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A PROJECT TO STUDY

PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS OF NTPC SIMHADRI

USING PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

SUBMITTED BY

ANAND THORAT- 07

VENKAT SURESH- 40

NANDITA SADANI- 48

MITHUN KUMAR PATNAIK- 82

AMITY GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL

BANJARA HILLS ROAD NO: 11

HYDERABAD
PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

INDEX

S.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.


1. POWER SECTOR IN INDIA 2
2. INTRODUCTION TO NTPC 4
2 .1 . MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF NTPC 7
2 .2 . HISTORY OF NTPC 6
2 .3 . VISION AND MISSION OF NTPC 10
2 .4 . NTPC: CULTURE 11
2 .5 . Simhadri NTPC 12
2 .6 . NTPC: CORE VALUES &OBJECTIVES 14
2 .7 . SWOT ANALYSIS 14
2 .8 . DIVERSIFICATION 17
2 .9 SUBSIDIARIES 18
3. BUSINESS MODEL OF NTPC 20
3 .1 . OPERATIONS OF THE BUSINESS 21
3 .2 . OPERATING STRATEGIES OF NTPC 29
3 .3 . ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE 30
3 .4 . CORPORATE OBJECTIVE 34
3 .5 . SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 34
4. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 34
4 .1 . HUMAN RESOURCES 34
4 .2 . FUTURE CAPACITY ADDITIONS 38
4 .3 . CHALLENGES WITH COAL RESOURCES 40

5. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS 43
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 44

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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

1. POWER SECTOR IN INDIA:-

Power development in India is the key to economic development. The power sector
has been receiving adequate priority ever since the process of planned development in
1950. Hydro power and coal based thermal power have been the main sources of
generating electricity. Nuclear power development is at slower pace, which was
introduced in late 60’s. The concept of operating power systems on a regional basis
crossing the place, the power supply industry have been under constant pressure to
bridge the gap between supply and demand.

Since Independence in 1947, Indian Power sector progress has been rapid. From mere
1713 MWs of Installed capacity in 1950 the capacity at the end of March 2007 rose to
124569 excluding capacity of renewable energy. Total generation in April 2006- March
2007 was 659419 GWs in the utility sector. The per capita consumption of electricity
increased from 15 KWHs in 1950 to 619 in 2006-07.

Decades of economic planning in India following independence placed significant


emphasis on the development of the power sector. Electricity generation capacity with
utilities in India had grown from 1713 MW in December 1950 to over 124,287 MW by
March 2006. However, per capita electricity consumption remains much lower than the
world average and even lower than some of the developing Asian economies.
Investment in the sector has not been able to improve access and keep pace with the
country’s growing demand for electricity.

India has the fifth largest generation capacity in the world with an installed capacity of
152 GW as on 30 September 2009, which is about 4 percent of global power
generation. The top four countries, viz., US, Japan, China and Russia together consume
about 49 percent of the total power generated globally. The average per capita
consumption of electricity in India is estimated to be 704 kWh during 2008-09.
However, this is fairly low when compared to that of some of the developed and
emerging nations such US (~15,000 kWh) and China (~1,800 kWh). The world average
stands at 2,300 kWh. The Indian government has set ambitious goals in the 11th plan
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for power sector owing to which the power sector is poised for significant expansion. In
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

order to provide availability of over 1000 units of per capita electricity by year 2012, it
has been estimated that need-based capacity addition of more than 100,000 MW
would be required. This has resulted in massive addition plans being proposed in the
sub-sectors of Generation Transmission and Distribution.

India is world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.4% of global energy
consumption. Due to India’s economic rise, the demand for energy has grown at an
average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years. In March 2009, the installed power
generation capacity of India stood at 147,000 MW while the per capita power
consumption stood at 612 kWh. The country's annual power production increased
from about 190 billion kWh in 1986 to more than 680 billion kWh in 2006. The Indian
government has set an ambitious target to add approximately 78,000 MW of installed
generation capacity by 2012. The total demand for electricity in India is expected to
cross 950,000 MW by 2030.

About 75% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants,
21% by hydroelectric power plants and 4% by nuclear power plants. More than 50% of
India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. The
country has also invested heavily in recent years on renewable sources of energy such
as wind energy. As of 2008, India's installed wind power generation capacity stood at
9,655 MW. Additionally, India has committed massive amount of funds for the
construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW. In
July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of solar power by
2020.

The Power sector in India is predominantly controlled by the Government of


India's public sector undertakings (PSUs). Major PSUs involved in the generation of
electricity are National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), National Hydroelectric
Power Corporation (NHPC) and Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCI). Besides
PSUs, several state-level corporations, such as Maharashtra State Electricity
Board (MSEB), are also involved in the generation and intra-state distribution of
electricity. The Power Grid Corporation of India is responsible for the inter-state
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transmission of electricity and the development of national grid.


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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

The Ministry of Power is the apex body responsible for the generation and
development of power in India. This ministry started functioning independently from 2
July, 1992; earlier, it was known as the Ministry of Energy. The Union Minister of Power
at present is Sushilkumar Shinde, who took charge of the ministry on the 28th of May,
2009.

2. INTRODUCTION TO NTPC :-

NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector
company wholly owned by Government of India, it was incorporated in the year 1975
to accelerate power development in the country. Within a span of 30 years, NTPC has
emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the
major regions of the country.

Recognizing its excellent past performance and its vast potential, the Govt. of the India
has identified NTPC as one of the 'Navratnas'- a potential global giant and also it is
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going to be identified as one of the ‘Maharatna’- giant among the 'Navratnas'. NTPC
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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector
company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the
country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India.

At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company
and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span
of 30 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power
generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

Based on 1998 data, carried out by Data monitor UK, NTPC is the 6th largest in terms of
thermal power generation and the second most efficient in terms of capacity utilization
amongst the thermal utilities in the world.

The Group's principal activity is to generate and sell power to state utilities. It also
provides consultancy to power utilities and maintains power stations. The Group
operates in two segments, namely, Power Generation and Others. The Power
generation segment includes generation and sale of bulk power to SEBs/State utilities.
Other business includes providing consultancy, project management and supervision,
oil and gas exploration and coal mining.

In the Forbes list of ‘World's 2000 largest companies, 2008’, NTPC occupies 317th
place. With a current generating capacity of 30,144 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans
to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017.

Presently, Government of India holds 89.5% equity in the company and the balance
10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others.

As on date, NTPC's total installed capacity is 27, 904 MW. NTPC's coal based power
stations are at: Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh), Korba (Chattisgarh), Ramagundam (Andhra
Pradesh), Farakka (West Bengal), Vindhyachal (Madhya Pradesh), Rihand (Uttar
Pradesh), Kahalgaon (Bihar), NTCPP (Uttar Pradesh), Talcher (Orissa), Unchahar (Uttar
Pradesh), Simhadri (Andhra Pradesh), Tanda (Uttar Pradesh), Badarpur (Delhi), and
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Sipat (Chattisgarh). NTPC's Gas/Liquid based power stations are located at: Anta
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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

(Rajasthan), Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh), Kawas (Gujarat), Dadri (Uttar Pradesh), Jhanor-
Gandhar (Gujarat), Rajiv Gandhi CCPP Kayamkulam (Kerala), and Faridabad (Haryana).
NTPC's Power Plants with Joint Ventures are located at Durgapur (West Bengal),
Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), and RGPPL (Maharastra).

India’s largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development
in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value
chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generation, which is the
mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash
utilisation and coal mining. NTPC ranked 317th in the ‘2009, Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of
the World’s biggest companies. The total installed capacity of the company is 31,134 MW
(including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In
addition under JVs, 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. By
2017, the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal
based capacity of around 53000 MW, 10000 MW through gas, 9000 MW through Hydro
generation, about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable
Energy Sources (RES). NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strategy which includes
capacity addition through green field projects, expansion of existing stations, joint ventures,
subsidiaries and takeover of stations.

NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has
18.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total power generation due to
its focus on high efficiency.

In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as
fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed
company in November 2004 with the government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital.
The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public. The issue was a resounding success.
NTPC is among the largest five companies in India in terms of market capitalization.
At NTPC people before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR related policies.
NTPC has been awarded No.1, Best Workplace in India among large organizations and the
best PSU for the year 2009, by the Great Places to Work Institute, India Chapter in
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collaboration with The Economic Times.

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is deeply ingrained in NTPC's culture.


Through its expansive CSR initiatives NTPC strives to develop mutual trust with the
communities that surround its power stations.

Right from social to developmental work of the community and welfare based dependence
to creating greater self reliance; the constant Endeavour is to institutionalize social
responsibility on various levels.

2.1 MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF NTPC

x Largest thermal power generating company of India.


x Sixth largest thermal power generator in the world.
x Second most efficient utility in terms of capacity utilization.
x One of the nine PSUs to be awarded the status of Navratna.
x Provides power at the cheapest average tariff in the country.

2.2 HISTORY OF NTPC

1975
 Incorporated in November

1977
 TPC acquired the first patch of land at Sanghrauli

 The first batch of executive trainees joined the company

1978
 Takeover of management of the Badarpur project.
 Construction of the first transmission network Sanghrauli- Korba- Kanpur of 400 KV
systems started.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

1982
 Power Management Institute, Delhi, a centre for education was established

1983
 In the very first year of commercial operation , NTPC earned a profit of Rs 4.51 crore
in the financial year 1982-83
1985
 This year marked the completion of decade (1975-1985) of NTPC’s existence. NTPC
achieved a generating capacity of 220 MW by commissioning 11 units of 200 MW
each at its various projects in country.

 The government of India approved the setting of three gas based combine cycle
projects by NTPC in Kawat in gujrat, Auraiya in Uttar Pradesh and Anta in Rajasthan.
For these projects, the World Bank agreed to provide US$ 485 million, which was the
largest single loan in the history of bank.

1987
 Crossed the 5000 MW capacity mark.
1989
 Consultancy division launched
1990
 Total installed capacity crossed 10000MW
1992
 Acquisition by the company of Feroz Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station
(2x210 MW) from Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Of Uttar Pradesh
1994
 Crossed 15000 MW of installed capacity.
1995
 NTPC celebrated 20 yrs of its existence.

 A new logo was adopted.

 NTPC took over the 460 MW Talcher Thermal power Station from Orrisa State
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Electricity Board.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

1997
 Achieved 100 million units generation in one year.

1998
 Commissioned the first Naphtha based plant at Kayamkulam with a capacity of 350
MW.
2000
 Commenced construction of a first hydro- electricity power project of 800 MW
capacity in Himachal Pradesh
2002
 Three wholly owned subsidiaries viz. NTPC Electric Supply Company Limited, NTPC
Hydro Limited, NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited incorporated.
2004
 NTPC became a listed company.

 NTPC made its debut issue of euro bonds amounting to USD 200 million in
international market.

2005

 The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business
portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power
utility.

2008

 National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in


India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world.

2.3 VISION AND MISSION OF NTPC


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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

VISION: “To be one of the world’s largest and best power utilities, powering India’s
growth.”

To realize this vision, NTPC has drawn up a detailed Corporate Plan for the period 1997-
2012 which represents the company's collective optimism and enthusiasm, inspired by a
glorious past, a vibrant present and a brilliant future. The Plan has been prepared in-house
in consultation the committed, competent and confident members of the NTPC family. The
road map that has been charted out was after a thorough scan of the strengths and
weaknesses within the organization as well as opportunities and threats in the
environment. Considering multidimensional opportunities in the energy sector, NTPC will
adopt a multi-pronged growth strategy for capacity addition through Greenfield sites,
expansion of existing stations, takeovers and joint ventures. The capacity addition plans
that NTPC have drawn up for the fifteen-year period using all the above strategies to enable
the corporation to become a 40,000 MW company by 2012 A.D.

MISSION: “Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at
competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco–friendly
technologies and contribute to society"

 Make available reliable and quality power in increasingly large quantities at competitive
prices and ensure timely realization of revenues.
 Adopt a broad based capacity portfolio including Hydro Power, LNG, Nuclear Power, and
non conventional and eco-friendly fuels
 Plan and speedily implement power projects using state-of- the art technologies.
 Be an integrated utility by implementing strategic diversifications in areas such as power
trading distribution, transmission, coal mining, coal beneficiation etc.
 Develop a strong portfolio of profitable businesses in overseas markets including technical
services, generation assets etc.
 Continuously attract and develop committed human resources to match world standards.
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 Lead fundamental and applied research for adoption of the state-of-the-art technologies,
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breakthrough efficiency improvements and new fuels.

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

 Lead developmental efforts in the Indian power sector including assisting state utility
reform, policy recover etc.
 Be a socially responsible corporate entity with thrust on environment protection, ash
utilization, community development, and energy conservation.

2.4 NTPC: CULTURE

Core values are both intensely and widely shared


Climate of high behavioral control

Low employee turnover

High agreement among the employees, for what NTPC stands for.

All these point to the fact that strong cohesiveness, loyalty and organization
commitment exist in NTPC lowering he attrition Rate.

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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

2.5 Simhadri NTPC:

P.O. Simhadri-531 020, Dist. Vishakhapatnam, Andhra


Address
Pradesh
Telephone (STD-08924,STD-Vizag-0891) - 243001
Fax 243092
Email
Near Pittavanipalem Village,Dist. Vishakhapatnam,
Location
Andhra Pradesh
Govt. approved date 24.07.1997 (Zero date 8.7.1997)
Approved Capacity/Installed
1000 MW
Capacity
Plant Configuration 2X500 MW
Land Availability 3384.24 acres (entire land)
Coal Source Kalinga Block of Talcher Coal fields in Orrisa
Water Source Yeluru canal for sweet water, Sea water for CW system.
Beneficiary States Andhra Pradesh (100%).
Approved Investment Rs.3650.79 Cr. (I Qtr.97).
Associated Transmission System Implemented by APTRANSCO.
Unit-I Commissioning: Feb 2002
Units Commissioned
Unit-II Commissioning: Aug 2002
International Assistance JBIC

Simhadri is the ambitious project of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
intended to provide the ever growing power needs of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Infact,
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NTPC comes to the rescue of about 20 million units of power consumed every day in Andhra
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Pradesh. The construction work of the project is under way. Mr. R.C. Srivatsav has been

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

appointed as the General Manager for the Simhadri Project Operations. With the
completion of the project, the total power generation capacity of NTPC will reach to 3600
MW in Andhra Pradesh with NTPC Ramagundum already generating 2100 MW a day.
The Project was developed near Parawada and 3384 acres of land was allocated for
the construction of the Thermal plant. The height of the Chimney is 275-feet - a record in
Asia for being the tallest factory chimney. Near to this are the 165-meter two cooling
towers. The Coal for the project will be coming to the plan with a special rail line setup for
this. Coal will be drawn from the Mahanadi Coal Fields in Orissa drawing over 6 Million
tones of coal every year. The Coal transport for the NTPC Simhadri Project is expected to
begin in December 2002.
The water intake for the project for cooling is done by sea water drawn from 8.9 kms
away from the Bay of Bengal through an intake-well sized 9100 cubic meters. This intake-
well is again the biggest well constructed in the entire India. The project also gets Sweet
water from the Yeluru canal.
The power generated at NTPC Simhadri will be bought by AP Transco - the power
distribution arm of the Electricity Board in the state. The approximate selling price of power
is expected to be at Rs. 2.10 as against to the price from private power generation
companies which was at Rs. 3 - 4 per unit.
The 500 MW First Boilers at the NTPC Simhadri, Boiler was ignited on November 6,
2001. This is a mile stone in the history of NTPC Simhadri.
The commencement of the 500 MW first units was expected to begin in March 2002
while the second unit is expected to begin by December 2002.
To save the environment from pollution, NTPC Simhadri has taken ample steps.
Towards this is the project of planting trees and maintaining greenery around the site.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

2.6 NTPC: CORE VALUES &OBJECTIVES

CORE VALUES

This corporate plan provides details of the overall agenda for NTPC. The successful delivery
of this agenda would require a committed work force that identifies with and supports the
vision. To ensure realization of this corporate agenda, a set of core values should be central
to, and govern each activity of the organization. Known as one of the NAVRATAN‟S of the
PSU‟S NTPC has its following core values. They are known as (BCOMIT) as follows:-
B-Business Ethics
C-Customer Focus
O-Organizational & Professional pride
M-Mutual Respect and Trust
I- Innovation & Speed
T-Total quality for Excellence

2.7 SWOT ANALYSIS

 STRENGTHS
x Largest market share in domestic power generation and a broad customer portfolio
across the country.

x Excellent track record of performance in project implementation and plant


operation.

x Diversified thermal generation portfolio – multiple sizes and fuel types.

x Highly skilled and experienced human resources, exposed to state-of-the art


technologies in project execution and power generation.

x Navaratna status
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x High brand equity among shareholders.


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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

x Strong balance sheet – ability to raise low cost debt.

x Engineering skills in project configuration and package design.

x Turnaround ability for old plants – demonstrated in the takeover plants of Talcher,
Tanda & Unchahar.

x High credit rating that is indicative of the confidence of lenders.

x In-house training facility (PMI), CENPEEP, R&D etc that assist in development of the
sector. Thrust on reducing social costs of capacity growth – strong execution of
Resettlement and rehabilitation plans.

 WEAKNESS
x Low risk-diversification of business portfolio consists primarily of generation assets.

x Poor financial health of customers.

x Functional orientation hampering cross functional perspective in decision making.

x Long and multi layered procurement process leading to long lead times and process
delay.

x Fragmented IT architecture.

x Gaps in HR systems such as performance management, rewards and incentives and


career development.

x Inadequate deployment of a strong knowledge management system that could


assist in improving efficiency and effectiveness in all aspects of the business.
x Hierarchy for decision making that affects responsiveness.
x Role ambiguity and dilution within different lends of the organization.

 OPPORTUNITIES
x Expand generation capacities by putting up thermal and hydro capacities; maintain
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the position of a dominant generating utility in the Indian Power sector.


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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

x Broad base fuel mix by considering imported coal, gas, domestic coal, nuclear
power etc with a view to mitigate fuel risks and maintain long run competitiveness.

x Expand services for EPC, R&M and O&M activities in the domestic as well as
international markets.

x Backward integrate into fuel management to exercise greater control and


understanding of supply economics.

x Lead the development and commercial deployment of non-conventional energy


sources especially in the distributed generation mode.

x Improve collections by trading, direct sale to bulk customers and the active role in
allocation in new plants.

x Execute increased number of power plants that classify for Mega Power Projects
status, thereby reducing the cost of the projects and power and power generated.

x Forward integrate into the distribution business in India.

 THREATS
x Limited experience of operating in a truly liberalized environment with
competition.

x Limited experience of operating in an independently regulated system.

x Redirecting power may be constrained by inter-regional connectivity.

x Downward regulatory and competitive pressure on tariffs.

x Stringent norms for approval of increase in capital costs for projects in event of
time overrun.

x Stringent environmental norms in the future may add to the cost of generation.

x Absence of an independent regular for coal industry and the delay in private
investments lending to the risk of low availability of coal in the future
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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

2.7 DIVERSIFICATION

NTPC’s quest for diversification started with its foray into Hydro Power. It has, since then,
been moving towards becoming a highly diversified company through backward, forward
and lateral integration. The company is well on its way to becoming ‘an Integrated Power
Major’, having entered Hydro Power, Coal Mining, Power Trading, Equipment
Manufacturing and Power Distribution. NTPC has made long strides in developing its Ash
Utilization business. In its pursuit of diversification, NTPC has also developed strategic
alliances and joint ventures with leading national and international companies.

 Hydro Power: In order to give impetus to hydro power growth in the country and to
have a balanced portfolio of power generation, NTPC entered hydro power business
with the 800 MW Koldam hydro projects in Himachal Pradesh. Two more projects
have also been taken up in Uttarakhand. A wholly owned subsidiary, NTPC Hydro
Ltd., is setting up hydro projects of capacities up to 250 MW.

 Coal Mining: In a major backward integration move to create fuel security, NTPC
has ventured into coal mining business with an aim to meet about 20% of its coal
requirement from its captive mines by 2017. The Government of India has so far
allotted 7 coal blocks to NTPC, including 2 blocks to be developed through joint
venture route. Coal Production is likely to start in 2009-10.

 Power Trading: 'NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd.' (NVVN), a wholly owned subsidiary
was created for trading power leading to optimal utilization of NTPC’s assets. It is
the second largest power trading company in the country. In order to facilitate
power trading in the country, ‘National Power Exchange Ltd.’, a JV between NTPC,
NHPC, PFC and TCS has been formed for operating a Power Exchange.

 Ash Business: NTPC has focused on the utilization of ash generated by its power
stations to convert the challenge of ash disposal into an opportunity. Ash is being
used as a raw material input for cement companies and brick manufacturers. NVVN
is engaged in the business of Fly Ash export and sale to domestic customers. Joint
ventures with cement companies are being planned to set up cement grinding units
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in the vicinity of NTPC stations.


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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

 Power Distribution: ‘NTPC Electric Supply Company Ltd.’ (NESCL), a wholly owned
subsidiary of NTPC, was set up for distribution of power. NESCL is actively engaged
in ‘Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana’programme for rural electrification and
also working as 'Advisor cum Consultant' for Ministry of Power for implementation
of Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) launched by
Government of India.

 Equipment Manufacturing: Enormous growth in power sector necessitates


augmentation of power equipment manufacturing capacity. NTPC has formed JVs
with BHEL and Bharat Forge Ltd. for power plant equipment manufacturing. NTPC
has also acquired stake in Transformers and Electricals Kerela Ltd. (TELK) for
manufacturing and repair of transformers.

2.8 SUBSIDIARIES:-

NTPC Electric Supply Company Ltd. (NESCL)

The company was formed on August 21, 2002. It is a wholly owned subsidiary company of
NTPC with the objective of making a foray into the business of distribution and supply of
electrical energy, as a sequel to reforms initiated in the power sector.

NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVN)

The company was formed on November 1, 2002, as a wholly owned subsidiary company of
NTPC. The company’s objective is to undertake sale and purchase of electric power, to
effectively utilize installed capacity and thus enable reduction in the cost of power.

NTPC Hydro Ltd. (NHL)

The company was formed on December 12, 2002, as a wholly owned subsidiary company of
NTPC with an objective to develop small and medium hydroelectric power projects of up to
250 MW.

Pipavav Power Development Co. Ltd. (PPDCL)

A memorandum of understanding was signed between NTPC, Gujarat Power Corporation


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Limited (GPCL) and Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB) in 2004 for development of a 1000 MW
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thermal power project at Pipavav in Gujarat by forming a new joint venture company
between NTPC and GPCL with 50:50 equity participation. Pursuant to the decision of Gujarat
Government, NTPC Ltd. has dissociated itself from this company. PPDCL is under winding up.

Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited, (formerly known as Vaishali Power Generating
Company Limited)

To take over Muzaffarpur Thermal Power Station (2*110MW), a subsidiary company named
‘Vaishali Power Generating Company Limited (VPGCL)’ was incorporated on September 6,
2006 with NTPC contributing 51% of equity and balance equity was contributed by Bihar
State Electricity Board. This company was formed to renovate the existing unit and run the
plant. The second unit has been successfully re-synchronized on October 17, 2007 after 4
years of being idle. Renovation and modernization of the first unit is under progress. The
company was rechristened as ‘Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited’ on April 10, 2008.

Bharatiya Rail Bijlee Company Limited (BRBCL)

A subsidiary of NTPC under the name of ‘Bharatiya Rail Bijlee Company Limited’ was
incorporated on November 22, 2007 with 74:26 equity contribution from NTPC and Ministry
of Railways, Govt. of India respectively for setting up of four units of 250 MW each of coal
based power plant at Nabinagar, Bihar. Investment approval of the project was accorded in
January, 2008.

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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

3. BUSINESS MODEL OF NTPC

1. Efficiency improvement includes both improvements in the existing process and


through improvement in the technology used to increase the productivity of the
company. Research & Development Centre is ISO 17025 accredited and provides
high end scientific services to all the company’s stations as well as many outside
stations resulting in improving availability and reliability of stations by providing
condition assessment, failure analysis, solving and analyzing specific problems, and
helping our stations in increasing the availability and reliability of their units.

2. Cost efficiency i.e. providing power at reasonable prices so that they could provide
power to all in need. Their ultimate aim is to reduce the cost because without being
the cost leader they can’t dominate the market. So as a market leader they are
always aiming at reducing the cost.

3. Technology enhancement i.e. to stay in competition they have to continuously


enhance their technology. Technology enhancement is also a part of cost efficiency.
That means by applying the new technologies the company can reduce the cost as
well as improve the efficiency.

4. Eco friendly system: Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power,
NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound
environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up
of power plants and preserving the natural ecology.

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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

3.1 OPERATIONS OF THE BUSINESS

LOCATION OF FACILITY FOR NTPC

The purpose of the location of NTPC in Visakhapatnam is to find an optimal location


which will result in the greatest advantage to the organization.
There is minimal wastage of resources because of this location.
BHEL is the major supplier of equipment for NTPC Simhadri. It is located at a distance
of 20 Kms from the plant.
HPCL is the major supplier of FUEL. It is located at a distance of 20 Kms.
The plant is quite near to Sea ports, Railway station (to handle coal from Australia
and Talcher) and Airport.
It distributes power to Power Grid which is just 10 Km away from the location of the
plant and hence there is no wastage of power during transmission.
Nearest water source is Yeleru Canal.
5 Kms from Seashore as it uses sea water as coolant in cooling towers.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING

NTPC SIMHADRI OVERALL LAYOUT

 Coal is handled and processed. It is then sent to the units 1,2,3,4.


 Units 1 and 2 are linked with chimney 1 which consists of 2 chimneys internally.
Similarly units 3 and 4 are linked with chimney 2.
 Each unit is linked with cooling towers in order to cool the steam. Sea water pump
house links with cooling towers in order to supply Sea water as a coolant.
 DM plant links all the units in order to supply DM water.
 Yeleru Reservoir Canal is linked with DM plant to supply water.
 Every unit is linked with power handling and transmission station where power is
transmitted to the power grid.
 Also, each unit is linked with Ash pond through Ash dispenser.
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GENERAL THERMAL POWER PLANT LAYOUT

1. Cooling Tower 10. Steam Control Valve 19. Superheated

2. Cooling Water Pump 11. High Pressure Steam Turbine 20. Forced Draught (Draft) Fan

3. Transmission Line (3-Phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater

4. Step-Up Transformer (3-Phase) 13. Feedwater Heater 22. Combustion Air Intake

5. Electrical Generator (3-Phase) 14. Coal Conveyor 23. Economizer

6. Low Pressure Steam Turbine 15. Coal Hopper 24. Air Preheater

7. Condensate Pump 16. Coal Pulverizer 25. Precipitator

8. Surface Condenser 17. Boiler Steam Drum 26. Induced Draught (Draft) Fan

9.Intermediate Pressure Steam


18. Bottom Ash Hopper 27. Flue Gas Stack
Turbine
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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

COAL PROCESS LAYOUT

 Coal is imported from Talcher and Australia which is transported to the plant
through rail.
 Coal wagons are handling at the Coal handling station.
 From the coal handling station, coal is either stored in Stock Yard or directly sent to
Coal Crushing mill, which crushes coal to 20mm size.
 Through Conveyor belts, coal is sent to bunkers.
 From bunkers it is sent to Coal mill where coal is milled to powdered state.
 The powdered coal is mixed with air and sent to Coal Gun.
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 From Coal Gun, it is sent to the Coal Furnace.


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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

UNIT LAYOUT 1(IN ORDER TO KNOW THE


INTERNAL OPERATION OF COAL FURNACE)

 The coal furnace is surrounded by water walls which consist of DM water.


 DM water is supplied from Boiler Drum to Coal Furnace which is more than 165
meters high from Coal Furnace.
 Coal is supplied through coal gun.
 Initially, the coal is burnt with the help of Diesel. Two kinds of Diesel are used: HSD
(High Speed Diesel) and LSD (Low Speed Diesel). First LSD is used and then HSD is
used. Later, Oil supply is stopped and coal is left for burning.
 In order to ignite the furnace, DC supply is given by the DC inverters.
 The heat generated by the coal furnace is more than 1200 degrees centigrade.
 When water comes through the water walls, it gets heated upto 540 degrees and
turns into steam.
 This steam flows to turbines at various pressures.
 These turbines are linked with generators which generate power and these
26

generators supply power to power stations from where it is sent to power grid.
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 After the Coal is burnt, it turns into Ash. Bottom Ash is collected at Bottom Ashing
and the Fly ash at the Induction Fans (IDF). Ash flows through IDF to ESP (Electro
Static Priscribrators). In this ESP, 99% of Ash is sent to bottom Ashing. Less than 1%
of the Fly ash goes through Chimneys which is 275 meters high. So, there is very less
Air pollution.

UNIT LAYOUT 2(IN ORDER TO KNOW THE


INTERNAL OPERATION AND PROCESS OF
TURBINE)

x Steam generated in the coal furnace is supplied to the Economizer.


x From there, it is sent to the Super heater which has an elaborate setup of tubing
where the steam vapour picks up more energy from Hot Flue gases outside the
tubing and its temperature is now super heated above the saturation temperature.
The super heater steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the walls
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before the high pressure turbines. From High Pressure turbines (HP) steam is
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transferred to Super Heater again and then to IP (Intermediate pressure) turbine.

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

x The turbines are connected to generators where power is generated and sent to
power grid.
x After this, the steam loses its pressure and hence is sent to low pressure turbine (LP).
Then, steam has very low pressure which cannot be used for the turbines. Hence, it
is sent to condenser which is in Vaccum.
x The condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated
through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the LP turbines enters the shell where it
is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by falling over the tubes. Such
condensers use steam ejectors for continuous removal of air and gases from the
steam side to maintain vaccum. This condensated steam is converted to water by
the cooling towers in which coolant is sea water.
x The water from the cooling tower is sent to hot well.
x From hot well, the water will go through condenser pumps through low pressure
temperature heater, then through High pressure temperature heaters. This is called
Re-heating or Re-cycling system (Deaerator system) to Boiler speed pump. Each
boiler speed pump consumes 10MW in 500MW generated power.
x Deaerators to boil speed pumps and to HP heaters and to FRS (Feed Regulating
Station) to Boiler Drum.
x Hence whatever DM water was vaporized is again De-vaporized to DM water again.
This comes back to Boiler Drum again.
x In cyclic process, this water goes down from Boiler drum to Furnace.
x In between the process of vaporizing and de-vaporizing of water, 10% of water is
lost. This lost water is made up by make up pumps which are connected to the DM
plant.
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DE-MINERALIZATION PLANT LAYOUT

 Water is supplied from Yeleru Canal to the reservoir. From here, this water is
pumped to DM plant.
 This water is purified with the help of Aulum and Chlorine in the first stage.
This water is called Filter water.
 Filter water is sent through gravity filters by which we get pure drinking
water.
 This pure water is sent to Cat-ion vessel and then to Cat-ion exchanges from
here to the Degasser and then to An-ion exchanger and to mixed bed.
 The water coming out of the mixer bed is 100% pure Dematerialized water
(DM).
 DM water is stored in DM water tank.
 The DM water tank is linked with DM water make up pump which is again
linked to boiler drum.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

POWER STATION LAYOUT

 The power generated through the generators is 18 Kv.


 This 18 Kv power is stepped up by step-up generator to 400 Kv.
 This is done in order to avoid heavy Cabling for transmission of power.
 This is sent to power grid.
 From Power grid, the power distributions are 400 Kv which is given to factories. In
the same way 33 Kv, 11 Kv are stepped onto 440v and again stepped onto 230v
which is used to household purpose.

3.2 OPERATING STRATEGIES OF NTPC


 Maintain its position as the leader:
As the largest power Generation Company in India NTPC Ltd is looking to
increase its capacity to 75000 MW by 2017.
 Adopt the new technology:
NTPC Ltd is also looking to utilize other sources of power generation in the
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next 5 years namely Hydel power and nuclear energy to generate electricity.
 Resource management :
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


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The company will look to continue with their stringent recruitment and
retention policy which has provided it with the best minds in the country.
 Environment management :
Being the leader in its trade the company will look towards fulfilling its
corporate social responsibility and contributing towards the environment.

3.3 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:

3.4 CORPORATE OBJECTIVE

 BUSINESS PORTFOLIO GROWTH


x To further consolidate NTPC‟S position as the leading thermal power
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generation company in India and establish a presence in hydro power


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segment.

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


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x To broad base the generation mix by evaluating conventional sources of


energy to ensure long run competitiveness and mitigate fuel-risks.

x To diversify across the power value chain in India by considering backward


and forward integration into areas such as power trading, transmission,
distribution, coal mining, coal beneficiation, etc.

x To develop a portfolio of generation assets in international markets.

x To establish a strong brand in the domestic & international market.

 CUSTOMER FOCUS
x To foster a collaborative style of working with customer growing to be
a preferred brand for supply of quality power.
x To expand the relationship with existing customers by offering a
bouquet of services in addition to supply of power e.g. trading, energy
consulting, distribution consulting, management consulting,
management practices.
x To expand the future customer portfolio through profitable
diversification into downstream business, inter alia retail distribution
and direct supply.
x To ensure rapid commercial decision making, using customer specific
information with adequate concern for the interests of the customer.

 AGILE CORPORATION
x To ensure effectiveness in business decisions and responsiveness to change
in the business environment by
x Adopting a portfolio approach to new business development.
x Continuous and coordinated assessment of the business environment to
identify and respond to opportunities and threats.
x To develop a learning organization having knowledge based competitive
32

edge in current and future businesses.


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x To effectively leverage information technology to ensure speedy decision


making across the organization.

 PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP
x To continuously improve on project execution time and cost in order to
sustain long run competitiveness in generation.
x To operate & maintain NTPC stations at par with the best-run utilities in the
world with respect to availability, reliability, efficiencies.
x To aim for performance excellence in the diversification businesses.
x To embed quality in all systems and processes.

 HUMAN RESORUCE DEVELOPMENT


x To enhance organizational performance by institutionalizing an objective and
open performance management system.
x To align individual and organizational needs and develop business leaders by
implementing a career development system.
x To enhance commitment of employees by recognizing and rewarding high
performance.
x To build and sustain a learning organization of competent world-class
professionals.
x To institutionalize core values and create a culture of team building,
empowerment, equity, innovation and openness which would motivate
employees and enable achievement of strategic objectives.

 FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS
x To maintain and improve the financial soundness of NTPC by prudent
management of the financial resources.
x To continuously strive to reduce the cost of capital through prudent
management of deployed funds, leveraging opportunities in domestic and
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international financial markets.


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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


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x To develop appropriate commercial policies and processes this would ensure


remunerative tariffs and minimize receivables.
x To continuously strive for reduction in cost of power generation by improving
operating practices.

 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
x To contribute to sustainable power development by discharging corporate
social responsibilities.
x To lead the sector in the areas of resettlement and rehabilitation and
environment protection including effective ash-utilization, peripheral
development and energy conservation practices.
x To lead developmental efforts in the Indian power sector through efforts at
policy advocacy, assisting customers in the operations and management of
power plants etc.

 RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENTS


x To pioneer the adoption of reliable, efficient and cost-effective technologies
by carrying out fundamental and applied research in alternate funds and
technologies.
x To carry out research and development of breakthrough techniques in power
plant construction and operation that can lead to more efficient, reliable and
environment friendly operation of power plants in the country.
x To disseminate the technologies to other players in the sector and in the
long-run generating revenue through proprietary technologies.
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IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

3.5 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT


 Coal is supplied from Talcher and Australia which is stored and maintained very well
at the Coal Stock yard.
 There are no retailers or distributors. Everything is taken care by the government
since it is a State-owned company.
 Supply of electric products are done by BHEL which is also a government owned
enterprise.
 Chief water source is Yeleru canal.

4. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES


4.1 HUMAN RESOURCES
People before PLF (Plant Load Factor)' is the guiding philosophy behind the entire gamut of
HR policies at NTPC. NTPC are strongly committed to the development and growth of all our
employees as individuals and not just as employees. NTPC currently employ approximately
24500 people at NTPC.

Competence building, Commitment building, Culture building and Systems building are the
four building blocks on which our HR systems are based.

RECRUITMENT

NTPC believe in the philosophy of 'Grow your own timber'. Our 'Executive Trainee' scheme
was introduced in 1977 with the objective of raising a cadre of home grown professionals.
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First Division Graduate Engineers/ Post graduates are hired through nation-wide open
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competitive examinations and campus recruitments. Hiring is followed by 52 weeks of fully


paid induction training.

CAREER ADVANCEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES

NTPC have a well established talent management system in place, to ensure that NTPC
deliver on our promise of meaningful growth and relevant challenges for our employees.
Our talent management system comprises PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT, CAREER PATHS
and LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT.

REWARDS AND RECOGNITIONS

We have, from inception, created a culture of rewards and recognitions through celebration
of various achievements and events and recognizing the contributions behind such success.

INNOVATE, CREATE, COMPETE

We have introduced numerous initiatives which seek to enhance the creativity, innovation,
functional aptitude and teamwork of our employees. These initiatives include National
Open Competition for Executive Talent (NOCET), Professional Circles, Quality Circles,
Business Minds and Medha Pratiyogita (a quiz for our employees). A management journal
called “Horizon” is published quarterly to enable the employees to share their ideas and
experiences across the organization.
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QUALITY OF WORK-LIFE

NTPC is proud of its systems for providing a good quality of work-life for its employees. In
addition to providing beautiful and safe work places, NTPC encourages a culture of mutual
respect and trust amongst peers, superiors and subordinates.

Away from hectic city life, NTPC townships provide an environment of serenity, natural
beauty and close community living. Numerous welfare and recreation facilities including
schools, hospitals and clubs are provided at the townships to enhance quality of life & the
well being of employees and their families. An entire range of benefits, from child care
leave to post retirement medical benefits are extended to employees to meet any exigency
that may arise in a person's life.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN NTPC

To meet our ultimate objective of becoming a learning organization, an integrated


Knowledge Management System has been developed, which facilitates tacit knowledge in
the form of learning and experiences of employees to be captured and summarized for
future reference.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

NTPC subscribes to the belief that efficiency, effectiveness and success of the organization,
depends largely on the skills, abilities and commitment of the employees who constitute
the most important asset of the organization.

Our Training Policy envisages a minimum of 7 man days of training per employee per year.
NTPC have developed our own comprehensive training infrastructure.

EDUCATION UP-GRADATION SCHEMES

To meet the academic aspirations of employees and match them with the needs of the
organization, NTPC has tie-ups with institutes of repute like MDI, Gurgaon; IIT Delhi; BITS
Pilani, etc. NTPC sponsors fixed size batches of employees who are inducted into these
37

courses based on their performance rating in the company and their performance in the
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entrance exam conducted by the respective institute. Unlike other study leave and
sabbaticals, employees undergoing these courses do not forego their salary or growth
during the duration of the course.

SEEKING FEEDBACK

NTPC actively seek and encourage employee feedback to ensure that our HR interventions
and practices remain relevant and meaningful. NTPC regularly conduct Employee
Satisfaction and Organizational Climate Surveys.

AWARDS

NTPC derive immense satisfaction from the awards NTPC receive and the resulting
recognition they bestow. The awards are key indicators and milestones on our HR journey,
and reinforce our HR philosophy and practices. NTPC has been awarded No.1, Best
Workplace in India among large organizations for the year 2008, by the Great Places to
Work Institute, India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.

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4.2 FUTURE CAPACITY ADDITIONS

NTPC has formulated a long term Corporate Plan up to 2017. In line with the Corporate Plan,
the capacity addition under implementation stage is presented below:

PROJECT STATE MW

Coal

1. NCTPP II ( 2 x 490) Uttar Pradesh 980

2 Korba III ( 1 x 500) Chhattisgarh 500

3 Sipat I (3 x 660) Chhattisgarh 1980

4. Farakka III ( 1 x 500) West Bengal 500

5. Indira Gandhi STPP- JV with IPGCL & HPGCL ( 3 x 500) Haryana 1500

6. Simhadri II ( 2 x 500) Andhra Pradesh 1000

7. Vallur I -JV with TNEB ( 2 x 500) Tamilnadu 1000

8. Vallur Stage-I Phase-II -JV with TNEB ( 1 x 500) Tamilnadu 500

9. Bongaigaon(3 x 250) Assam 750

10. Mauda ( 2 x 500) Maharashta 1000

11. Rihand III(2X500) Uttar Pradesh 1000

12. Vindhyachal-IV (2X500) Madhya Pradesh 1000

13. Nabinagar TPP-JV with Railways (4 x 250) Bihar 1000

14. Barh II (2 X 660) Bihar 1320

15. Barh I (3 X 660) Bihar 1980

Hydro

1. Koldam HEPP ( 4 x 200) Himachal Pradesh 800

2. Loharinag Pala HEPP ( 4x 150) Uttarakhand 600

3. Tapovan Vishnugad HEPP (4 x 130) Uttarakhand 520

Total 17930
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NTPC Limited, country’s largest power generating company having an installed capacity of
30,144 Mw, is adding 6,500 Mw in the southern region. Of this, 1,000 Mw is for the Simhadri
Super Thermal Power Station at Visakhapatnam, according to NTPC regional executive
director (south) Ambarish N Dave.

Of the two 500 Mw units planned to be added at Simhadri, one unit would be ready by
November 2010 while the second would come up in the subsequent phase. The Simhadri
power plant expansion is estimated to cost about Rs 5,130 crore.

Andhra Pradesh would get about 35 per cent power from the new capacity addition at
Simhadri. The remaining would be distributed in the southern region according to the
agreements with the respective states. The entire power currently generated by the 1,000
Mw Simhadri plant is being used by the state.

In Tamil Nadu, the company would add another 500 Mw once its 1,000 Mw plant at Vallur is
complete. The plant is being set up at an estimated cost of Rs 5,123 crore in joint venture
with the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.

This apart, the company is also in the process of conducting feasibility studies for the 4,000
Mw power plant at Kudgi in Bijapur district of Karnataka. The project would be executed
together with Power Company of Karnataka Limited for which a memorandum of
understanding was signed in January this year. The project would have three units of 800
Mw each in Stage I and two units of similar capacity in Stage II.

Feasibility studies for multiple locations for a 500Mw wind power project in Karnataka too
would be conducted soon.

NTPC was in talks with Gas Authority of India Limited for supply of liquefied natural gas
(LNG) to the Rajiv Gandhi Combined Cycle Power Project at Kayamkulam in Kerala. The
company would take up Stage II expansion of the project upon availability of fuel (LNG) at a
viable cost. The proposed expansion would not require additional land.
40

The southern region achieved the highest-ever generation of 32,067.76 million units (mu)
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during the financial year 2008-09, surpassing the target of 29,775 mu.

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

4.3 CHALLENGES WITH COAL RESOURCES


The policy changes in coal sector provide an opportunity to NTPC to enter captive coal
mining business. Production is expected by 2010 in one coal block already allotted (Pakri
Barwadih in the state of Jharkhand). Five more blocks (~40MTPA) have been allotted to
NTPC, including two in JV with CIL.

In addition to development of its own domestic coal mines NTPC is exploring various other
options including acquisition of stake in coal mines abroad for sourcing of thermal coal for
addressing fuel security concerns.

Ash Utilization is one of the key concerns at NTPC. The Ash Utilization division, set up in
1991, strives to drive maximum usage from vast quantities of ash produced at its coal based
stations. The division proactively formulates policies, plans and programmes for Ash
Utilization. It further monitors the progress in these areas and works at developing new
fields of Ash Utilization.

The quality ash produced conforms to the requirements of IS 3812 – 2003. The fly ash
generated at NTPC stations is ideal for use in cement, concrete, concrete products, cellular
concrete, light weight aggregates, bricks/blocks/ tiles etc. this is attributed to very low loss
on ignition value. To facilitate availability of dry ash to end users, all the new units of NTPC
are provided with the facility of dry ash collection system. Partial dry ash collection systems
have also been set up at the existing stations where these facilities did not exist earlier.
Augmentation of these systems to 100% capacity is in under progress.
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As the emphasis on gainful utilization of ash grew, its usage over the years also increased.
From 0.3 million tons in 1991 – 1992, the level of utilization during 2008 – 09 stood at over
24.40 million tons.

The various segments of Ash Utilization currently includes use by a number of Cement,
Asbestos – Cement products & Concrete manufacturing industries, Land development, Road
& Embankments, Ash Dyke Raising and Building Products. Such as bricks / blocks / tiles, as a
soil amender and source of micro –nutrients in agriculture and backfilling of mines.

AREA WISE BREAK-UP OF UTILISATION FOR THE YEAR 2008-09 IS AS UNDER:

Area of Utilization Quantity (in Million Tons)

Cement Industries 7.04

Ready Mix Concrete 0.33

Asbestos 0.20

Clay Ash/ Fly Ash Bricks 1.64

Land Fill 5.74

Ash Dyke Raising 6.24

Road/ Embankments 1.30

Mine Filling 1.14

Agriculture 0.002

Export 0.73

Others 0.02

Total 24.40

MAJOR INITIATIVES TAKEN BY NTPC TOWARDS ASH UTILISATION

NTPC continually strives to evolve innovative and diverse means of Ash Utilization to further
broaden the scope. Prominent among the methods devised so far are:
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 Dry Flyash Extraction Systems


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 Use in cement & concrete

IST YEAR MBA (2009-11), AGBS HYDERABAD (AMITY UNIVERSITY)


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 Use in Ash based products including setting up of


o Ash Technology Park
o Land Development/Wasteland Development, Roads & Embankments, Raising
Ash Dykes'
 Mine filling / Stowing
 Agriculture

NTPC Ash Utilization Division has published multiple literatures on the use of ash in various
applications in the form of books & promotional brochures and documentary films to create
awareness among the prospective users & entrepreneurs for use of ash. The booklets/
brochures/ films are:

BROCHURES:

Fly Ash Bricks


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Clay Ash bricks


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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

 Clay Ash Bricks with 60% Fly Ash

 Coal ash Environment friendly material - For fills, Embankments and Road pavement
Construction

 Fly Ash - a Resource for Cement & Concrete

 Use of Ash in agriculture (In Hindi)

FILMS:

 Clay Ash Bricks

 Fly Ash Bricks

 Use of Fly Ash in Mine Filling

 Coal Ash As Fill Material

5. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
 NTPC Simhadri plant has created a benchmark in technology utilization, efficiency
and effective utilization of resources.
 It has been achieving records right from its synchronization.
 It is the only Power plant in India where maximum Automation is done in its
operations.
 It is the first power plant which uses sea water as a coolant.
 It has also achieved great environment standards through its infrastructure facilities
like Tallest Chimneys in Asia (275m), Tallest cooling towers in Asia and maintaining
an Ash pond which is eco-friendly.
 It been maintaining excellent CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) by providing jobs
to the land losers along with good compensation, providing employment for the
locals on a contract basis, construction of roads, drainage systems, drinking water
supply, hygienic conditions, hospitals, schools, etc all within 8 Kms of the NTPC plant.
 NTPC Simhadri has followed the principles of production and operation management
quite well and also maintained good relationship within its Micro as well as Macro
environments.
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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON NTPC SIMHADRI

 There should be more Involvement of management at all levels with effective


creation of policies, vision, Mission, values, goals and support, communicated and
implemented throughout the Organization.
 There should be training of senior executives in managing for quality.
 It should evaluate plans for expansion in order to meet the Power needs of India as
well as to create more employment.

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Production and Operations Management, Chary


www.ntpc.in
www.google.com
Wikipedia
Forbes India
Business World

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