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Operating Manual

Bit Error Analyzer PF-30

BN 4526

For instrument software version 04.00...


With backlit display and lid-mounted LEDs

Order No. BN 4526/00.82


Edition 09/25.10.2002

© Copyright 2002 Acterna, LLC. All rights reserved. Acterna, The Keepers of
Communications, and its logo are trademarks of Acterna, LLC. All other
trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted electronically or otherwise
without written permission of the publisher.

Specifications, terms, and conditions are subject to change without notice. All
trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective
companies.
Contents

1. Introduction........................................................................................................................1
1.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................1
1.2 Unframed Measurements ..............................................................................................1
1.3 General Features ...........................................................................................................1
1.3.1 Autoconfigure...........................................................................................................1
1.3.2 G.821 Result Analysis..............................................................................................1
1.3.3 Histogram Result Analysis .......................................................................................2
1.3.4 Printing.....................................................................................................................2
1.3.5 Programmable Timer ...............................................................................................2
1.3.6 Remote Operation....................................................................................................2
1.3.7 Test Patterns............................................................................................................2
1.3.8 The ‘OK’ Results Page.............................................................................................3
1.4 Interfaces .......................................................................................................................3

2. Preparation for Use ...........................................................................................................5


2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................5
2.2 IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS .......................................................................5
2.2.1 Faults or damage .....................................................................................................5
2.2.2 Repairs.....................................................................................................................5
2.2.3 Spare Parts ..............................................................................................................5
2.3 Power Supplies ..............................................................................................................6
2.3.1 Battery Operation .....................................................................................................6
2.3.2 Low Battery Indication..............................................................................................6
2.3.3 Using the LNT-1 A.C. Adaptor/Charger ...................................................................6
2.3.4 Disposal of the built-in rechargeable Battery Pack ..................................................7
2.4 Switching-on ..................................................................................................................7
2.4.1 Setting the Time and Date .......................................................................................8
2.4.2 Setting the Display Contrast.....................................................................................8
2.4.3 Setting an Alternative Language ..............................................................................9

3. Operation.........................................................................................................................13
3.1 How to run Tests..........................................................................................................13
3.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................13

i
3.1.2 How to use this Section ......................................................................................... 13
3.1.3 Instrument Functions ............................................................................................. 13
3.2 Unframed Testing ........................................................................................................ 14
3.3 Unframed G.703 .......................................................................................................... 14
3.3.1 Connection ............................................................................................................ 14
3.3.2 Clock Sources ....................................................................................................... 15
3.3.3 Menu Setup ........................................................................................................... 16
3.3.4 G.821 Submenu .................................................................................................... 20
3.3.5 Running the Test ................................................................................................... 21
3.3.6 Stopping the Test and Viewing the Results ........................................................... 22
3.3.7 Autoconfiguration................................................................................................... 23
3.4 Unframed V.11 ............................................................................................................ 23
3.4.1 Connection ............................................................................................................ 24
3.4.2 Clock Sources ....................................................................................................... 25
3.4.3 Menu Setups ......................................................................................................... 25
3.4.4 Autoconfiguration................................................................................................... 26
3.4.5 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results................................................................ 26
3.5 Unframed V.24 ............................................................................................................ 26
3.5.1 Connection ............................................................................................................ 26
3.5.2 Clock Sources ....................................................................................................... 28
3.5.3 Printing Restrictions............................................................................................... 29
3.5.4 Menu Setups ......................................................................................................... 30
3.5.5 Autoconfiguration................................................................................................... 32
3.5.6 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results................................................................ 32
3.6 Unframed V.35, V.36, RS449 ...................................................................................... 32
3.6.1 Connection ............................................................................................................ 32
3.6.2 Clock Sources ....................................................................................................... 35
3.6.3 Menu Setups ......................................................................................................... 36
3.6.4 *Setup Menu 1*, synchronous transmission. ......................................................... 37
3.6.5 Autoconfiguration................................................................................................... 37
3.6.6 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results................................................................ 38

4. Operation Reference....................................................................................................... 39
4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 39

ii
4.2 Functions Available before and During a Test .............................................................39
4.2.1 Backlight Control ....................................................................................................39
4.2.2 Setting-up the Instrument.......................................................................................39
4.2.3 Starting the Test.....................................................................................................39
4.2.4 Autoconfiguration ...................................................................................................40
4.2.5 *Timer Menu* page ................................................................................................42
4.2.6 Viewing Numerical Results during a Test...............................................................43
4.2.7 Viewing Histograms during a Test .........................................................................43
4.2.8 Viewing Setup Menus during a Test ......................................................................44
4.2.9 Error Injection Facilities..........................................................................................45
4.2.10 Error Ratio Injection..............................................................................................45
4.2.11 Stopping the Test .................................................................................................46
4.2.12 Resetting the Test ................................................................................................46
4.2.13 Locking the Keyboard...........................................................................................46
4.3 Error and Alarm Indication ...........................................................................................47
4.4 Displaying the Results from a Completed Test ............................................................48
4.4.1 Histogram Results..................................................................................................48
4.4.2 Histograms from a Test with DAYS/HOURS Resolution........................................49
4.4.3 Zooming-in from DAYS to HOURS Histograms .....................................................49
4.4.4 Histograms from a Test with HOURS/MINS Resolution.........................................49
4.4.5 Zooming in from HOURS to MINS Histograms ......................................................50
4.5 Numerical Results and Histogram Storage Space .......................................................50
4.5.1 Basic Results Storage............................................................................................50
4.5.2 Additional Histogram Storage ................................................................................51
4.5.3 Shared Histogram Pool Space...............................................................................51
4.5.4 Management of Histogram Pool Space .................................................................51
4.5.5 Tests with Limited Histogram Pool Space..............................................................52
4.5.6 Recalling the Demonstration Results .....................................................................52
4.6 Saving and recalling Instrument Configurations...........................................................53
4.6.1 Using the Previous Configuration...........................................................................53
4.6.2 Using a Stored Configuration .................................................................................53
4.6.3 Storing the Instrument Configuration .....................................................................53
4.7 Saving and recalling the Results of a Test...................................................................54
4.7.1 How the Test Memories are Used..........................................................................54

iii
4.7.2 Storing the Results of a Test ................................................................................. 54
4.7.3 Locking/Unlocking a Test Memory......................................................................... 55
4.7.4 Recalling the Results of a Test .............................................................................. 55
4.8 Printing-out Results ..................................................................................................... 56
4.8.1 Manually Setting the Printer Configuration ............................................................ 56
4.8.2 Printer Auto Function ............................................................................................. 57
4.8.3 Numeric Results Printout ....................................................................................... 58
4.8.4 Histogram Results Printout .................................................................................... 58
4.8.5 Instrument Configuration Printout .......................................................................... 58
4.8.6 Autoprint ................................................................................................................ 59
4.9 Remote Operation ....................................................................................................... 59
4.9.1 Remote Operation Mode ....................................................................................... 59
4.9.2 Control Language .................................................................................................. 60
4.10 Self Test ...................................................................................................................... 61
4.10.1 Power-on Self Check ........................................................................................... 61
4.10.2 User Self Test ...................................................................................................... 61

5. Results Reference .......................................................................................................... 63


5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 63
5.2 Error and Alarm Hierarchy ........................................................................................... 63
5.2.1 Alarms ................................................................................................................... 63
5.2.2 Errors..................................................................................................................... 63
5.2.3 Definitions of alarms and errors............................................................................. 64
5.2.4 Hierarchy Diagrams ............................................................................................... 66
5.3 The *BER Results* Page ............................................................................................. 67
5.4 The *G.821 Results* Page .......................................................................................... 68
5.5 The *Alarm Results* Page ........................................................................................... 71
5.6 Histograms .................................................................................................................. 71
5.7 The ‘OK’ Results Page ................................................................................................ 72

6. Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................. 75
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 75
6.2 Blank Display............................................................................................................... 75
6.3 Unable to run a Test .................................................................................................... 75
6.4 Unable to get Printer to Operate.................................................................................. 76

iv
6.5 Test Locked .................................................................................................................77
6.6 Memory Space Limit ....................................................................................................78
6.7 Different Results obtained with other Instruments .......................................................78
6.8 Apparent Battery Failure ..............................................................................................79
6.9 Locked Keyboard .........................................................................................................79

7. Appendix A - Specifications.............................................................................................81
7.1 Generator.....................................................................................................................81
7.2 Receiver.......................................................................................................................81
7.3 Test Modes ..................................................................................................................82
7.4 General Specifications .................................................................................................82
7.5 Ordering Information ....................................................................................................85

8. Appendix B - Interface Details .........................................................................................87


8.1 Adaptor Cables ............................................................................................................87
8.1.1 V.24/RS232 Interface (Operation with Printer).......................................................87
8.1.2 V.11 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation) ..................................................................88
8.1.3 V.24/RS232 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation).......................................................88
8.1.4 V.11 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1505).................................89
8.1.5 V.24/RS232 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1512).....................89
8.1.6 V.35 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation, using Cable K 1508, K 1510 or K
1525) ...............................................................................................................................90
8.1.7 V.35 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1509, K 1511 or K
1526) ...............................................................................................................................90
8.1.8 V.36/RS449 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation, using Cable K 1506) .....................91
8.1.9 V.36/RS449 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1507).....................91
8.2 X.24/V.11 Port Usage ..................................................................................................92
8.3 V.24/RS232 Port Usage...............................................................................................92

9. Appendix C - Printers ......................................................................................................95

10. Appendix D - Glossary.....................................................................................................97

11. Appendix E - QBF Pattern Coding...................................................................................99

12. Appendix F - Electromagnetic Compatibility and Safety................................................101


12.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility....................................................................................101
12.2 Safety.........................................................................................................................101

v
vi
PF-30 Introduction

1. Introduction

1.1 Overview
The PF-30 is a multi-purpose instrument designed for commissioning, maintenance
and troubleshooting on digital networks. It is used to carry out unframed tests on
circuits operating at speeds from 50bit/s to 2048kbit/s.

The instrument can be configured as a DCE as well as a DTE; this allows a data
circuit to be taken out of service and tested in sections so that a fault can be isolated
to a specific part of the circuit.

The PF-30 has 4 built-in interfaces which can be further supplemented by means of
cable adaptors allowing 7 different types of interface to be tested.

The Autoconfigure facility allows tests to be initiated by a simple key sequence.

Menu setups can be saved in each of its 8 stores for fast, simple operation on-site.

1.2 Unframed Measurements


PF-30 generates and receives selected test patterns at speeds between 50bit/s and
2048kbit/s for unframed end-to-end error performance evaluation on the following
interfaces:

V.24, V.11, V.35, V.36/RS449, G.703 Co-dir, G.703 (2048/704kbit/s).

For V interface operation the PF-30 can be configured as either a DTE or a DCE

1.3 General Features


1.3.1 Autoconfigure

A very quick test can be initiated by two simple key presses using the autoconfigure
function on unframed traffic.

1.3.2 G.821 Result Analysis

All G.821 parameters are measured by the PF-30.

The G.821 parameter thresholds are programmable to allow performance analysis to


the user’s own performance targets.

The programmable Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX) error performance


factor allows the quality of a network section to be tested against Pass/Fail criteria.

1
Introduction PF-30

1.3.3 Histogram Result Analysis

By knowing exactly when error and alarm events have occurred, the work involved in
discovering faults can be greatly reduced.

The PF-30 provides time analysis of bit errors and up to 7 alarm and error events
using histograms.

1.3.4 Printing

The V.24/RS232 interface can be used to provide an output to an external printer and
provides:

- Printing of up to 60 days of stored histograms and numeric results.


- Printing of histograms and numeric results during or after a test.
- A one page combined time analysis of all errors and alarms.
- Printing of menu setups.
- Autoprint of G.821 results and error event totals at selectable time intervals. The
counters are either cumulative or reset after each printout.
- Autoprint of alarm events as they occur. The start time and stop time for each
alarm event is shown.
- Autoprint of Channel Associated Signalling four bit code changes as they occur.
Each code change is time stamped.
1.3.5 Programmable Timer

The PF-30 can be programmed to start a test at any date and time and automatically
stop after a selected test duration.

1.3.6 Remote Operation

The V.24/RS232 interface can be used for remote operation of the PF-30. All the
main functions of the PF-30 can be duplicated remotely allowing full unattended
operation.

Remote operation is enhanced when the PTS-120 Performance Test Software is run
on the remote PC. PTS-120 provides central result filing, printing and dialling.

Note: V.24 BERT is inhibited during remote operation.

1.3.7 Test Patterns

The following test patterns are used within the PF-30:

- Pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS)


6 9 11 15
- 2 -1, 2 -1, 2 -1, 2 -1.
- Alternating ‘1s’ and ‘0s’: 1010.

2
PF-30 Introduction

- All ‘1s’: 1111.


- All ‘0s’: 0000.
- 8 and 16-bit programmable word
- Logic sense: normal or inverted.
- Quick Brown Fox pattern (QBF): compatible with DT-10, DT-25 and DA-15,
Navtel, Trend and NCC instruments.
Note: The PF-30 offers four QBF patterns: 2 ASCII and 2 EBCDIC, to aid
compatibility with other instruments, See Appendix F for details of these codes.

1.3.8 The ‘OK’ Results Page

The ‘OK’ Results page allows the user to view a summary of important results and
setup information. This page is only available while a test is running. See Section 5.7
for further information.

1.4 Interfaces
The PF-30 is provided with G.703 2048kbit/s and G.703 Co-directional interfaces
using the following connectors:

- Balanced (CF connectors, 120Ω and > 3kΩ at 1MHz).


- Unbalanced (BNC connectors, 75Ω and > 3kΩ at 1MHz).
The input sensitivity is for 2048kbit/s signals is -33dB, suitable for connection to a
protected monitoring point with an attenuated output level.

The G.703 input is not suitable for direct connection to the line as the PF-30 will not
equalize the line loss and has no safety protection from the power feeding voltages on
the line.

The V.11 interface can be used for testing digital and data circuits and can also be
used to drop a timeslot and insert external data into a timeslot.

The V.24/RS232 interface can be used for testing data circuits and is also used to
provide printing and remote control facilities.

Circuits with V.35, V.36 and RS449 interfaces can be tested using optional adaptor
cables.

For more information on these adaptor cables see the tables in Appendix A -
Specifications, and Appendix B - Interface Details.

3
Introduction PF-30

4
PF-30 Preparation for Use

2. Preparation for Use

2.1 Introduction
This section provides information on power supplies and setting-up the PF-30 prior to
running tests.

The reference letters A to E, and the numbers enclosed within square brackets used
in the text, provide a quick location guide to the external controls and other items
shown in Figures 3.1-1 and 3.1-2. The reference numbers are repeated, enclosed
within squares, in their appropriate positions on the front and rear panels of the
instrument.

In this and the following sections, when a keypress is required the key title is enclosed
in special brackets, e.g. <key>. For a ‘hard’ keypress the key title is enclosed in
square brackets, e.g. [Security]. Where reference is made in the text to menus or
displayed pages, the title is enclosed by asterisks, e.g. *Main Menu*, in a similar
manner to that shown by the display itself.

2.2 IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS


Safety isolation to allow connections to be made to signal lines carrying hazardous
voltages is not provided. NEVER connect the PF-30 to such lines.

This apparatus has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC publication
1010, “Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control and
Laboratory Use”, and has been supplied in a safe condition.

2.2.1 Faults or damage

If the instrument is thought to be faulty, it should be disconnected from the LNT-1 AC


Adaptor/Charger and from the circuits being measured. The instrument should then
be secured against unintentional operation. This applies particularly if:

- the instrument ceases to operate correctly.


- water has entered the instrument.
- the instrument shows visible signs of damage.
2.2.2 Repairs

Repairs should only be carried out by qualified personnel. No changes should be


made to the instrument which may influence its safety characteristics.

2.2.3 Spare Parts

Replacement parts as specified by Acterna should be used. Other parts may only be
used if they do not alter the safety characteristics of the instrument.

5
Preparation for Use PF-30

2.3 Power Supplies


2.3.1 Battery Operation

The instrument incorporates a re-chargeable Ni-Cd battery pack which should only be
recharged using the approved a.c. adaptor/charger LNT-1 supplied.

When fully charged the battery will operate the PF-30 for typically 8 hours depending
on the usage and loads applied.

If it is intended to run tests lasting longer than the expected battery operating time,
(or, if the battery is fully charged, tests lasting for more than 8-hours) it will be
necessary to connect the PF-30 via the LNT-1 to an external power supply (see
below).

Connection of the LNT-1 charger will result in a net charge to the Ni-Cd cells in most
test modes. Where connection is made via the V.11 interface port [20] to 100Ω
external loads however, Ni-Cd discharge may still occur even with the LNT-1
connected.

To obtain maximum operating time whilst using the V.11 interface, ensure that the
equipment under test presents a high impedance load.

Other operating practices resulting in high current consumption are V.24 operation
into low impedance loads and high volume loudspeaker operation. These should be
avoided to maximise operating time.

It should be noted that the results of a running test will not be stored if a low battery
causes the instrument to switch off automatically.

2.3.2 Low Battery Indication

When the ‘Low Battery’ indicator LED flashes, only a few minutes of useful charge
remains before the instrument automatically switches off.

2.3.3 Using the LNT-1 A.C. Adaptor/Charger

When the internal Ni-Cd battery pack requires recharging (or if it is more convenient to
operate the instrument using the mains supply), the instrument may be connected to
the LNT-1 Adaptor/Charger.

Check that the LNT-1 is set for the appropriate mains voltage, and connect it via the
special cable provided between the 12V output of the unit and input [E] of the PF-30.

The LED on the LNT-1 will be illuminated to indicate that a charge is being accepted
by the PF-30.

To avoid the possibility of mains interference corrupting results, users are advised not
to switch the mains supply to the LNT-1 on or off while a test is running. If, while

6
PF-30 Preparation for Use

operating the PF-30 via the LNT-1, there is a mains power failure, the instrument will
continue to run the current test for as long as the battery charge permits.

A full recharge will take approximately 14-hours with the PF-30 switched off. Charging
while a test is in progress will take longer.

Note: If the batteries are nearly discharged it may be necessary to charge the PF-30
for a few minutes before it can be switched on (due to the switch-on current required).

2.3.4 Disposal of the built-in rechargeable Battery Pack

This instrument contains a rechargeable battery pack which can harm the
environment if disposed of in the normal rubbish handling systems or left in the
instrument when it is scrapped. Therefore the pack should be returned, at the end of
its useful life, to a special recycling centre or toxic waste gathering point. If these
alternatives are not conveniently available, the pack should be sent to the nearest
Acterna Service Centre.

The battery pack can be located as follows:

1. Remove the four screws located in holes at the corners of the base of the
instrument to separate the halves of the case.
2. Loosen but do not remove the slot-headed screws located between the sockets
of each CF connector [22] and [23].
3. Lift the base and support it to prevent straining of the cables, taking care not to
bend the earthing plate as it releases from the base.
4. Open the unit out to reveal the battery pack in the base.
5. Disconnect the battery cable from the PCB. As the battery pack is secured by
double-sided tape, the bond may be broken by gently prising the pack away from
the case.
If you prefer not to remove the battery yourself, contact the nearest Acterna Service
Centre.

2.4 Switching-on
Switch on by pressing the key [3].

At switch-on the instrument carries out a self-check routine and then displays the
*Main Menu* page with the software version number. The PF-30 will ‘beep’ twice,
while the display switches from ‘Self Check’ to ‘Software Version’. The instrument
is now ready for use.

7
Preparation for Use PF-30

Figure 2.4-1 *Main Menu* Page showing Software Version Number

The operation of the PF-30 is controlled by the user through a structured menu
system.

The bottom line of the display provides labels for the softkey functions. The <-more->
key is used to change the softkey labels to give access to further softkey functions
available from the *Main Menu* page.

Softkeys with a blank label are disabled and have no effect when pressed.

Note: At any time, pressing the dedicated key [1], will return the user to the
*Main Menu*.

2.4.1 Setting the Time and Date

The top line of the display shows the current time and date with the format
HOUR:MINUTE DAY MONTH YEAR, using 24-hour notation. It is vital that the time
and date are set before the instrument is used, as stored test results are time
stamped. To alter the time or date proceed as follows:

Press the <-more-> softkey until <SetTime> appears on the softkey line of the *Main
Menu*. Press the <SetTime> softkey to display the *Set Time & Date* menu.

Enter the new time and date using the numerical keypad, cursor keys and softkeys as
required. The cursor keys may be used to skip over settings without changing them
and to move back to correct entry errors if required. To reset seconds to zero press
the <Reset seconds> softkey.

For single digit entries, e.g. 3 AUG, key ‘3’ followed by the cursor key, the
instrument will then automatically enter the digit in the correct field.

When the time and date have been set correctly, press the or <Return> key to
return to the *Main Menu* page.

2.4.2 Setting the Display Contrast

The contrast between the background of the display and the displayed characters
may be adjusted to suit the ambient lighting conditions and viewing angle.

To alter the contrast simply press the appropriate key at [5]. Pressing and holding
one of the keys causes the contrast to change slowly.

8
PF-30 Preparation for Use

2.4.3 Setting an Alternative Language

The language used by the PF-30 for displays and printouts may be set to one of the
following: English, French, German, Italian or Spanish. To change the language use
the <-more-> key on the *Main Menu* for further softkey lines until <Language> is
displayed. Press <Language> and select the desired language from the line
displayed.

9
A

NoClk/ Error
NoSig Bit
Sync Pattern Code/
Batt Slip All 1 All 0 Char
Loss Par

D
3
1

6 4

Figure 3.1-1 Key to Front Panel


l d i l

20 21

22 23

Figure 3.1-2 Key to Connectors on


l

10
Key to Controls and Connectors
The reference letters A to E, and the numbers enclosed within square brackets used in the text,
provide a quick location guide to the external controls and other items shown in Figures 3.1-1 and 3.1-
2. The reference numbers are repeated, enclosed within squares, in their appropriate positions on the
keyboard and rear panel of the instrument.

Display and Keyboard


[A] Current Display Page or Warning Indicator - The title of the current display page is normally
shown between asterisks in the top, right-hand corner of the display, (e.g. *Main Menu*). This
may be replaced by warning messages such as Low Battery or No Signal, or by the *Running*
indicator. Control of the display backlight is made via the *Utilities Menu*. The backlight is not
available if Low Battery is displayed.
[B] Red LEDs provide an indication of specific alarm or error events. These can be enabled or
disabled individually and can be selected collectively as latching or non-latching.
The Yellow LED indicates a low Batt. charge.
[C] Red LED - Provides a summary indication of the occurrence of error or alarm events. A warning
message to indicate which error or alarm has occurred is displayed by the LCD. A beeper is
sounded simultaneously when the red LED is illuminated, (unless beeper is set to OFF).
[D] Green LED - When illuminated the LED indicates that no enabled alarms are active.
[1] Main Menu key - Displays the *Main Menu* and terminates the current test, if running.
[2] Softkeys - These keys are labelled S1 to S6 and are associated with the bottom line of the
display. Each display page defines the function of one or more of these keys.
[3] On and Off keys - These keys turn the instrument power on or off. The instrument will turn itself
off a short time after displaying a Low Battery warning or if a test is not running and no key has
been pressed during the previous four minutes.
[4] Cursor keys - These four keys are used to move the cursor round the display to make menu
selections and also to view different time periods of histogram data.
Security key - This key is located at the centre of the four cursor keys and is used to unlock the
stores and test memories which have been locked, or lock/unlock the keyboard etc.
[5] Contrast keys - The dark and light contrast keys are used to set the optimum contrast between
the pixels and the background of the liquid crystal display.
[6] Numeric keypad - Certain menu options, such as Time and Date settings, request the user to
enter digits through the numerical keypad. When the correct number of digits have been
entered the cursor moves on to the next selection.
Rear Panel
[20] V.11/X.24 Interface connector.
[21] V.24/RS 232 BERT, Remote Control and Printer connector.
[22] G.703 Interface input connectors - Both CF (balanced, 120Ω) and BNC (unbalanced 75Ω)
connector types are provided.
[23] G.703 Interface output connectors - Both CF (balanced, 120Ω) and BNC (unbalanced 75Ω)
connector types are provided.
[E] External Power Supply socket - The LNT-1 AC Adaptor/Charger may be plugged into this
socket to operate the instrument and charge the Ni-Cd batteries. Charging takes place whether
the instrument is switched on or off.

11
12
PF-30 Operation

3. Operation
The reference letters A to E, and the numbers enclosed within square brackets used
in the text, provide a quick location guide to the external control and other items
shown in Figures 3.1-1 and 3.1-2. The reference numbers are repeated, enclosed
within squares, in their appropriate positions on the keyboard and rear panels of the
instrument.

In this and the following sections, when a keypress is required the softkey title is
enclosed in special brackets, e.g. <key>. For a ‘hard’ keypress the key title is
enclosed in square brackets, e.g. [Security]. Where reference is made in the text to
menus or displayed pages, the title is enclosed by asterisks, e.g. *Main Menu*, in a
similar manner to that shown by the display itself.

3.1 How to run Tests


3.1.1 Introduction

This section is intended as a ‘How to’ guide to using the PF-30 in the main instrument
modes.

It is not practical to describe all possible circumstances, but the information below
should cover most common applications, and allow the user to extend the ideas to
individual requirements.

For more advanced features, such as storing/retrieving results and instrument setups,
how to analyse histogram results etc. See Operation Reference and Results
Reference, Sections 4 and 5.

3.1.2 How to use this Section

First read the rest of this introduction, and then the section ‘Unframed Testing’.

After this refer to the section appropriate to the interface you wish to test.

Note: The ‘Unframed G.703’ section contains a full set of basic information which is
not duplicated in each of the following sections. Even if you wish to test on another
interface, it is advisable to read the ‘G.703’ section first.

3.1.3 Instrument Functions

Most instrument functions are accessed via *Setup Menu 1*. Menu fields and softkey
functions are adjusted by the PF-30 so that only relevant choices are available as you
move through the menus.

Connection to the system under test is via commonly available cables or special
PF-30 accessory cables as described in Appendix B.

13
Operation PF-30

Other modes are accessed directly from the *Main Menu*, as are any optional
software operating modes which have been loaded into the unit.

3.2 Unframed Testing


‘Unframed’ data is binary data in a continuous stream, with no internal frame
structure. This type of data may be transported over a variety of interfaces, and with
a variety of encoding methods.

Timing information may be embedded in the data, such that a receiver is required to
extract a clock before the value of data bits can be determined. Alternatively the clock
may accompany the data on a separate line, so being available directly for use by the
receiver.

The PF-30 is able to generate and receive unframed data, either Pseudo Random
Binary Sequences or fixed binary patterns, on G.703, V.24/V.28, X.24/V.11, V.35,
V.36 and RS449 interfaces. This allows a pattern generated by the PF-30, another
test instrument or the system under test to be checked for bit errors.

3.3 Unframed G.703


The PF-30 can perform BER tests on unframed data carried over G.703 interfaces,
using HDB3, AMI or Co-directional line codes.

A variety of BER test patterns, PRBS or fixed, can be used. Several different types of
errors and alarm events are recorded. For a summary of these events see Results
Reference - Section 5.2.3.

The transmit clock source can be either the PF-30 internal crystal, an external source
or can be derived from the received line signal.

The receiver always derives timing for bit reception from the received line signal.

3.3.1 Connection

Connect to the system under test via cables to the transmit G.703 port [23] and the
receive G.703 port [22] on the rear of the instrument.

Systems of 120Ω impedance should be connected via the CF connectors. 75Ω


systems should be connected via the BNC connectors. Connection should be via
conventional coaxial cables for 75Ω systems, or screened twisted pairs for 120Ω
systems.

Note: The PF-30 does not provide line equalisation to allow reception of signals with
Root-F attenuation of more than 6dB at 1024kHz. Also, safety isolation to allow
connection to signal lines carrying large voltages for regenerator supply IS NOT
PROVIDED. NEVER connect the PF-30 directly to such lines. An isolating adaptor
such as the ELM-2 may be used for these measurements.

14
PF-30 Operation

Input impedance is selectable as terminating or HI-Z, see Section 3.3.3 - ‘Menu setup’
below. Note however that the PF-30 input impedance will stay at the setting last used
until a test is actually run with a new setting.

If the PF-30 input in 75/120Ω termination is connected to a line carrying live traffic,
excessive loading and possible loss of signal may result. For connection to live traffic
therefore, either use a protected monitor point, or run the instrument with HI-Z
termination before connecting the PF-30 to the system.

Protected monitor points generally have a resistance of several kΩ connected


between the live traffic and the test instrument. The instrument should be set to
provide a 75/120Ω termination when receiving from a protected monitor point. Use of
HI-Z will result in mismatched connection, with unreliable reception.

Avoid running transmit and receive pairs for 120Ω connection within the same cable,
unless the pairs are individually screened, or at least twisted. Due to the wide
bandwidth of the PF-30 receiver, crosstalk between the transmitter and receiver might
otherwise cause problems, particularly with a Co-directional line code.

Note: For each port, [20] or [21], use only one of the connectors at once (CF or
BNC). It is however permissible to transmit on 75Ω BNC and receive on the 120Ω CF
or vice versa.

If only receive or transmit is required, connect only the relevant cable.


2048kbit/s
48 to 512kbit/s
3/
C di

PF-30 LTE Network

RX/TX

75/120Ω Monitor
i

RX/TX
PF-30 Ω
75/120Ω

Figure 3.3-1 Connection to Unframed G.703 System

3.3.2 Clock Sources

For Unframed G.703, the transmit clock source can be either the PF-30 internal
crystal, an external source or can be derived from the received line signal.

Be careful to ensure that the transmit clock source setting on *Setup Menu 1* is not
FROM RX when no receive connection has been made. With no receive signal the

15
Operation PF-30

transmit clock frequency will free-run, resulting in an incorrect transmit rate and
possibly jitter. For transmit-only, use INTERNAL or EXTERNAL Tx Clock source.

The same warning applies if EXTERNAL Tx Clock source is selected; if no external


clock is connected the transmitter will free-run or fail to operate at all.

To use an external clock for the transmitter, either connect a V.11 compatible signal to
pins 6 and 13 of the V.11 port [20], or use K1513 to connect a TTL clock to port [20].
Correct operation by either method will only be achieved at the nominal frequency
±100ppm.

Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx Tx
data data port data
[20]

Rx Rx Rx Rx
BERT Rx data BERT Rx data BERT data

Internal From-Rx External


(TxClClkSrc
k (Tx ClkSrc
Cl k FROM- (TxClClkSrc
k
) ) )
Figure 3.3-2 G.703 Clock Sources

3.3.3 Menu Setup

Testing can be carried out using HDB3 or AMI line codes at 2048kbit/s and 704kbit/s,
and using Co-directional line code at 48, 56 and n x 64kbit/s, n = 1 to 8.

Transmit and receive line codes are always identical.

A typical setup of *Setup Menu 1* is shown in Figure 3.3.3.

*Setup Menu 1*

Figure 3.3-3 Typical *Setup Menu 1*, G.703

Field: Value: Comment:


Interface G.703
Line code HDB3, AMI, Co-dir As appropriate to the system under
test.

16
PF-30 Operation

Termination Ω
75/120Ω Normal operation, where the PF-30
receiver is the only item connected to
the system output.
HI-Z To monitor a terminated circuit non-
intrusively, e.g. for in-service tests.
PMP For use at ‘Protected Monitor Point’;
offers 75/120Ω termination, as
Ω>.
<75/120Ω
Tx Clk src INT Uses the internal crystal of the PF-30
to generate the transmit rate.
EXT Uses an external 50:50 V.11 clock on
pins 6 and 13 of the V.11 port to
derive the transmitter clock.
FROM-RX Timing information extracted from the
received signal is used to derive the
transmitter clock.
kbps 704, 2048, 48, 64 etc. For internal clock generation, this
determines the transmit rate to be
generated from the internal crystal.
For FROM-RX or EXTERNAL
clocking, this informs the PF-30 which
receive rate is to be expected.
*Setup Menu 2*

Figure 3.3-4 Typical *Setup Menu 2*, G.703

Note: To move backward through the menus during setup, press the cursor key
at the top of a menu, or press the key, followed by <-more-> then the required
<Menu n> softkey.

Bert Pattern PRBS:


15 11
2 -1, 2 -1 etc Pseudo random binary patterns
suitable for bit error rate
measurement, simulating random
data. Press <PRBS>, followed by the
softkey labelled with the desired
pattern.

17
Operation PF-30

Fixed Static binary patterns, useful for


tracing through a system with an
oscilloscope, for simulating AIS
(1111) etc.
Byte, Word Selectable patterns for tracing
through systems, simulating control
codes, checking byte integrity of
transmission paths which use Co-
directional line code etc.
Tx/Rx Logic NORMAL, INVERTED Some systems by intent or error may
invert data. Use the polarity inversion
fields as necessary to compensate for
this. Particularly if a ‘No Sync’ alarm
is experienced on a circuit for which
no problem is expected, but where
transmission polarity is uncertain.
15
Note: 2 -1 PRBS patterns are transmitted/received by PF-30 in polarity as specified
by CCITT. Certain other instruments, particularly those built in America, may operate
with the opposite data polarity. Inversion of TX and/or RX polarities will usually cure a
mismatch.

Bits/Block OFF, 1000, 2nn-1 Block lengths can be selected as


1000 bits or the PRBS pattern length.
Block errors give an indication of the
likely effect on blocks of user data
(e.g. data packets) of a similar
length.
*Setup Menu 3*

Figure 3.3-5 Typical *Setup Menu 3*, G.703

Current Test 1..8 To access this field use the cursor


key at the top of the menu. This
allows the selection of an alternative
test memory for the storage of results.
Timer OFF, ON If the timer is selected ON, a
submenu is entered which allows a
delayed or manual (immediate) start
time, and selection between a

18
PF-30 Operation

continuous test or one of predefined


duration. See Operation Reference,
Section 4.2.4 for more detail.
Return to *Setup Menu 3* using the
<Return> softkey.
Autoprint OFF, ON If ON is selected the *Autoprint*
submenu allows the printing of start
and finish of alarm events to be
printed automatically during the test.
If autoprinted numerical totals are
requested ON, a summary of the
numerical test results is printed at the
specified intervals during the test, with
optional reset of the totals after each
printout.
G.821 OFF, CCITT, USER Selects G.821 analysis of the results,
with standard (CCITT) or user defined
performance as required, (see G.821,
Results Reference - Section 5.4 and
section 3.3.4 following).
Alarms ALL OFF, ALL ON, USER
The alarm warning messages in the
top right corner of the screen can be
selectively enabled using the *Alarm
Display* submenu, when <USER> is
selected.
Until you are familiar with the instrument, it is best to leave the Alarms at the default
setting of ALL ON.

Figure 3.3-6 Typical *Alarm Display* Submenu, G.703

Alarms have a hierarchy such that more important alarms indicated on screen will
‘mask’ the presence of less important alarms (See Alarm Hierarchy diagrams -
Section 5.2.4).

If a high priority alarm masks a lower priority alarm which is of interest, the higher
alarm can be turned off at the *Alarm Display* submenu.

19
Operation PF-30

Note: Turning alarms on or off will not affect how they are recorded on the results
pages, histograms and printouts.

Resolution HRS/MINS, DAYS/HOURS


This setting controls the resolution to
which additional results histograms
are stored.
HRS/MINS gives less duration at
higher precision for time-location of
errors and alarms.
DAYS/HRS is suitable for longer-term
monitoring, where the precise timing
of errors and alarms is less important.
Beeper ON/OFF The PF-30 warning beeper, which
sounds the same as the beeps
emitted on switch-on, is sounded
each time errors or alarms are
detected in a second.
The beeper is linked to the *Alarm
Display* selection submenu: if an
alarm is disabled, the beeper will not
sound.
3.3.4 G.821 Submenu

The PF-30 offers results analysis to G.821, with G.821 submenu. Press <USER> at
the G.821 field of *Setup Menu 3*.

Figure 3.3-7: *G.821 Menu*

Alarm Seconds CCITT same as <IGNORE>.


IGNORE Alarm seconds will be excluded from
all G.821 processing.
SEV ERR SECS Alarm seconds will be processed as if
they were severely errored seconds.
Errored Seconds CCITT Same as <NORM 64k>.

20
PF-30 Operation

NORM 64k Normalises the received data to 64k


bits/s as specified in G.821
Recommendation, Annex D.
ONE ERROR Any second containing one or more
errors is classed as an errored
second.
Severely errored
seconds CCITT Sets the severely errored seconds
threshold to 1.0E-6.
Keypad Use the cursor keys and numeric
keypad to enter a threshold between
1.0E-9 and 9.9E-3.
Degraded minutes CCITT Sets the degraded minutes threshold
to 1.0E-3.
Keypad Use the cursor keys and numeric
keypad to enter a threshold between
1.0E-9 and 9.9E-3.
HRX scale factor CCITT Sets the HRX scale factor to 100%
OFF Turns off the G.821 PASS/FAIL
messages.
Keypad Enter an HRX scale factor between 0
and 100%.
‘.’ Enters a decimal point.
Enter Enters data (this is performed
automatically if the cursor keys or
numerical keypad are used).
3.3.5 Running the Test

Having set up the PF-30 as appropriate, and connected the instrument to the system
under test, press the <Run> softkey on *Setup Menu 3*.

If a manual start has been selected, the test will commence immediately. A delayed
start will result in a reminder message in the top right-hand corner of the screen.

If the test setup is correct, and the system under test is functioning correctly, the
PF-30 will display the *Running* message. If any error or alarm conditions are
encountered, the *Running* message is replaced with the appropriate alarm
message, and the corresponding alarm LED will be illuminated.

The running results screens include BER/BLER results, Alarms results, G.821 results,
and Histograms of errors and alarms.

Step between the text results screens using softkey <S2> which is labelled BER,
G.821, Alarm etc. View histograms using the <Hist> softkey. This will display one of

21
Operation PF-30

several histograms. Step between these using the cursor and keys. See
Operation Reference, Section 4.4 for more detail.

To obtain softkey labels whilst viewing a Histogram, press <Keys>. Note that the
softkeys still operate even when the labels are not displayed, but the <Reset> and
<Stop> softkeys require two key presses; one to display the labels, the next to action
the softkey function. This is to prevent accidental termination of the test.

To change to a different resolution of Histogram use <Hours>, <Days>, <Mins> as


appropriate.

To reset the results recorded so far to zero, press <Reset>. If the Alarm LEDs have
been set to ‘Latching’ operation, any illuminated LEDs will be switched off.

To review the menu setup without interrupting the test, press <Menus>. Repeated
key- presses will cycle round all of the relevant setup menus.

To print the results so far, press <Print>. The results for the page displayed will be
printed. Note that the printer setup of the PF-30 must match that of the printer to
which it is connected. Set this up before the test using the *Printer Menu* accessed
from *Main Menu* via the <Printer> softkey, (See Operation Reference, Section
4.8).

Histograms may be printed in graphical form or as a text table, using the appropriate
softkey.

3.3.6 Stopping the Test and Viewing the Results

To stop the test press <Stop> or the key. Note that the transmitter and receiver
of the PF-30 will continue to operate, although no further results are recorded.

Note: Although the transmitter continues to run when <Stop> is pressed, there may
be an interruption in transmission the next time <Run> is pressed if certain
parameters in the test setup are changed. This may cause a loss of synchronisation
in the system under test. See Operation Reference, Section 4.2.3 for details.

If a programmed duration was set using the *Timer* submenu, the test will stop
automatically as programmed. Pressing <Stop> before the programmed duration will
however force an immediate stop.

To view the numerical and histogram results of the completed test, simply use the
softkeys as during the running of the test.

Note that it is possible to scroll the histogram pages to view earlier parts of the results
record. See Operation Reference, Section 4.4 for details.

22
PF-30 Operation

3.3.7 Autoconfiguration

The setup method above can be used if the details of the system under test are
known. It is possible however to use the Auto function of the PF-30 to set up the
instrument and run a test, even if the configuration of the system is not known.

The PF-30 must be connected to the system under test, as normal, before the
autoconfigure is carried out.

The PF-30 will transmit, and attempt to receive a series of BERT patterns, in the order
15 11 9
2 -1, 2 -1, 2 -1. For G.703 systems FROM-RX transmit clock source is selected.
Transmit and receive data polarities are checked NORMAL and INVERTED.

If the PF-30 is connected to a looped-back system, pattern synchronisation will rapidly


15
be achieved using the 2 -1 pattern, and a test will then run, as normal. If the PF-30
receive data contains one of the other patterns, for example from another instrument
at the far end of the system, the PF-30 should lock onto this and transmit the same
pattern back into the system.

The incoming bit rate is measured and the bit rate field of *Setup Menu 1* set
accordingly. HDB3 line code at 2Mbit/s is tried first, followed by HDB3 704kbit/s and
then Co-directional. AMI line code is not employed.

Note: It is impossible for the PF-30 to determine whether 75/120Ω termination should
be used, during Autoconfigure. The setting last made on *Setup Menu 1* is therefore
used. Check that the impedance is set correctly in *Setup Menu 1* before pressing
the <Auto> softkey.

Autoconfigure is invoked using the <Auto> softkey on the *Main Menu*. Select
<G.703> from the softkey list presented. Successful autoconfigure will result in a
running test. If no valid data is found the message ‘Autoconfigure was not
successful’ will be displayed, accompanied by a warning beep.

For more detail of the Autoconfigure process, see Operation Reference, Section
4.2.3.

3.4 Unframed V.11


The PF-30 can perform BER testing on X.24/V.11 circuits in DTE and DCE
emulations.

Operation is Full Duplex only with no flow control; the handshaking lines Control and
Indicate are ignored as inputs, and set as ON when outputs. There is no facility for
setting loopbacks in the system under test.

The PF-30 implements a subset of the X.24/V.11 interface.

23
Operation PF-30

3.4.1 Connection

Port [20] on the rear of the PF-30 is an X.24/V.11 DTE interface. To test a system
with an X.24/V.11 DCE interface (e.g. most networks), connect to the PF-30 using a
‘straight-through’ cable, preferably double screened with a twisted-pair for each signal.

To test a system with a X.24/V.11 DTE interface (e.g. most network peripherals), the
PF-30 must emulate an X.24/V.11 DCE.

To do this the V.11 DCE adaptor cable K1505 MUST BE USED. In DCE emulation
the pinout of port [20] is proprietary, and the DCE adaptor cable performs the
necessary changeover of pinout for successful DCE emulation. A straight-through
cable will be useless.

Locate the adaptor cable in port [20] and secure with the jackscrews mounted in the
connector. The end labelled V.11 DCE and WG connects to port [20].

Note: K1505 is not a ‘DTE to DCE’ adaptor cable as found in some third-party
catalogues. Such cables are of no use in this application.

If for example two PF-30 units were connected together, one emulating X.24/V.11
DCE, the other X.24/V.11 DTE, the setup would be as follows. A real system under
test could replace either PF-30.
X.24 K 1505

A/B
S S
6/13
Tx B B
7/14
T
2/9

C
ON 3/10
T
Rx

I
5/12 ON

Rx Tx
R R
4/11

External Clock Port Port


Internal Clock
PF-30 V.11 DTE [20] [20]
PF-30 V.11 DCE
Figure 3.4-1 Connection, X.24/V.11 DTE and DCE emulations l i
l i

24
PF-30 Operation

3.4.2 Clock Sources

The PF-30 subset of the X.24/V.11 interface carries two clocks, both in the direction
from the DCE to the DTE. These are Signal Element Timing (S) and Byte Timing (B).
The behaviour of these signals is standard, as described in X.24.

Consequently, in DTE emulation only an external clock source is possible, and in DCE
only an internal clock source is possible.

The DTE emulation both transmits and receives using the two incoming clocks. The
interface waveforms are as follows:

ON
S OFF
0
T,R 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

B ON
OFF
V.11 Significant
l Data '0',
B l k/ l
A
B Data '1',
l k/ l
Figure 3.4-2 X.24/V.11 interface signals

The DCE emulation produces the clocks, and transmits the data on R to the DTE.
The DTE data on T is clocked in by the DCE on the correct edge of S.

Byte Timing (B) has relevance only if a BYTE BERT pattern is selected. Byte Sync
alarm will occur if the alignment relative to B of transmit and receive BYTEs are
different

In DTE emulation, Byte Timing on B is used if provided by the DCE under test. If B is
absent, synchronisation of BYTE and WORD patterns transmitted by the DTE is
random.

3.4.3 Menu Setups

Most of the menu setups for X.24/V.11 testing are as for Unframed G.703. The
differences are as follows:

*Setup Menu 1*

Field: Value: Comment:


Interface V.11
Emulation DTE, DCE Choose as appropriate. Networks are
generally DCEs, terminals or other
peripherals DTEs. Remember DCE

25
Operation PF-30

adaptor cable K1505 must be used


for DCE emulation.
Clock Source EXTERN, INTERN EXTERN for DTE, INTERN for DCE
emulation.
kbps 1.2 - 2048 For DCE emulation, where clock is
always internally generated. Use
<‘.’> softkey to enter decimal rates.
Rate snaps to nearest allowable
figure.
Use numeric key followed by <nx64>
or <nx56> for quick entry of nx64 or
nx56 rates.
3.4.4 Autoconfiguration

If V.11 interface is selected for Autoconfiguration, DTE emulation is selected.


Therefore, it is only appropriate to use Autoconfigure V.11 when connected via a
straight-through cable to an X.24/V.11 DCE.

Clocking for an X.24/V.11 DTE is always external so the PF-30 will autoconfigure onto
any bit rate from 50bit/s to 2048kbit/s.

The autoconfigure process will determine which PRBS BERT pattern is being
received. The order tried is as for G.703 above, so in a loopback connection pattern
15
synchronisation will take place on to the 2 -1 pattern.

3.4.5 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results

These procedures are as for G.703, see Section 3.3.5.

3.5 Unframed V.24


The PF-30 can perform BER testing on V.24 circuits in DTE and DCE emulations.

Operation is Full Duplex only with no flow control; the handshaking lines RTS, CTS,
DTR, DSR, DCD etc are ignored as inputs, and set as ON when outputs. There is no
facility for setting loopbacks in the system under test.

The PF-30 can operate with both Synchronous and Asynchronous (Start-Stop)
transmission.

3.5.1 Connection

Port [21] on the rear of the PF-30 is an V.24 DTE interface. To test a system with an
V.24 DCE interface (e.g. most networks), connect to the PF-30 using a ‘straight-
through’ cable.

26
PF-30 Operation

To test a system with a V.24 DTE interface (e.g. most network peripherals), the PF-30
must emulate an V.24 DCE.

To do this the V.24 DCE adaptor cable K1512 MUST BE USED. In DCE emulation
the pinout of port [21] is proprietary, and the DCE adaptor cable performs the
necessary changeover of pinout for successful DCE emulation. A straight-through
cable will be useless.

Locate the adaptor cable in port [21] and secure with the jackscrews mounted in the
connector. The end labelled ‘V.24 DCE’ and ‘WG’ connects to port [21].
TTC not V.24 K 1512
d

TD TD
2
Tx Rx
TC
15 TC

TTC
24

RC RC
17
Rx Tx
RD RD
3
RTS
ON 4
DTR
ON 20
CTS
5 ON
DSR
EXT:TC 6 ON RX CLOCK
EXT:RC TX
INTCLOCK
R
DCD INT R
8 ON
1
Port Port
[21] [21] PF-30 V.24 DCE
PF-30 V.24 DTE
i l i
Figure 3.5-1 V.24 Connection, DTE to DCE, TTC not used

Note: K1512 is not a ‘DTE to DCE’ adaptor cable as found in some third-party
catalogues. Such cables are of no use in this application.

If, for example two PF-30 units were connected together, one emulating V.24 DCE,
the other V.24 DTE, the setup would be as shown in Figures 3.6-1 and 3.6-2. A real
system under test could replace either PF-30.

27
Operation PF-30

TTC Used: V.24 K 1512

TD TD
2
Tx Rx
TTC

TTC
24
TC
15

RC
17 RC
Rx Tx
RD RD
3
RTS
ON 4
DTR
ON 20
CTS
5 ON
DSR
TX CLOCK EXT:TC 6 ON RX CLOCK EXT:TTC
RX CLOCK EXT:RC TX CLOCK
DCD INT R
8 ON

1
Port Port
PF-30 V.24 DTE [21] [21] PF-30 V.24 DCE
i l i
Figure 3.5-2 V.24 Connection, DTE and DCE, TTC used

3.5.2 Clock Sources

The Synchronous V.24 interface carries two clocks in the direction from the DCE to
the DTE and one from DTE to DCE. The DCE sourced clocks are Transmit Clock
(TC) and Receive Clock (RC). The DTE sourced clock is Terminal Transmit Clock
(TTC). The behaviour of these signals is standard as described in V.24.

In DTE emulation the receive clock source is always external (RC), but the transmit
clock may be external (TC) or internally generated (TTC)

In DCE emulation the transmit clock is always internally generated (RC), but the
receive clock can be internally generated or received from the DTE (TTC).

The PF-30 in V.24 DTE emulation mode does not return a TTC clock when the TX
clock source is set to EXT:TC. If the DCE under test requires a TTC, an internally
generated TTC must be selected at the PF-30. This TTC signal will not be frequency
locked to the clock signals from the DCE.

28
PF-30 Operation

The interface waveforms are as follows:

TTC not
d ON
TC
OFF

TD 0
1

ON
RC
OFF

RD 0
1

Notes:
PF-30 DCE always produces TC and RC identical but PF-30 DTE will
non-identical TC
l and
i RC,
h as
h

TTC used:
ON
RC
OFF
0
RD 1

ON
TTC
OFF

0
TD 1

Notes:
PF-30 DTE with TX CLOCK INT:TTC produces internal TTC
or frequency
l d i toh received TC

V.24 Significant Levels 12V > V > 3V Data '0',


l k/ l -12V < V < -3V Data '1',
l k/ l
Figure 3.5-3 V.24 Interface Signals

3.5.3 Printing Restrictions

The PF-30 is equipped with only one V.24 port [21]. Therefore, when V.24 testing is
in progress, autoprinting of results, and normal printing of results is not permitted.

Similarly, V.24 testing is not allowed when the PF-30 is in remote control operation.
Remote control operation via the V.24 port, for testing of other interfaces, is described
in the Operation Reference section of this manual.

Printouts of V.24 test results may be obtained after a test has been stopped. Press
the <Print> softkey. The warning message ‘Test Stopped’ will be displayed. This is
a reminder that the V.24 interface has ceased to transmit and receive the test data,
and is ready to print out the results.

29
Operation PF-30

Connection should now be transferred to the printer. Press the <Print> softkey a
second time to start the printout. Printer handshaking and character format are
independent of those used for V.24 Asynchronous BER testing, and are set up using
the *Printer* menu. See the Operation Reference, Section 4.8, for more information.

3.5.4 Menu Setups

Most of the menu setups for V.24 testing are as for G.703. The differences are as
follows:

*Setup Menu 1*, synchronous transmission

Field: Value: Comment:


Interface V.24
Framing SYNC Data is exchanged bit by bit under
control of the clocks TC, RC and TTC.
Emulation DTE, DCE Choose as appropriate. Networks are
generally DCEs, terminals or other
peripherals DTEs. Remember DCE
adaptor cable K1512 must be used
for DCE emulation.
DTE Emulation:

Tx clock EXT:TC Transmission of data on TD is under


control of the DCE sourced clock TC.
INT:TTC Transmission of data on TD is on
internally generated clock TTC.
Rx clock EXT:RC Incoming data on RD is clocked in
using DCE sourced clock RC.
DCE Emulation:

Tx clock INT:RC Outgoing data is accompanied by


internally generated clock RC.
Rx clock INT:TC Incoming data on TD is expected on
internally generated clock TC.
EXT:TTC Incoming data on TD is clocked in
using DTE generated clock TTC.
bps (Tx), bps (Tx,Rx) 50-72000 Where internally generated clocks are
used, the rate can be set between 50
and 38400bit/s as desired, and to 48,
56, 64 or 72kbit/s.
Use numeric key followed by
<nx1000> for quick entry of nx1000
rates.

30
PF-30 Operation

Note for DCE emulation, TC and RC


are always generated at equal rates.
*Setup Menu 1*, asynchronous transmission

Field: Value: Comment:


Interface V.24
Framing ASYNC Data is exchanged in character based
format, with one start bit, one or two
stop bits and optional parity bit. Baud
rate is internally generated in both
DTE or DCE emulations.
Emulation DTE, DCE Choose as appropriate. Networks are
generally DCEs, terminals or other
peripherals DTEs. Remember DCE
adaptor cable K1512 must be used
for DCE emulation.
bps (Tx,Rx) 50 - 38400 Baud rate can be set between 50 and
38400bit/s as desired.
Use numeric key followed by
<nx1000> for quick entry of nx1000
rates.
Character rate of received data is
unimportant, except that fewer than
50 bit/s of data received will result in a
‘No Signal’ alarm.
Bits/char 7, 8 Number of data bits per
asynchronous character.
Parity NONE, EVEN, ODD, MARK, SPACE
Sets behaviour of the optional
character parity bit. Some choices
not allowed for 8 bits/char.
Stop bits 1, 2 Select as required
*Setup Menu 2*

WORD pattern not allowed. Quick-Brown-Fox patterns available.

*Setup Menu 3*

‘Autoprint’ field is not provided, see ‘Printing Restrictions’ above.

If QBF patterns are used, only single errors can be inserted.

31
Operation PF-30

3.5.5 Autoconfiguration

If the V.24 interface is chosen for Autoconfiguration, SYNC DTE emulation is


selected. Therefore, it is only appropriate to use Autoconfigure V.24 when connected
via a straight-through cable to a synchronous V.24 DCE.

Clocking is set to Tx clock EXT:TC and Rx clock EXT:RC so the PF-30 will
autoconfigure onto any bit rate from 50bit/s to 72000bit/s.

The autoconfigure process will determine which PRBS BERT pattern is being
received. The order tried is as for G.703, see Section 3.3.6, so in a loopback
15
connection pattern synchronisation will take place onto the 2 -1 pattern.

3.5.6 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results

These procedures are as for G.703, detailed in Section 3.3.5, but see ‘Printing
Restrictions’ also.

3.6 Unframed V.35, V.36, RS449


The PF-30 can perform BER testing on V.35, V.36 and RS449 circuits in DTE and
DCE emulations.

Operation is Full Duplex only with no flow control; the handshaking lines RTS, CTS,
DTR, DSR, DCD etc. are ignored as inputs, and set as ON when outputs. There is no
facility for setting loopbacks in the system under test.

The PF-30 operates with Synchronous transmission only.

Note: In the rest of this section, V.35 is used to denote any of the three interfaces.
The same signals are used in each case, and the menus for each interface are
identical.

3.6.1 Connection

Port [20] on the rear of the PF-30 is used via adaptor cables to provide DTE or DCE
interfaces for V.35, V.36 and RS449.

To test a system with a DCE interface (e.g. most networks), connect the PF-30 using
the appropriate DTE adaptor cable.

To test a system with a DTE interface (e.g. most network peripherals), the PF-30
must emulate a DCE. Connect to the DTE under test using the appropriate DCE
adaptor cable.

See Appendix B for details of the adaptor cables.

The PF-30 accessory DTE or DCE adaptor cable MUST BE USED. For testing on
these interfaces the pinout of port [20] is proprietary, and the adaptor cables perform

32
PF-30 Operation

the necessary changeover of pinout for successful emulation. A straight-through


cable will be useless.

Connect the adaptor cable to port [20] and secure using the jackscrews mounted in
the connector.

Note: The adaptor cables are not ‘DTE to DCE’ or ‘DCE to DTE’ adaptor cables as
found in some third-party catalogues. Such cables are of no use.

If for example two PF-30 units were connected together, one emulating DCE, the
other DTE, the setup would be as follows. A real system under test could replace
either PF-30.
TTC not K 1508 V.35 K 1509
d
A/B
TD TD
P/S
Tx Rx
TC
Y/AA

TC
TTC
U/W
RC

RC
V/X
Rx Tx
RD RD
R/T
RTS
ON C
DTR
ON H
CTS
D ON
DSR
EXT:TC E ON RX CLOCK
EXT:RC TX CLOCK
INT R
DCD INT R
F ON
Port A/B
[20] Port
PF-30 V.35 DTE [20] PF-30 V.35 DCE
l i
Figure 3.6-1 V.35 Connection, DTE and DCE Emulation, TTC not used

33
Operation PF-30

K 1508 V.35 K 1509


TTC used:
A/B
TD TD
P/S
Tx Rx
TTC

TTC RC
U/W

RC
V/X
Rx Tx
RD RD
R/T

RTS
ON C
DTR
ON H
CTS
D ON
DSR RX CLOCK EXT:TTC
TX CLOCK EXT:TC E ON
TX CLOCK
RX CLOCK EXT:RC DCD INT R
F ON
Port
[20] A/B Port
PF-30 V.35 DTE PF-30 V.35 DCE
[20]
l i
Note: On some connectors `AA' is l i
Figure 3.6-2` V.35 Connection, DTE and DCE Emulations

TTC not K 1506 V.36/RS K 1507


d 449
A/B
TD TD
4/22
Tx Rx
TC
5/23

TC
TTC
17/35
RC

RC
8/26
Rx Tx
RD RD
6/24
RTS
ON 7/25
DTR
ON 12/30
CTS
9/27 ON
DSR
EXT:TC 11/29 ON RX CLOCK
EXT:RC TX CLOCK
INT R
DCD INT R
13/31 ON
Port
[20] 1/19/20/3
7 Port
PF-30 V.36 DTE [20] PF-30 V.36 DCE
l i
Figure 3.6-3 V.36/RS449 Connection, DTE and DCE Emulation, TTC not used

34
PF-30 Operation

TTC K 1506 V.36/RS K 1507


d 449
A/B
TD TD
4/22
Tx Rx
TTC

TTC RC
17/35

RC
8/26
Rx Tx
RD RD
6/24

RTS
ON 7/25
DTR
ON 12/30
CTS
9/27 ON
DSR
TX CLOCK EXT:TC 11/29 ON RX CLOCK EXT:TTC
RX CLOCK EXT:RC DCD TX CLOCK
13/31 ON INT R
Port
[20] 1/19/20/3
PF-30 V.36 DTE 7 Port PF-30 V.36 DCE
[20] l i
l i
Figure 3.6-4 V.36/RS449 Connection, DTE and DCE Emulation, TTC used

3.6.2 Clock Sources

The V.35 interface carries two clocks in the direction from the DCE to the DTE and
one from DTE to DCE. The DCE sourced clocks are Transmit Clock (TC) and
Receive Clock (RC). The DTE sourced clock is Terminal Transmit Clock (TTC). The
behaviour of these signals is standard as described in V.24.

In DTE emulation the receive clock source is always external (RC), but the transmit
clock may be external (TC) or internally generated (TTC)

In DCE emulation the transmit clock is always internally generated (RC), but the
receive clock can be internally generated or received from the DTE (TTC).

35
Operation PF-30

The interface waveforms are as follows:

TTC not
d ON
TC
OFF
0
TD 1

ON
RC
OFF

0
RD 1

Notes:
PF-30 DCE always produces TC and RC identical but PF-30 DTE will
non-identical TCl and
i RC,
h as
PF-30
h DTE with TX CLOCK EXT:TC produces TTC identical to received
d h
TTC used:
ON
RC
OFF
0
RD 1

ON
TTC
OFF

0
TD 1

Notes:
PF-30 DTE with TX CLOCK INT:TTC produces internal TTC
or frequency
l d i toh received
V.35, V.36, RS 449 Significant Data '0',
l B l k/ l
A
B Data '1',
l k/ l
V.35 Control Signals 12V > V > 3V
l -12V < V < -3V
l
Figure 3.6-5 V.35/V.36/RS449 interface signals

The PF-30 in DTE emulation returns a TTC clock when the TX clock source is set to
EXT:TC. A DCE can use this returned clock to clock in data on TD, thus
compensating for connecting cable delays. This is especially important at higher bit
rates.

3.6.3 Menu Setups

Most of the menu setups for V.35 testing are as for G.703. The differences are as
follows:

36
PF-30 Operation

3.6.4 *Setup Menu 1*, synchronous transmission.

Field: Value: Comment:


Interface V.35 Or V.36, RS449.
Framing SYNC Data is exchanged bit by bit under
control of the clocks TC, RC and TTC.
Emulation DTE, DCE Choose as appropriate. Networks are
generally DCEs, terminals or other
peripherals DTEs. Remember DTE
or DCE adaptor cables must be used
for these interfaces.
DTE Emulation:

Tx clock EXT:TC Transmission of data on TD is under


control of the DCE sourced clock TC.
INT:TTC Transmission of data on TD is on
internally generated clock TTC.
Rx clock EXT:RC Incoming data on RD is clocked in
using DCE sourced clock RC.
DCE Emulation:

Tx clock INT:RC Outgoing data is accompanied by


internally generated clock RC.
Rx clock INT:TC Incoming data on TD is expected on
internally generated clock TC.
EXT:TTC Incoming data on TD is clocked in
using DTE generated clock TTC.
kbps (Tx)kbps (Tx,Rx) 1.2 - 2048 Where internally generated clocks are
used, rate can be set between 1.2
and 2048kbit/s.
Use numeric key followed by <nx64>
or <nx56> for quick entry of nx64,
nx56 rates.
Note for DCE emulation, TC and RC
are always generated at equal rates.
3.6.5 Autoconfiguration

If the V.35, V.36 or RS449 interfaces are chosen for Autoconfiguration, DTE
emulation is selected. Therefore, it is only appropriate to use Autoconfigure on these
interfaces when connected via a the appropriate DTE adaptor cable to a DCE.

Clocking is set to Tx clock EXT:TC and Rx clock EXT:RC so the PF-30 will
autoconfigure on to any bit rate from 50bit/s to 2048kbit/s.

37
Operation PF-30

The autoconfigure process will determine which PRBS BERT pattern is being
received. The order tried is as for G.703, see Section 3.3.6, so in a loopback situation
15
pattern synchronisation will take place onto the 2 -1 pattern.

3.6.6 Starting/Stopping Test, Viewing Results

These procedures are as for G.703, see Section 3.3.5.

38
PF-30 Operation Reference

4. Operation Reference

4.1 Introduction
This section forms a reference to the functions, controls and features of the PF-30.
A ‘how-to’ guide to performing tests will be found in ‘How to Run Tests’ - Section 3.1.

The operation of the instrument normally involves using *Setup Menu 1* and *Setup
Menu 2* to select the setup required, followed by *Setup Menu 3* to select other
instrument and result interpretation parameters, then pressing the <Run> softkey to
start the test.

4.2 Functions Available before and During a Test


4.2.1 Backlight Control

The *Utilities Menu* controls the LCD backlight, Alarm LED latching and Remote
Operation selection.

If ON, the backlight will be illuminated with any keypress, except or . The
backlight will switch off after 20 seconds if no key is pressed, to conserve battery
power.

To view results in low ambient light conditions press the [Security] key at the centre
of the four cursor keys. In most cases this key has no effect other than to switch the
backlight on.

Notes: The backlight brightness is set low to reduce current drain. As a result the
backlight may not be visible under normal room lighting.

The backlight will not operate if there is a Low Battery condition. The setting in the
*Utilities Menu* is not affected and the backlight will operate again when the cells
have been recharged to a sufficient voltage.

4.2.2 Setting-up the Instrument

To configure the PF-30 in order to perform a test, make appropriate selections on


*Setup Menus* 1, 2 and 3. Details on menu setups for specific applications are given
in Section 3.1 - ‘How to Run Tests’.

4.2.3 Starting the Test

To run a test, press the <Run> softkey on either the *Setup Menu 3* page or one of
the *Results* pages. The test will run with the configuration set up on the *Setup
Menus*.

If certain menu settings are altered, pressing <Run> can cause a momentary
interruption to the transmitted data and clocks on the interface in use. The

39
Operation Reference PF-30

transmission will not be interrupted if no change has been made, or if only the
following items have been changed:

- Any Autoprint parameters


- Any G.821 parameters
- Any alarm settings
- Histogram resolution
- Beeper ON/OFF
- Multiframe CCITT/User.
If the <Run> key is not present, but is replaced by <lock>, the current test memory is
locked. See ‘Locking/Unlocking a Test Memory’ - Section 4.7.3.

If the warning message ‘Results of test n will be lost by running’ is displayed when
<Run> is pressed, the current test memory contains more than one hour of results.

To proceed with the test and overwrite the results, press <Run> again. Alternatively
press <Memory> to enter the *Memory* page and select a new test memory.

Figure 4.2-1 Warning of Loss of Test Results

Note: Use of the <Auto> softkey causes the PF-30 to select a new test memory each
time an Autoconfigure is attempted. If the next available test contains results, the
‘Results will be lost by Running’ warning will be given.

4.2.4 Autoconfiguration

To configure the instrument automatically, and run a test, press <Auto> on *Main
Menu*.

Select the desired interface using the softkeys presented, e.g. <G.703>, <V.11> etc.

The autoconfigure algorithm is as shown in Figure 4.2-2.

40
PF-30 Operation Reference

<AUTO>

<G.703> <V.11> <V.35> <V.36>


<V.24> <RS449>
Select
DTE
Select interface Emulatio
G.703
f
G.703
2048kbit/ As V.11
G.703 Co-
704kbit/
di ti l

Next Next
215-1tt Normal 215-1tt Normal
11
215-1 215-1
11
2 I-1 Normal
t d 2 I-1 11Normal
t d
2119 -1 2 9 -1
I 29-1t d 2 -1
I 9 t d
N 2 -1 l N 2 -1 l
I t d I t d

YES YES
Successful Successful
? ?

NO NO
YES YES
Another Another
P tt ? P tt ?

NO Run BER NO Run BER


optional
d optional
d
G.821
l G.821
l
YES t t t t
Another
I t f ?

NO

Report Report
Autoconfigur Autoconfigur
Failur Failur

END

Figure 4.2-2 Autoconfigure Algorithm

V. interfaces assume DTE emulation for the purpose of autoconfigure. Note that for
V.35, V.36 and RS449 it is necessary to use the appropriate DTE adaptor cable, see
Appendix B.

For the G.703 interface, bit rates of 2Mbit/s, 704kbit/s and Co-directional 48-512kbit/s
interfaces are tried, with each PRBS and polarity.

Note that the G.703 termination used is as set on *Setup Menu 1*. The termination
remains at the previous setting until either <Run> or <Auto> is pressed. If monitoring
directly circuits carrying live traffic, it is necessary to ensure that HI-Z impedance is set

41
Operation Reference PF-30

in *Setup Menu 1* then press <Auto>, <G.703> (or <Menu2>, <Menu3>, <Run>)
before connecting to the system under test.

The autoconfigure (or test) will fail, with no input, but the input impedance will be left
as HI-Z. Now connect to the system, and re-run <Auto>, <G.703> as before., These
precautions are not necessary when using a Protected Monitor Point, although in this
case best results will be obtained using 75/120Ω termination.

If no valid data can be found on the interface chosen, the message ‘Autoconfigure
was not successful’ will be displayed.
15
For autoconfigure in loopback situations, the test will run with 2 -1 PRBS, since this is
tried first.

4.2.5 *Timer Menu* page

As well as starting a test manually, a delayed start of a test may be programmed


using the *Timer Menu*.

A programmed duration for a manually started test may also be entered using this
menu.

Figure 4.2-3 *Timer Menu* display


Field: Value: Comment:
Start time MANUAL Test is started manually using the
<Run> softkey.
DELAYED Selects a delayed automatic start time
and date.
Note: When a delayed start has been selected, the test will
be set up and will commence as soon as <Run> is press,
BUT at the time selected for the delayed start, the results will
be reset to zero and the timed test will begin. A delayed start
is, in effect, a delayed reset, and thus allows a confidence
check test to be carried out before an important timed test.
Cursor keys Move the cursor round the screen to
edit the time and date.
Keypad Enter the time and date.
<Month> Use softkeys <S1> to <S4> and the
<-more-> softkey <S5> to select the
month.

42
PF-30 Operation Reference

Duration <CONTIN> The test will continue until terminated


by using the <Stop> softkey.
USER Sets the duration of the test in days,
hours and minutes.
1 MIN 1 minute test.
10 MIN 10 minute test.
1 HOUR 1 hour test.
10 HRS 10 hour test.
24 HRS 24 hour test.
60 HRS 60 hour test.
4.2.6 Viewing Numerical Results during a Test

To display the results pages whilst the test is running press softkey <S2>. This is
labelled as <BER>, <G.821>, <Alarm> etc, as appropriate to the test configuration.

Figure 4.2-4 Typical *Running* BER Results Page

Figure 4.2-5 Typical *Running* G.821 Results Page

See Results Reference - Section 5, for details of the Alarm and Signal results pages.

4.2.7 Viewing Histograms during a Test

To display the running histogram pages press softkey <S3> which may be labelled as
<Hist>, <Days>, <Hours> or <Mins>. To switch between the histograms for different
errors or alarms use the and cursor keys.

Pressing <S3> whilst a test is running will always display the most recent 60 DAYS,
HOURS or MINUTES of the histogram.

43
Operation Reference PF-30

The type of histogram is shown on the left-hand side of the display together with the
resolution and range of its time axis.

With MINUTES resolution the date and time range shown covers the total screen
display of 60 minutes, but with HOURS and DAYS resolution the range extends from
the leftmost column of the histogram up to, and including, the column for the current
hour or day.

The top right corner of the display contains a warning message or *Running*
indicator when a test is running.

The number of events, for example Bit Errors or seconds containing Sync Loss in any
particular day, hour or minute is given by the height of the histogram column for that
time period (see Results Reference - Section 5.7).

The histograms are updated every second and events are added as soon as they are
detected.

Figure 4.2-6 Typical MINUTES Histogram Page

The histogram pages will automatically scroll forward by half a screen whenever the
right-hand end of the time axis is exceeded.

Histogram pages cannot be scrolled manually while a test is running.

4.2.8 Viewing Setup Menus during a Test

To review the *Setup Menu* pages whilst a test is running, press the <Menus>
softkey. Further presses of <Menus> will step through the menu pages in sequence.

The *Setup Menus* will be displayed in view-only mode without a cursor as the
instrument configuration cannot be changed whilst a test is running. To alter the
setup, first stop the test, as described in ‘Stopping the Test’ - then make alterations to
the *Setup Menus*, and rerun the test.

The normal *Setup Menu 1* or *Setup Menu 2* page indicator in the top right corner
of the display is replaced by a warning message or *Running* indicator when running
a test.

44
PF-30 Operation Reference

4.2.9 Error Injection Facilities

Errors of various types can be injected during a test, for simple confidence checks, or
to allow testing of system performance in the presence of errors.

The following table summarises the available error injection modes, and their validity
in different instrument configurations

G.703 2Mbit/s HDB3/AMI Transmitter:

Single Bit, Code


Ratio Bit, Code
V. interface Transmitter:

Single Bit
Ratio Bit (Not V.24 ASYNC)
G.703 Co-directional Transmitter:

Single Bit
Ratio Bit
To inject errors during a test, use the <-more-> softkey to access a softkey line
containing the key <InjErr>.

Press the <InjErr> softkey to display one or both of the following:

<InjBit>, <InjCode>.

Logical rules are followed to determine which softkeys are presented, for example if
no BERT is taking place <InjBit> would be meaningless and so does not appear.

Press the required softkey. The softkey choices then presented will depend on the
Err Inject setting on *Setup Menu 3*.

To return to the normal softkey line from the error injection softkey lines, press
<Return>

4.2.10 Error Ratio Injection

Whilst the test is running, press the <inj Err> softkey. Softkeys for <One Error> and
<Inj Off> will be presented. Inject single errors using the <One Error> key if a
confidence test of the connection through the network is required.

To inject at a particular ratio, use the <-more-> softkey to access a choice of ratio
softkeys e.g. <1E-3>. Press the appropriate softkey. The message box [A] will
display *Inject BER (or Code) 10-n* as appropriate.

45
Operation Reference PF-30

Injection will continue even if the <Return> softkey is used to return to the normal
softkey lines. To cancel, for example, bit error injection, press <InjErr>, <InjBit>,
<InjOff>.

For bit and code errors the ratio refers to the injected error rate divided by the
transmitted line rate.

HDB3/AMI code errors are injected where the transmitted data includes four
consecutive zeros. If the transmitted data does not include this sequence then no
code errors will be injected.

4.2.11 Stopping the Test

A running test can be stopped at any time before it reaches its set duration by
pressing the <Stop> softkey or the key, either of which will halt the test and store
the results in the current test memory.

The <Stop> softkey will also display the results pages.

The PF-30 will automatically perform the equivalent of a <Stop> keypress whenever a
timer controlled test reaches its set duration. This will be followed approximately four
minutes later by an automatic switch-off of the instrument if no further key is pressed.

Notes: When a test is stopped either manually or automatically the test results are
stored in the current test memory.

If the instrument is switched off whilst running a test, either manually or automatically
due to a low battery charge condition, that test will be abandoned without storing any
results and the current test memory will be cleared.

4.2.12 Resetting the Test

The results of a running test may be reset at any time by pressing the <Reset>
softkey. This has the effect of clearing all the results obtained so far for that test, and
resetting any latched LEDs to off.

The duration timer, if in use, is reset back to its initial condition.

4.2.13 Locking the Keyboard

To lock the keyboard press [Security] then [1]. To unlock the keyboard press
[Security] followed by [0].

Notes: is still operative even if the keyboard is locked. The PF-30 will default to
‘unlocked’ if switched OFF then ON.

46
PF-30 Operation Reference

4.3 Error and Alarm Indication


Nine LEDs [B] located below the LCD screen indicate the presence of alarms and
errors:

- No Signal/No Clock
- All ones
- All zeros
- Slip
- Bit error
- Sync loss
- Code error
- Character error.
Yellow LED to indicate Low Battery.

To enable reporting of individual alarms and errors select <USER> at the ‘Alarms’
field of *Setup Menu 3*. The *Alarm Display* submenu will be presented, showing
the valid alarms for the current configuration. Alarms will be reported if set ON.

Notes: If an alarm is set OFF, no warning indications will be given, but seconds of
alarm and occurrence of errors will still be recorded in the numerical results and
histograms.

The No Signal alarm does not appear on the *Alarm Display*, it is always set to ON.

Use the LED Latching field of the *Utilities Menu* to select latching or non-latching
behaviour for the LEDs. If latching is selected, any LED that is illuminated remains on
until <Stop> then <Run> are pressed, or <Reset> is pressed.

In addition two LEDs are provided ([C] and [D]) to give a summary of error and alarm
indication whilst the test is running:

Red LED, [C] Indicates the occurrence of alarm or error events enabled on
the *Alarm Display* submenu
Green LED, [D] When illuminated the green LED indicates that no enabled
errors or alarms are active.
LEDs [C] and [D] are always non-latching.

The PF-30 beeper may be programmed to sound, simultaneously to the illumination of


the red LED [C]. To enable the beeper, select ‘Beeper’ ON on *Setup Menu 3*.

A warning message to indicate which error or alarm has occurred can be programmed
to appear on the LCD.

47
Operation Reference PF-30

The errors and alarms which can be indicated by the LEDs, Beeper and LCD
message depends on the test configuration selected for the test.

4.4 Displaying the Results from a Completed Test


The G.821, BER, Alarms or Histogram results pages for a completed test are normally
displayed at the end of a test. They can also be displayed by pressing the <Results>
softkey on either the *Main Menu* or the *Test Memory* pages.

To switch between the results, press softkeys <S2> and <S3> and the and
cursor keys in the same way as for the results pages whilst the test is running
(described above).

In addition, the results can be printed in graphical or tabular form, using the <Print>
softkey.

The results pages for a completed test have the same appearance as the *Running*
results pages, apart from having *Results* indicator in the top right corner of the
display rather than *Running*.

Figure 4.4-1 Typical DAYS Histogram Page

4.4.1 Histogram Results

The histogram results for a completed test will contain basic histograms for each
relevant result. Referring to ‘Numerical Results and Histogram Storage’ in Section 4.5
following, the basic histograms comprise:

* A set of DAYS histogram pages showing the most recent 60 days of errors and
alarms, with one day resolution.
* A set of HOURS histogram pages showing the most recent 60 hours of errors
and alarms, with one hour resolution.
Additional results will have been stored, at a resolution dependant on the setting of
the ‘Resolution’ field on *Setup Menu 3*.

The maximum amount of additional results stored is determined by the free pool
space which the test was able to seize at the start of the test. If no space was
available, no additional results will have been stored.

48
PF-30 Operation Reference

4.4.2 Histograms from a Test with DAYS/HOURS Resolution

The results of a test run with ‘Resolution’ set to DAYS/HRS consist of DAYS
histograms and HOURS histograms.

To display the DAYS histograms press <Hist> then <Days>. To display the
histogram for each different result press the or cursor keys.

To scroll forward and backward through the DAYS histograms use the and
cursor keys.

To switch to the HOURS histograms press <Keys> then <Hours>.

4.4.3 Zooming-in from DAYS to HOURS Histograms

If more than 60 hours of additional results at 1 hour resolution have been acquired,
the DAYS (HOURS) histograms incorporate a time axis cursor which shows as a
break in the scaling at the base of the histogram thus: .

This time axis cursor is a pointer to a time in the additional histogram data. When
<Hours> is pressed, the HOURS histogram for the time period covered by the cursor
is displayed.

To ‘zoom-in’ on a particular 60 hour period therefore, position the time axis cursor, on
the DAYS histogram page, at the time of interest. Now press <Keys>, <Hours>. The
required 60 hour section of the HOURS histogram will be displayed.

To scroll the HOURS histogram, use the Cursor Left and Right keys as normal.

Note: The range of movement of the time axis cursor on the DAYS histograms is
governed by the duration of the HOURS histograms. This in turn depends on the
amount of additional results pool space associated with the current test memory.

The cursor can move between the end of the test and the start of the additional
HOURS results. Remember that when the available pool space is exceeded during
the test, the latest additional results are always stored, whilst the oldest results are
discarded.

If no additional results were stored because the test was less than 60 hours or there
was no pool space available, the time axis cursor is not provided. The HOURS
histograms when displayed will be only the basic 60 hours in duration - one screenful -
and so cannot be scrolled.

4.4.4 Histograms from a Test with HOURS/MINS Resolution

The results of a test run with ‘Resolution’ set to HRS/MINS consist of DAYS
histograms, HOURS histograms, and if pool space was available, MINS histograms.

To display the DAYS histograms press <Hist> then <Days>. To display the
histogram for each different result press the or cursor keys.

49
Operation Reference PF-30

To scroll forward and backward through the DAYS histograms use the and
cursor keys.

To switch to the HOURS histograms press <Keys> then <Hours>.

4.4.5 Zooming in from HOURS to MINS Histograms

If more than 60 minutes of additional results at 1 minute resolution have been


acquired, notice that a small section of the time axis is blanked out on the HOURS
histogram.

This time axis cursor is a pointer to a time in the additional histogram data. When
<Mins> is pressed, the MINS histogram for the time period covered by the cursor is
displayed.

To ‘zoom in’ on a particular 60 minute period therefore, position the time axis cursor,
on the HOURS histogram page, at the time of interest. Now press <Keys>, <Mins>.
The required 60 minute section of the MINS histogram will be displayed.

To scroll the MINS histogram, use the and cursor keys as normal.

Note: The range of movement of the time axis cursor on the HOURS histograms is
governed by the duration of the MINS histograms. This in turn depends on the
amount of additional results pool space associated with the current test memory.

The cursor can move between the end of the test and the start of the additional MINS
results. Remember that when the available pool space is exceeded during the test,
the latest additional results are always stored, whilst the oldest results are discarded.

If no additional results were stored because the test was less than 60 minutes or there
was no pool space available, the time axis cursor is not provided. The MINS
histograms when displayed will be only the basic 60 hours in duration - one screenful -
and so cannot be scrolled.

4.5 Numerical Results and Histogram Storage Space


4.5.1 Basic Results Storage

Each test memory may store the following basic data. Some tests may not require for
example BER results, if a Bit Error Rate test was not performed. However, items (d),
(e) and (f) are always stored.

a. The *BER Results* page for the whole test.


b. The *G821 Results* page for the whole test.
c. The *Alarm Results* page for the whole test.
d. A record of the instrument configuration used for the test.

50
PF-30 Operation Reference

e. A set of DAYS histogram pages showing the most recent 60 days of errors and
alarms, with one day resolution.
f. A set of HOURS histogram pages showing the most recent 60 hours of errors
and alarms, with one hour resolution.
4.5.2 Additional Histogram Storage

In addition to the basic histogram results above, additional high resolution histogram
data can be stored. The resolution to which this data is stored is either Hours or
Minutes. The resolution is chosen before the test is run by the setting of the
‘Resolution’ field in *Setup Menu 3*:

Resolution DAYS/HRS Additional data is stored as


histograms with HOURS resolution.
Up to 60 days worth of additional data
can be stored.
Resolution HRS/MINS Additional data is stored as
histograms with MINS resolution.
Up to 60 hours worth of additional
data can be stored.
4.5.3 Shared Histogram Pool Space

The absolute upper limit to the amount of additional histogram results stored in a test
memory is 60 days of HOURS results, or 60 hours of MINS results.

There is however a further restriction:

The additional histogram storage space of the PF-30 exists as two pools of memory,
one of 60 days of HOURS results space, one of 60 hours of MINS space.

Space from each of these pools is allocated on demand to the currently selected test
memory, whilst a test is running. Which pool is chosen depends on the setting of the
‘Resolution’ field of *Setup Menu 3*. For example, with DAYS/HRS resolution, space
from the HOURS pool will be allocated.

On conclusion of the test, some of the HOURS pool space will have been used up, to
store the additional HOURS histogram data relating to the test just run.

Subsequent tests run at the same resolution setting will therefore have less pool
space available for storage of additional data.

The absolute upper limits given above for additional results storage refer to a test
using the entire pool space at a particular resolution.

4.5.4 Management of Histogram Pool Space

The additional storage which has been used by a test memory is shown at the top left
of the *Results Memory* page, when the test memory is selected using the cursor.

51
Operation Reference PF-30

This will be either HRS pool space or MINS, since only one or the other is allocated to
a given test.

The current free space in each pool is shown at the upper right of the screen.

To release pool storage space for use by subsequent tests, press the <Clr Hrs> or
<Clr Mins> softkey, which will be presented as appropriate, when the memory is
selected with the cursor.

This will clear the pool space allocated to the test, thereby increasing the free space
available to subsequent tests, but will NOT affect the basic results stored in the
selected test memory.

4.5.5 Tests with Limited Histogram Pool Space

If previous tests have used up the additional results pool space of a certain resolution,
the pool space available to the current test may be exceeded during the test.

If this case arises, the oldest additional data for the test is discarded, as the latest
additional data is stored. In this way the additional data consists of the latest possible
results.

If no additional results storage of the selected resolution is available at the start of the
test, the test may still be run, but no additional results can be stored.

Notes: Note that 1 hour of MINS histograms are always displayed during the test, and
when <Stop> is pressed, regardless of what ‘Resolution’ has been selected.

These results are, however, volatile. If no pool MINS space is available to the test, or
if resolution is set to DAYS/HRS, the 1 hour of MINS data is lost when a new test
memory is selected.

4.5.6 Recalling the Demonstration Results

The software of the PF-30 incorporates a set of demonstration results. These may be
installed in a test memory, and take the form of a ten day test exactly as if it had
actually been run. The Demo results are labelled with the fictional date ‘0:00 1 Jan
1990’.

To install the Demo results use the cursor keys [4] to select an empty test memory. If
there are no memory locations available, use <Delete> to remove the stored results
from one of the test memories. Press the <Demo> softkey; this will recall the
demonstration results and insert them into the selected test memory.

This facility is provided for training purposes and may be used to demonstrate
features such as histogram scrolling and results printing. The demonstration results
cannot be locked and are not subject to the usual safeguards to prevent overwriting.

52
PF-30 Operation Reference

4.6 Saving and recalling Instrument Configurations


‘How To Run Tests’ - Section 3.1 provides a step-by-step guide to setting up the PF-
30 to test each of the possible interfaces. In addition to setting a new configuration
using the *Setup Menu* pages, or by using the <Auto> softkey, the user can:

a. Use the previous configuration.


b. Use a stored configuration.
4.6.1 Using the Previous Configuration

When the PF-30 is switched on the configuration is as it was immediately before the
instrument was last switched off.

To run a test using the previous configuration, simply press the <Run> softkey on the
*Setup Menu 3* page.

4.6.2 Using a Stored Configuration

Configurations which have been previously stored for re-use may be accessed from
the *Main Menu* page or from results pages by using the <Stores> softkey.

The *Stores* page lists stored configurations with titles consisting of abbreviated
keywords from *Setup Menu 1* and *Setup Menu 2* pages.

Figure 4.6-1 Typical *Stores* page

To recall a stored configuration move the cursor to the appropriate store and press
the <Recall> softkey.

This will install the stored configuration as the current configuration and display the
*Setup Menu 1* page, which can then be edited if necessary.

Note: <Recall>, <Lock> and <Delete> softkeys only appear when there is a
configuration stored in the memory indicated by the cursor.

4.6.3 Storing the Instrument Configuration

The current instrument configuration can be stored for re-use at a later time by using
the facilities of the *Stores* page. Access the *Stores* page using the <Stores>
softkey on *Main Menu* or any results page.

53
Operation Reference PF-30

There are eight non-volatile stores available for saving instrument configurations.
Access these by moving the cursor round the display using the cursor keys [4].

To save the current configuration, move the cursor to an empty store and press the
<Save> softkey.

Once the configuration has been saved, the store can be ‘locked’ to prevent
accidental erasure or overwriting. To lock the store, return the cursor to the store and
press the <Lock> softkey.

Stored configurations which are no longer required may be deleted by pressing the
<Delete> softkey or overwritten with the current configuration by pressing the <Save>
softkey.

Stores which have been locked cannot be over-written or deleted unless they are first
unlocked. To unlock the store press the [Security] key (located at the centre of the
cursor keys [4]) followed by softkey <S6>.

4.7 Saving and recalling the Results of a Test


The PF-30 has eight test memories, which can be used to store the results of eight
different tests for analysis or printing at a later time.

Each memory may contain both the results of the test and the instrument setup used
to perform the test.

4.7.1 How the Test Memories are Used

The results of a test which is run are always stored into one of the eight available test
memories.

The <Results> softkey label appears on the *Main Menu* softkey line only if the
current test memory contains stored results. If the memory is locked, so no further
results can be stored the word ‘(locked)’ appears.

4.7.2 Storing the Results of a Test

To select a new test memory for the storage of results, edit the ‘Current Test’ field in
*Setup Menu 3*. Alternatively, select a memory on the *Test Memory* page. This
page can be accessed by pressing the <Memory> softkey on the *Main Menu* page,
or on any of the *Results* pages.

54
PF-30 Operation Reference

Figure 4.7-1 Typical *Test Memory* page

The *Test Memory* page shows the status of the eight test memories. Those which
contain stored test results are labelled with the time and date of the start of the test.

Use the cursor keys [4] to move the cursor to point to the required memory. This
selects the memory for use.

Once a test memory has been selected, results obtained from then on will be stored in
that test memory.

When repeated short tests are run, each new set of results will overwrite the previous
set in the current test memory, without warning.

If, however, the current test memory contains results of a test of duration 1 hour or
more, a warning message ‘The results of Test n will be lost by running’ will be
given when the <Run> key is pressed.

To proceed with the test and overwrite the results, press <Run> again. Alternatively
press <Memory> to enter the *Memory* page and select a new test memory.

4.7.3 Locking/Unlocking a Test Memory

To lock the contents of a test memory against accidental erasure or overwriting, select
the memory on the *Test Memory* page, and press <Lock>.

If the current test memory is locked, the <Run> softkey normally expected in *Setup
Menu 3* will be replaced by (Lock). The PF-30 will refuse to run unless a new test
memory is selected, or the locked memory is unlocked.

To unlock a locked test memory, select the memory on the *Test Memory* page and
press the [Security] key (centre of cursor keys [4]) followed by <S6>.

4.7.4 Recalling the Results of a Test

To recall stored test results for analysis or printing, press the <Results> softkey. This
will display the results contained in the test memory currently selected, exactly as if
that test had just been stopped.

To view each page of the recalled results use the <Hist>, <BER>, <Alarm>, <G.821>
etc. softkeys as normal.

55
Operation Reference PF-30

The <Res+Setup> softkey has a similar function to <Results>, but also recalls the full
instrument setup which was used to obtain the stored results.

4.8 Printing-out Results


4.8.1 Manually Setting the Printer Configuration

A serial printer may be connected to the V.24 port [21] at the rear of the instrument.
Port [21] is wired as a DTE, so a null-modem cable such as Acterna K1500 will be
required for most printers.

Note: The V.24 port is also used for V.24 BERT testing. Make sure that a V.24
BERT is not running before connecting the printer, or the BERT pattern may be
printed. This can result in a considerable waste of paper. Refer to ‘How to Perform
Tests’ for more information on V.24 testing.

For a successful printout of results, the PF-30 printer configuration must match that of
the printer to be used.

To set up the PF-30 for use with a particular printer, use the *Printer Menu*,
accessed from the *Main Menu* by pressing the <Printer> softkey. The setup is as
follows:

Field: Value: Comment:


Printer UNKNOWN Most printers with a V.24/RS232
serial interface.
EPSON FX Epson FX printer with V.24/RS232
serial interface or other printers
supporting IBM PC extended
character set.
Baud rate 300...19200 300 - 19200 baud.
TX disable CTS Uses CTS flow control. Stops
sending if CTS (pin 5) is OFF (-5V to -
12V).
XON/XOFF Uses XON/XOFF flow control.
NONE No flow control.
SLOW Sends characters at 8 chars/second
regardless of the baud rate selected.
Bits/char 7 7 data bits per character.
8 8 data bits per character.
Parity NONE No parity bit.
EVEN Even parity.
ODD Odd parity.

56
PF-30 Operation Reference

The following selections only appear when 7 bits per character is selected:

MARK Set parity bit to 1.


SPACE Set parity bit to 0.

Figure 4.8-1 Typical *Printer Menu* Page

To test correct operation of the printer, press the <Test> softkey. This will send a line
of text to the printer repeatedly until <Stop> is pressed.

4.8.2 Printer Auto Function

The PF-30 can be auto-configured to match the unknown setup of an available


printer. Press the <Auto> softkey on the *Printer Menu* page.

Printer Autoconfigure works by sending the printer the following test line with different
settings of Baud rate, Parity and Bits/char.

BAUD RATE: XXXXX , PARITY: YYYY , BITS/CHAR: Z

All the possible combinations of Baud rate, Parity and Bits/char are tested with the
Printer option set to UNKNOWN and the Tx disable option set to NONE.
ìèìèʵ¶Ê§¿Ï¥¦•»Ïxjbkzxuy©Åú¶üýרüÍ«ý¬×ØÌúý¶¿ý¼¥¦¥¦¼»¥¦¼
ð£èôä¦æçëê·õ²²·²Ë²²²²õ·õËËÉÉÉ÷¯¼¯îèî¯èôëíôæìéé ðêî¯ôîè¯
÷öó³Ö³÷öùÀðõ÷ɯéî÷îññÉíð÷÷öñXöêñûîî÷
BAUD RATE : 9600 , PARITY : SPACE, BITS/CHAR : 7
Figure 4.8-2 Typical Printout from the Printer Auto Function

If the correct configuration is found it will show up on the printer as a readable line of
text giving the required settings.

To stop the Autoconfigure, press the <Stop> softkey, It may also be advisable to turn
the printer off to clear its buffer.

Once the correct settings have been selected on the *Printer Menu*, use the <Test>
softkey to send the following test lines to the printer.

57
Operation Reference PF-30

The test lines will continue until the <Stop> softkey is pressed:
!”£$%&‘()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
QRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_’abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}
!”£$%&‘()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
QRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_’abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}
!”£$%&‘()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
QRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_’abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}
Figure 4.8-3 Test Lines Printout

Refer to Troubleshooting, Section 6, of this manual if the printer fails to print the test
lines as expected.

4.8.3 Numeric Results Printout

To print out the numeric results for a test whilst the test is running, or after it has been
stopped, press the <Print> softkey on one of the numeric results pages.

This will produce a printout which combines the following:

a. A heading with the time of printing.


b. The BER and Alarm results.
c. The G.821 results.
4.8.4 Histogram Results Printout

To print out the histograms for a test whilst the test is running, or after it has been
stopped, press the <Print> softkey on one of the histogram pages. Further softkey
choices will be presented:

The <Histogram> softkey will produce a printed histogram of the errors or alarms for
the particular time span and resolution being displayed on the screen.

The <Table> softkey will produce a table of numerical results for all alarms and errors
for the particular timespan and resolution selected.

Note: The table is a text representation of the histogram results. Because of this the
numbers against each time period for number of errors are PSEUDO LOGARITHMIC,
as they represent the column heights of the histogram.

This means that the sum of column heights for a particular error during a test will not
agree with the numeric total for that error, if the column height has ever exceeded 10.

Refer to Results Reference - Section 5 for further explanation of results and


histograms.

4.8.5 Instrument Configuration Printout

To print out the instrument configuration, press <Print> whilst setup menus are on
display during the test, or on *Setup Menu 3* when the test is stopped.

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PF-30 Operation Reference

4.8.6 Autoprint

To enable the autoprinting of error and alarm events, select ‘Autoprint’ ON on *Setup
Menu 3*. The *Autoprint Menu* will be displayed. Set ‘Autoprint on alarm events’
and ‘Autoprint numerical totals’ ON or OFF as required.

The exact Alarms which may be Autoprinted depends on the test configuration
selected. See ‘How to Perform Tests’ - Section 3.1 for more details.

Alarms are autoprinted as they occur. The start and stop time for each alarm event is
shown.

To define the time interval between Autoprints of numerical totals, select Autoprint
numerical totals ON, then set the time interval as required.

‘If Reset totals on autoprint’ is set ON, a reset of the totals, equivalent to pressing the
<Reset> softkey, will occur after each printout. This allows the performance of a
series of tests of equal duration.

Autoprinting can be programmed at selected time intervals up to 99 hours and 59


minutes with a resolution of 1 minute.

4.9 Remote Operation


4.9.1 Remote Operation Mode

Remote operation is intended to allow for simple manipulation of the PF-30 using a
terminal or PTS-120 software package.

Operation at the remote terminal is largely similar to operation at the instrument


keyboard.

All significant functions of the PF-30 may be operated remotely via the V.24 port [21],
the port is wired as a DTE. Port [21] should be connected to a terminal or computer
either directly using a null modem cable or for remote operation using a data
communications link.

The baud rate etc. for remote operation is as set up on the *Printer* menu, (see
Section 4.8.1).

To place the PF-30 in remote operation mode select Remote Operation ON on the
*Utilities Menu*. The screen and keyboard will continue to operate normally.
Remote operation is indicated by the * symbol (as in *Setup Menu 1* ) changing to
(Up Arrow).

Notes: Any instrument configuration which uses the V.24 interface for BER testing
will be inhibited if remote operation is enabled.

59
Operation Reference PF-30

If Remote Operation is turned on whilst one of these configurations is selected on


the *Setup Menus*, the configuration will default to one which does not use the V.24
port.

The terminal will display PF-30 screens while the terminal keyboard may be used to
remotely provide the following functions:

0 to 9 - numerals 0 to 9
QWERTY - equivalent to softkeys <S1> to <S6> respectively
Z - equivalent to key
I - equivalent to cursor key
J - equivalent to cursor key
K - equivalent to cursor key
M - equivalent to cursor key
S - equivalent to [Security] key.
Note: The display will be enhanced by using an ANSI compatible terminal which will
respond to the home cursor command as sent by the PF-30:

<ESC>

H.

Under remote operation the automatic switch-off function is disabled.

To display the contents of an alarm or error histogram under remote operation, select
the required histogram and press terminal key ‘R’ (<Print>).

To escape from remote operation mode, select Remote Operation OFF on the
*Utilities Menu*.

Note: Do not change the *Printer* menu parameters whilst in remote operation
mode. This will change the V.24 interface parameters and so stop communication
with the PF-30!

PTS-120, a software package for the IBM-PC, may be used to enhance the remote
operation of the PF-30.

4.9.2 Control Language

Details for V.24 Remote Control of the PF-30 using a ‘command - response’ language
are available separately. Please contact your local Acterna Sales Organisation for
further information.

60
PF-30 Operation Reference

4.10 Self Test


4.10.1 Power-on Self Check

The PF-30 performs a comprehensive self-check procedure at switch-on. The unit


‘beeps’, performs the checks and, if all is well, ‘beeps’ again and then displays the
*Main Menu*. If a serious fault is detected the LEDs [B] and [C] will be illuminated as
follows:

Red LED flashing, green LED off ROM checksum


Red LED off, green LED flashing 3020 Xilinx
Red and green LEDs flashing alternately RAM check
Red and green LEDs flash together Screen controller
Red on, green flashing Screen RAM
If any of the above conditions occur use of the instrument cannot be continued.

If a less serious fault is detected then one of the following fault code numbers will be
displayed on the LCD and the instrument will not ‘beep’ again:

1 Real time clock


2 (reserved)
3 Counter timer IC
4 Low battery circuitry
5 (reserved)
6 Dallas IC
7 Main Xilinx/W&G BERT gate array
8 NMI
9 Instrument internal identity number
Use of the instrument cannot be continued unless the user presses the [Security] key
followed by the key.

Faults indicated by the above codes cannot be rectified by the user. If any of these
faults are indicated the instrument must be returned to a Acterna Service Department
for service.

4.10.2 User Self Test

To access the user self test, press <SelfT> on the *Main Menu*. This will display the
*Self Test* menu.

If the <Keybd> softkey is pressed, the display will prompt you to press each of the
keys. As a key is pressed the LCD will display the key title. The Contrast and ON/OFF
keys are not included, as their operation is self-evident.

61
Operation Reference PF-30

To return to the *Self Test* menu press softkey <S6> twice. If <Screen-1> is now
pressed, a 7-step routine will run demonstrating the various display characteristics
such as the red and green LEDs [C] and [D], pixel activation and the complete font of
characters used.

If <Screen-2> is pressed, the yellow and red LEDs [B] will be demonstrated and the
backlight will be switched on and off.

On completing this routine the display reverts to the *Self Test* menu page. Press
<Return> to return to the *Main Menu*.

62
PF-30 Results Reference

5. Results Reference

5.1 Introduction
The following sections are intended to provide a reference to the many types of error
and alarm results displayed and stored by the PF-30. For details of how to display,
store and recall results, refer to Operation Reference, Section 4.

All measurements made by the PF-30 are based on fixed time intervals of one second
which are synchronised with the internal real-time clock. The first second to be
counted in any test is the first second for which synchronisation is achieved or, if
synchronisation is not achieved within the first eight seconds, the ninth second after
the <Run> key is pressed.

The actual results parameters that are displayed and/or printed are dependent on the
configuration of the PF-30. Invalid parameters are not displayed or printed.

5.2 Error and Alarm Hierarchy


The errors and alarms of the PF-30 are arranged in a hierarchy, such that if high
priority alarms are present, lower priority alarms may not be signalled via the LEDs,
Beeper and LCD message box.

This arrangement prevents spurious alarm indication, where the lower priority alarm is
either invalid in the presence of the higher priority alarm, or is in fact caused by the
higher priority alarm.

5.2.1 Alarms

Alarms are counted in complete seconds. If an alarm condition is detected during a


second (even briefly), then the alarm will be considered as present for the complete
second.

Additionally if adjacent seconds are found to be free of the alarm, but have errors or
alarms lower in the hierarchy, then the alarm will be considered to be present in those
seconds also.

This is to prevent false errors being counted. For example, bit errors as a result of
resynchronisation, where bit errors might be found in a second immediately following
a Sync-loss second. The Sync-loss will be extended into the second with bit errors,
so the bit errors will not be counted.

5.2.2 Errors

The absolute number of errors is counted, unless an alarm of higher precedence is


active, e.g. code errors are inhibited by No Signal.

63
Results Reference PF-30

5.2.3 Definitions of alarms and errors


No Signal/No Clock Alarm
HDB3/AMI More than 31 consecutive bit periods with no pulse.
or
Signal level less than approximately 40dB.
Co-directional Signal level less than approx 35dB.
or
Less than 50 clocks received in one second.
V.24 Async Less than 40 data bits received in one second.
For all other interfaces, (V.11, V.35 etc) this alarm is:
'No Clock' Less than 50 clocks received in one second.

AIS ALARM
HDB3/AMI Received data is divided into 512-bit sections.AIS is
declared if at least 509 bits are 1.
Co-directional More than 31 consecutive 1s received.

ALL ONES ALARM


More than 31 consecutive ones in the received BERT
pattern.

ALL ZEROS ALARM


More than 31 consecutive zeros in the received BERT
pattern.

SYNC LOSS ALARM


PRBS More than 1 in 3 errors over a one second period.
Fixed pattern:
WORD, BYTE More than 1 in 20 errors over a one second period.
Quick Brown Fox Sixteen consecutive character errors.

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PF-30 Results Reference

BYTE SYNC LOSS ALARM


If the byte pattern is correct but is out of byte alignment or
if the byte pattern is momentarily errored, Byte Sync Loss
is declared.

SLIP ALARM
If a slip is detected in a PRBS pattern (any number of bits)
a slip alarm is declared.

BIT ERROR
Bit of received PRBS, fixed pattern, programmable byte,
word or QBF message received in error.

CODE ERROR
HDB3 Violation with the same polarity as the preceding violation
or a violation not preceded by two zeros.
AMI Pulse with same polarity as the preceding pulse (bipolar
violation).

BLOCK ERROR
One or more errors in a block of 1000 bits or length of
PRBS.

CHARACTER ERROR
V.24 (Async only) If any data bit in a character is received in error, a
Character Error is recorded.

PARITY ERROR
V.24 (Async only) If the parity of a received character is incorrect, a Parity
Error is recorded.

65
Results Reference PF-30

5.2.4 Hierarchy Diagrams


BOLD CAPITALS: Alarm, recorded as a ‘seconds of’ count.
Normal Text: Error, recorded as an absolute count.
Italics: Absolute count.
HIGHEST PRIORITY

NO Tota
SIGNAL Seconds
l

Line Rate SYNC Parit


LOSS Error

SLIP

Rx Bits Bit Rate Bit Characte


Error Error

LOWEST PRIORITY
Figure 5.2-2 Hierarchy, V.24 Async

HIGHEST PRIORITY

Tota NO
Seconds
l SIGNAL

Code
Line AIS Error

ALL ALL
ONES ZEROS

SYNC
LOSS

SLIP

BYTE
Rx Bit Rate Bit Block SYNC
i Error Error LOSS
LOWEST PRIORITY
Figure 5.2-3 Hierarchy, G.703

66
PF-30 Results Reference

HIGHEST PRIORITY

Tota NO
Seconds
l CLOCK

ALL ALL
ONES ZEROS Line Rate

SYNC
LOSS

SLIP

Block BYTE
Rx Bits Bit Bit SYNC
Error Error
LOSS

LOWEST PRIORITY
Figure 5.2-4 Hierarchy, V. interfaces

5.3 The *BER Results* Page

Figure 5.3-1 Typical *BER Results* Page

Total seconds The total number of seconds elapsed since the start of the test.
Line rate Number of incoming clocks in the last second.
Total bits The total number of bits received excluding seconds of No
signal, AIS, Sync Loss, All ones, All zeros, Slip.
Bit errors The total number of bit errors received excluding seconds of No
clock, No signal, AIS, Sync Loss, All ones, All zeros, Slip.
Bit error ratio (BER) Total errors divided by total bits as defined above.
Code errors The total number of code errors received excluding seconds of
No signal.
Code error ratio Total code errors divided by total clocks received excluding
seconds of No signal.

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Results Reference PF-30

Block errors The total number of errored blocks received excluding seconds
of No signal, AIS, Sync Loss, All ones, All zeros, Slip.
Block error ratio (BLER) Total block errors divided by (total bits times block length).
Char errors The total number of errored characters received excluding
seconds of No clock, Sync Loss and Slip.
Char Rate The total number of characters received in the current second.
Parity errors The total number of parity errors received.
Bit Rate The total number of BERT bits received during the test excluding
seconds of No signal, No clock, AIS, Sync Loss, All zeros, Slip
divided by 60.

5.4 The *G.821 Results* Page

Figure 5.4-1 Typical *G.821 Results* Page

The G.821 Results page is updated ten seconds later than the BER Results page to
allow for the determination of Available and Unavailable seconds as defined in CCITT
Recommendation G.821.

Error free secs The error free seconds occurring in available time expressed as
a total number and as a percentage of the available time.
An error free second (EFS) is defined as any fixed one second interval which has not
been classified as an errored second.

Errored secs The errored seconds occurring in available time expressed as a


total number and as a percentage of the available time.
An errored second (ES) is defined as a fixed one second interval containing one or
more errors, unless the ‘normalise 64k’ option is used in which case errored seconds
are calculated as detailed in CCITT Recommendation G.821, Annex D.

Sev errored secs The severely errored seconds occurring in available time
expressed as a total number and as a percentage of the
available time.
A severely errored second (SES) is defined as a fixed one second interval with a bit
-3
error ratio greater than 1.00 x 10 , unless the threshold is redefined in the *G.821
Menu*.

68
PF-30 Results Reference

If the ‘Alarm seconds’ option on the *G.821 Menu* page is set to <SEV ERR SECS>,
then seconds which contain an alarm state will be treated as severely errored
seconds. If the option is set to <IGNORE>, then these seconds will be completely
excluded from the calculation of the G.821 results.

Severely errored seconds are also counted as errored seconds.

Degraded mins The degraded minutes expressed as a total and as a percentage


of the total number of G.821 ‘minutes’.
A minute is defined in G.821 as a group of 60 one second measurement intervals
assembled in chronological order after the removal of any severely errored seconds
and periods of unavailable time.

A degraded minute is then defined as a minute having a bit error ratio greater than
-6
1.00 x 10 (unless redefined in *G.821 Menu*), except at a bit rate of 64 kbit/s where:

For practical reasons, at 64kbit/s, a minute containing 4 errors (equivalent to an error


-6
ratio of 1.04 x 10 ) is not considered degraded. However, this does not imply
-6
relaxation of the error ratio objective of 1.00 x 10 .

[CCITT Recommendation G.821 Section 2, Note 4]

At all measured bit rates apart from 64kbit/s (±14 bit/s), the PF-30 calculates the bit
error ratio for a particular minute and classifies it as a degraded minute if the
threshold is exceeded. If the measured bit rate is 64kbit/s (±14bit/s) and the degraded
minutes threshold is set to 1.0E-6 or CCITT, the PF-30 classifies a minute containing
4 errors or less as a non-degraded minute.

If there is an incomplete minute at the end of the test it is rounded up for classification
purposes by assuming that the rest of the minute contained only error free seconds.

CCITT Recommendation G.821, Annex B defines the percentage of degraded


minutes as:

Degraded Minutes x 100%


Available Time (s)/60

where (available time/60) is rounded to the next higher integer.

The PF-30 uses the same method to calculate the percentage of non-degraded
minutes.

Note, however, that by definition all severely errored seconds are excluded from the
degraded and non-degraded minutes, whereas only those severely errored seconds
occurring in unavailable time are excluded from the available time. For this reason,
the percentage for degraded and non-degraded minutes will not always add up to
100%.

69
Results Reference PF-30

Available time The available time expressed as a total number of seconds and
as a percentage of the available time plus the unavailable time.
Unavailable time The unavailable time expressed as a total number of seconds
and as a percentage of the available time plus the unavailable
time.
A period of unavailable time begins when the bit error ratio (BER) in each second is
-3
greater than 1.00 x 10 (or programmable) for a period of ten consecutive seconds
(i.e. ten severely errored seconds). These ten seconds are considered to be included
in the period of unavailable time.

A new period of available time begins with the first of ten consecutive seconds each of
-3
which has a BER of less than or equal to 1.00 x 10 (or programmable), i.e. ten non-
severely errored seconds.

In both cases the change of state occurs at the beginning of the ten second period
and the ten seconds are included in the new state. Thus it is not always possible to
count a particular second as available time or unavailable time until the next nine
seconds have been processed. For this reason the PF-30 displays its *Running*
G.821 Results page with a fixed ten second delay.

If G.821 results are printed while a test is running, the most recent ten seconds of the
test will be excluded from the G.821 results due to the fixed ten second delay. This
can lead to misinterpretation of the results when, for example, a short autoprint
interval (say 1 minute) is used in conjunction with resetting totals on autoprint.

At the end of the test the final ten seconds are included in the G.821 results.

Seconds which are counted as unavailable time are completely excluded from the
calculation of other G.821 results.

Pass/Fail This is used with errored seconds, severely errored seconds and
degraded minutes to indicate that the network section under test
has met the Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX) error
performance objectives set.
Performance objectives are calculated as follows:

Degraded minutes 10 x HRX / 100%.


Severely errored seconds 0.1 + (0.1 x HRX / 100)%.
Errored seconds 8 x HRX / 100%.
Additional results available when using a printer:

Non-severely errored seconds The non-severely errored seconds occurring in


available time expressed as a total number and
as a percentage of the available time.
Non-degraded minutes The non-degraded minutes expressed as a total and as a
percentage of the total number of the G.821 results.

70
PF-30 Results Reference

5.5 The *Alarm Results* Page

Figure 5.5-1 Typical *Alarm Results* Page

No Signal The total number of seconds when there was no signal.


No Clock The total number of seconds when there was no clock present
(clock <50 bit/s).
AIS The total number of seconds during which an AIS was detected.
All ones The total number of seconds during which All ones were
detected.
All zeros The total number of seconds during which All zeros were
detected.
Sync loss The total number of seconds during which a loss of
synchronisation was detected.
Slips The total number of seconds during which slips were detected,
(PRBS patterns only).
Byte sync loss The total number of seconds during which loss of byte
synchronisation was detected.

5.6 Histograms
The number of histogram pages displayed by the LCD is dependent on the
configuration of the PF-30.

Each histogram, whether it be per Day, Hour or Minute, may be printed-out by simply
pressing the <Print> softkey.

The histograms all use the same Y-axis scale which allows for a pseudo-logarithmic
measurement range of more than five decades with each decade being represented
linearly. The vertical scale divisions are represented on the display by increments of
one pixel and on the printed histograms by increments of one asterisk or one block,
depending on the type of printer used.

The number of events in any particular day, hour or minute is shown using the scale
divisions shown in Figure 5.6-1.

71
Results Reference PF-30

600,000 and over


500,000 to 599,999
400,000 to 499,999
300,000 to 399,999
200,000 to 299,999
100,000 to 199,999
90,000 to 99,999
80,000 to 89,999
70,000 to 79,999
60,000 to 69,999
50,000 to 59,999
40,000 to 49,999
30,000 to 39,999
20,000 to 29,999
10,000 to 19,999
9,000 to 9,999
8,000 to 8,999
7,000 to 7,999
6,000 to 6,999
5,000 to 5,999
4,000 to 4,999
3,000 to 3,999
2,000 to 2,999
1,000 to 1,999
900 to 999
800 to 899
700 to 799
600 to 699
500 to 599
400 to 499
300 to 399
200 to 299
100 to 199
90 to 99
80 to 89
70 to 79
60 to 69
50 to 59
40 to 49
30 to 39
20 to 29
10 to 19
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Figure 5.6-1 Enlarged Section of Histogram Display Showing Vertical Scale Divisions

5.7 The ‘OK’ Results Page


The ‘OK’ Results page is accessed using the <OK> softkey and is only available
when a test is running. It contains a summary of important results and setup
information which is duplicated from other results pages and setup menus.

72
PF-30 Results Reference

Figure 5.7-1 OK Results page with no alarms or errors detected

Figure 5.7-2 OK Results page with alarms or errors detected

OK The large OK is displayed if no alarms or errors have been


detected since the beginning of the test or since <Reset> was
last pressed.
League table The large OK is replaced by a ‘league table’ of alarms and errors
if any have been detected since <Reset> was last pressed. The
order of the league table is based on the hierarchy diagrams
shown in Section 5.2.4, with only non-zero results being
displayed. If more than seven types of alarms and errors occur,
the lowest priority results will be lost from the bottom of the table
but will still be visible on the other results pages.
The numerical values in the league table are limited to four digits
and values exceeding 9999 will be shown as . Alarm
results are shown as a total number of seconds for each alarm;
error results are shown as a total number of each error. The full
version of every value will exist on another results page.
Setup information A brief summary of the *Setup Menu 1* page showing the
Interface, Emulation and Rx and Tx clocks as appropriate. The
full *Setup Menu 1* page can be displayed by pressing the
<Menus> softkey.
Total seconds The total number of seconds which have elapsed since the start
of the test.
Line rate/Bit rate The Line rate or Bit rate as defined previously for the *BER
Results* page. The Bit rate is displayed for V.24 ASYNC tests,
otherwise the Line rate is displayed.
Bit error ratio The total errors divided by the total bits as defined previously for
the *BER Results* page.

73
Results Reference PF-30

74
PF-30 Troubleshooting

6. Troubleshooting

6.1 Introduction
This section provides information for the user on what to do if the instrument does not
perform tests as expected, or does not function correctly when connected to other
equipment.

The information following is not to be regarded as a fault searching guide, either for
the instrument itself or any system to which it is connected.

6.2 Blank Display


If, following switching-on, the display remains blank, and assuming that the battery
has sufficient charge to operate the instrument, check the setting of the display
contrast by pressing the Contrast keys [5] for several seconds.

6.3 Unable to run a Test


After pressing the <Run> softkey the instrument should attempt to synchronise its
receiver with the incoming data. If this is successful the message box [A] (top right-
hand corner of the display) will display *Running*. If synchronization could not be
achieved then one of several messages will be displayed, assuming ALARMS = ALL
ON in *Setup Menu 3*:

‘No Signal’

‘No Clock’

‘AIS’

‘Sync Loss’

No Signal, No Clock - This will normally be displayed if there is no input connected to


the instrument. Check that the signal input is connected correctly and that the signal
consists of valid data.

AIS - This will be displayed when an ‘all ones’ pattern is received. This is usually
generated by a network component to indicate a fault or lack of data on the line. In
this case, clear the fault on the network and resume the test.

Sync Loss - This will be displayed when an input signal has been detected but the
incoming data pattern is very different from the expected pattern. For pseudo random
patterns 67% of the incoming bits must be correct; for 1111, 0000, 1010 and
programmable word patterns, 95% of the incoming bits must be correct. It may be
necessary to change the Tx or Rx polarity using the <Tx logic> or <Rx logic> fields in
*Setup Menu 2*.

75
Troubleshooting PF-30

6.4 Unable to get Printer to Operate


The instrument is wired as a DTE (data terminal equipment) as are most printers. If
the printer being used is also wired as a DTE (i.e. receives data on pin 3) it is
necessary to use a ‘Null Modem’ cable to connect to the PF-30; recommended cable
is Acterna Printer Cable type K1500. See Fig. 6.4-1 below:

FGND 1 1 FGND
TD 2 2 TD
RD 3 3 RD
Printer:
PF-30: RTS 4 4 RTS type D, male
type D, female, DCD 8 8 DCD or female
25 pins (K 1500 is fitted
DTR 20 20 DTR with a female
CTS 5 5 CTS connector)
DSR 6 6 DSR
SGND 7 7 SGND
Figure 6.4-1 ‘Null Modem Cable’ Connections

It is important that the baud rate, parity and bits per character options are set
correctly. These must agree with the settings of the printer being used. If a high baud
rate (>300 baud) is used it may be necessary to use some form of handshaking. Two
standard forms of handshaking are provided - XON/XOFF and CTS. It is also
possible to select the ‘SLOW’ option which will send out characters at a slow rate and
eliminate the need for handshaking in most cases.

Further printer problems and possible solutions are given below.

No printing:

Printer handshaking is inoperative, Check that the appropriate handshaking is


selected for the printer in use. Ensure that the printer control lines are enabled if
required. Try handshake selections ‘SLOW’ and ‘NONE’.
Incorrect printer settings, i.e. check baud rate, bits/char, parity or try using the Auto
printer function.
Printer not switched on.
Printer incorrectly connected.
Printer out of paper.
Garbled printout, no recognisable characters:
Incorrect printer settings, e.g. baud rate.
Garbled printout, some recognisable characters:
Incorrect printer settings, e.g. parity, bit/char, baud rate.
Handshaking not working, try ‘SLOW’ option.

76
PF-30 Troubleshooting

6.5 Test Locked


If the following screen is displayed:

Figure 6.5-1 *Setup Menu 3* - Current Test Locked

- then the current test memory (4 in this case) is locked and the <Run> softkey will be
inhibited. To run a test it is necessary to change the current test memory to one
which is not locked or to unlock the current test memory.

The test memory number can be changed from *Setup Menu 3* by moving the cursor
to that line and entering in a new test memory number.

To unlock a test memory or change the test memory number to one which contains no
data the *Test Memory* page should be used.

The *Test Memory* page is accessible from the *Main Menu* page.

Figure 6.5-2 *Test Memory* Page - Current Test Locked

In the example shown test memory 4 is locked. To unlock test memory 4, press the
[Security] key (located at the centre of the cursor keys [4]) followed by softkey <S6>.

Alternatively the cursor keys can be used to select another non locked test memory.
but note that any results held in that test memory will be overwritten.

To avoid erasing the results of any previous test, move the cursor to one of the vacant
slots in the memory.

In this case all the softkey labels disappear leaving the user with the option to return
to the top level menu by pressing the key.

77
Troubleshooting PF-30

6.6 Memory Space Limit


Eight test memories are available for the storage of results. Each memory is capable
of storing all the numeric (BER, G.821 etc.) data associated with a particular test.

In DAYS/HOURS mode a full 60 days of histogram data, with one day resolution (i.e.
one column per day) and also up to 60 days of hours histogram data is available.

In HOURS/MINUTES mode a full 60 hours of histogram data, with one hour resolution
(i.e. one column per hour) and also up to 60 hours of minutes histogram data is
available.

If histogram data is required at high and low resolution, the user must ensure that
there is enough space remaining in the selected memory before running the test.
This is done by selecting the *Test Memory* menu.

As the cursor is moved around the display the space available may change. If more
space is required then the results of some tests may have to be deleted. This is done
by using the <Clear> softkey.

When enough space has been released a test can be run. The <ClrMins> and
<ClrHrs> softkeys may be used to make space for histograms without clearing the
numeric and G.821 results.

See the Operation Reference, Section 4.5 for more information on histogram storage
space.

6.7 Different Results obtained with other Instruments


If the results obtained with the PF-30 appear to differ from those obtained with
another instrument, the most likely cause is the real time second boundaries which
cannot be synchronised to those used by the other instrument.

This effect will be most noticeable in the Severely Errored Seconds result where a
burst of errors may fall entirely within one second or be split between two seconds
depending upon the exact timing of the burst relative to the second boundaries of the
PF-30.

The other G.821 results may also show this effect to a lesser extent as will the
histograms and the number of seconds containing alarms.

The effect can be minimised by running longer tests which will average out variations
in the results.

78
PF-30 Troubleshooting

6.8 Apparent Battery Failure


It has been known for rechargeable Ni-Cd cells to appear to have failed when they are
still serviceable. This is usually due to repeated shallow charge/discharge cycles
leading to an apparent loss of capacity.

This phenomenon is often referred to as the ‘memory effect’. If the effect is noticed, it
may be cleared by a deep discharge, followed by full recharging.

A similar loss of capacity can arise from frequent overcharging. This may also be
remedied by a deep discharge followed by a full recharge.

It should also be noted that if Ni-Cd cells have been out of use or in storage for a
considerable time, they may require between 3 and 5 full charge/deep discharge
cycles to return them to full capacity.

6.9 Locked Keyboard


If the the keyboard is inoperable apart from the , and Contrast keys, it may have
been locked by pressing [Security] then [1]. It can be unlocked by pressing
[Security] followed by [0].

79
Troubleshooting PF-30

80
PF-30 Appendix A - Specifications

7. Appendix A - Specifications
These specifications are valid under the nominal operating conditions, unless otherwise stated.

7.1 Generator
V.24/ V.24/ G.703 G.703
Interface RS232 RS232 V.11/X.24 V.35 V.36 RS449 co-dir. 2048kbit/s
SYNC ASYNC 704kbit/s
Config. FDX FDX Built-in Via Via Via Built-in Built-in
DTE built-in built-in adaptor adaptor adaptor
Config. FDX FDX Via adaptor Via Via Via Built-in Built-in
DCE via adaptor via adaptor adaptor adaptor adaptor
Bit 50bit/s to 50bit/s to Fixed freqs. 48, 56, 64, 2048kbit/s
Rates 38.4kbit/s 38.4kbit/s 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, As V.11 As V.11 As V.11 72 and 704kbit/s
program. program. 8, 9.6, 16, 144kbit/s
to 1bit/s to 1bit/s 19.2, 32, 48, n x 64kbit/s
resolution resolution 56, 64, 72, n = 1 to 8
plus: 128, 144, 192,
48, 56, 64 1544kbit/s
& 72kbit/s also:
n x 64kbit/s
n = 1 to 32 &
n x 56kbit/s
n = 1.to 27
Physical ISO 2110 ISO 2110 ISO 4903 See See See CF CF
(25-way, (25-way, (15-way, Access- Access- Access- (balanced) (balanced)
D-type, D-type, D-type, ories ories ories BNC BNC
male) male) male) (unbal.) (unbal.)
Output — — 100Ω max. 100Ω 100Ω 100Ω — —
Imped. ±50Ω max. max.
Output ±5 to ±12V ±5 to ±12V 2V min. 0.55V, 2V min. 2V min. 1V, ±10% 3V, ±10%
Voltage into into Into ±20% Into Into into 120Ω; into 120Ω;
3 to 7kΩ 3 to 7kΩ 100Ω into 100Ω 100Ω 0.79V, 2.37V,
100Ω ±10% ±10%
into 75Ω into 75Ω

Note: In DTE emulation using an external clock source any frequency between
50bit/s and 2048kbit/s can be used.

7.2 Receiver
V.24/ V.24/ G.703 G.703
Interface RS232 RS232 V.11/X.24** V.35 V.36** RS449** co-dir. 2048kbit/s
SYNC ASYNC 704kbit/s
Input 3 to 7kΩ 3 to 7kΩ 120Ω, ±10Ω 100Ω 120Ω 120Ω Terminat. Terminat.
Imped. ±10Ω ±10Ω ±10Ω 75Ω/120Ω 75Ω/120Ω
Tapping Tapping
Loss (HiZ) Loss (HiZ)
≤0.12dB ≤0.12dB at
at 1MHz 1MHz
Return — — — — — — ≥20dB* ≥20dB*
Loss
Input ±3 to ±12V ±3 to ±12V ±0.3 to ±6V ±0.3 to ±0.3 to ±0.3 to 0 to -30dB 0 to -33dB
Sens. ±6V ±6V ±6V at 64kbit/s unequalised

** V.11 Receiver is Type 0 * 20kHz to 3MHz

81
Appendix A - Specifications PF-30

7.3 Test Modes


Interfaces built-in or via adaptors:
V.11 DTE and DCE, V.35 DTE and DCE, V.36 DTE and DCE, RS449 DTE and DCE,
V.24 DTE and DCE, SYNC and ASYNC, G.703 Co-directional
HBD3/AMI 2048/704kbit/s
Bit rates as table in 7.1; BER, BLER, G.821 analysis (BER only, V.24 ASYNC).

7.4 General Specifications


Test Patterns
6 9 11 15
Pseudo Random Bit Sequences ...................................................2 -1, 2 -1, 2 -1, 2 -1
Alternating ‘1s’ and ‘0s’ ........................................................................................... 1010
All ‘1s’ ..................................................................................................................... 1111
All ‘0s’ ..................................................................................................................... 0000
8 and 16-bit programmable word.
‘Quick Brown Fox...’ patterns.
Logic sense.........................................................................................normal or inverted
Bit, Code errors
Single or ratio
Ratios.......................................................................................... 1E-3, 1E-4, 1E-5, 1E-6
2E-3, 2E-4, 2E-5, 2E-6
5E-4, 5E-5, 5E-6, 5E-7
Clocking
Clock source transmitter G.703 ......................................................................... Internal,
external (via V.11), from received signal
Clock source (all other interfaces):
DTE.......................................................... external TC, RC or external RC, internal TTC
DCE .......................................................... internal TC, RC or external TTC, internal RC
Error and Alarm Indication
The following LEDs are provided:
- One green LED indicates that the circuit is functioning correctly.
- One non-latching red LED to indicate the occurrence of any detected error or
alarm events.
- Eight red LEDs programmable to show the presence of specific alarms and
errors. Selectable for latching/non-latching operation. A warning message is
displayed on the LCD to indicate which error or alarm has occurred. A beeper is
sounded when the LED is illuminated.
- One yellow LED to indicate Low Battery.

82
PF-30 Appendix A - Specifications

Printer and Remote Operation


Interface .......................................................................................................V.24/RS232
Simulates ............................................................................... DTE or DCE (via adaptor)
Framing ................................................................................................................. Async
Clock rates ........................................... 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 baud
Code.......................................................................................................CCITT5 (ASCII)
Bits per character ...................................................................................................7 or 8
Stop bits .................................................................................................................1 or 2
Flow control.....................................None, CTS, XON/XOFF, slow (8 char. per second)
Parity ............................................7 bits per character: none, odd, even, mark or space
8 bits per character: none, odd or even
Front Panel
Display ................................................................................ 42 characters x 8 lines LCD
Keyboard.......................................... Numerical keypad, 4 cursor keys, 2 contrast keys,
6 softkeys, security, MAIN MENU, ON and OFF keys
Contrast................................................................................................ 2 dedicated keys
Stores/Memory
8 test result memories each containing numeric results and histograms.
Histogram storage capacity........................................ 60 days, with 1 hour resolution or
60 hours, with 1 minute resolution
8 configuration stores each containing instrument setup configurations.
Security
A store or memory may be locked to prevent accidental deletion and may be unlocked
using the Security key.
Self Check
Comprehensive self check procedure performed at switch-on.
Languages ................................................... English, German, French, Italian, Spanish
Power Supply
Batteries, rechargeable (fitted as standard) ................................. 5 x Ni-Cd, C-size cells
Operating time (using fully-charged batteries)........................................ 8 hours approx.
Charging time ....................................................................................... 14 hours approx.
Battery low indication ...................................................... warning before auto switch-off
Auto switch-off. 4 minutes after last action (but not if test is running) or battery very low
External supply..............................................................................................from LNT-1
Temperature range ..................................operating: 0 to +50°C; storage: -20 to +60°C
Dimensions (h x d x w) ...................................................................... 72 x 136 x 195mm
Weight....................................................................................................... 1.7kg approx.

83
Appendix A - Specifications PF-30

Display and Printout of Result Parameters

No Signal • • • • • • •
AIS • • • • • • •
All zeros • • • •
All ones • • • •
Sync loss • • • • • • •
Slip • • • • • • •
Byte sync loss • • • • • •

Line rate • •
Bit rate • •
Total bits • •
Bit errors • • • • • • •
Code errors • • • • • • •
Block errors • •

No clock • • • • • •
Parity errors • • • • • •
Character errors • • • • • •
Character error ratio • •
BER • • •
BLER • •
Code error ratio • •

Total seconds • •
Error free seconds • • •
Errored seconds • • •
Severely errored seconds • • •
Non severely errored seconds •
Degraded minutes • • •
Non degraded minutes •
Available time • • •
Unavailable time • • •

84
PF-30 Appendix A - Specifications

7.5 Ordering Information


Digital Communications Analyzer, PF-30 ..................................................... BN 4526/50
Complete with:
AC Adaptor/Charger LNT-1 with mains lead.
Please specify the required mains lead from the list below:
Standard European power plug..............................................................................K 490
U.S. type power plug ..............................................................................................K 491
U.K. type power plug ..............................................................................................K 492
Australian type power plug .....................................................................................K 493
Accessories (available at extra cost):
Adaptor cables:
V.11 DCE ................................. 15-way, D-type, female/15-way, D-type, female K 1505
V.36/RS449 DTE......................... 15-way, D-type, female/37-way, D-type, male K 1506
V.36/RS449 DCE ..................... 15-way, D-type, female/37-way, D-type, female K 1507
V.24/RS232 DCE ..................... 25-way, D-type, female/25-way, D-type, female K 1512
External clock adaptor............................... 15-way, D-type, female/BNC female K 1513
Downloading cable ...............................................................................................K 1515
Printer cable .........................................................................................................K 1500
V.35 Adaptors (jackscrew fixing):
V.35 DTE (AMP) ...... 15-way, D-type, female/AMP, 34-way, 1.6mmØ pin, male K 1508
V.35 DCE (AMP) ... 15-way, D-type, female/AMP, 34-way, 1.6mmØ pin, female K 1509
V.35 DTE (Positronic) ............................................... 15-way, D-type, female/Positronic
1.6mmØ pin, male K 1525
V.35 DCE (Positronic) ............................................... 15-way, D-type, female/Positronic
1.6mmØ pin, female K 1526
V.35 Adaptors (clip fixing):
V.35 DTE (Positronic) ................................. 15-way, D-type, female/Positronic, 34-way,
1mm Ø pin, male K 1510
V.35 DCE (Positronic) ................................. 15-way, D-type, female/Positronic, 34-way,
1mm Ø pin, female K 1511
Note: The above cables are 1.5m long.

Performance Test Software PTS-120 .......................................................... BN 4533/01


Equipment case ...................................................................................... BN 4523/00.03
for storage and transportation of the PF-30, associated cables and LNT-1
adaptor/charger.
Equipment case ...................................................................................... BN 4540/00.03
for storage and transportation of the PF-30, LNT-1 adaptor/charger, PCM-23, printer
with a.c. mains charger and associated cables.
THESE SPECIFICATIONS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE

85
PF-30 Appendix B - Interface Details

8. Appendix B - Interface Details

8.1 Adaptor Cables


To meet the rated EMC performance of the PF-30, it is essential that the appropriate
PF-30 adaptor cables, distinguished by red identity sleeves, are used.

Important note: Certain V. interface test modes of the PF-30 require Adaptor Cables
as indicated in the section title. The figures show the signals implemented with the
cable in position - that is, at the end of the adaptor cable where it is connected to the
system under test.

The Acterna cables perform adaptation of the proprietary pinout of the V. interface
ports in these emulations to the standard pinout of, for example, V.24 DCE.

If custom cables are required, use the pin assignment tables in Sections 8.3 and 8.4
to determine the proprietary pin usage in each emulation.

8.1.1 V.24/RS232 Interface (Operation with Printer)

Function Mnemonic Pins In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND 1


Signal ground 102/SGND 7
Transmit data 103/TD 2
Receive data 104/RD 3
Request to send 105/RTS 4 (ON)
Clear to send 106/CTS 5
Data terminal ready 108/DTR 20 (ON)
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC 24 not used
Tx clock 114/TC 15 not used
Rx clock 115/RC 17 not used

87
Appendix B - Interface Details PF-30

8.1.2 V.11 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground FGND 1


Signal ground SGND 8
Signal Element Timing S 6 13
Receive R 4 11
Transmit T 2 9
Control C 3 10 (ON)
Byte timing B 7 14
Indication I 5 12 not used

8.1.3 V.24/RS232 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation)

Function Mnemonic Pins In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND 1


Signal ground 102/SGND 7
Transmit data 103/TD 2
Receive data 104/RD 3
Request to send 105/RTS 4
Clear to send 106/CTS 5 not used
Data Set Ready 107/DRS 6 not used
Data terminal ready 108/DTR 20 (ON)
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD 8 not used
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC 24
Tx clock 114/TC 15
Rx clock 115/RC 17

88
PF-30 Appendix B - Interface Details

8.1.4 V.11 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1505)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground FGND 1


Signal ground SGND 8
Signal Element Timing S 6 13
Receive R 4 11
Transmit T 2 9
Control C 3 10 not used
Byte timing B 7 14
Indication I 5 12 (ON)

Pinout shown with cable in position.

8.1.5 V.24/RS232 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1512)

Function Mnemonic Pins In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND 1


Signal ground 102/SGND 7
Transmit data 103/TD 2
Receive data 104/RD 3
Request to send 105/RTS 4
Clear to send 106/CTS 5
Data Set Ready 107/DRS 6 (ON)
Data terminal ready 108/DTR 20 not used
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD 8 (ON)
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC 24
Tx clock 114/TC 15
Rx clock 115/RC 17

Pinout shown with cable in position.

89
Appendix B - Interface Details PF-30

8.1.6 V.35 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation, using Cable K 1508, K 1510 or K 1525)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND A


Signal ground 102/SGND B
Transmit data 103/TD P S
Receive data 104/RD R T
Request to send 105/RTS C (ON)
Clear to send 106/CTS D not used
Data Set Ready 107/DRS E not used
Data terminal ready 108/DTR H (ON)
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD F not used
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC U W
Tx clock 114/TC Y AA
Rx clock 115/RC V X

Pinout shown with cable in position.

8.1.7 V.35 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1509, K 1511 or K 1526)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND A


Signal ground 102/SGND B
Transmit data 103/TD P S
Receive data 104/RD R T
Request to send 105/RTS C not used
Clear to send 106/CTS D (ON)
Data Set Ready 107/DRS E (ON)
Data terminal ready 108/DTR H not used
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD F (ON)
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC U W
Tx clock 114/TC Y AA
Rx clock 115/RC V X

Pinout shown with cable in position.

90
PF-30 Appendix B - Interface Details

8.1.8 V.36/RS449 Interface (BERT DTE Emulation, using Cable K 1506)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND 1


102/SGND 19
Signal ground 102a/SGND 20
102b/SGND 37
Transmit data 103/TD 4 22
Receive data 104/RD 6 24
Request to send 105/RTS 7 25 (ON)
Clear to send 106/CTS 9 27 not used
Data Set Ready 107/DRS 11 29 not used
Data terminal ready 108/DTR 12 30 (ON)
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD 13 31 not used
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC 17 35
Tx clock 114/TC 5 23
Rx clock 115/RC 8 26

Pinout shown with cable in position.

8.1.9 V.36/RS449 Interface (BERT DCE Emulation, using Cable K 1507)

Pins
Function Mnemonic A B In Out Remarks

Frame ground 101/FGND 1


102/SGND 19
Signal ground 102a/SGND 20
102b/SGND 37
Transmit data 103/TD 4 22
Receive data 104/RD 6 24
Request to send 105/RTS 7 25 not used
Clear to send 106/CTS 9 27 (ON)
Data Set Ready 107/DRS 11 29 (ON)
Data terminal ready 108/DTR 12 30 not used
Data Carrier Detect 109/DCD 13 31 (ON)
Terminal Tx clock 113/TTC 17 35
Tx clock 114/TC 5 23
Rx clock 115/RC 8 26

Pinout shown with cable in position.

91
Appendix B - Interface Details PF-30

8.2 X.24/V.11 Port Usage


The X.24/V.11 port [20] of the PF-30 is used to provide various V interface
emulations, via adaptor cables as described above. The adaptor cable available
should allow connection to most systems.

Occasionally the user may require a custom pinout or connector choice for a particular
application.

The following table shows the actual usage of port [20] pins in each of the V interface
emulations. This should allow the user to construct custom cables as required.

Pin Direction X.24 DTE X.24 DCE V.35 DTE V.35 DCE
1 N/A F/Ground F/Ground F/Ground F/Ground
2, 9 OUT Transmit Receive TD RD
3, 10 OUT Control SigElTim TTC TC
4, 11 IN Receive Transmit RD TD
*5,12 OUT ByteTim RC
6, 13 IN SigElTim Control RC TTC
*7, 14 IN ByteTim TC
7, 14 OUT Indicate
8 N/A S/Ground S/Ground S/Ground S/Ground
* - The direction of pin pairs 5+12, 7+14 alter depending on the emulation (DTE/DCE) selected.

F/Ground = Frame Ground

S/Ground = Signal Ground

(The grounds are connected together within the PF-30)

SigElTim = Signal Element Timing

ByteTim = Byte Timing.

Usage for G.703 Drop & Insert is the same as for X.24 DCE.

Usage for V.36 and RS449 emulations is the same as for V.35.

8.3 V.24/RS232 Port Usage


The V.24/RS232 port [21] of the PF-30 is used to provide both DTE and DCE
emulations (DCE via the DCE adaptor cable K1512). The adaptor cable should allow
connection to most systems.

92
PF-30 Appendix B - Interface Details

Occasionally the user may require a custom pinout or connector choice. The
following table shows the actual usage of port [21] in both DTE and DCE emulations:

Pin No. I/O DTE DCE Pin No. I/O DTE DCE

1 - FGND FGND 14
2 O TxD TxD 15 I TxC TTC
3 I RxD RxD 16
4 17 I RxC
5 Ignored CTS RTS 18 OFF LL
6 Ignored DSR 19 O Audio Audio
7 - SGND SGND 20
8 Ignored DCD 21 OFF RM
9 22 Ignored RI
10 ON DTR DSR,DCD* 23
11 24 O TTC TC, RC**
12 25
13

* - DSR, DCD connected together in K1512.

**- TC, RC connected together in K1512.

Ignored - Input implemented but state ignored.

ON/OFF - Output implemented but set to fixed value.

Audio - Uncalibrated analogue output.

93
PF-30 Appendix C - Printers

9. Appendix C - Printers
There are several printers which are suitable for use with the PF-30. These include
the Hewlett Packard Deskjet 320 and Olivetti JP 50, both of which have a range of
appropriate features and CE Mark approval for use in the European Community.

For details about these and other printers please contact your local dealer.

If you have any questions about printing from the PF-30, please contact your local
Acterna office.

95
Appendix B - Interface Details PF-30

96
PF-30 Appendix D - Glossary

10. Appendix D - Glossary


Glossary of terms used in this manual:
AIS Alarm Indication Signal
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange - standard
character codes for character based data storage and transmission.
BER/BERT Bit Error Ratio/Bit Error Ratio Test
BLER/BLERT Block Error Ratio/Block Error Ratio Test
CCITT Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique
(International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee)
CCITT5 Interchange code recommended by CCITT, equivalent to ASCII.
DCE Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
G.703 CCITT Standard for 2048kbit/s (Europe) and 1544kbit/s (US)
transmissions over digital circuits
G.821 CCITT Rec. that specifies performance criteria for ISDN circuits,
including:
AT Available Time (seconds)
EFS Error Free Seconds
ES Errored Seconds
DM Degraded Minutes
SES Severely Errored Seconds
US Unavailable Seconds
UT Unavailable Time (seconds)
HI-Z High impedance termination (>2.5kΩ) which may be used with the
PF-30 G.703 interface.
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
Standardization Sector, successor to CCITT.
PRBS Pseudo Random Binary Sequence
QBF ‘Quick brown fox jumps...’ pattern.
RS232 EIA interface specification equivalent to combination of V.24 and
V.28.
Rx Receiver or Received
Tx Transmitter or Transmitted
V.11 ITU-T electrical specification for a balanced data interface. The
PF-30 X.24/V.11 interface is compatible with this specification.
V.24 CCITT functional specification for data interface. PF-30 V.24 interface
is used for BERT, printing and remote control.
V.28 ITU-T electrical specification for unbalanced data interface. The
PF-30 V.24 interface is compatible with this specification.

97
Appendix D - Glossary PF-30

V.35 ITU-T electrical specification for a balanced data interface. PF-30


provides compatibility with this interface via adaptor cables from the
V.11 interface.
V.36 ITU-T specification for a balanced data interface, using V.24 circuit
functionality and V.11 electrical characteristics. PF-30 provides
compatibility with this interface via adaptor cables from the V.11
interface.
RS449 EIA interface specification equivalent V.36.
X.24 ITU-T functional specification for a data interface with bit, byte and
frame timing.
XON/XOFF Transmit. ON/Transmit. OFF codes used in V.24/RS232 printer flow
control.

98
PFA-30 Appendix E - QBF Pattern Coding

11. Appendix E - QBF Pattern Coding


There are four ASCII Quick Brown Fox pattern sequences available when set up for
V.24 ASYNC testing. These are shown below in text and hexadecimal formats:

QBF1 and QBF2 are 58 and 62 character sequences respectively. QBF3 and QBF4
are 56 character sequences.

Start of patterns QBF1 to QBF4:

QBF1: lf cr lf cr
0A 0D 0A 0D

QBF2: cr lf ex sx
0D 0A 03 02

QBF3: lf cr
0A 0D

QBF4: cr lf
0D 0A

Common section of patterns QBF1 to QBF4:

T H E sp Q U I C K sp B R O W N
54 48 45 20 51 55 49 43 4B 20 42 52 4F 57 4E

sp F O X sp J U M P S sp O V E R
20 46 4F 58 20 4A 55 4D 50 53 20 4F 56 45 52

sp T H E sp L A Z Y sp D O G sp
20 54 48 45 20 4C 41 5A 59 20 44 4F 47 20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 30

End of pattern, QBF2 only:

QBF2: sp D E sp
20 44 45 20

99
100
PFA-30 Appendix F - Electromagnetic Compatibility and Safety

12. Appendix F - Electromagnetic Compatibility and Safety


Note that this Appendix only applies to instruments displaying the CE mark on the
base label of the instrument.

12.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility


This instrument meets the CE requirements of EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and its
amendments. The standards applied are:

EN 50081-1 1992 Electromagnetic Compatibility - Generic Emission Standard


EN 55022 (CISPR 22).......................................................................................... Limit B
EN 50082-1 1992 Electromagnetic Compatibility - Generic Immunity Standard.
IEC 801-2, E.S.D................................................................................. 8kV air discharge
IEC 801-3, Susceptibility ................................................................ 3V/m, 27 to 500MHz
IEC 801-4, Fast transients common mode on mains ................................................1kV
Accessories used during the evaluation:
Cables K 1500, K 1505, K 1525, K 1526 and K 80; LNT-1 power supply with cables
K 492 and K 488.

12.2 Safety
The instrument complies with the safety objective of:

The Council Directive dated 19th February 1973 on the approximation of the laws of
the Member States concerning electrical operating equipment for use within certain
voltage limits (Low Voltage Directive - 73/23/EEC), amended by the Council Directive
dated 22nd July 1993 (93/68/EEC).

To test the compliance of the instrument the following standard was used:

EN 61010-1 (IEC 1010-1) Safety Regulations for Electrical Measuring, Control and
Laboratory Instruments - Part 1: General Requirements.

101
102