clients. System
backups can be created with NIM, and stored on any server in the NIM environment.
The advantage to using NIM in an LPAR environment is that it solves the device allocation
issue. Since AIX might already be installed once on the system before it is shipped, you can
configure this partition to be the NIM master. Or, you can use another AIX system that is the
proper AIX version. One of the optional steps in creating a NIM master is creating a mksysb
(AIX system backup image). You can use this mksysb to install AIX in the other partitions. The
advantage to mksysb is that it copies AIX customizations from the source system.

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Uempty • NIM resources


All operations on clients in the NIM environment require one or more resources. At a minimum,
in order to perform a BOS installation on a client, you must define two resources.
- SPOT includes everything that a client machine requires in a /usr file system, such as the
AIX kernel, executable commands, libraries, and applications. The SPOT is created,
controlled, and maintained from the master, even though the SPOT can be located on
another system.
- An lpp_source resource represents a directory in which software installation images are
stored. NIM uses an lpp_source for an installation operation by first mounting the
lpp_source on the client machine. The installp commands are then started on the client
by using the mounted lpp_source as the source for installation images. When the
installation operation completed, NIM automatically unmounts the resource. In addition to
providing images to install machines, lpp_source resources can also be used to create and
update SPOT resources.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-35


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Provide a brief introduction to NIM as a prerequisite for AIX installation.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and notes.
Provide a brief introduction to NIM.
Define what a NIM server is, the basic SPOT and lpp_source resources, and how a BOS
installation occurs.
Do not get too involved with NIM as it is a large topic. Refer students to the IBM training NIM class
AN22 as a means to build important NIM skills.
Additional information —
Transition statement — OK, that concludes the high-level NIM introduction. Now, let us define the
configuration steps that are required for a client BOS operation.

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V10.1
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Uempty
AIX installation in a partition by using NIM:
Configuration steps
IBM Power Systems

• Assume that a partition and partition profile have been created.


– Set up and configure the NIM master to support a BOS installation
of your machine.
– Activate the partition by using SMS boot mode.
– Specify the IP parameters for a network boot.
– Configure the partition to boot from the network adapter.
– Interact with AIX installation menus, if required (depends on NIM
configuration).

• Note:
– Subsequent installs and updates for the same partition can be
initiated from the NIM master.
– A mksysb restore example is provided in a later unit (Backup and
Restore).
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-17. AIX installation in a partition using NIM: Configuration steps AN14G5.0

Notes:
To install a partition from a NIM server, you need to create the partition and partition profile, for the
partition where AIX is installed. You would complete this step if you were installing from optical
media, except that you would not need to allocate the slot for the CD or DVD device. The partition
needs to be activated in SMS boot mode. From SMS, the NIM server network details can be
entered, which causes the client to issue a boot request over the network. From this point, the
menu steps are identical to using optical media.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-37


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the configuration steps that are required for a BOS installation of an AIX client.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and notes. Keep the details at a high level.
Additional information —
Transition statement — While the details of installing and configuring a NIM server are covered in
a later course, you do need to understand how to initiate a network install by using an already
configured NIM server. Let us look at what is involved in executing a network boot by using SMS.

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V10.1
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Uempty

Network boot (1 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

1. Select the Setup Remote IPL option:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
--------------------------------------------------------
Main Menu

1. Select Language
2. Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
3. Change SCSI Settings
4. Select Console
5. Select Boot Options

--------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
-------------------------------------------------------

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-18. Network boot (1 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Network boot (remote IPL)
To configure a partition to boot from another system over the network, first boot the partition to SMS
mode. Then, choose Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load) from the main SMS menu.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-39


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show where to initiate a network boot.
Details — This page shows where to access the Remote IPL option (that is, network boot).
Not all SMS versions have menus that look exactly like this. Point out that you need to read the
menu and choose the appropriate item for “Remote IPL” or similar phrase.
Additional information —
Transition statement — The next visual shows the screen that you will see after choosing option 2
from the main SMS menu.

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Uempty

Network boot (2 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

2. Choose the network adapter:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
----------------------------------------------------------
NIC Adapters
Device Location Code
1. Port 1 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/100 U78A0.001.DNWGCP5-P1-C4-T1
2. Port 2 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/100 U78A0.001.DNWGCP5-P1-C4-T2

----------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
---------------------------------------------------------
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-19. Network boot (2 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
NIC adapter
Select which network interface to use. The example in the visual shows two ports on the integrated
Ethernet controller.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-41


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe what to do from the Remote IPL SMS menu.
Details — The visual shows the screen where you choose which network adapter to use to access
the NIM server.
Additional information —
Transition statement — After selecting the Network adapter, the following menu displays.

8-42 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Network boot (3 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

3. Select the network service:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
---------------------------------------------------------
Select Network Service
Port 1 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter: U78A0.001.DNGWCP5-C1-C4-

1. BOOTP
2. ISCSI

---------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys: X = eXit System Management Services
---------------------------------------------------------

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-20. Network boot (3 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Select the Network service: BOOTP.
Note that older firmware levels might not provide an ISCSI option.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-43


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain network service selection.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — The visual displays the menu where you specify the network parameters
and the network adapter configuration.

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Uempty

Network boot (4 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

4. Set up the IP parameters, the adapter configuration options,


then perform the ping test:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
---------------------------------------------------------
Network Parameters
Port 1 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter: U78A0.001.DNGWCP5-C1-C4-

1. IP Parameters
2. Adapter Configuration
3. Ping Test
4. Advanced Setup: BOOTP
---------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys: X = eXit System Management Services
---------------------------------------------------------
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-21. Network boot (4 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Network parameters
1. Choose option 1 and configure the IP parameters. This screen is shown in the next visual.
2. Then, choose option 2 and configure the adapter settings, such as media speed and duplex
setting.
3. When everything is configured properly, run the ping test (option 3) and it should be successful.
When the ping test is successful, return to the SMS main menu, select the network adapter as a
boot device, and exit the SMS menu. This starts the network boot process.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-45


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe what to do from the Network Parameters SMS menu.
Details — At this point, the procedure is to choose option 1, then 2, then 3, and then return to the
SMS main menu and exit SMS.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see the screen if you choose option 1, IP Parameters.

8-46 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Network boot (5 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

IP parameters:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
---------------------------------------------------------
IP Parameters
Port 1 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter: U78A0.001.DNGWCP5-C1-C4-
1. Client IP Address [10.6.103.64]
2. Server IP Address [10.6.103.1]
3. Gateway IP Address [10.6.103.254]
4. Subnet Mask [255.255.255.0]

---------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
---------------------------------------------------------
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-22. Network boot (5 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
IP parameters
• Enter the IP address of the client, which is the partition.
• Enter the IP address of the server, which is the NIM server.
• Enter the IP address of the gateway. This is the partition’s gateway system; so it must be local on
the partition’s subnet. This value can be a valid route on the same subnet as the client partition
or the IP address of the NIM server. Ask your network administrator which system to use.
• Enter the subnet mask that the partition is using.
Adapter configuration
Once you entered this information, return to the previous screen and choose the Adapter
Configuration option. Here you need to specify the media speed and the duplex setting.
Ping test and network boot
After you configured the adapter parameters, return to the main SMS menu. Run the ping test, and
if successful, select the network adapter as a boot device, then exit the SMS menus to begin the
boot process and the installation.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-47


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe what to enter on the IP Parameters SMS screen.
Details — Do not describe what a subnet mask is, or even much about gateways if the students do
not meet the prerequisite training on this topic. You do not have time for a mini-TCP/IP lesson.
Encourage them to discuss these items with their network administrator if they are not familiar with
them, or recommend that they take a TCP/IP course.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now, let us see the adapter configuration screen.

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V10.1
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Uempty

Network boot (6 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

Adapter configuration:

PowerPC Firmware
Version EL320_040
SMS 1.7 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000,2007 All rights
---------------------------------------------------------
IP Parameters
Port 1 - IBM 2 PORT 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X Adapter: U78A0.001.DNWGCP5-P1-C4

1. Speed,Duplex
Disable Spanning Tree
2. Spanning Tree Enabled
for faster operation
3. Protocol

---------------------------------------------------------
Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
---------------------------------------------------------
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-23. Network boot (6 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Overview
The adapter configuration screen allows you to set parameters for the adapter itself. Typically, you
can leave it alone except for optionally disabling spanning tree. This makes the boot go much
faster.
The value for option 2 does not change, that is, from Enabled to Disabled. The option should have
a question mark next to it that is answered when you choose the option.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-49


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show the parameters available on the adapter configuration screen.
Details — This screen allows you to configure the adapter parameters. You can disable spanning
tree for a faster NIM or media boot.
Additional information —
Transition statement — What is left is the ping test.

8-50 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Network boot (7 of 7)
IBM Power Systems

5. When remote IPL is configured, perform the ping test:


– If ping is unsuccessful:
• Is NIM server on network?
• Check IP Parameters screen for mistakes.
– Is gateway correct and available?
• Try again.
6. Return to SMS Select Boot Options menu:
– Select the network adapter as the Install/Boot Device
7. Exit from SMS initiates network boot.
8. AIX Install and Maintenance menu processing is the same
as previously described.
9. NIM can have an unattended installation with no console
interaction.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-24. Network boot (7 of 7) AN14G5.0

Notes:
Ping test
This option pings the NIM server. If it fails, suspect your IP configuration or the network.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-51


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Describe how to perform the ping test and what might be wrong if it is unsuccessful.
Details — There is nothing to configure on the ping test screen. Just initiate the ping. The
message tells you whether it is successful or if it failed.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Next, let’s review this unit.

8-52 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. AIX 7 can be installed from which of the following? (Select


all that are correct.)
a. 8 mm tape
b. CD-ROM
c. NIM server

2. True or False: A preservation installation preserves all data


on the disks.

3. What is the console used for during the installation process?

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-25. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-53


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. AIX 7 can be installed from which of the following? (Select all that are
correct.)
a. 8 mm tape
b. CD-ROM
c. NIM server
The answers are CD-ROM and NIM server.

2. True or False: A preservation installation preserves all data on the


disks.
The answer is false. It preserves some of the existing data on the disk
that is selected for installation. This method overwrites the user
(/usr), variable (/var), temporary (/tmp), and root (/) file systems.
Other product application files and configuration data are destroyed.

3. What is the console used for during the installation process?


The answer is the console is used to display all the system messages
and to interact with the installation.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

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V10.1
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Uempty

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

AIX
installation

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-26. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-55


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

8-56 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• List the installation methods for AIX
• List the steps necessary to install the AIX base operating
system
• Install and understand all the options when installing AIX from
optical media
• Carry out post installation tasks

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 8-27. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 8. AIX installation 8-57


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

8-58 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty
Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager

Estimated time
01:30

What this unit is about


This unit describes how to work with logical volumes, physical volumes, and
volume groups.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Explain how to work with the Logical Volume Manager
• Add, change, and delete:
- Volume groups
- Logical volumes
- Physical volumes
• Describe logical volume definition options
• Mirror the rootvg
• Migrate data between disks in a volume group

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Operating System and Device
Management
AIX Version 7.1 Command References
SG24-5432 AIX Logical Volume Manager, from A to Z: Introduction and
Concepts (Redbooks)
Note: References listed as Online above are available at the following
address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.b
ase/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Explain how to work with the Logical Volume Manager
• Add, change, and delete:
– Volume groups
– Logical volumes
– Physical volumes
• Describe logical volume definition options
• Mirror the rootvg
• Migrate data between disks in a volume group

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the objectives of this unit.
Details —
Additional information — This unit provides all the basic information a system administrator
needs to know to work with the AIX LVM. Where appropriate, SMIT screens are used and are
accompanied by the corresponding command.
Transition statement — Let’s begin our discussion of the LVM by defining the LVM components.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-3
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Instructor Guide

Logical Volume Manager components


IBM Power Systems

Volume group (VG)


Physical
Logical
Partitions (PPs)
Partitions (LPs)

1
2
3
4
write(data);
5
6
x
y
Application
z

Logical Volume (LV)


Physical Volumes
(PVs)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-2. Logical Volume Manager components AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Volume group (VG)
A volume group (VG) is the largest unit of storage allocation. A VG consists of a group of one or
more physical volumes (disks) all of which are accessed under one VG name. The combined
storage of all the physical volumes makes up the total size of the VG. This space can be used
by other storage entities like file systems and logical volumes.
VGs are portable and can be disconnected from one system and connected to another system.
All disks in the VG must move together.
• Physical volume (PV)
A physical volume (PV) is the name for an actual disk or hard disk drive. A PV can be internally
or externally attached.
For a disk to be used by LVM, the disk must be added to a volume group, or a new volume
group must be set up for it. A PV can belong to only one VG.
A PV can belong to only one volume group (VG).

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Uempty • Physical partition (PP)


All of the physical volumes in a volume group are divided into physical partitions (PP). These
physical partitions are the unit of allocation when defining logical volumes. It is this use of PPs
that gives LVM storage allocation its flexibility. All the physical partitions within a volume group
are the same size, although different volume groups can have different PP sizes.
• Logical volume (LV)
Within each volume group, one or more logical volumes (LV) are defined. Logical volumes are
groups of information that is located on physical volumes. Data on logical volumes appears to
be contiguous to the user, but can be non-contiguous on the physical volume, or can even be
located on several physical volumes. While some logical volumes can be accessed in a raw
mode (usually by database software), most logical volumes are organized as file systems, and
the applications access the logical volumes indirectly through the kernels file system services.
• Logical partition (LP)
Each logical volume consists of one or more logical partitions (LP). Logical partitions are the
same size as the physical partitions within a volume group. Each logical partition is mapped to
at least one physical partition. Although the logical partitions are numbered consecutively, the
underlying physical partitions are not necessarily consecutive or contiguous.
This allows file systems, paging space, and other logical volumes to be resized or relocated, to
span multiple physical volumes, and to have their contents that are replicated for greater
flexibility and availability in the storage of data.

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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the LVM components and major concepts.
Details — Experienced UNIX administrators should be familiar with the underlying concepts, but
they need to learn the AIX terminology. It is crucial that they understand the concepts of logical
partitions and physical partitions. This can be difficult because there are so many other associations
with term partition. Make sure that they understand that these are just (relatively small) units of
allocation. Many students might want to think that an LVM logical partition is similar in concept to
what we call a logical volume. You must make the difference clear.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Since the major purpose of LVM is to provide a flexible way to allocate
disk storage to logical volumes, let us look at the various uses that AIX makes of these logical
volumes.

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Uempty

Uses of logical volumes


IBM Power Systems

• A logical volume can contain one of the following:


– Journaled (JFS) or enhanced journaled (JFS2) file system
– Journal log (/dev/hd8)
– Paging space (/dev/hd6)
– Boot logical volume (/dev/hd5)
– Dump device
– Application definable structure (raw logical volume)

• Examples of JFS or JFS2 logical volumes:


/dev/hd1 /home
/dev/hd2 /usr
/dev/hd3 /tmp
/dev/hd4 /
/dev/hd9var /var
/dev/hd10opt /opt
/dev/hd11admin /admin
/dev/lv00 /myfilesystem

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-3. Uses of logical volumes AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Introduction
When you install the system, one volume group (rootvg) is automatically created, which
consists of a base set of logical volumes that are required to start the system. rootvg contains
such things as paging space, the journal log, and boot data, each usually in its own separate
logical volume. It also creates a collection of file systems with each having its own dedicated
logical volume (its own allocation of disk storage). The AIX defined file systems and their
associate logical volume names are shown in the visual.
You can create additional logical volumes with the mklv command or go through the SMIT
menus. This command allows you to specify the name of the logical volume and to define its
characteristics.
• JFS and JFS2 file systems
The native file system on AIX is the journaled file system (JFS), or the enhanced journaled file
system (JFS2). They use database journaling techniques to maintain consistency. It is through
the file system's directory structure that users access files, commands, applications, and so
forth.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-7
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Instructor Guide

• Journal log
The journal log is the logical volume where changes made to the file system structure are
written until the structures are updated on disk. Journaled file systems and enhanced journaled
file systems are discussed in greater detail later in the course.
• Paging space
Paging space is hard disk storage for information that is resident in virtual memory but is not
currently being maintained in real memory.
• Boot logical volume
The boot logical volume is a physically contiguous area on the disk that contains the boot
image.
• Dump device
When you install the operating system, the dump device is automatically configured for you. By
default, the primary device is /dev/hd6, which is the paging logical volume, and the secondary
device is /dev/sysdumpnull. For systems migrated from versions of AIX earlier than V4.1, the
primary dump device is what it formerly was, /dev/hd7.
• Raw logical volume
A raw logical volume is an empty logical volume. Database applications, for example, Oracle
and DB2, recommend the use of raw logical volumes.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Define the uses of LVs.
Details — LVs can contain a number of different types of entities, the most common being the
journaled file system (JFS), or enhanced journaled file system (JFS2).
Encourage the students to recognize standard system-defined LV names. For example, /dev/hd6
always contains one of the paging spaces.
Do not explain in detail each of the named LVs.
This visual is meant to be a transition to an overview of the file system. What you are trying to
accomplish is to show the connection between a logical volume and a file system early in the
storage discussion. Once students see this connection, the rest of the concepts should make more
sense to them.
Discussion items - Ask if anyone has set up raw LVs and if so, for what?
Raw LVs are usually used by databases that require empty devices for them to place and manage
the data on. Databases usually use their own data structures and do not use an AIX file system.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us summarize the benefits of the AIX Logical Volume Manager.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-9
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Instructor Guide

Benefits of the AIX Logical Volume Manager


IBM Power Systems

• Data can be noncontiguous and span disks


• Allocation locations and amount can be adjusted
• Provides logical mirroring and striping
• New disks are easily added, removed, or replaced
• Integrated backup and restore mechanisms
• Methods for migrating disk groups to other systems
• LVM (data) statistics can be collected

These tasks can be performed dynamically!

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-4. Benefits of the AIX Logical Volume Manager AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Issues with traditional UNIX disk storage management
Traditionally, disk allocation has been implemented through partitions. These partitions were
large contiguous allocations (such as a quarter or a half of an entire disk). Customers had to
select the correct size for each partition before the system can be installed.
Each file system was on a partition on the hard disk.
Changing the size of the partition, and thus the file system, was no easy task. It involved backing
up the file system, removing the partition, creating new ones, and restoring the file system.
A major limitation to partitions was that each partition had to consist of contiguous disk space.
This characteristic limited the partition to reside on a single physical drive. It cannot span
multiple hard disks. Since file systems were always contained within a partition, no file system
can be defined that would be larger than the largest physical drive. This meant that no single file
can be larger than the largest physical drive.
• Constraints eliminated
Modern UNIX storage management software, of which AIX’s LVM is one of the best, eliminates
these traditional constraints.
The tasks that are listed in the visual, can be performed while users are on the system.
Details on these tasks will be covered in detail, later in the unit.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe the benefits of the Logical Volume Manager so students understand the
important role it plays in AIX.
Details — Tell the students what the benefits are of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) and how it
makes the life of the system administrator so much easier. If you have any stories you can share
with students on the difference in time it takes to reorganize partitions and disk space in a traditional
UNIX environment versus an AIX environment, do so. Real life experiences can really bring home
the benefits the facility brings to UNIX.
Be sure to mention that the benefits listed on the visual can all be accomplished while users are on
the system!
Additional information —
Transition statement — Having provided a brief overview of LVM, let us look at its components in
detail. The first component that we will look at is the volume group.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-11
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Instructor Guide

Volume groups
IBM Power Systems

• Volume group types:


Volume Group Max Max LVs Max PPs per Max PP
– Original Type PVs VG Size
– Big
Original 32 256 32512 1 GB
– Scalable (1016 * 32)

Big 128 512 130048 1 GB


(1016 * 128)
• Limits Scalable 1024 4096 2097152 128 GB

• AIX contains one mandatory volume group: rootvg


– rootvg is created on system installation
– Contains the AIX operating system
• Why create new volume groups?
– Separate user data from operating system files rootvg datavg
– Disaster recovery
PV1 PV2 PV3
– Data portability
– Data integrity and security

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-5. Volume groups AN14G5.0

Notes:
Volume group types
With successive versions of AIX, new types of volume groups have been introduced, which allow
for greater capacities and greater flexibility:
• Original volume groups
When creating a volume group with SMIT or by using the mkvg command, original volume
groups are the default.
• Big volume groups
Big volume groups were introduced with AIX V4.3.2. Besides increasing the number of PVs per
VG, the big volume group also doubled the maximum number of LVs per VG from 255 to 512.
Support for creating big volume groups through SMIT was introduced in AIX 5L V5.3. Previous
to 5.3 big volume groups can be created only from the command line.
• Scalable volume groups
Scalable volume groups were introduced with AIX 5L V5.3. A scalable VG can accommodate a
maximum of 1024 PVs and raises the limit for the number of LVs to 4096. The -t factor does
not apply to the scalable VG type.

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Uempty The maximum number of PPs is no longer defined on a per disk basis but applies to the entire
VG. This opens up the prospect to configure VGs with a relatively small number of disks, but
with fine grained storage allocation options, through many PPs, which are small in size. The
scalable VG can hold up to 2097152 (2048 KB) PPs. Optimally, the size of a physical partition,
can also be configured for a scalable VG.
Existing and new volume groups
When the system is installed, the root volume group (rootvg) is created. rootvg consists of a base
set of logical volumes and physical volumes that are required to start the system, and any other
logical volumes you specify to the installation script.
More disks can either be added to rootvg, or a new volume group can be created for them. There
can be up to 255 VGs per system.
Why create separate volume groups?
It is recommended that all user and application data be separated from the OS by placing the data
into volume groups. The data should be grouped into individual volume groups by type or purpose
(for example, Oracle data). By maintaining the user file systems and the operating system files in
distinct volume groups, the user files are not jeopardized during operating system updates,
reinstallations, and crash recoveries.
Maintenance is easier because you can update or reinstall the operating system, without having to
restore user data.
For security, you can make the volume group unavailable using varyoffvg.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-13
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Expand on the different types of volume groups and their limits. Also, define the
advantages of separate VGs.
Details — You have not discussed how to create a volume group yet. The command mkvg is new
to the students. However, since you discussed the concept of a volume group and the maximums
for volume groups, it is important to introduce the concept of big VGs, scalable VGs, and factors.
Existing volume groups can be converted to scalable or big volume groups and the -t factor can be
changed as well. Both of these can be done dynamically. To modify an existing VG, the command is
chvg instead of mkvg.
Discuss the main reasons for having external VGs as opposed to internal, and what considerations
must be made when adding a new disk to the system.
The rootvg includes paging space, the journal log, boot data, and dump storage usually each in its
own logical volume. The rootvg has attributes that differ from the user-created VGs. For example, it
cannot be imported or exported (moved) like other VGs can.
Point out that VGs can contain disks of different sizes. Only the physical partitions within a VG, must
be the same size.
Additional information — Once a volume group is converted to big or scalable, it cannot be
converted back dynamically. It also cannot be used on earlier versions of AIX that do not support
big volume groups.
Transition statement — The SMIT menu for managing volume groups lists the many tasks that
can be done with them. Let us look at that menu and then we will go through most of these tasks, by
using both SMIT dialog panels and line commands.

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Uempty

SMIT Volume Groups menu


IBM Power Systems

Volume Groups

Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.

List All Volume Groups


Add a Volume Group
Set Characteristics of a Volume Group
List Contents of a Volume Group
Remove a Volume Group
Activate a Volume Group
Deactivate a Volume Group
Import a Volume Group
Export a Volume Group
Mirror a Volume Group
Unmirror a Volume Group
Synchronize LVM Mirrors
Back Up a Volume Group
Remake a Volume Group
Preview Information about a Backup
Verify the Readability of a Backup (Tape only)
View the Backup Log
List Files in a Volume Group Backup
Restore Files in a Volume Group Backup

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-6. SMIT Volume Groups menu AN14G5.0

Notes:
The visual shows the SMIT screen that allows for the configuration of volume groups.
To get to this menu, use the SMIT fast path, smit vg.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-15
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the options available for volume groups.
Details — Provide a quick overview of the items on this screen.
Additional information — In the next few visuals, we describe many of the options that are listed
on this screen.
Transition statement — Let us see how we can create a VG.

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Uempty

Adding a volume group to the system


IBM Power Systems

# smit mkvg mkvg –y datavg hdisk1 hdisk2


Add a Volume Group

Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.

Add an Original Volume Group


Add a Big Volume Group
Add a Scalable Volume Group

Add an Original Volume Group

[Entry Fields]
VOLUME GROUP name [datavg]
Physical partition SIZE in megabytes +
* PHYSICAL VOLUME names [hdisk1 hdisk2] +
Force the creation of a volume group? no +
Activate volume group AUTOMATICALLY yes +
at system restart?
Volume Group MAJOR NUMBER [] +#
Create VG Concurrent Capable? no +
Infinite Retry Option no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-7. Adding a volume group to the system AN14G5.0

Notes:
• The mkvg command
The mkvg command (or equivalent SMIT panel) is used to create a volume group. A new volume
group must contain at least one physical volume, but multiple disks can be specified. The -y
option is used to indicate the name for the new volume group. If this is not specified, a system
generated name is used. The volume group type defaults to an Original volume group, which is
the dialog in the visual. Forcing the creation is sometimes necessary when a disk still has a
VGDA, even though you are certain that there is nothing on the disk that needs preserving.
It is generally best not to select a physical partition size as the system selects the best fit
automatically. The default is the smallest physical partition size consistent with the maximum
number of physical partitions per physical volume and with the largest physical volume in the
volume group.
• Special high availability cluster options
The volume group MAJOR NUMBER on the SMIT dialog screen is used by the kernel to
access that volume group. This field is most often used for PowerHA where the major number
ideally should be the same for all nodes in the cluster.
Concurrent capable VGs are used for parallel processing applications, whereby the volume
group is read/write accessible to multiple machines at the same time.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-17
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show students how to add a volume group.
Details — Go through the example of how to add a VG to a system. Point out that the big VG panel
is identical.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at how adding a scalable volume group differs.

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Uempty

Adding a scalable volume group to the system


IBM Power Systems

# smit mkvg mkvg –S –y db2_vg hdisk3

Add a Scalable Volume Group

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
VOLUME GROUP name [db2_vg]
Physical partition SIZE in megabytes +
* PHYSICAL VOLUME names [hdisk3] +
Force the creation of a volume group? no +
Activate volume group AUTOMATICALLY yes +
at system restart?
Volume Group MAJOR NUMBER [] +#
Create VG Concurrent Capable? no +
Max PPs per VG in units of 1024 32 +
Max Logical Volumes 256 +
Enable Strict Mirror Pools no +
Infinite Retry Option no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-8. Adding a scalable volume group to the system AN14G5.0

Notes:
Additional options for scalable volume groups
To specify that you want to create a scalable VG, use the -S flag with the mkvg command. There is
also a separate SMIT panel for adding scalable volume groups. Besides creating a different format
VGDA, the administrator has the option to set the Maximum PPs per VG, and the Max Logical
Volumes for the volume group.
With non-scalable volume groups, LVM allows tuning of the number of physical partitions for each
physical volume through the -t factor. In scalable volume groups, the physical partitions are
managed on a volume group wide basis.
The maximum number of logical volumes was fixed depending upon the type of volume group.
Now, in scalable volume groups, the maximum is tunable.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-19
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain the AIX scalable volume group creation options.
Details — Warn the students not to make the maximums larger than they really need them to be.
The increased size of the control block structures can have a detrimental impact on performance.
Additional information —
Strict Mirror Pool: If this is enabled, all of the logical volumes in the volume group must use mirror
pools. When strict mirror pools are enabled, any logical volume that is created in the volume group
must have mirror pools that are enabled for each copy of the logical volume.
Infinite retry option of the volume group: If enabled the failed I/O request is retried until it is
successful. It does not affect the logical volume infinite retry option.
Transition statement — Now, let us move on to how we can list the volume groups and attributes
after they have been created.

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Uempty

Listing volume groups and VG attributes


IBM Power Systems
# lsvg
rootvg
datavg
db2_vg

# lsvg -o
datavg
rootvg

# lsvg rootvg
VOLUME GROUP: rootvg VG IDENTIFIER:
00f6060300004c0000000148d7b47287
VG STATE: active PP SIZE: 16 megabyte(s)
VG PERMISSION: read/write TOTAL PPs: 511 (8176 megabytes)
MAX LVs: 256 FREE PPs: 205 (3280 megabytes)
LVs: 11 USED PPs: 306 (4896 megabytes)
OPEN LVs: 10 QUORUM: 2 (Enabled)
TOTAL PVs: 1 VG DESCRIPTORS: 2
STALE PVs: 0 STALE PPs: 0
ACTIVE PVs: 1 AUTO ON: yes
MAX PPs per VG: 32512
MAX PPs per PV: 1016 MAX PVs: 32
LTG size (Dynamic): 256 kilobyte(s) AUTO SYNC: no
HOT SPARE: no BB POLICY: relocatable
PV RESTRICTION: none INFINITE RETRY: no
DISK BLOCK SIZE: 512 CRITICAL VG: no

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-9. Listing volume groups and VG attributes AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lsvg command, with no parameters, lists the volume groups in the system. If used with the –o
options, all varied on/active volume groups are displayed.
To further list the information about the status and content of a particular volume group, run lsvg
<Volumegroup_name>
The output provides status information about the volume group. The most useful information here
is:
• Volume group state (VG STATE - active or inactive/complete if all physical volumes are active)
• Physical partition size
• Total number of physical partitions (TOTAL PPs)
• Number of free physical partitions (FREE PPs)

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-21
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to list VGs and their attributes.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and in the notes. Point out particular attributes that
should be of interest to the class.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us now see how we can use lsvg to list the disks and LVs in a VG.

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Uempty

Listing PVs in a VG and VG contents


IBM Power Systems

# lsvg -p rootvg
rootvg:
PV_NAME PV STATE TOTAL PPs FREE PPs FREE DISTRIBUTION
hdisk0 active 99 23 15..00..00..00..08
hdisk5 active 31 31 07..06..06..06..06

# lsvg -l rootvg
rootvg:
LV NAME TYPE LPs PPs PVs LV STATE MOUNT
POINT
hd5 boot 2 2 1 closed/syncd N/A
hd6 paging 32 32 1 open/syncd N/A
hd8 jfs2log 1 1 1 open/syncd N/A
hd4 jfs2 15 15 1 open/syncd /
hd2 jfs2 177 177 1 open/syncd /usr
hd9var jfs2 26 26 1 open/syncd /var
hd3 jfs2 8 8 1 open/syncd /tmp
hd1 jfs2 1 1 1 open/syncd /home
hd10opt jfs2 20 20 1 open/syncd /opt
hd11admin jfs2 8 8 1 open/syncd /admin
livedump jfs2 16 16 1 open/syncd
/var/adm/ras/livedump
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-10. Listing PVs in a VG and VG contents AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lsvg -p Volumegroup command gives information about all of the physical volumes within the
volume group. The information that is given is:
• Physical volume name (PV_NAME)
• Physical volume state (PV STATE - active or inactive)
• Total number of physical partitions (TOTAL PPs)
• Number of free physical partitions (FREE PPs)
• How the free space is distributed across the disk (FREE DISTRIBUTION)
Free distribution is the number of physical partitions that are allocated within each section of the
physical volume: outer edge, outer middle, center, inner middle, and inner edge.
The lsvg -l <Volumegroup> command gives information about all of the logical volumes within the
volume group. The details that are given are:
• Logical volume name (LVNAME)
• Type of logical volume (TYPE, for example, file system, paging)

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-23
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• Number of logical partitions (LPs)


• Number of physical partitions (PPs)
• Number of physical volumes (PVs)
• Logical volume state (LV STATE)
• Mount point (MOUNT POINT), if the logical volume contains a journaled file system

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to list the PV and LV information of a volume group.
Details — Go through the details in the visual and in the notes.
Additional information — Ask the students if there are any mirrored logical volumes in the
example that is shown on the visual. The answer is no because the number of PPs and the number
of LPs are same for all LVs.
Transition statement — Now that you can create VGs, let us see how you can change a VG.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-25
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Instructor Guide

Change a Volume Group


IBM Power Systems

# smit chvg chvg –a n –Q n datavg

Change a Volume Group

[Entry Fields]
* VOLUME GROUP name datavg
* Activate volume group AUTOMATICALLY no +
at system restart?
* A QUORUM of disks required to keep the volume no +
group on-line ?
Concurrent Capable? no +
Change to big VG format? no +
Change to scalable VG format? no +
LTG Size in kbytes 256 +
Set hotspare characteristics n +
Set synchronization characteristics of stale n +
partitions
Max PPs per VG in units of 1024 32 +
Max Logical Volumes 256 +
Mirror Pool Strictness +
Infinite Retry Option no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-11. Change a Volume Group AN14G5.0

Notes:
The chvg command changes the characteristics of a volume group. In the example that is shown in
the visual, attributes Activate volume group AUTOMATICALLY at system restart? and A
QUORUM of disks required to keep the volume group on-line? were set to no, which causes
the following command to run: chvg –a n –Q n datavg

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an example of how to change the characteristics of a volume group.
Details — Go through the example in the visual and provide a brief explanation of the options one
can change.
The LTG option would rarely be used. It is set automatically during varyon to the maximum transfer
size that the disk can support. It is a legacy option for older versions of AIX (see additional
information, below).
Additional information —
LTG: When LVM receives a request for an I/O, it breaks down the I/O into logical track group (LTG)
sizes before it passes the request down to the device driver of the underlying disks. The LTG is the
maximum transfer size of a logical volume, and is common to all the logical volumes in the volume
group, since it is a volume group attribute.
If you require further information, see the man page for chvg.
Transition statement — Let us see how we can expand and reduce VGs.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Extend and reduce a VG


IBM Power Systems

# extendvg -f rootvg hdisk2


# lsvg -p rootvg | awk ‘{print $1, $2}’
rootvg:
PV_NAME PV STATE
hdisk0 active
hdisk1 active hdisk2
hdisk2 active

hdisk0 hdisk1

# reducevg -d rootvg hdisk1


# lsvg -p rootvg | awk ‘{print $1, $2}’
rootvg:
PV_NAME PV STATE
hdisk0 active hdisk1
hdisk2 active

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-12. Extend and reduce a VG AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Add a physical volume to a volume group
To add a disk to an existing volume group, use the extendvg command or SMIT fast path smit
extendvg. The disk must be installed in the system or connected to it externally, and must be
powered on.
extendvg formats the disk into physical partitions and then adds them to the physical partition
mapping maintained in the VGDA for the volume group. The space on the new disk is now
available to be allocated to logical volumes in the volume group. If the existing data in the VGDA
on the disk shows that it is part of another volume group, the -f option forces the addition of the
disk to the volume group, without requesting confirmation. Use this option when adding a disk
that has been previously used, but contains data that is no longer needed.
The syntax for the extendvg command is:
extendvg [-f] Volumegroup hdiskn
• Remove a physical volume from a volume group
The reducevg command is used to remove a physical volume from a volume group. If it is the
last physical volume, the volume group is removed. To remove a disk from the volume group,

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Uempty first be sure to free up all the storage on the disk by either deleting the logical volumes or
migrating them to some other disk in the volume group. Once there are no logical volumes, on
the disk, you can remove that disk from the volume group by using the reducevg command or
the SMIT fast path smit reducevg.
The syntax for the reducevg command is:
reducevg [-d] [-f] Volumegroup hdiskn
The -d option deallocates the existing logical volume partitions, and then deletes resultant
empty logical volumes from the specified physical volumes. User confirmation is required
unless the -f flag is added.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-29
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain how to extend or reduce the size of a volume group. Show how to add and
remove physical volumes in a volume group.
Details — Describe the steps that need to be taken to add or remove a physical volume from a
volume group.
Additional information — When the last physical volume has been removed from the volume
group, the volume group effectively no longer exists, since there are no more VGDAs to define it. At
that point, LVM also removes any record of the volume group from the ODM database.
Transition statement — Let us see how we can remove a VG.

9-30 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Remove a Volume Group


IBM Power Systems

# smit reducevg2 reducevg -df db2_vg hdisk2 hdisk3

Remove a Volume Group

Type or select a value for the entry field.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* VOLUME GROUP name [db2_vg] +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-13. Remove a Volume Group AN14G5.0

Notes:
You can use the smit reducevg2 fast path to remove a volume group. It runs a script that identifies
what physical volumes are in the volume group and then runs the reducevg command to remove
each physical volume until there are no more physical volumes in the volume group.
The Remove a Volume Group menu does not have a corresponding high-level command. The
correct way to remove a volume group, is to use the Remove a Physical Volume from a Volume
Group option, which calls the reducevg command. This removes the volume group when you
remove the last physical volume within it.
The syntax of the reducevg command is:
reducevg [-d] [-f] VolumeGroup PhysicalVolume

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-31
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to delete a volume group.
Details — Go through the example in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Having played with altering the characteristics of the volume group, let us
look at how we can control access to the volume group.

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Uempty

Activate and Deactivate a Volume Group


IBM Power Systems

# smit varyonvg varyonvg datavg


Activate a Volume Group

[Entry Fields]
* VOLUME GROUP name [datavg] +
RESYNCHRONIZE stale physical partitions? yes +
Activate volume group in SYSTEM no +
MANAGEMENT mode?
FORCE activation of the volume group? no +
Warning--this may cause loss of data integrity.
Varyon VG in Concurrent Mode? no +
Synchronize Logical Volumes? no +

# smit varyoffvg varyoffvg datavg


Deactivate a Volume Group

[Entry Fields]
* VOLUME GROUP name [datavg] +
Put volume group in SYSTEM no +
MANAGEMENT mode?

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-14. Activate and Deactivate a Volume Group AN14G5.0

Notes:
• The varyonvg command
The varyonvg command is used to activate a volume group that is not activated at system
startup, or has been added to the system since startup.
The -f option is used to force a volume group online. It allows a volume group to be made
active that does not currently have a quorum of available disks. Any disk that cannot be brought
to an active state is put in a removed state. At least one disk must be available for use in the
volume group.
• The varyoffvg command
The varyoffvg command is used to deactivate a volume group. No logical volumes should be
open when this command is issued. Removing a disk without deactivating the volume group
might cause errors and loss of data in the volume group descriptor areas, and the logical
volumes within that volume group.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-33
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how volume groups, other than the rootvg, can be activated and deactivated.
Details — Go through the example of activating / deactivating VGs.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us next look at how we work with the logical volumes, which are
allocated out volume group disk space.

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Uempty

Logical storage
IBM Power Systems

Physical volumes

1 4 1 4
7 2 3 7 2 3
10 10
8 9 8 9
13 16 13 16
14 15 19 14 15
19 22 22
20 21 25 20 21
25 28 28
26 27 31 26 27
31 34 34
32 33 32 33
35 38 35 38
36 37 41 36 37
41 44 44
42 43 42 43
47 50 47 50
48 49 48 49

Logical Volume Manager

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Logical
partitions
Logical Logical
volume volume
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-15. Logical storage AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Logical volumes
A logical volume is a group of logical partitions, which can span physical volumes, as long as
the physical volumes are in the same volume group. A file system resides on top of a logical
volume (LV). A logical volume can be dynamically extended.
• Logical partitions
Logical partitions are mapped one-to-one to physical partitions unless they are being mirrored.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-35
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Review the logical volume structure as an introduction to a more detailed discussion.
Details — Review logical volumes and logical partitions and how they map to physical partitions.
Additional information — A logical volume has a device driver that allows an application to treat it
just as it would a physical disk. Database engines that access a logical volume in a raw mode is an
example of a situation where the logical volume device driver is accessed directly. In most
situations, even database engine uses the file system services rather than accessing the logical
volume directly.
Transition statement — Remember that a logical volume is a collection of logical partitions. The
mapping of those logical partitions to one or more physical partitions allows LVM to provide
software implemented RAID capabilities. Let us look at these capabilities and relate them to the
RAID implemented in a storage subsystem.

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Uempty

LVM, RAID, and SAN


IBM Power Systems

• LVM supports software RAID (intended for attached JBOD):


– RAID 0, Striping across multiple PVs in the volume group
• Can set stripe unit size and stripe width PVs
LV
– RAID 1, Mirroring (up to three copies):
• Each LP maps to multiple PPs
• Default policies ensure strictness
– RAID 10 or 1 + 0, Striping + Mirroring

• AIX also supports Storage Area Networks (SAN):


– AIX sees LUNs as physical disks
– unique_id attribute identifies the LUN
– Path management through AIX MPIO or OEM software
– SAN disk arrays implement hardware RAID
– Redundant RAID (LVM and SAN) is generally not advised
– AIX can learn of LUN size increases:
# chvg -g datavg

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-16. LVM, RAID, and SAN AN14G5.0

Notes:
LVM supports three software RAID configurations:
• RAID 0: Striping provides improved performance and additional storage, but no fault tolerance.
Any disk failure destroys the array, which becomes more likely with more disks in the array. A
single disk failure destroys the entire array because when data is written to a RAID 0 drive, the
data is broken into fragments. The fragments are written to their respective disks simultaneously
on the same sector. This allows smaller sections of the entire chunk of data to be read off the
drive in parallel, giving this type of arrangement huge bandwidth. RAID 0 does not implement
error checking so any error is unrecoverable. More disks in the array means higher bandwidth,
but greater risk of data loss.
• RAID 1: Mirroring on AIX provides fault tolerance from disk errors by creating up to three copies
of the data on different drives.
• RAID 10: Combines RAID levels 0 + 1. Striping + mirroring provides fault tolerance along with
improved performance.
• Stripe size
The size of the stripe unit is specified at creation time. The stripe size can range from 4 KB -128
MB in powers of two.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-37
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

• Constraints
There are some constraints that are imposed by implementing striping:
- The number of physical partitions that are allocated to a striped logical volume must be
evenly distributable among the disks.
- At least two physical volumes are required.
• Performance considerations
There are some considerations in configuring striping for performance:
- Use as many adapters as possible. For example, if multiple disks in the stripe width are on
the same storage adapter, a read/write of a stripe is not able to read/write the stripe units in
parallel.
- Design to avoid contention with other uses of the disks that are used by the striped logical
volume.
- Create on a volume group that is dedicated to striped logical volumes.
It is not a good idea to mix striped and non-striped logical volumes in the same physical
volume. Physical volumes should ideally be the same size within the set that is used for a
striped logical volume. Just because a logical volume is striped, it does not mean that the
file's data blocks are going to be perfectly aligned with the stripe units. Therefore, if a file
block crosses a stripe boundary, the block gets split into multiple LVM I/Os.
• SAN support
AIX also supports Storage Area Networks (SAN). Most RAID configuration is done in the
SAN-attached storage subsystems that is using hardware RAID. Generally, configuring RAID in
the storage subsystem and in AIX is not advised.
When a SAN LUN (disk) is zoned to AIX and AIX discovers it by running cfgmgr, this LUN is
seen almost the same as a locally attached disk. And by default it is assigned a logical device
name following the usual hdisk# format.
When working with the SAN administrator, the common disk identifier usually is the unique_id
attribute for the disk.
The management of multiple paths to a LUN (for example using multiple HBAs) is either
managed by the AIX MPIO software or using OEM software that is designed to work with the
particular storage subsystem.
It is not unusual for a storage subsystem to increase the space allocation for a LUN. When this
happens, AIX can learn of LUN size increase by running: # chvg -g datavg

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce RAID support in LVM.
Details — Introduce RAID level support in LVM. Most datavgs today, are held within SAN
environments. Point out that AIX LVM is software RAID whereas RAID support in SAN technology
is implemented at the hardware layer. This generally has better performance and greater flexibility.
One should ideally not mix the two.
Additional information —
Transition statement — When we define a logical volume, we have options, which control how the
logical partitions are mapped to the physical partitions and how we manage any software RAID that
we chose to implement. Let us examine some of these options and how they might affect
performance.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-39
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

LVM options and recommendations


IBM Power Systems

• Inter-policy and intra-policy: Middle Inner-edge


– Logical volume placement on disks Inner-
Center
– Prefer maximum spread and middle band middle
• Scheduling policy: Edge
– Parallel writes and reads to mirror copies perform best
– LVM mirroring on top of SAN striping: use parallel writes and sequential
reads to avoid disrupting storage array read-ahead
• Mirror write consistency (MWC):
– Ensures mirrored PPs are consistent after system crash
– Uses passive MWC for Big VGs
– For active MWC, place logical volume on outer edge of disk
• Write verify:
– Verifies all writes with a read operation
– Default is no. Value of yes impacts write performance
• SAN: Use defaults without LVM mirroring or LVM striping

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-17. LVM options and recommendations AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Introduction
In most cases, the LVM options that are discussed do not need to be changed from the default
and if they are, the points that are made in the visual are sufficient. The details that are provided
below are beyond the scope of this course, but are provided for those who enjoy the technical
details. It is suggested that you attend the AIX Performance course for a complete training on all
aspects of AIX performance.
• Intra- and inter-policies
Intra-physical volume allocation policy specifies which band on the physical volume is preferred.
The intra-policies have no effect when used in SAN environments, in which LUNs are in RAID
configurations. But for local disks with no hardware RAID, the policy can affect performance.
The default of middle is a compromise. For older, smaller disks the center is optimal. For newer,
larger disks the outer edge is a better location.
Inter-physical volume allocation policies control how many disks we spread the data across. A
value of minimum is the default. If possible, it places all the data on one disk. For availability, a
single disk is safer than multiple (without managing them as an array that uses RAID). If LVM

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Uempty mirroring is being used with strictness (guarantees copies are on different disks), then it tries to
have only one disk for each copy. A value of maximum tries to spread PPs over as many PVs as
possible.
• Scheduling policies when using LVM mirroring
- Parallel (default):
• Write operations on copies all start at the same time.
• When longest write finishes, the write operation is complete.
• Read operations use the disk with the shortest request queue.
• Improves performance but in a system crash, where only one copy was written, we do
not know which copy was completed. When resynchronizing the copies, the primary
(source for resync) can be either the old or new version of the data.
• Variations on read scheduling (with parallel write):
- Parallel write/sequential read: Primary copy is read first. If unsuccessful, the next
copy is used.
- Parallel write/round-robin read: Round-robin reads alternate disks between copies.
- Sequential:
• Writes to primary copy first, then secondary copy, and then last copy.
• Waits for each write to complete (of fail) before writing next copy.
• Primary copy is read first. Other copies are accessed if primary fails.
• In system crash – primary copy has latest data version.
• Primary copy is source for re-syncing other copies.
• Improves predictability in a system crash because we know that, if the data being written
during crash was completed anywhere, it was the primary copy. A synchronization of the
copies uses that primary copy. On the other hand, it decreases performance.
• Mirror write consistency
Unless you plan to recovery from backup or run a forced synchronization of the mirror copies
after every system crash, you need to have some form of mirror write consistency (MWC)
enabled. For LUNs on data caching disk arrays, the default of active works well.
If the system crashes before a write to all mirrors is complete, the mirrors are in an inconsistent
state. One copy would have the old data and another copy would have the new data. In a
system crash, there is no opportunity to mark partitions as stale and a normal synchronization
synchronizes only the partitions that are marked as stale. The result is that, without MWC, a
series of queries for the same data can get different answers (inconsistent). MWC ensures that
a resynchronization (of the data that was being written at the time of the crash) occurs
immediately after the system boots backup.
Note that MWC does not guarantee what version of the data is the final version; it can be either
the old or the new version. It only ensures that all copies have the same data.
There are three modes for MWC: off, active, and passive.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-41
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

- Active (default):
Uses an MWC cache on the outer edge of the disk to identify what logical track groups
(LTG) on the disk are being written to. After a system crash, this information is used to
selectively resynchronize on the data in those active LTGs.
The performance problem is when the location of the data being written is not near the
MWC cache. On a physical disk (versus a LUN on an array with data caching), this results in
a lot of arm movement that significantly impacts performance. Thus, mirrored logical
volumes on physical disks should be placed on the outer edge, when using active MWC.
For LUNs on disk arrays that provide data caching there is no significant performance cost
(just a little added Fibre Channel I/O).
- Passive. (Big VG only)
Passive MWC does not record the LTGs of the active writes and thus does not incur the
performance penalty of active MWC. Instead, it just keeps track of whether the logical
volume was properly closed. At reboot, if the logical volume had not been properly closed,
the system knows that there must have been a system crash. In that situation, it initiates a
force resynchronization of the entire logical volume in the background. Because the
resynchronization is not selective, the overhead in recovering from a system crash is
greater than when using active MWC. But we hope that recovering from a crash is an
unusual situation.
• Write verify
This option is off by default. Most facilities trust the storage device enough to accept the default.
If you do not trust the storage device to correctly record the data, then you can use write verify
to validate that it was written correctly by immediately reading the data back in to compare with
the memory copy of the data just written. On a physical disk, this incurs a penalty of one rotation
to come back to the data, plus extra I/O overhead. On a data caching storage array, there is no
rotational delay, but there is also no benefit. In that case, you are reading only from the storage
array’s own data cache (it might not have even been written to a disk in the array at that point).

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce LVM options that affect performance.
Details — Go through the details on the visual. Do not go into a lot of detail. Most of the students
have systems where the high disk activity is to a data caching storage subsystem, in which case
they should just keep all of the defaults. If the students want more detail, they have the additional
student notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — If you care about the intra-policy and the inter-policy for your logical
volumes and the data is not in your preferred location, then you can move the data to that location
(dynamically). Let us briefly look at the reorgvg command.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-43
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Reorganize logical volumes in a volume group


IBM Power Systems

• reorgvg moves physical partition allocations for logical


volumes to more closely match the policies of those LVs.
hdisk3 hdisk4
datavg

1 2 3 4
empty
5 6 7 8

• # chlv –e x mylv (set to maximum number of disks)


• # reorgvg datavg mylv
hdisk3 hdisk4
datavg

1 3 5 7 2 4 6 8

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-18. Reorganize logical volumes in a volume group AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Reorganizing a volume group
If the intra-physical volume allocation policy (location on disk: center, middle, edge, inner edge,
and inner middle) is changed after the logical volume is created, the physical partition does not
relocate automatically. The reorgvg command is used to redistribute the physical partitions of
the logical volumes of a volume group according to their preferred allocation policies. This
should improve disk performance. Preference is given in the order that is listed on the command
line.
• reorgvg syntax
The syntax is: reorgvg Volumegroup [LogicalVolume]
For example: reorgvg rootvg hd4 hd5
Using SMIT, no other arguments can be supplied. The entire volume group is reorganized.

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V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how data in a volume group can be reorganized.
Details — The reorgvg command can be used to change the allocation of logical volumes in a
volume group, based on the allocation policy set on the logical volume. This command tries to place
the specified logical volume in the new place, or as close to the requested place as possible. This
command is only successful if there is space to maneuver.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Having explained some of the options we have when defining a logical
volume, let us look at the detail of how we define them, using either SMIT or the command line.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-45
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

SMIT Logical Volumes menu


IBM Power Systems

# smit lv

Logical Volumes

Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.

List All Logical Volumes by Volume Group


Add a Logical Volume
Set Characteristic of a Logical Volume
Show Characteristics of a Logical Volume
Remove a Logical Volume
Copy a Logical Volume

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-19. SMIT Logical Volumes menu AN14G5.0

Notes:
This is the top-level SMIT menu for logical volumes. The next few pages discuss these items.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Define the SMIT Logical Volumes screen.
Details — At a high level, review each of the items in turn.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us first see how to create an LV.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-47
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Add a logical volume


IBM Power Systems

# smit mklv mklv –y datalv –t jfs2 –c 2 datavg 10 hdisk2 hdisk3


Add a Logical Volume

[Entry Fields]
Logical volume NAME [datalv]
* VOLUME GROUP name datavg
* Number of LOGICAL PARTITIONS [100] #
PHYSICAL VOLUME names [hdisk2 hdisk3] +
Logical volume TYPE [jfs2] +
POSITION on physical volume middle +
RANGE of physical volumes minimum +
MAXIMUM NUMBER of PHYSICAL VOLUMES [] #
to use for allocation
Number of COPIES of each logical 2 +
partition
Mirror Write Consistency? active +
Allocate each logical partition copy yes +
on a SEPARATE physical volume?
RELOCATE the logical volume during yes +
reorganization?
Logical volume LABEL []
MAXIMUM NUMBER of LOGICAL PARTITIONS [512] #
Enable BAD BLOCK relocation? yes +
SCHEDULING POLICY for writing/reading parallel +
logical partition copies
Enable WRITE VERIFY? no +
File containing ALLOCATION MAP []
Stripe Size? [Not Striped] +
Serialize IO? no +
Mirror Pool for First Copy +
Mirror Pool for Second Copy +
Mirror Pool for Third Copy +
Infinite Retry Option no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-20. Adding a logical volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
The mklv command creates a logical volume. The name of the logical volume can be specified or a
system-generated name is used. The volume group the logical volume belongs to, and the size in
logical partitions must be specified. Other characteristics that can be set are, the allocation policy,
copies (mirroring), scheduling policy, and striping.

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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to add a logical volume.
Details — Go through and highlight/explain each attribute.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now we can create LVs, let us see how to view their characteristics.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-49
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Show LV characteristics
IBM Power Systems

# lslv datalv
LOGICAL VOLUME: datalv VOLUME GROUP: datavg
LV IDENTIFIER: 00cf2e7f00004c000000011d68130bea.1
PERMISSION: read/write
VG STATE: active/complete LV STATE: closed/syncd
TYPE: jfs2 WRITE VERIFY: off
MAX LPs: 512 PP SIZE: 4 megabyte(s)
COPIES: 2 SCHED POLICY: parallel
LPs: 10 PPs: 20
STALE PPs: 0 BB POLICY: relocatable
INTER-POLICY: minimum RELOCATABLE: yes
INTRA-POLICY: middle UPPER BOUND: 1
MOUNT POINT: N/A LABEL: None
MIRROR WRITE CONSISTENCY: on/ACTIVE
EACH LP COPY ON A SEPARATE PV ?: yes (superstrict)
Serialize IO ?: NO
INFINITE RETRY: no
DEVICESUBTYPE: DS_LVZ
COPY 1 MIRROR POOL: None
COPY 2 MIRROR POOL: None
COPY 3 MIRROR POOL: None

# lslv -l datalv
datalv:N/A
PV COPIES IN BAND DISTRIBUTION
hdisk2 010:000:000 100% 000:010:000:000:000
hdisk3 010:000:000 100% 000:010:000:000:000

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-21. Show LV characteristics AN14G5.0

Notes:
To list the characteristics of a logical volume, use the command:
lslv <logicalvolume_name>
The –l flag lists the following fields for each physical volume in the logical volume:
• PV: Physical volume name.
• Copies:
- The number of logical partitions containing at least one physical partition (no copies) on the
physical volume.
- The number of logical partitions containing at least two physical partitions (one copy) on the
physical volume.
- The number of logical partitions containing three physical partitions (two copies) on the
physical volume.
• In band: The percentage of physical partitions on the physical volume that belong to the logical
volume, and were allocated within the physical volume region that is specified by Intra-physical
allocation policy.

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Uempty • Distribution: The number of physical partitions that are allocated within each section of the
physical volume: outer edge, outer middle, center, inner middle, and inner edge of the physical
volume.
The lslv –m flag shows the detailed LP to PP relationship. In the following example, LP number 1
for datalv is mapped to physical partition number 104 on hdisk2, and is also mirrored to the same
physical partition number on hdisk3.
# lslv -m datalv
datalv:N/A
LP PP1 PV1 PP2 PV2 PP3 PV3
0001 0104 hdisk2 0104 hdisk3
0002 0105 hdisk2 0105 hdisk3
0003 0106 hdisk2 0106 hdisk3
0004 0107 hdisk2 0107 hdisk3
0005 0108 hdisk2 0108 hdisk3
0006 0109 hdisk2 0109 hdisk3
0007 0110 hdisk2 0110 hdisk3
0008 0111 hdisk2 0111 hdisk3
0009 0112 hdisk2 0112 hdisk3
0010 0113 hdisk2 0113 hdisk3

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-51
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to list the characteristics of a logical volume.
Details — Explain the output that is provided in the visual examples.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us continue exploring LV characteristics.

9-52 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Add copies to a logical volume


IBM Power Systems

# smit mklvcopy mklvcopy -k datalv 3 hdisk4

Add Copies to a Logical Volume

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* LOGICAL VOLUME name datalv
* NEW TOTAL number of logical partition 3 +
copies
PHYSICAL VOLUME names [hdisk4] +
POSITION on physical volume middle +
RANGE of physical volumes minimum +
MAXIMUM NUMBER of PHYSICAL VOLUMES [1] #
to use for allocation
Allocate each logical partition copy yes +
on a SEPARATE physical volume?
File containing ALLOCATION MAP []
SYNCHRONIZE the data in the new yes +
logical partition copies?
Mirror Pool for First Copy [] +
Mirror Pool for Second Copy [] +
Mirror Pool for Third Copy [] +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-22. Add Copies to a Logical Volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Adding a copy of a logical volume
The mklvcopy command is used to add up to three copies to a logical volume. Specify the
logical volume to change and the total number of copies wanted. This succeeds only if there are
enough physical partitions to satisfy the requirements on the physical volumes that are specified
to be used. That is, if all copies are to be on different physical volumes. Once a logical volume
has been created, striping cannot be imposed or removed.
• Synchronizing a mirrored logical volume
Also, in order for the copies to match, the logical volume must be synchronized by using the
syncvg command. This can be done with the -k option when the copy is originally started. It can
be done later, by using the syncvg command.
• Removing a copy of a logical volume
The rmlvcopy command is used to reduce the total number of copies for a logical volume.
Specify the total number wanted. For example, specify two if you are reducing the number of
copies from three to two. The rmlvcopy command allows you to specify which disk to remove
the copy from.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-53
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to add mirrored copies to an LV.
Details — Be sure to point out the importance of synchronizing the copies, either while turning
mirroring on, or after it is turned on. Until the copy is synchronized, it is marked as stale.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we can increase the size of a logical volume.

9-54 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Increasing the size of a logical volume


IBM Power Systems

# smit extendlv extendlv datalv 20

Increase the Size of a Logical Volume

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* LOGICAL VOLUME name datalv
* Number of ADDITIONAL logical partitions [20] #
PHYSICAL VOLUME names [] +
POSITION on physical volume middle +
RANGE of physical volumes minimum +
MAXIMUM NUMBER of PHYSICAL VOLUMES [1] #
to use for allocation
Allocate each logical partition copy yes +
on a SEPARATE physical volume?
File containing ALLOCATION MAP []

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-23. Increasing the size of a logical volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
The extendlv command increases the number of logical partitions that are allocated to the logical
volume, by allocating the number of additional logical partitions that are represented by the
Partitions parameter. The Logical Volume parameter can be a logical volume name or a logical
volume ID. To limit the allocation to specific physical volumes, use the names of one or more
physical volumes in the Physical Volume parameter. Otherwise, all the physical volumes in a
volume group are available for allocating new physical partitions.
The default maximum number of partitions for a logical volume is 512. Before extending a logical
volume to more than 512 logical partitions, use the chlv command to increase the default value.
The default allocation policy is to use a minimum number of physical volumes per logical volume
copy, to place the physical partitions belonging to a copy as contiguously as possible, and then to
place the physical partitions in the requested region that is specified by the -a flag. Also by default,
each copy of a logical partition is placed on a separate physical volume.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-55
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to increase the size of a logical volume.
Details — Explain how to increase the size of an LV. Highlight the options in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how to remove an LV.

9-56 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Remove a Logical Volume


IBM Power Systems

# smit rmlv rmlv –f datalv2

Remove a Logical Volume

Type or select values in entry fields.


Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
LOGICAL VOLUME name [datalv2] +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-24. Remove a Logical Volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
The rmlv command removes logical volumes, and in the process, destroys all data.
The Logical Volume parameter can be a logical volume name or logical volume ID. The logical
volume first must be closed. If the volume group is varied on in concurrent mode, the logical volume
must be closed on all the concurrent nodes on which the volume group is varied on. For example, if
the logical volume contains a file system, it must be unmounted. However, removing the logical
volume does not notify the operating system that the file system residing on it has been destroyed.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-57
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — See how LVs are deleted.
Details — Explain how LVs are removed and deleted from the system.
Additional information — Before an LV can be removed, the LV_STATE must be closed/syncd.
For example, an LV cannot be removed if its corresponding file system is mounted.
Transition statement — Let us see how to list LVs.

9-58 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

List all logical volumes by volume group


IBM Power Systems

# lsvg -o | lsvg -i –l

datavg:
LV NAME TYPE LPs PPs PVs LV STATE MOUNT POINT
datalv jfs2 30 90 3 closed/syncd N/A
rootvg:
LV NAME TYPE LPs PPs PVs LV STATE MOUNT POINT
hd5 boot 2 2 1 closed/syncd N/A
hd6 paging 32 32 1 open/syncd N/A
hd8 jfs2log 1 1 1 open/syncd N/A
hd4 jfs2 15 15 1 open/syncd /
hd2 jfs2 177 177 1 open/syncd /usr
hd9var jfs2 26 26 1 open/syncd /var
hd3 jfs2 8 8 1 open/syncd /tmp
hd1 jfs2 1 1 1 open/syncd /home
hd10opt jfs2 20 20 1 open/syncd /opt
loglv00 jfs2log 1 1 1 closed/syncd N/A
fslv00 jfs2 2 2 1 closed/syncd /db2
hd11admin jfs2 8 8 1 open/syncd /admin
livedump jfs2 16 16 1 open/syncd
/var/adm/ras/livedump

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-25. List all logical volumes by volume group AN14G5.0

Notes:
From the smit lv fast path, the List all Logical Volumes by Volume Group option uses lsvg -o
to find out the active volume groups, and then lsvg -il to list the logical volumes within them. The
-i option of lsvg reads the list of volume groups from standard input.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-59
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to list all LVs by VG.
Details — Do not spend too much time going through all the attributes. The students should be
familiar with this type of output.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us end the LV section by showing how to mirror an entire VG.

9-60 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

Mirroring volume groups


IBM Power Systems

• Mirroring rootvg is important.


# smit mirrorvg mirrorvg rootvg hdisk1
Mirror a Volume Group Can be used to
mirror any VG
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* VOLUME GROUP name rootvg
Mirror sync mode [Foreground] +
PHYSICAL VOLUME names [hdisk1] +
Number of COPIES of each logical 2 +
partition
Keep Quorum Checking On? no +
Create Exact LV Mapping? no +

# bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk1
Extra steps are
required for
# bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1
rootvg

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-26. Mirroring volume groups AN14G5.0

Notes:
The mirrorvg command takes all the logical volumes on a given volume group and mirrors those
logical volumes. This same functions can also be accomplished manually if you run the mklvcopy
command for each individual logical volume in a volume group. As with mklvcopy, the target
physical drives to be mirrored with data, must already be members of the volume group.
When mirrorvg is run, the default behavior of the command requires that the synchronization of
the mirrors must complete before the command returns to the user. If you want to avoid the delay,
use the –S (background Sync) or -s (disable sync) option. The default value of two copies is
always used.
If there are only two disks in the volume group to be mirrored, Keep Quorum Checking On should be
set to no. Otherwise, if a disk were to fail, the entire volume group would go offline.
Protecting rootvg on AIX from disk failure is important. Mirroring the data is one way to achieve
this. When mirroring rootvg there are extra steps to perform:
• Create a boot image on the mirrored disk, by using the bosboot command.
• Add the newly mirrored disk to the bootlist.
• Shut down and reboot the system.
It is recommended that you use the exact mapping option (-m) to ensure that the mirror copy of the
boot logical volume (hd5) is allocated contiguous physical partitions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-61
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Show how to mirror a VG.
Details — Explain how to mirror a VG by using the example in the visual. It is critical rootvg is
protected. In order to do this, in most cases, it is mirrored. Stress the importance of the additional
steps, which must be carried out when mirroring rootvg.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us now turn our attention to PVs.

9-62 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty

Physical volumes
IBM Power Systems

Volume group
PV1 PV2

1 1 4
4
2 2 3
7 3 7 10
10 8
8 9 9
13 13 16
16 14
14 15 19 15
19 22 22
20 20 21
25 21 25 28
28 26 27
26 27 31
31 34 34
32 32 33
35 33 35
38 38
36 36 37
41 37 41 44
44 42 43
42 43 47
47 50 50
48 49 48 49

Physical partitions
• Physical volume (PV)
– A hard disk, a virtual disk, or a LUN
• Physical partition (PP)
– Smallest assignable unit of allocation on a physical disk
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-27. Physical volumes AN14G5.0

Notes:
A physical partition is a fixed size, contiguous set of bytes, on a physical volume (PV).
Physical partitions (PP) must be the same size across an entire volume group. However, there can
be multiple volume groups on a single system, each with a different PP size.
The limitations for each type of volume group (original, big, and scalable) such as the number of
physical volumes and size of the physical partitions, were given earlier in this unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-63
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Review physical volume and physical partition concepts before going into a greater
discussion on them.
Details — Simply review the basic concepts.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at what we can do with physical volumes through SMIT.

9-64 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

SMIT Physical Volumes menu


IBM Power Systems

# smit pv
Physical Volumes

Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.

List All Physical Volumes in System


Add a Disk
Change Characteristics of a Physical Volume
List Contents of a Physical Volume
Move Contents of a Physical Volume

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-28. SMIT Physical Volumes menu AN14G5.0

Notes:
This is the top-level menu for physical volume. Each of these items is discussed in the following
pages.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-65
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Define the SMIT Physical Volumes screen.
Details — At a high level, review each of the items in turn.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us first see how to list PV information.

9-66 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

List physical volume information


IBM Power Systems

• List all physical volumes in the system.


# lspv
hdisk0 00cf2e7ff02c5fc4 rootvg active
hdisk1 00cf2e7f713ca357 None
hdisk2 00cf2e7fea693331 datavg active
hdisk3 00cf2e7fea6a26e0 datavg active
hdisk4 00cf2e7fea6a3189 datavg active

• List the attributes of a PV.


# lspv hdisk3
PHYSICAL VOLUME: hdisk3 VOLUME GROUP: datavg
PV IDENTIFIER: 00cf2e7fea6a26e0
VG IDENTIFIER 00cf2e7f00004c000000011d68130bea
PV STATE: active
STALE PARTITIONS: 0 ALLOCATABLE: yes
PP SIZE: 4 megabyte(s) LOGICAL VOLUMES: 1
TOTAL PPs: 511 (2044 megabytes) VG DESCRIPTORS: 1
FREE PPs: 481 (1924 megabytes) HOT SPARE: no
USED PPs: 30 (120 megabytes) MAX REQUEST: 256K
FREE DISTRIBUTION: 103..72..102..102..102
USED DISTRIBUTION: 00..30..00..00..00
MIRROR POOL: None

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-29. List physical volume information AN14G5.0

Notes:
From the smit pv fast path, the List all Physical Volumes in System option uses the
undocumented command lspv | /usr/bin/awk {print$1}'' to list the physical volumes in the
system.
The lspv command with no parameters can be used to list the physical volume name, physical
volume identifier, and volume group for all physical volumes in the system.
The lspv pvname command gives status information about the physical volume. The most useful
information here is:
• State (active or inactive)
• Number of physical partition copies that are stale (are not up to date with other copies)
• Total number of physical partitions
• Number of free physical partitions
• Distribution of free space on the physical volume

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-67
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — List physical volume information.
Details — Review the details in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we can list logical volumes on a physical volume.

9-68 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty

List logical volumes on a physical volume


IBM Power Systems

# lspv -l hdisk0
hdisk0:
LV NAME LPs PPs DISTRIBUTION MOUNT POINT
hd2 35 35 00..00..03..20..12 /usr
hd9var 5 5 00..05..00..00..00 /var
hd8 1 1 00..00..01..00..00 N/A
hd4 15 15 00..00..15..00..00 /
hd5 1 1 01..00..00..00..00 N/A
hd6 8 8 00..08..00..00..00 N/A
hd10opt 4 4 04..00..00..00..00 /opt
hd3 3 3 00..03..00..00..00 /tmp
hd1 1 1 00..01..00..00..00 /home
hd11admin 2 2 00..02..00..00..00 /admin
fslv00 2 2 02..00..00..00..00 /db2
loglv00 1 1 00..01..00..00..00 N/A

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-30. List logical volumes on a physical volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
The lspv -l pvname command, which is shown in the visual, lists all the logical volumes on a
physical volume including the number of logical partitions, physical partitions, and distributions on
the disk.
The lspv -p pvname command, as illustrated below, lists all the logical volumes on a disk, and the
physical partitions to which its logical partitions are mapped. It is listed in physical partition order
and shows what partitions are free and, which are used, as well as the location; that is, center, outer
middle, outer edge, inner edge, and inner middle.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-69
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

# lspv -p hdisk0
hdisk0:
PP RANGE STATE REGION LV NAME TYPE MOUNT POINT
1-1 used outer edge hd5 boot N/A
2-14 free outer edge
15-16 used outer edge fslv00 jfs2 /db2
17-20 used outer edge hd10opt jfs2 /opt
21-28 used outer middle hd6 paging N/A
29-29 used outer middle loglv00 jfs2log N/A
30-31 used outer middle hd11admin jfs2 /admin
32-32 used outer middle hd1 jfs2 /home
33-35 used outer middle hd3 jfs2 /tmp
36-40 used outer middle hd9var jfs2 /var
41-41 used center hd8 jfslog N/A
42-56 used center hd4 jfs2 /
57-59 used center hd2 jfs2 /usr
60-79 used inner middle hd2 jfs2 /usr
80-91 used inner edge hd2 jfs2 /usr
92-99 free inner edge

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — List the contents of the disk by listing the logical volumes on it.
Details — Review the details in the visual.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we can move our data from one disk to another,
non-disruptively.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-71
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Add or remove a physical volume


IBM Power Systems

• To add a disk:
– Ensure that disk is on the bus or LUN zoned to the FC adapter
– Configured to AIX through configuration manager (cfgmgr)
• To remove a disk:
– Move the contents of a physical volume to another disk:
• migratepv [ -l lvname ] sourcePV targetPV ..
# migratepv -l lv02 hdisk1 hdisk6

– Free it from the volume group:


• reducevg VGname PVname
# reducevg datavg hdisk1

– Remove it from the ODM:


• rmdev -dl PVname
# rmdev –d –l hdisk1

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-31. Add or remove a physical volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
Today, almost all disks can be configured to AIX by using the configuration manager (cfgmgr).
• Preparation to remove a physical device
The migratepv command can be used to move all partitions, or partitions from a selected
logical volume, from one physical volume, to one or more other physical volumes in the same
volume group. This would be used if the physical volume is about to be taken out of service and
removed from the machine or to balance disk usage.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Discuss how to add a disk to the system, and move the contents of it from one disk to
the other.
Details — To configure disks to AIX, all one needs to do is run cfgmgr. For SCSI and SAS disk, the
drivers are already part of the BOS. For higher end IBM FC storage solutions, EMC and Hitachi
disks device driver software (including multi-pathing software), must be loaded onto the system first
before configuration.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us do some checkpoint questions.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-73
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. True or False: A logical volume can span more than one


physical volume.

2. True or False: A logical volume can span more than one


volume group.

3. True or False: The contents of a physical volume can be


divided between two volume groups.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-32. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

9-74 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. True or False: A logical volume can span more than one


physical volume.
The answer is true.

2. True or False: A logical volume can span more than one


volume group.
The answer is false.

3. True or False: The contents of a physical volume can be


divided between two volume groups.
The answer is false.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-75
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

Working with Logical


Volume Manager

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-33. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

9-76 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-77
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Explain how to work with the Logical Volume Manager
• Add, change, and delete:
– Volume groups
– Logical volumes
– Physical volumes
• Describe logical volume definition options
• Mirror the rootvg
• Migrate data between disks in a volume group

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 9-34. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

9-78 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 9. Working with Logical Volume Manager 9-79
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

9-80 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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V10.1
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Uempty
Unit 10. File systems administration

Estimated time
01:05

What this unit is about


This unit covers important concepts and procedures that are related to AIX
file systems.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Identify the components of an AIX file system
• Work with enhanced journaled file systems
- Add, list, change, and delete
• Manage file system growth and control growing files

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Operating System and Device
Management
AIX Version 7.1 File Reference
SG24-5432 AIX Logical Volume Manager, from A to Z: Introduction and
Concepts (Redbooks)
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245432.html
Note: References listed as online are available through the IBM Knowledge
Center at the following address:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_aix_71/com.ibm.aix.b
ase/kc_welcome_71.htm

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-1
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Identify the components of an AIX file system
• Work with enhanced journaled file systems
– Add, list, change, and delete
• Manage file system growth and control growing files

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

10-2 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Cover objectives of the unit.
Details — After completing this topic, students should be able to:
• Identify the components of an AIX file system
• Work with enhanced Journaled file systems
- Add, list, change, and delete
• Manage file system growth and control growing files
Additional information — JFS2 will be the main focus of this unit.
Transition statement — Let us start by providing an overview of journaled file systems.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-3
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Journaled file system support in AIX


IBM Power Systems

• Two types are supported:


– Journaled file system (JFS)
– Enhanced JFS, commonly referred to as JFS2
• JFS is the original AIX file system.
• Enhanced JFS (JFS2) was introduced in AIX 5.1 and is now
the default file system.
• Journaling:
– Before writing actual data, a journaling file system logs the metadata to
a circular JFS log on disk.
– When an OS crash occurs, journaling restores consistency by
processing the information in the JFS log file.
• There is no easy migration path from JFS to JFS2.
– Conversion can be achieved only through backup and restore.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-2. Journaled file system support in AIX AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Journaled file systems (JFS)
JFS was developed for transaction-oriented, high performance Power Systems. JFS is both
saleable and robust. One of the key features of the file system is logging. JFS is a recoverable
file system, which ensures that if the system fails during power outage, or system crash, no file
system transactions are left in an inconsistent state.
• Migration
JFS file systems can co-exist on the same system with JFS2 file systems. However, to fully
utilize the JFS2 features, the following steps are necessary:
1. Back up JFS file system data.
2. Create new JFS2 file systems.
3. Restore JFS file system data to new JFS2 file systems.

10-4 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Provide an introduction to JFS.
Details — Introduce JFS file systems.
Go through the basic introduction points in the visual. Students might wonder what a journaled file
system is as opposed to a regular file system. Provide an overview of journaling. Point out that only
the file system metadata is journaled to a JFS log on disk.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us address the advantages of JFS2.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-5
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Advantages of enhanced JFS


IBM Power Systems

• Increased performance
• Increased flexibility:
– File system can be dynamically increased and decreased
– Support for larger enabled file systems
– Internal or external JFS logging
– Data encryption
– Support for snapshots

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-3. Advantages of enhanced JFS AN14G5.0

Notes:
JFS2 is the default file system type on AIX, since version 5.3. JFS2 provides increased performance
and flexibility when compared to its predecessor, JFS. JFS file systems have the following restrictions:
• Cannot be dynamically decreased in size.
• Can support large files, greater than 2 GB, only if created in a special large file enabled file system:
- Individual file size can be up to 64 GB with JFS as opposed to 16 TB with JFS2.
- The use of fixed sized extents (128 KB in large file enabled) required more pointers to the
extents than can be supported (in files greater than 16 TB). In contrast, JFS2 uses variable
sized extents that (if there are enough contiguous blocks) massively reduce the number of
pointers that are needed to locate the data.
• Have performance problems when executing directory operations (add file, remove file, and
locate file) on very large directories, due to the sequential nature of the directory data file. In
contrast, the JFS2 file system uses a binary tree to manage the directory and is thus much more
scalable. As much as a 40 fold performance improvement has been seen with some large
directory applications.
• Support only external JFS logging.
• Have no support for data encryption or snapshots. A snapshot is a point-in-time image, like a
photograph, of a JFS2 file system.

10-6 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Highlight the JFS2 advantages over regular JFS.
Details — Using the visual and notes, provide an overview of the advantages of JFS2 over JFS.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us see how we can examine the metadata for a file system and for the
files within the file system.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-7
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Listing i-node and block size information


IBM Power Systems

• To view i-node information:


# ls -li
total 3
12309 -rw-r----- 1 adminusr security 119 25 May 19:23 datafile1
12307 -rwxr----- 1 adminusr security 254 27 Jan 18:19 .profile
12308 -rw------- 1 adminusr security 156 28 Jan 14:31 .sh_history

# istat datafile1
Inode 12309 on device 10/8 File
Protection: rw-r----- i-node
Owner: 211(adminusr) Group: 7(security) number
Link count: 1 Length 119 bytes

Last updated: Mon May 25 19:23:27 CET 2015


Last modified: Mon May 25 19:23:27 CET 2015
Last accessed: Mon May 25 19:23:23 CET 2015

• To view file system block size information:


# lsfs –cq /data
#MountPoint:Device:Vfs:Nodename:Type:Size:Options:AutoMount:Acct Block size.
/data:/dev/fslv00:jfs2:::204800:rw:no:no
(lv size 204800:fs size 204800:block size 4096
(Some output
removed for
clarity.)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-4. Listing i-node and block size information AN14G5.0

Notes:
The istat command can be used to display the i-node information for a particular file or directory.
You can specify the file either by providing a file or directory name, or by providing an i-node
number by using the –i flag. I-node numbers can be discovered by using the –i flag with the ls
command.
The file system block size information can be discovered by using the lsfs command.

10-8 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to view i-node information and block size for a particular file system.
Details — Go through the examples on the visual. While the ls command is common to all UNIX
operating systems, the istat command is unique to AIX. Focus appropriately.
Additional information — There are many ways to view file system information. The fsdb
command is the most comprehensive way to view the file system structure and data. However, this
command is beyond the scope of this class.
Transition statement — Let us look at how we can create a JFS2 file system.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-9
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Creating a JFS2 file system (1 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

# smit crfs_j2
# crfs -v jfs2 -g datavg -a size=1G –m /data

Add an Enhanced Journaled File System

[Entry Fields]
Volume group name datavg
SIZE of file system
Unit Size Gigabytes +
* Number of units [1] #
* MOUNT POINT [/data]
Mount AUTOMATICALLY at system restart? No +
PERMISSIONS read/write +
Mount OPTIONS [] +
Block Size (bytes) 4096 +
Logical Volume for Log +
Inline Log size (MBytes) [] #
Extended Attribute Format +
ENABLE Quota Management? no +
Enable EFS? no +
Allow internal snapshots? no +
Mount GROUP []

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-5. Creating a JFS2 file system (1 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
The SMIT screen in the visual shows the creation of a 1 GB file system (/data) in volume group:
datavg. The creation is done by the crfs command.
In this example, the crfs command will create a file system on a new logical volume, within a
previously created volume group. An entry for the file system is put into the /etc/filesystems file.
Data blocks
An individual file within a file system, by default, has units that are allocated to it in blocks of 4096
bytes. The file system block size can be set to 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096 bytes. A smaller block size
uses less disk space for small files, but can degrade performance. Some AIX commands often
report file sizes in units of 512 bytes to remain compatible with other UNIX file systems. This is
independent of the actual unit of allocation.
For most file systems, the default block size of 4 KB works well. For very large files, the
extent-based addressing of contiguous ranges of data blocks helps to manage the overhead costs.
But for file systems that have mostly tiny files (for example, 100-byte files), the wasted storage of
allocating a 4 KB block is unacceptable. Directories with large numbers of small files should be
placed in their own file systems, which have small blocks sizes.
For further information, see the crfs man page.

10-10 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Describe how to create a JFS2 file system.
Details — This visual shows how to create an enhanced journaled file system. The logical volume
is automatically created.
Walk through the command and the SMIT options in blue. Cover any further options at your
discretion.
Additional information — It might be prudent to provide a demonstration to students of the
high-level FS and JFS2 SMIT panels. Log in to an AIX system and briefly show them:
• smitty fs
• smitty jfs2
Transition statement — Let us see this command in action, as it would be used by a system
administrator.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-11
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Creating a JFS2 file system (2 of 2)


IBM Power Systems

• When the file system is created, the lsfs command displays


the characteristics of the file system.
# crfs -v jfs2 -g datavg -a size=1G -m /data
File system created successfully.
1048340 kilobytes total disk space.
New File System size is 2097152

# lsfs /data
Name Nodename Mount Pt VFS Size Options Auto
Accounting
/dev/fslv01 -- /data jfs2 2097152 -- no
no

# lsvg -l datavg
datavg:
LV NAME TYPE LPs PPs PVs LV STATE MOUNT POINT
loglv00 jfs2log 1 1 1 closed/syncd N/A
fslv00 jfs2 256 256 1 closed/syncd /data

JFS log automatically created, 1 LP in size


(if one does not already exist) for the VG.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-6. Creating a JFS2 file system (2 of 2) AN14G5.0

Notes:
The visual shows the actual creation of the /data file system that is shown in the previous slide.
The lsfs command can be used to display the characteristics of the file system.
Before the creation of the file system, the contents of the datavg volume group were empty. We can
see two logical volumes are created, loglv00 and fslv00. The loglv00 volume acts as the JFS log
for both the /data file system and by default any other file systems that will be created. In creating
a file system this way, the underlying logical volume is created by using default options. Often it is
preferable to first create the logical volume (by using custom values) and then create the file system
on top. We will see this procedure later in the unit.

10-12 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show the creation of a JFS2 file system, its characteristics, and the underlying logical
volumes.
Details — This visual shows the actual creation of a JFS2 file system. Explain the details that are
provided in the notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — After creating a file system, we must mount it to make it available. Let us
see this process and the associated stanza in /etc/filesystems.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-13
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Mounting a file system and the /etc/filesystems


file
IBM Power Systems

• When a file system is created, the device and mount point


information is stored in the /etc/filesystems file.
# grep -p /data /etc/filesystems
/data:
dev = /dev/fslv00
vfs = jfs2
log = /dev/loglv00
mount = false
account = false

The mount command reads the


stanza in the /etc/filesystems
file, therefore only the mount point
# mount /data is required.

# mount |egrep '/data|node'


node mounted mounted over vfs date options
/dev/fslv00 /data jfs2 13 Feb 10:32 rw,log=/dev/loglv00

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-7. Mounting a file system and the /etc/filesystems file AN14G5.0

Notes:
Upon creation of a file system, a stanza is appended to the /etc/filesystems file. The stanza
includes:
• The device (dev), which is the underlying logical volume
• The virtual file system type (vfs)
• The path to the JFS log device (log)
• Whether the file system should be mounted at system start time (mount) and processed by the
AIX accounting system (account)
Before the file system can be used, it must first be mounted, by using the mount command. As there
is a stanza in the /etc/filesystems file, the only parameter that is required is the name of the file
system. The mount command with no options, will display all file systems that are currently
mounted and available for use.

10-14 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to make a file system available for use.
Details — Explain the stanza in the /etc/filesystems file for the /data file system, and how the
file system is mounted.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us define the JFS logging options for JFS2 file systems.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

JFS2 logging options


IBM Power Systems

• For JFS2 file systems, there are three logging options:


– Use the global JFS log for the volume group.
– Create a specific JFS log logical volume for each file system.
• 1 LP in size
• Format the log using the logform command
# mklv –y my_jfs2_log –t jfs2log datavg 1

# logform /dev/my_jfs2_log
logform: destroy /dev/rmy_jfs2_log (y)?y

# crfs -v jfs2 -g datavg -a size=1G -m /data -a logname=my_jfs2_log

– Create an inline log inside the file system.


• 0.4% of the file system space is reserved for this option.
# crfs -v jfs2 -g datavg -a size=1G -m /data -a logname=INLINE \
-a logsize=<value in MB>

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-8. JFS2 logging options AN14G5.0

Notes:
As we saw by default, a JFS log file is created when the first file system is created in a volume
group. This JFS log acts as the global logging device for all file systems, unless:
• A specific external log is created for each file system in the volume group. This approach has
several advantages. It will aide performance and availability. If the logging device were to
become corrupted, it would affect only the associated file system.
• The JFS log device is internal to the file system (inline). This saves time to create, format, and
manage a separate JFS log volume. Inline logging is only available with JFS2 file systems.

10-16 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain the three JFS logging options for JFS2 file systems.
Details — Go through the examples in the visual and details in the notes. You might want to go
back to the create file system SMIT screen, and highlight the JFS logging fields.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now let us look at creating a JFS2 file system on top of an existing LV.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Creating a file system on a previously defined


logical volume
IBM Power Systems

# smit crfs_j2
# crfs -v jfs2 –d lv_for_data –m /data2 –A yes

Add an Enhanced Journaled File System

[Entry Fields]
* LOGICAL VOLUME name lv_for_data +
* MOUNT POINT [/data2]
Mount AUTOMATICALLY at system restart? yes +
PERMISSIONS read/write +
Mount OPTIONS [] +
Block Size (bytes) 4096 +
Logical Volume for Log +
Inline Log size (MBytes) [] #
Extended Attribute Format +
ENABLE Quota Management? no +
Enable EFS? no +
Allow internal snapshots? No +
Mount GROUP []

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-9. Creating a file system on a previously defined logical volume AN14G5.0

Notes:
Adding a file system to a previously created logical volume provides greater control over where the
file system resides on disk and provides options for availability and performance. When creating file
systems in highly available environments (for example, by using PowerHA or Veritas Cluster
Services), one should always follow this method. On creation, the size of the file system is set to the
size of the logical volume. For example, if the PP size for the volume group is 64 MB, and the
logical volume was 4 LPs in size, then the size of the file system would be (4 x 64 MB) 256 MB.
After the file system is created:
• If the logical volume is expanded, the size of the file system is not increased.
• The underlying logical volume policies can be dynamically changed. However, there will be a
performance hit, especially for large file systems.

10-18 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to add a JFS2 file system on an existing logical volume.
Details — This visual shows the SMIT menu for creating a standard enhanced journaled file
system on a previously defined logical volume.
Walk through the command and the SMIT options in blue. Cover any further options at your
discretion.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now that we can create and mount file systems, let us see how we can
both increase and shrink a file system size.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-19
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Changing the size of a JFS2 file system


IBM Power Systems

• To increase the size of a file system:


# chfs -a size=+1G /data2
Filesystem size changed to 2179072

• To shrink the size of a file system:


# chfs -a size=-500M /data2
Filesystem size changed to 1155072

• Using SMIT: # smit chjfs2


Change / Show Characteristics of an Enhanced Journaled File System

[Entry Fields]
File system name /data2
NEW mount point [/data2]
SIZE of file system
Unit Size Gigabytes +
Number of units [10] #

Note: Advanced options are removed.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-10. Changing the size of a JFS2 file system AN14G5.0

Notes:
JFS2 file systems can be dynamically increased or decreased in size (subject to available space
and LVM rules). You can either choose to increase or decrease by a set amount, by using + or –
options respectively, or by providing a specific set number, as shown in the SMIT example.

10-20 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Show how to dynamically increase and shrink a JFS2 file system.
Details — Refer to the visual and student notes.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Now that we looked at creating and modifying our file systems, let us look
at how we remove them.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Removing a JFS2 file system


IBM Power Systems

• The file system must be unmounted first.

• Using SMIT: # smit rmfs2 # rmfs /data2

Remove an Enhanced Journaled File System

[Entry Fields]
* FILE SYSTEM name /data2 +
Remove Mount Point no +

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-11. Removing a JFS2 file system AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Ways to remove a file system
The rmfs command or SMIT can be used to remove a file system.
• Restrictions
To remove a file system, it must be unmounted from the overall file tree. And this cannot be
done if the file system is in use. This means when some user or process is using the file system
or has it as a current directory, you cannot unmount the file system.
• Effects of using rmfs command
The rmfs command removes any information for the file system from the ODM and
/etc/filesystems. When the file system is removed, the logical volume on which it resides is
also removed.
• Syntax
The syntax of the rmfs command is:
rmfs [-r] [-i] FileSystem
- -r removes the mount point of the file system.
- -i displays warning and prompts the user before removing the file system.

10-22 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Explain how to remove a file system.
Details — This operation is supported through SMIT. You can specify removal of the mount point
(the directory) as well. However, this is only possible if the directory is empty.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us talk about file system space management issues.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-23
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

File system space management


IBM Power Systems

• File system expand upon notice, not automatically.


• To keep from running into problems, use AIX Tools:
– Monitor file system growth df –m and du commands
– Determine causes your knowledge and skill
– Increase file system size chfs –a size=+1 /myfs
– Control user disk usage disk quota system
– Change the block size backup, rmfs, kfs, restore
– Control growing files, remove trash files, run skulker, do manual
cleanup
• Security logs
– /var/adm/sulog, /var/adm/wtmp, /etc/security/failedlogin
• Print subsystem spooling and cron logs (/var/adm)
• Management tool logs in home directory (smit.log, smit.script)

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-12. File system space management AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Useful df command flags
A number of flags (options) can be used with the df command. Some of the most useful of
these flags are shown below:
-i Displays the number of free and used i-nodes for the file system; this output is the
default when the specified file system is mounted.
-I Displays information on the total number of blocks, the used space, the free space, the
percentage of used space, and the mount point for the file system.
-k Displays statistics in units of 1024-byte blocks.
-m Displays statistics in units of MB blocks.
-g Displays statistics in units of GB blocks.
• Specifying the units du should use
By default, du gives size information in 512-byte blocks. Use the -k option to display sizes in 1
KB units, use the -m option to display sizes in 1 MB units, or use the -g option to display sizes in
1 GB units.

10-24 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty • Specifying du output by file


By default, du gives information by directory. With the -a option, output is displayed by file,
rather than by directory.
• The du -x flag
The -x flag/option is also useful. When you use du -ax, the report shows information only from
the specified file system. This is the best way to determine what file is filling a particular file
system.
• Managing files that grow
Growing files should be monitored and cleaned out periodically. Some of the files that grow are
listed on the visual.
• Records of login activity
The files /var/adm/wtmp, /etc/security/failedlogin, and /var/adm/sulog are needed
because they contain historical data regarding login activity. Thus, these files should always
contain a few days of login activity. If accounting is turned on, /var/adm/wtmp is kept to a
reasonable size. If accounting is not turned on, to capture the data to archive it, use who -a on
/var/adm/wtmp and /etc/security/failedlogin and redirect the output to a save file. Then,
the log file can be purged by overwriting it with a null string. Two ways of overwriting a log file in
this way are illustrated in the following examples:
- Example 1:
# cat /dev/null > /var/adm/wtmp
- Example 2:
# > /etc/security/failedlogin
The file /var/adm/sulog can be edited directly.
• The /var/spool directory
The directory /var/spool contains cron entries, the mail, and other items that grow on an
ongoing basis, along with printer files. If there is a problem with the printer files, you can try to
clear the queuing subsystem by running the following commands:
# stopsrc -s qdaemon
# rm /var/spool/lpd/qdir/*
# rm /var/spool/lpd/stat/*
# rm /var/spool/qdaemon/*
# startsrc -s qdaemon
• Records of SMIT activity
Files such as smit.log in the home directory of the root user, and other system administration
accounts, can also become large. This file needs to be monitored regularly and managed
appropriately.
• Function of the skulker command
The shell script /usr/sbin/skulker includes a series of entries that contain commands that
remove unwanted or obsolete files of various types. To analyze the commands that are
executed by each entry, print out or view the contents of the /usr/sbin/skulker file.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-25
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Discuss management of file system usage in AIX.
Details — Keep this sweet and short.
The students should already be familiar with storage management. The df, du, find, and skulker
commands are all standard to a UNIX operating system, as is the disk quota system. Just assure
the students that the same tools are available in AIX as they are used to. While the commands are
the same, the flags are not. For example, Solaris has a -h flag, which gives the output in “human
readable” form. This dynamically selects the unit to use and appends a K or M or G as to
communicate the unit that is used. AIX has a -g flag to select GBs as the unit, in addition to the
more common -k and -m flags.
They already have been taught about the ability to dynamically increase and decrease an
enhanced journaled file system.
And we already discussed the desirability of a small block size when the files are all small.
Changing the block size is non-trivial, given that it can be specified only when first defining the file
system.
Additional information —
Transition statement — It's time for a checkpoint.

10-26 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


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without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty

Checkpoint
IBM Power Systems

1. What command displays the i-node information for a file?

2. Does the size of the file system change when the size of the
logical volume it is on is increased?

3. If you remove a file system, is the logical volume on which it


sits removed as well?

4. A file system is 2 GB. How would you do the following?


a. Add 1 GB.
b. Set the size to 5 GB.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-13. Checkpoint AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-27
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —

Checkpoint solutions
IBM Power Systems

1. What command displays the i-node information for a file?


The answer is istat.

2. Does the size of the file system change when the size of the logical volume it
is on is increased?
The answer is no.

3. If you remove a file system, is the logical volume on which it sits removed as
well?
The answer is yes.

4. A file system is 2 GB. How would you do the following?


a. Add 1 GB: The answer is chfs –a size=+1G <file system>
b. Set the size to 5 GB: The answer is chfs –a size=5G <file system>
The answers are chfs –a size=+1G<file system> and chfs –a
size=+5G<file system>.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Exercise
IBM Power Systems

File systems
administration

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-14. Exercise AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-29
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Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement —

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Uempty

Unit summary
IBM Power Systems

Having completed this unit, you should be able to:


• Identify the components of an AIX file system
• Work with enhanced journaled file systems
– Add, list, change, and delete
• Manage file system growth and control growing files

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 10-15. Unit summary AN14G5.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 10. File systems administration 10-31
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose —
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — End of unit.

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Uempty
Unit 11. The Object Data Manager

Estimated time
00:45

What this unit is about


This unit describes the structure of the Object Data Manager (ODM). It
shows the use of the ODM command-line interface and explains the role of
the ODM in device configuration. Specific information regarding the function
and content of the most important ODM files is also presented.

What you should be able to do


After completing this unit, you should be able to:
• Describe the structure of the ODM
• Use the ODM command-line interface
• Explain the role of the ODM in device configuration
• Describe the function of the most important ODM files

How you will check your progress


Accountability:
• Checkpoint questions
• Exercise

References
Online AIX Version 7.1 Command Reference volumes 1-6
Online AIX Version 7.1 General Programming Concepts: Writing
and Debugging Programs
Online AIX Version 7.1 Technical Reference: Kernel and
Subsystems
Note: References listed as online are available through the IBM Knowledge
Center at the following address: http://ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-1
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Unit objectives
IBM Power Systems

After completing this unit, you should be able to:


• Describe the structure of the ODM
• Use the ODM command line interface
• Explain the role of the ODM in device configuration
• Describe the function of the most important ODM files

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-1. Unit objectives AN14G5.0

Notes:

Importance of this unit


The ODM is a important component of AIX and is one major feature that distinguishes AIX from
other UNIX systems. This unit describes the structure of the ODM and explains how you can work
with ODM files by using the ODM command-line interface.
It is also important that you, as an AIX system administrator, understand the role of the ODM during
device configuration. Thus, explaining the role of the ODM in this process is another major objective
of this unit.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Present the objectives of this unit.
Details — Explain that a good understanding of the ODM is important and can help in analyzing
problems. Point out that the ODM is mainly used for device configuration and that this is a major
focus in this unit.
Additional information — None.
Transition statement — Let us start looking at how the ODM database is used.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-3
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Instructor Guide

Data managed by the ODM


IBM Power Systems

Devices Software

System
SMIT menus
Resource ODM and panels
Controller

TCP/IP Error Log,


NIM
configuration Dump

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-2. Data managed by the ODM AN14G5.0

Notes:

Overview
There are many components in the AIX operating systems that use the ODM database to hold
configuration information. Some examples are: device configuration, installed software state and
relationships, SRC subsystem and group definitions, SMIT menu and dialog panel definitions,
TCP/IP object definitions, parameters for managing the AIX error log and the AIX dump facility, and
the NIM objects.
But not all configuration information is kept in the ODM. For example, the configuration information
for file systems is kept in a flat stanza-oriented file that is called /etc/filesystems and users are
defined in /etc/passwd. Shown here are some of the facilities that use the ODM database.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Introduce the use of the ODM database.
Details — While the detailed discussion of the ODM database is not until much later in the course,
it is difficult to avoid references to the ODM in the earlier material. No need to go into much detail
here. Just the basic idea that the ODM acts as a central repository for much of the system
configuration information.
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let’s look at the structure of the ODM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-5
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Instructor Guide

ODM components
IBM Power Systems

uniquetype attribute deflt values

tape/scsi/scsd block_size none 0-2147483648,1

disk/scsi/osdisk pvid none

tty/rs232/tty login disable enable, disable, ...

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-3. ODM components AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Completing the drawing on the visual
The drawing on the visual above identifies the basic components of ODM, but some terms were
intentionally omitted from the drawing. Your instructor will complete this drawing during the
lecture. Complete your own copy of the drawing by writing in the terms that are supplied by your
instructor.
• ODM data format
For security reasons, the ODM data is stored in binary format. To work with ODM files, you must
use the ODM command-line interface. It is not possible to update ODM files with an editor.

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Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Define the basic components of ODM.
Details — Complete the visual during the lesson. ODM components are:
• Object Classes
The ODM consists of many database files, where each file is called an object class.
• Objects
Each object class consists of objects. Each object is one record in an object class.
• Descriptors
The descriptors describe the layout of the objects. They determine the name and data type of
the fields that are part of the object class.
Additional information — This visual shows an extraction out of the ODM class PdAt. Do not
explain the meaning of PdAt or the different fields on this page. Concentrate on the components of
the ODM.
Transition statement — It is also important to understand how the terms predefined device
information and customized device information are used when discussing the ODM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-7
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Instructor Guide

Configuration manager
IBM Power Systems

Predefined Plug and Play


PdDv

PdAt

PdCn

Config_Rules
cfgmgr

Customized Methods
CuDv Define
Device Load
CuAt Configure
Driver
CuDep Change

CuDvDr Unload Unconfigure

CuVPD Undefine
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-4. Configuration manager AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Predefined and Customized device object classes
The Predefined object classes hold information about supported devices. The objects in these
object classes are created when you install the file set that contains support for a particular type
of device. The Predefined device objects hold such important information as the device drivers
and default attributes to use with that device. Without Predefined objects for a new device, AIX
cannot configure that device when it discovers it as connected to the system.
The Customized object classes hold information about specific devices that either are attached
or were attached to the system at some time before. These devices are considered defined
(and possibly available). It knows details about that specific device such as exactly how it is
attached to the system and the current state of the device.
• Roles of cfgmgr and Config_Rules
When an AIX system boots, the Configuration Manager (cfgmgr) is responsible for locating
attached devices and configuring those devices. If the device does not yet have matching
objects in the Customized object classes, cfgmgr creates the needed objects and configures
the device with a state of available. If the device already has matching objects in the

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Uempty Customized object classes, then the device state is configured and set to a state of available.
For devices with matching objects in the Customized object classes, but that are not current
found on any of the buses, their state is set to defined (not available).
The method for configuring a device differs from one device type to another. The cfgmgr
command knows which method to use by examining the methods that are identified in the
Predefined device object class.
There is one ODM object class, which the cfgmgr uses to determine the type of devices to
search for and correct sequence in which to search for them: Config_Rules. This ODM object
class also contains information about various methods files that are used for device
management.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-9
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Review predefined and customized database concepts and describe the operation of
cfgmgr and its interaction with the ODM.
Details — Explain how the plug and play gets added.
Additional information — Try entering the command odmget Config_Rules to find out more
about the content of this object class. Note the frequent references to the directories /etc/methods
and /usr/lib/methods. (Although we have not discussed the odmget command yet, you can use
the command odmget Config_Rules (as a sort of preview) and point out the references to the two
directories as a demonstration.)
Transition statement — Let us look at the four basic device-related object classes.

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Uempty

Basic device object classes


IBM Power Systems

PdDv:
type = “scsd" CuDv:
class = "tape" name = “rmt0"
subclass = "scsi" status = 1
prefix = "rmt" chgstatus = 2
... ddins = “tape"
DvDr = "tape" location = "01-08-01-8,0"
Define = "/etc/methods/define"
Configure = parent = "scsi1"
"/etc/methods/cfgsctape" connwhere = "8,0"
Change = "/etc/methods/chggen" PdDvLn = “tape/scsi/scsd"
Unconfigure =
"/etc/methods/ucfgdevice"
Undefine = "etc/methods/undefine"
...
uniquetype = "tape/scsi/scsd"

PdAt: CuAt:
uniquetype = "tape/scsi/scsd" name = “rmt0"
attribute = "block_size" attribute = “block_size"
deflt = "" value = “32768"
values = "0-2147483648,1" ...
...

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-5. Basic device object classes AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Introduction
Being familiar with the descriptors of the various object class is useful in two ways.
- It helps in understanding the basic roles and relationships of the objects.
- It helps in fixing uncommonly difficult ODM corruption problems.
The second justification is a rare situation and it is recommended that you try to manually patch
the ODM only under the guidance of the AIX Support staff.
The first justification is what we focus on. The examples in the visual show only selected object
descriptors. We emphasize a few main concepts that are illustrated by these object descriptors.
• Finding the key
The ODM as a database has no built in concept of a key field or object uniqueness for an object
class. The ODM commands that we cover later can qualify an operation (restrict which objects it
matches) by using any descriptor and the ODM allows you to add objects that we would
consider duplicates. It is the AIX high-level utilities and commands, which use the ODM, that
decides whether a given descriptor should be treated as a key to the object class.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-11
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without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

For the Predefined Device (PdDv) object class, the device management software treats the
type, class, and subclass descriptors (together) as a key to that object class. This combination
of descriptors is so heavily used that they are restated as the uniquetype descriptor.
AIX uses the Customized Device (CuDv) name descriptor as the unique identifier of a CuDv
object.
When AIX needs to relate an attached device (in the CuDv object class) to the PdDv entry (in
order to know the device driver, configuration methods, and more), it must provide the
uniquetype descriptor value that uniquely identifies the PdDv object. In the CuDv object class,
the descriptor that holds this value is the PdDvLn descriptor. The PdAt object class has its own
uniquetype descriptor to refer back to the PdDv object to which the PdAt object is related.
The Customized Attribute (CuAt) object class does not need to reference the PdDv class
directly. It only needs to identify the device for which it holds the override of the default
attributes. The name descriptor provides that reference. Note that neither the name nor the
attribute descriptor alone uniquely identify a CuAt object. In most cases the two together
uniquely identify a CuAt object, but that is not true in all cases. We will see a case where name
and attribute together are not unique when we later examine disks in a volume group.
• Customized device location
Traditionally, the CuDv location descriptor would have an AIX location code that can uniquely
identify where a device was located. With virtualization, many devices no longer have AIX
location codes and thus that descriptor usually has a null value. But all devices can be located by
knowing the location of the parent device and how to locate that device once we are at the parent
device. The parent and connwhere fields provide this information. In the example, the parent is a
SCSI adapter port and the connwhere is the SCSI ID and the LUN of the device on the SCSI bus.
• Object class details
The details below are here just for the reference of those who enjoy mastering such technical
details.
• The Predefined Devices (PdDv) object class
The Predefined Devices (PdDv) object class contains entries for all devices that are supported
by the system. A device that is not part of this ODM class cannot be configured on an AIX
system. Key attributes of objects in this class are described in the following paragraphs.
- type
Specifies the product name or model number, for example, 8 mm (tape).
- class
Specifies the functional class name. A functional class is a group of device instances that
are sharing the same high-level function. For example, tape is a functional class name that
is representing all tape devices.
- subclass
Device classes are grouped into subclasses. The subclass scsi specifies all tape devices
that can be attached to a SCSI interface.
- prefix
Specifies the Assigned Prefix in the customized database, which is used to derive the
device instance name and /dev name. For example, rmt is the prefix name that is assigned
to tape devices. Names of tape devices would then look like rmt0, rmt1, or rmt2.

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Uempty - base
This descriptor specifies whether a device is a base device or not. A base device is any
device that forms part of a minimal base system. During system boot, a minimal base system
is configured to permit access to the root volume group (rootvg) and hence to the root file
system. This minimal base system can include, for example, a SCSI hard disk. The device
that is shown on the visual is not a base device.
This flag is also used by the bosboot and savebase commands, which are introduced later
in this course.
- detectable
Specifies whether the device instance is detectable or undetectable. A device whose
presence and type can be determined by the cfgmgr. Once it is powered on and attached to
the system, is said to be detectable. A value of 1 means that the device is detectable, and a
value of 0 that it is not (for example, a printer or tty).
- led
Indicates the value that is displayed on the LEDs when the configure method runs. The
value that is stored is decimal, but the value that is shown on the LEDs is hexadecimal
(2418 is 972 in hex).
- setno, msgno
Each device has a specific description (for example, SCSI Tape Drive) that is shown when
the device attributes are listed by the lsdev command. These two descriptors are used to
look up the description in a message catalog.
- catalog
Identifies the file name of the national language support (NLS) catalog. The LANG variable
on a system controls which catalog file is used to show a message. For example, if LANG is
set to en_US, the catalog file /usr/lib/nls/msg/en_US/devices.cat is used. If LANG is
de_DE, catalog /usr/lib/nls/msg/de_DE/devices.cat is used.
- DvDr
Identifies the name of the device driver that is associated with the device (for example,
tape). Usually, device drivers are stored in directory /usr/lib/drivers. Device drivers are
loaded into the AIX kernel when a device is made available.
- Define
Names the define method that is associated with the device type. This program is called
when a device is brought into the defined state.
- Configure
Names the configure method that is associated with the device type. This program is called
when a device is brought into the available state.
- Change
Names the change method that is associated with the device type. This program is called
when a device attribute is changed through the chdev command.
- Unconfigure
Names the unconfigure method that is associated with the device type. This program is
called when a device is unconfigured by rmdev -l.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-13
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- Undefine
Names the undefine method that is associated with the device type. This program is called
when a device is undefined by rmdev -l -d.
- Start, stop
Few devices support a stopped state (only logical devices). A stopped state means that the
device driver is loaded, but no application can access the device. These two attributes name
the methods to start or stop a device.
- uniquetype
This is a key that is referenced by other object classes. Objects use this descriptor as
pointer back to the device description in PdDv. The key is a concatenation of the class,
subclass, and type values.
• The Customized Devices (CuDv) object class
The Customized Devices (CuDv) object class contains entries for all device instances that are
defined in the system. As the name implies, a defined device object is an object that a define
method has created in the CuDv object class. A defined device object might or might not have a
corresponding actual device that is attached to the system.
The CuDv object class contains objects that provide device and connection information for each
device. Each device is distinguished by a unique logical name. The customized database is
updated twice, during system bootup and at run time, to define new devices, remove undefined
devices and update the information for a device that has changed.
The key descriptors in CuDv are described in the next few paragraphs.
- name
A customized device object for a device instance is assigned a unique logical name to
distinguish the device from other devices. The visual shows one device, a tape device rmt0.
- status
Identifies the status of the device instance. Possible values are:
• status = 0 - Defined
• status = 1 - Available
• status = 2 - Stopped
- chgstatus
This flag tells whether the device instance has been altered since the last system boot. The
diagnostics facility uses this flag to validate system configuration. The flag can take these
values:
• chgstatus = 0 - New device
• chgstatus = 1 - Do not care
• chgstatus = 2 - Same
• chgstatus = 3 - Device is missing
- ddins
This descriptor typically contains the same value as the Device Driver Name descriptor in
the Predefined Devices (PdDv) object class. It specifies the name of the device driver that
is loaded into the AIX kernel.

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Uempty - location
Identifies the AIX location of a device. The location code is a path from the system unit
through the adapter to the device. In case of a hardware problem, the location code is used
by technical support to identify a failing device.
- parent
Identifies the logical name of the parent device. For example, the parent device of rmt0 is
scsi1.
- connwhere
Identifies the specific location on the parent device where the device is connected. For
example, the device rmt0 uses the SCSI address 8,0.
- PdDvLn
Provides a link to the device instance's predefined information through the uniquetype
descriptor in the PdDv object class.
• The Predefined Attribute (PdAt) object class
The Predefined Attribute (PdAt) object class contains an entry for each existing attribute for each
device that is represented in the PdDv object class. An attribute is any device-dependent
information, such as interrupt levels, bus I/O address ranges, baud rates, parity settings, or
block sizes.
The extract out of PdAt that is given on the visual shows one attribute (block size) and the
range of possible values.
The meanings of the key fields that are shown on the visual are described in the paragraphs
that follow.
- uniquetype
This descriptor is used as a pointer back to the device defined in the PdDv object class.
- attribute
Identifies the name of the attribute. This is the name that can be passed to the mkdev or
chdev command. For example, to change the default name of dumb to ibm3151 for tty0,
you can run the following command:
# chdev -l tty0 -a term=ibm3151
- deflt
Identifies the default value for an attribute. Nondefault values are stored in CuAt.
- values
Identifies possible values that can be associated with the attribute name. For example, allowed
values for the block_size attribute range from 0 to 2147483648, with an increment of 1.
• The Customized Attribute (CuAt) object class
The Customized Attribute (CuAt) object class contains customized device-specific attribute
information.
Devices that are represented in the Customized Devices (CuDv) object class have attributes
that are found in the Predefined Attribute (PdAt) object class and the CuAt object class. There
is an entry in the CuAt object class for attributes that take customized values. Attributes taking
the default value are found in the PdAt object class. Each entry describes the current value of
the attribute.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-15
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Explain the basic structure and use of the four device-related object classes.
Details — Do not explain all shown descriptors from the visual. Provide a basic description of the
purpose and use of each object class. Concentrate on explaining descriptors that are focused on in
the notes. Mainly, the descriptors that can act as key fields and that relate one object to another.
Also, cover descriptors, which in combination, provide the location of a device.
Additional information — The value chgstatus=2 means that the state of hdisk2 has not
changed since last boot. The value chgstatus=1 would mean that the state of this device can not
be determined by the cfgmgr. (for example when dealing with a device that is attached by using a
serial or parallel port).
Ask students if anybody has seen the following message during system boot: A previously
defined device could not be detected. Explain that this message is caused by a device that is
defined in CuDv but is not physically present. For this device, the value of chgstatus is 3.
Transition statement — Let us look at an example of how the predefined object classes are used
to support the customized object classes.

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Uempty

How ODM classes act together


IBM Power Systems

# cfgmgr

PdDv: CuDv:
type = "14106902" name = "ent1"
class = "adapter" status = 1
subclass = "pci" chgstatus = 2
prefix = "ent" ddins = "pci/goentdd"
... location = "02-08"
DvDr = "pci/goentdd" parent = "pci2"
Define = /usr/lib/methods/define_rspc" connwhere = "8“
Configure = "/usr/lib/methods/cfggoent" PdDvLn = "adapter/pci/14106902"
...
uniquetype = "adapter/pci/14106902"

# chdev -l ent1 -a jumbo_frames=yes

PdAt: CuAt:
uniquetype = "adapter/pci/14106902" name = "ent1"
attribute = "jumbo_frames" attribute = "jumbo_frames"
deflt = "no" value = "yes"
values = "yes,no" type = "R"
... ...

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-6. How ODM classes act together AN14G5.0

Notes:

Interaction of ODM device classes


The visual and the notes summarize how ODM classes act together.
• For a particular device to be defined in AIX, the device type must be predefined in ODM class
PdDv.
• A device is defined with either the cfgmgr (if the device is detectable), or by the mkdev
command. Both commands use the define method to generate an instance in ODM class CuDv.
The configure method is used to load a specific device driver and to generate an entry in the
/dev directory.
Notice the link PdDvLn from CuDv back to PdDv.
• Default attribute values are only in PdAt which, in the example of a gigabit Ethernet adapter,
means you might not use jumbo frames (default is no). If you change the attributes, for example,
jumbo_frames to yes, you get an object with the nondefault value in CuAt.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-17
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

Instructor notes:
Purpose — Summarize how the basic ODM classes interact.
Details — Explain the flow as described in student notes.
Additional information — None.
Transition statement — Before we look at the ODM intermediate-level commands, let us first look
at the high-level device commands that work with these device ODM objects.

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Uempty

ODM and high-level device commands


IBM Power Systems

• Listing objects in the Predefined and Customized classes:


– List PdDv object class:
# lsdev –P [ -c <class> | -s <subclass> | -t <type> ]

– List CuDv object class:


# lsdev –C [ -l <device name> | -c <class> | -s <subclass> | -t <type> ]

• Listing default and effective attributes:


– List default attributes from PdAt object class:
# lsattr –D –c <class> -s <subclass> -t <type> [ -a <attribute> ]
# lsattr –D –l <device name> [ -a <attribute> ]
– List an enumeration or range of acceptable attribute values:
# lsattr –R –l <device name> -a <attribute name>

– List effective attributes (PdAt and overrides in CuAt):


# lsattr –E –l <device name> [ -a <attribute> ]

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-7. ODM and high-level device commands AN14G5.0

Notes:
Most of the time, information in the ODM device database is accessed and managed by using
high-level commands. Understanding the object classes and their roles helps using these
commands.
The lsdev command has options that control which ODM object class you list.
To see the objects in the Predefined Device (PdDv) object class, use the -P flag. If you want to
control the output, you can optionally qualify the command with any combination of the three key
descriptors: class, subclass, and type.
To see objects in the Customized Device (CuDv) object class, use the -C flag. To control the output,
you can either specify a particular device (by using its logical device name) or you can use any
combination of the PdDv object class key descriptors.
Here is an example of specifying a particular device:
# lsdev -l hdisk0

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-19
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
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Instructor Guide

The most common PdDv descriptor qualification is the class. Thus, it is common to enter
commands, such as:
# lsdev -Cc disk
# lsdev -Cc adapter
The lsattr command, also, has options that control which ODM object classes it uses.
To see the default attribute values, which are stored in the Predefined Attributes (PdAt) object class,
use the -D flag. You must uniquely identify the object by either:
• Specifying the class, subclass, and type for the object.
• Specifying the logical device name of a customized device that is related to the PdAt object.
The effective attributes are either the attributes in the Customized Attributes (CuAt) object class for
the specified device, or (if there is no value is specified in the CuAt) the default attribute value from
the related PdAt object. You must specify a particular device by providing the logical device name of
that device.
When using the chdev command to modify an attribute value, the command logic does not allow
you to enter what it considers unacceptable values. It knows what is allowed by examining the
value descriptor for the attribute in the PdAt object class. If you get an exception message when
you attempt to set an attribute value, it is useful to know what is acceptable. This information is
displayed by the lsattr command when using the -R (range) flag. The -R option requires that the
attribute name is identified in addition to the logical name of the device for which you are attempting
modify that attribute.

11-20 AIX 7 Jumpstart © Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015


Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
V10.1
Instructor Guide

Uempty Instructor notes:


Purpose — Relate the high-level device commands to the device-related ODM objects.
Details —
Additional information —
Transition statement — Let us look at the intermediate ODM commands.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009, 2015 Unit 11. The Object Data Manager 11-21
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without the prior written permission of IBM.
Instructor Guide

ODM commands
IBM Power Systems

Object class: odmcreate, odmdrop

Descriptors: odmshow

uniquetype attribute deflt values

tape/scsi/scsd block_size none 0-2147483648,1

disk/scsi/osdisk pvid none

tty/rs232/tty login disable enable, disable, ...

Objects: odmadd, odmchange, odmdelete, odmget


© Copyright IBM Corporation 2009, 2015

Figure 11-8. ODM commands AN14G5.0

Notes:
• Introduction
Different commands are available for working with each of the ODM components: object
classes, descriptors, and objects.
• Commands for working with ODM classes
1.You can