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16 Ansichten10 SeitenA Methodology for Designing Francis Runner Blade Paper

Apr 22, 2018

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A Methodology for Designing Francis Runner Blade Paper

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16 Ansichten10 SeitenA Methodology for Designing Francis Runner Blade Paper

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Renewable Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/renene

sediment erosion using CFD

Krishna Khanal a, *, Hari P. Neopane b, Shikhar Rai a, Manoj Thapa a, Subendu Bhatt a,

Rajendra Shrestha a

a

Tribhuvan University, Nepal

b

Kathmandu University, Nepal

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Sediment particles, especially quartz which has very high hardness factor, ﬂowing along with water

Received 23 June 2015 erodes turbo machinery parts such as guide vanes, runner, draft tube etc. Among them runner is very

Received in revised form crucial part, so its design should be optimum for minimum erosion by maintaining the highest possible

15 October 2015

efﬁciency.

Accepted 15 October 2015

Available online xxx

This paper reports on methodology for designing Francis runner blade. This involves ﬁnding best

outlet angle (b2) and blade angle distribution (b-distribution) causing minimum possible erosion for

given volume ﬂow rate (Q ¼ 14.34 m3/s), head (H ¼ 40 m), rpm (N ¼ 333.33 rpm) and eroding particle

Keywords:

Francis turbine

ﬂow rate (0.08 kg/s). At ﬁrst, the outlet angle b2 (designing parameter) was varied from 14 to 32 using

Erosion linear blade angle distribution for all models. Then these models were simulated to ﬁnd b2. In second,

Efﬁciency with that b2, blade angle distribution was varied and simulated to ﬁnd the best blade angle distribution

b-distribution having minimum erosion rate with considerable efﬁciency. By using hydrodynamic theory for given Q

and H, main dimensions were found out and 3D model was generated using b-distribution. Relation of

designing parameters with erosion and efﬁciency was made. Optimum blade was obtained from pro-

posed methodology and was compared with the reference blade in terms of erosion and efﬁciency.

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

mechanical parts like wicket gates, guide vanes and spiral casing.

The hydroelectric projects in the Himalayan range of Nepal is This makes the visualization of the ﬂow very difﬁcult in the

facing severe silt erosion problem in turbines, which over a runner and very special arrangements and experimental setup is

period of time signiﬁcantly reduce the overall efﬁciency of hy- required to study the ﬂow inside the Francis turbine. However,

dropower. Erosion is complex process which depends upon the with the advent of CFD techniques the studies of the ﬂow inside

number of factors such as particle hardness, size, shape, con- such complex structure have been made easy. CFD has been

centration, velocity of water, base material of turbine, etc. [1]. widely used in the ﬁeld of turbo-machineries and hydraulic

Erosion in run-of-river is more challenging than that of reservoir turbines. CFD tools specially for solving turbo-machineries'

type. Rivers contain very high sediment concentration, especially problems have been developed and lots of researches related to

quartz, during the monsoon season. Quartz is one of the hydraulic turbines and turbo-machineries have been done with

extremely hard particle which causes mechanical wear on the CFD.

turbo components due to dynamic action of particles ﬂowing Francis turbine is widely used in many hydropower of Nepal

along water [2]. and some researchers have studied the erosion problem in un-

Studying the dynamics of a Francis turbine has been a chal- derwater turbo machines and suggested the recommendation on

lenging and costly job. As Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, its reducing erosion. Thapa et al. summarizes the standard pro-

cedures used for design of high head turbines and explained the

effect of design parameters on sediment erosion in Francis run-

ner [3]. Shrestha et al. presents the alternative new way in

* Corresponding author. Francis turbine design with less erosion impact by incorporating

E-mail address: krishnakhanal2048@gmail.com (K. Khanal).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.10.023

0960-1481/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

308 K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316

Nomenclature

b2 Outlet blade angle

B Runner height, [m]

C Absolute velocity, [m/s]

D Runner diameter, [m]

U Peripheral velocity, [m/s]

W Relative velocity, [m/s]

N Synchronous speed, [rpm]

Cm Meridian component of C, [m/s]

Cu Tangential component of C, [m/s]

h Efﬁciency, [-]

1 Inlet section

2 Outlet section

the application of CFD, FEM and FSI at different stages [4]. Neo-

pane et al. presents the laboratory study of particle velocity

measurement in highly swirl conditions similar to turbine ﬂow in Fig. 1. Axial view of runner.

curved path [5]. Thapa et al. studied the relation between blade

angle distribution of runner blade and the erosion rate [6].

Gaungjie et al. investigated the relation between the wear rates

on the surface of runner blade and guide vane and the sediment

concentration, and analyzed the distribution of wear rates for

normal turbine operating condition [7].

The main objective of the research is to propose a method-

ology which minimizes the erosion in Francis runner blade by

considering efﬁciency. This research also aims to obtain the

relation of designing parameters with erosion and efﬁciency so

that it can help in prediction of designing parameters for any

analogous case. Based on the methodology, this paper intends to

propose an optimum blade and compare result with reference

blade. For this, Devighat Hydropower Plant (DHP) with head

(H) ¼ 40 m, volume ﬂow rate (Q) ¼ 14.34 m3/s, speed

(N) ¼ 333.33 rpm situated at Nuwakot district of Nepal was taken

as the reference site. This study focuses on the erosion of the

Francis runner blade for design condition (not for partial and full

load condition) without considering the effect of guide vanes and

draft tubes. Coalesced effect of erosion and cavitation was also

not included in this study.

Fig. 2. Velocity triangle.

D2, U2, U1, D1, B and b1 are calculated from following relations [3].

2.1. Francis turbine design

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

4:Q

Francis turbine is operated by utilizing the potential energy of D2 ¼ P:Cm2

the storage water partially into the kinetic energy and partially into N ¼ 60.U2/(P.D2)

pressure energy. The water enters the turbine radially, imparts Cm2 ¼ U2.tan (b2)

energy to the runner blades and leaves axially. It works above at- h ¼ (U1Cu1 U2Cu2)/(gH)

mospheric pressure and will be fully immersed in water. If there are Rearranging we have

sediment particles in the water ﬂow during energy transfer process, qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

240:Q

D2 ¼ 3 p2 :N:tanðb Þ

then it will strike turbine and erode the surface to the turbine. 2

eters head (H) and discharge (Q). Velocity triangle at inlet and Cm1 ¼ Cm2/1.1 (10% meridional acceleration)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

outlet of the runner are used in design process. Fig. 1 shows the C1 ¼ ð1 reaction degreeÞ:2gH (reaction degree 0.5 chosen)

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

axial view of runner and Fig. 2 shows the velocity triangle at inlet

Cu1 ¼ C 21 C 2m1

and outlet of the Francis runner blade.

The dimensioning of the outlet starts with assuming no U1 ¼ hgH/Cu1 (whirl component at outlet is zero and h assumed

rotational speed at best efﬁciency point (BEP) i.e. Cu2 ¼ 0. Outlet to be 0.96)

angle (b2) is selected from 14 to 32 and calculations were made D1 ¼ (60.U1)/(PN)

as: B ¼ Q/(PDCm1)

Known parameters are Q, N, H and b2. Unknown parameters like b1 ¼ tan1(Cm1/(U1 Cu1))

K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316 309

2.2. Wear mechanism and erosion model divided by the mass of particle), Vp is the particle impact velocity, g

is the impact angle in radians between the approaching particle

Damages in hydro power turbines are mainly caused by cavi- track and the wall, go being the angle of maximum erosion, k1 to k4,

tation problems, sand erosion, material defects and fatigue. In k12 and go are model constants and depend on the particle/wall

general, wear mechanisms can be classiﬁed in three categories; material combination.

mechanical, chemical and thermal actions. In hydraulic turbine

mechanical wear of main concern. 3. CFD analysis

There are three types of mechanical wear; abrasive, erosive and

cavitation wear. Abrasive and erosive are due to particles on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the branches of

ﬂuid ﬂow, while cavitation is caused by the collapse of bubbles on ﬂuid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to

the surface. Abrasive wear is deﬁned as the loss of material by the solve and analyze problems that involve ﬂuid ﬂows. The numerical

passage of hard particles over a surface. Erosive wear is caused by solution of NaviereStokes (NS) equations in CFD usually implies a

the impact of particles against a solid surface. Fig. 3 shows the discretization method: it means that derivatives in partial differ-

schematic images of four representative wear modes. ential equations are approximated by algebraic expressions which

CFX solver has two inbuilt erosion model in it, namely: Finnie can be either obtained by means of the ﬁnite-difference or the

and Tabakoff model. Tabakoff and Grant Erosion Model [9] was ﬁnite-element method or ﬁnite-volume method. The result is a set

preferred. Erosion rate E is determined from the following relation: of algebraic equations through which mass, momentum, and en-

h i ergy transport are predicted at discrete points in the domain. The

E ¼ k1 $f ðgÞ$Vp2 $Cos2 ðgÞ 1 R2T þ f ðVPN Þ governing equations are non-linear and coupled; several iterations

of the solution loop must be performed before a converged solution

where is obtained. Millions of calculations are required to simulate the

interaction of ﬂuids and gases with complex surfaces. However,

p 2

2

even with simpliﬁed equations and high speed supercomputers,

f ðgÞ ¼ 1 þ k1 k12 sin g only approximate solutions can be achieved in many cases [10].

go

The CFD software includes the package to model the ﬂuid ﬂow

phenomena under the turbulent models. Usually turbulent nu-

RT ¼ 1 k4 Vp sin g

merical simulation consists of two main parts, namely: Direct Nu-

4 merical Simulation (DNS) and Indirect Numerical Simulation (INS).

f ðVPN Þ ¼ k3 Vp sin g DNS has a precise calculated result, but the whole range of spatial

and temporal scales of the turbulence must be resolved which re-

quires a very small time step size. So, this is not suitable for CFD

1:0 if g 2go

k2 ¼ simulation. There are three different types of simulated methods

0:0 if g > 2go

under the Indirect Numerical Simulation which are large eddy

Here, E is the dimensionless mass (mass of eroded wall material simulation (LES), Reynolds-averaged NaviereStokes (RANS) and

310 K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316

Table 1

Rate of erosion.

1 40 0.28

2 80 0.21

3 125 0.27

4 170 0.24

5 215 0.32

6 260 0.30

7 305 0.26

8 350 0.35

Average 0.28

" #

vðrkÞ v v mt vk 0

þ rUj k ¼ mþ þ Pk b rku þ Pkb

vt vxj vxj sk3 vxj

Fig. 4. Head versus mesh elements.

" #

vðruÞ v v mt vu

þ rUj u ¼ mþ

vt vxj vxj su3 vxj

detached eddy simulation (DES). RANS is the oldest and most

common approach to turbulence modeling. The equation of 1 vk vu u

þ ð1 F1 Þ2r þ a3 Pk

Reynolds-averaged NaviereStokes (RANS) is deﬁned as: su2 u vxj vxj k

b3 ru2 þ Pu b

" ! #

DUi vP v vUi vUj The proper transport behavior can be obtained by a limiter to

r ¼ þ m þ ru0i u0j

Dt vXi vXj vxj vxi the formulation of eddy-viscosity:

The left hand side of the equation describes the change in mean a1 k

momentum of ﬂuid element and the right hand side of the equation vt ¼

maxða1 u; SF2 Þ

is the assumption of mean body force and divergence stress. ru;i u;j is

an unknown term and called Reynolds stresses. Due to the aver- where

aging procedure information is lost, which is then feed back into

the equations by turbulence model [9]. vt ¼ mt =r

The shear-stress transport (SST) k-u model [9] was developed by

Menter to effectively blend the robust and accurate formulation of

the k-u model in the near-wall region with the free-stream inde- 3.1. Mesh independent test

pendence of the k-ε model in the far ﬁeld. To achieve this, Baseline

(BSL) k-w model, which combines advantages of Wilcox k-w and k- Since the results would be numerical approximation using CFX

ε model, is provided with the proper transport behavior to limit the solver, the numerical analysis was done to check the numerical

over prediction of eddy viscosity. The equations are: stability and accuracy of the simulation.

BSL model: Mesh independence test was done for the selection of number

Fig: 5. (a) Test specimen before test. (b) Test specimen after 350 min. (c) Result of CFD analysis d) Runner of JHC [12].

K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316 311

were compared.

Fig. 6. 3D model obtained in BladeGen. The observation for wear pattern was made with painted sur-

face. After running the apparatus for half an hour, it was observed

of elements in a domain so that the result does not vary signiﬁ- that paint in some location of blade surface was removed. Fig. 5(a)

cantly with increase in the mesh size. This method helps to obtain and (b) shows the wear pattern in test specimen. The painted

minimum number of mesh elements which saves the computation surface has been found to be scratched severely in the outlet region

time without deviating from the accuracy. of blade while some minor scratches have also been observed

Head was chosen as observant parameter. Fig. 4 shows the throughout the blade surface.

relation of head and mesh elements. Since, the change in head is It can be seen that the erosion damage is mostly located in the

not so different for more than 600,000 elements. But for the con- far outlet region near to the edge of the blade. The location of paint

venience and fast computation study was carried out at removal is identical to the pattern of wear observed in the turbines

300,000 mesh elements with an error of only 0.2 m (with respect to operating in real cases. Fig. 5(d) shows the wear observed in the

600,000 elements). runner blades of JHC, which is also observed most severe in the

outlet region of the blades. The wear pattern observed during the

experiment is also quite similar to the pattern which has been

3.2. CFD validation [12] predicted from the CFD analysis.

Table 1 shows the rate of erosion in the specimens for each test.

CFD validation was made by referencing with the experiment The average rate of erosion was found to be 0.28 mg/gm/min, which

performed at Turbine Testing Lab, Kathmandu University, Nepal. A explains that in average, 0.28 mg of material was worn out of 1 g of

test rig called rotating disc apparatus has been developed and test specimen in a minute of operation. It can also be observed that

installed in Turbine Testing Laboratory for carrying out sediment the overall trend of the erosion rate is increasing with the total

erosion test in Francis runner blades. The main purpose of this test duration of the test run.

rig was to compare the wear pattern appearing in test specimens CFD results of JHC and DHP will be compared in result and

with the result of the CFD as well as with the wear pattern observed discussion section so as to conﬁrm the validation of this study.

in turbine operating in real case.

For experiment, hydraulic parameters of Jhimruk Hydropower 3.3. Methodology

Center (JHC) were taken and blade proﬁle of the Francis runner

blade has been modeled. The CFD results, test results and real case In general there are two approaches to runner design; the direct

312 K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316

method and the inverse method. This study uses the direct method,

which begins by setting Q, H and N. Main dimensions such as inlet

diameter, outlet diameter, inlet height, inlet blade angle and outlet

blade angle of runner geometry were obtained by using basic hy-

drodynamic theory [3]. The modeling of the turbine include

creating 2D view in the BladeGen software, which is then converted

into the 3D view by applying the beta distribution. Fig. 6 shows a 3D

model blade obtained in BladeGen.

The 3D Models are created in two ways in two parts:

Design parameter b2 was chosen from 14 to 32 with

difference of 2 i.e. 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32. Ten

models were created with linear beta distribution and

simulated to ﬁnd out best outlet angle.

B) Method on Varying b-distribution: Fig. 9. Mesh obtained from Turbogrid.

From the best outlet angle obtained on (A) part, b-dis-

tributions were varied as shown in the Fig. 7.

where, ut ¼ tu/r1/2 is the friction velocity, Dy is the distance from

M-prime is deﬁned as the non-dimensional parameter showing wall to the ﬁrst mesh node and tu is the wall shear stress.

the position of streamline of blade from leading edge. It ranges from Theoretically, a mesh resolution of yþ < 2 is required for the SST

0 to 1; 0 represents the Leading Edge (LE) and 1 represents the model to accurately solve the viscous sub-layer. However, such a

Trailing Edge (TE). Values from 0 to 1 show the point in streamline low yþ value is hard to obtain for a Francis turbine runner blade. To

of blade how far from the leading edge. reduce computational cost, wall function is used to approximate

For the quantiﬁcation of concave downward and concave upward, the near-wall ﬂow.

new terms named as curvature percentage and curvature position In this study, under Boundary layer reﬁnement control edge

(same as M-prime) were deﬁned. Certain percentage of angle is reﬁnement factor of 2.25 was set to adjust the mesh size. Yþ

increased at certain M-prime from the linear b-distribution to form method with Reynolds number 106 was chosen under near wall

concave downward distribution (positive curvature percentage) and element size speciﬁcation. Yþ at hub and shroud was maintained at

certain percentage of angle is decreased at certain M-prime from the 150 which is in the range of 20e200 for Francis turbine runner as

linear b-distribution to form concave upward (negative curvature recommended by Gjfsæster [11]. Mesh elements number range of

percentage). Beizer curve points in the BladeGen were created to form 300,000e320,000 (obtained from mesh independence test shown

b-distribution. Fig. 8 describes the various terms such as curvature at Section 3.1) in whole domain was made. The inlet and outlet

percentage, curvature position (M-prime), b1 and b2. At LE, inlet blade radius of the blade was on range 470e675 mm and 600e815 mm

angle is b1 and at TE, outlet blade angle is b2. respectively depending upon outlet angle (designing

Nine curvature position (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9) parameter).

with eleven curvature percentage (35%, 25%, 15%, 5%, 5%, 0%,

15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, 55%), total 91 models (blade with 0% is same for

all curvature position), were analyzed for the erosion and efﬁciency

of blade. Positive curvature percentage at all curvature position Boundary conditions:

produces concave downward b-distribution whereas negative Analysis type: Steady State Analysis

curvature percentage at all curvature position produces concave Fluid and particle Deﬁnition: Water, Quartz

Reference pressure: 1 atm

upward b-distribution. Beta-distribution of each blade was created

Erosion model: Tabakoff erosion model

by BladeGen. Eroding material: Quartz

Relation of curvature position (x) and curvature percentage (y): Blade material: Steel

For each curvature position (x), angle deviation (D) from the Average diameter of quartz: 0.12 mm (Bastakoti et al., 2011)

linear blade angle is given by: Shape factor: off

Turbulence model: SST model

y Drag force: Schiller Naumann

D¼ *ðb b2 Þ Volume ﬂow rate: 14.34 m3/sec

100 1 Flow direction: Cylindrical Components for sand also

Number of Position: 5000

Mass ﬂow rate of quartz: 0.08 kg/s

Convergence Criterion: 1e-5 residual

Wall function: automatic

3.3.1. Domain and meshing

Since very large number of mesh elements is needed to simulate

the Francis turbine, the domain with only one passage is created. 3D The automatic wall treatment allows a consistent yþ insen-

model from BladeGen is imported to Ansys Turbogrid for meshing. sitive mesh reﬁnement from coarse grids, which do not resolve

Fig. 9 shows the mesh obtained from the Turbogrid. the viscous sub-layer, to ﬁne grids placing mesh points inside

The mesh resolution is deﬁned by yþ values, which is a non- the viscous sub-layer [9]. CFX solver was used to solve the

dimensional parameter describing the distance from the wall to domain.

the nearest node.

3.4. Result and discussion

rDyut

yþ ¼

m

At ﬁrst erosion and efﬁciency relation with b2 was observed and

best b2 was chosen. From Figs. 10 and 11, erosion as well as

K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316 313

Table 2

Detail of runner inlet.

Circumferential component of the 18.7 18.7 18.7

absolute velocity (m/sec)

Blade angle b1 (degree) 63.04 54.4 43.05

Table 3

Detail of runner outlet without swirl.

Blade angle b2 (degree) 31.94 23.52 15.68

The hub and shroud curve were chosen arbitrarily and also the

leading edge and trailing edge of blade were made as shown in

Fig. 12. Each of the stream line has different inlet blade angle b1 and

different outlet blade angle b2. Table 2 and Table 3 summarize the

inlet and outlet blade angle at hub, mean and shroud of the blade.

All the dimension of geometry such as leading edge, trailing

edge, hub, shroud, b1 and b2 were kept same but blade angle dis-

tribution (b-distribution) from leading to trailing edge were varied.

Such variation was done to produce 91 blade models.

91 models were simulated and their erosion and efﬁciency

pattern was observed. Erosion was not the absolute measurement

but only the relative one. The relation of erosion and efﬁciency with

blade proﬁles was obtained from these simulations. Also the opti-

mum blade having minimum erosion relative to other blades

without compromising the efﬁciency was selected and was then

compared to the reference one.

Fig. 11. Efﬁciency Vs b2.

Fig. 13 shows the relation between erosion and curvature per-

centage for all curvature position. As maximum erosion take place

efﬁciency of b2 ¼ 14 and b2 ¼ 16 were nearly same and were best at single dot point on the blade and contribute more than 60% of

than others. It can be noticed from the graph that erosion tends to total erosion, so, y-axis is set as total erosion minus maximum

increase as outlet angle increases and efﬁciency tends to decrease erosion and this compares the blade models effectively. The ﬁgure

with increase in outlet angle with some irregularities. By consid- reveals that erosion is relatively high at 35% curvature and higher

ering the manufacturing complexity, b2 ¼ 14 is relatively difﬁcult values of curvature position also has higher erosion. For example,

to manufacture than b2 ¼ 16 . So b2 ¼ 16 was selected as best b2 0.9 curvature position has highest erosion at 35%, 55% curvatures.

whose corresponding b1 ¼ 43 . Although there is no exact regular pattern of erosion according to

Different blade proﬁle of selected outlet angle (b2 ¼ 16 ) was curvature percentage, it can be seen that the trend of erosion de-

produced and then the result was plotted. Fig. 12 shows meridional creases as we shift from negative curvature to zero curvature but

view of Francis runner including the main dimension of the blade positive curvatures has almost same value of erosion with small

used in the simulation. ﬂuctuation for all curvature position. It was observed that the

erosion increased with the increase of curvature towards the

trailing edge; that is at 0.9, 0.85, 0.8 have generally higher erosion

than other curvature positions.

Fig. 14 shows the representative graph for the erosion verses

curvature position. The plot shows that erosion increases as the

curvature is shifted towards trailing edge. It can also be seen that

larger area is eroded when the curvature position is shifted toward

trailing edge as the value of total minus maximum erosion is larger

when the curvature is near trailing edge.

It is necessary to observe the efﬁciency of the models to deter-

mine the appropriate blade for speciﬁc hydro site. Fig. 15 shows the

efﬁciency verses curvature percentage for all curvature positions.

The graph shows that efﬁciency at negative curvatures is almost

constant with small deviation but there is signiﬁcant variation to-

ward positive curvatures. Blade models with curvature position

greater than 0.45 have regular decrease in efﬁciency as curvature

percentage increases from zero but other curvature position show

some irregularity in efﬁciency as curvature percentage increases

from zero. The notable point is that the efﬁciency is higher at

Fig. 12. Meridional view of runner blade showing main dimensions of b2 ¼ 16o. trailing edge (near 0.9 position) for negative curvature percentage

314 K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316

Fig. 13. Erosion verses Curvature percentage for all curvature position.

Table 4

Erosion and efﬁciency of reference and optimum blade.

Optimum 5.4E-8 kg/m2/s 95.21%

By observing erosion and efﬁciency plot, an optimum blade was

chosen based on minimum erosion considering performance cri-

terion. The blade model with 25% curvature at 0.25 curvature po-

sition was chosen as optimum blade. Table 4 shows the comparison

of erosion and efﬁciency.

Although the efﬁciency of reference blade is slightly higher

(0.25%) than that of optimum one, the erosion rate in optimum

Fig. 14. Erosion (total-maximum) verses Curvature position. blade is about 31.5 times less than reference blade. So, in almost all

cases, it is beneﬁcial to sacriﬁce insigniﬁcant efﬁciency loss to

prevent the blade from severe erosion and hence, to increase the

but has minimum efﬁciency for leading edge curvature (near 0.1 life of blade for considerable period.

position). This trend reverses after zero curvature; that is curvature The shape of beta-distribution of optimum blade is similar to

at leading edge has higher efﬁciency compare to those having shape obtained by Thapa et al. [6]. Figs. 16 and 17 shows the

curvature at trailing edge. comparison of erosion between the reference blade and the

Fig. 15. Efﬁciency verses Curvature percentage for all Curvature position.

K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316 315

Fig. 16. Erosion on the pressure and suction side of reference blade respectively.

Fig. 17. Erosion on the pressure and suction side of optimum blade respectively.

optimum one respectively. Red color shows the eroded area on the 3.4.3. Comparison of DHP and JHC [3].

blade. The ﬁgures clearly shows that erosion is signiﬁcantly less in CFD results of this study (DHP) were compared to the referenced

optimized blade compare to the reference one. In optimized blade, JHC results.

pressure side has only some small dots of erosion and has no more Tables 5e7 shows the comparison table of DHP blade (reference

erosion in the suction side. blade) and JHC blade. Although there are some difference in the

input parameters (like shape factors, ﬂow rate), these do not

3.4.2. Blade proﬁle comparison changes the result pattern signiﬁcantly. So, it can be said that the

Fig. 18 shows blade proﬁle comparison of optimum and refer- rotating disc apparatus experiment performed for JHC blade can be

ence blade. Red color proﬁle is the optimized blade where as black taken as a reference material for DHP blade to conﬁrm CFD results.

color proﬁle is the reference blade.

4. Conclusion and recommendation

runner blade from starting point by taking ﬂow rate, head and rpm

as designing parameter to optimized blade having minimum

erosion. From the results, it is concluded that blade proﬁle having

25% curvature percentage at 0.25 curvature position is considered as

optimum blade. Although this optimized blade has 0.25% less efﬁ-

ciency than reference one, signiﬁcant decrease in erosion rate has

been observed; numerically, erosion rate is 31.5 times less than the

reference blade with considerable reduction in erosion area. Thus, it

has been proved that signiﬁcant improvement can be made to

minimize erosion while maintaining efﬁciency by changing the

runner blade proﬁle and hence, increase the life of runner blade.

From the charts shown, it can also be deduced that increasing outlet

angle above 200, in general, increases the erosion and decreases

efﬁciency. Even if there are some irregularities, erosion is relatively

Fig. 18. Blade proﬁle comparison of optimum and reference blade. higher at negative curvature (concave upward) than positive

316 K. Khanal et al. / Renewable Energy 87 (2016) 307e316

Table 5 [3] Biraj Singh Thapa, Mette Eltvik, Kristine Gjosaeter, Ole G. Dahlhaug,

General parameters for CFX-Pre. Bhola Thapa, Chiang Mai, Design optimization of francis runner for sediment

handling, Int. J. Hydropower Dams (2012). Thailand, 1e9.

Parameter DHP JHC [4] Krishna Prasad Shrestha, Bhola Thapa, Ole Gunnar Dahlhaug, Hari P. Neopane,

Biraj Singh Thapa, Innovative design of Francis turbine for sediment laden

Turbulence SST SST

water, in: TIM International Conference, 2012. KU, Nepal.

Flow state Steady Steady

[5] Hari Prasad Neopane, Bhola Thapa, Ole Gunnar Dahlhaug, Particle velocity

Flow type Inviscid Inviscid measurement in swirl ﬂow, laboratory studies, Kathmandu Univ. J. Sci. Eng.

Erosion model Tabakoff Tabakoff Technol. 8 (2012). KU, Nepal.

[6] Biraj Singh Thapa, Amod Panthee, Hari Prasad Neopane, Some application of

computational tools for R&D of hydraulic turbines, Renew. Nepal (2011). KU,

Nepal, 1e5.

Table 6 [7] Peng Guangjie, Wang Zhengwei, Xiao Yexiang, Luo Yongyao, Abrasion pre-

Parameters for CFX-pre sediment data. dictions for Francis turbines based on liquidesolid two-phase ﬂuid simula-

tions, Eng. Fail. Anal. Sci. (2013). China, 327e335.

Data DHP JHC

[8] Koji Kato, Koshi Adachi, Wear Mechanisms, 2001.

Material Quartz Quartz [9] Ansys 14.5 CFX Solver Theory Guide, 2009.

Diameter 0.12 mm 0.1 mm [10] S. Khanna, CFD Analysis of Supercritical Airfoil over Simple Airfoil, 2011.

Shape factor Off 1 Dehradun: s.n.

[11] Gjoaester, Kristine, Hydraulic Design of Francis Turbine Exposed to Sediment

Flow rate 0.08 kg/s 0.07 kg/s

Erosion, 2011. Trondheim: s.n.

[12] H.P. Neopane, B. Rajkarnikar, B.S. Thapa, Development of rotating disc appa-

ratus for test of sediment-induced erosion in Francis runner blades, Wear,

ScienceDirect (2013) s.l. 119e125.

Table 7

Result from CFX-post erosion analysis.

Bibliography

Efﬁciency 95.46% 95.05%

[13] ANSYS 11.0 Turbo Grid User Guide, 2006.

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