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Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000

Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000
Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186
Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000
2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering
2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering
Development of Laval Nozzle for Micro Abrasive Jet Machining
Development of Laval Nozzle for Micro Abrasive Jet Machining
[MAJM] Processes
Manufacturing Engineering Society Processes
International Conference 2017, MESIC 2017, 28-30 June
2017, Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain
V.V.Vanmoreaa , U. A. Dabadebb*
V.V.Vanmore , U. A. Dabade *
Costing Department
models a,b

for capacity
of Mechanical optimization
Engineering, Walchand in Sangli,
College of Engineering, Industry 4.0:
Maharashtra 416415,Trade-off
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra 416415, India
between used capacity and operational efficiency
Abstract A. Santanaa, P. Afonsoa,*, A. Zaninb, R. Wernkeb
The modern manufacturing era demanding miniaturization of devices with micro features in fields of electronics, optics,
University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
The modern
medicine, manufacturing
biotechnology, era demanding
communications, miniaturization
b and of devices
avionics. A large numberwith micro featurescarried
of investigations in fields
out of
in electronics,
micro abrasiveoptics,
Unochapecó, 89809-000 Chapecó, SC, Brazil
machining biotechnology, communications,
on glass with conventional nozzleand but avionics.
very little A large
study numberon
is carried ofmetals.
investigations carried out
To do machining on in micro
metal abrasive
higher jet
of abrasiveon glass with
particle conventional
is required nozzle
so attempt is but very
made tolittle studyLaval
develop is carried
type on metals. for
of nozzle To do machining
difficult on metal
to machine higher velocity
materials such as
of abrasive
stainless particle
steel ANSIis316required
plate.soA attempt
nozzle is made to develop
conceived to assureLaval type of
specific nozzle for difficult
characteristics of the to machine
mixture materials such
(compressed as
air and
stainless steel ANSI
abrasive particle)
Abstract owing316through
plate. it.
A nozzle
During isthis conceived
flow, the to assure
force specificparticle
of abrasive characteristics of the
is converted mixtureenergy,
to kinetic (compressed air and
so the velocity
abrasive particle)
of the mixture is owing through
increased. Theit.flow
During this flow, the
characteristics andforce of abrasive
machining particle isofconverted
performance to kinetic
Laval nozzle energy, soprecisely
are examined the velocity
of the mixture
Under is increased.
the concept investigateThe flow
of "Industry the characteristics
4.0", andprocesses
nozzle reduce machining
be pushedofofmachined
to benozzle
hole are
increasingly precisely by
of also investigate
flow with guiding
information based pressure.
on that the
a real time Laval
basis and,nozzle reduce dimensional
necessarily, much morevariation of machined
efficient. hole and
In this context, increaseoptimization
capacity concentration
of flow with guiding pressure.
goes beyond the traditional aim of capacity maximization, contributing also for organization’s profitability and value.
© 2017The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
© 2018 lean
The management
Authors. Published and
byby continuous
Elsevier B.V.B.V.improvement approaches suggest capacity optimization instead of
© Authors. Published
under responsibility ofElsevier
the scientific committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials
Peer-review under
maximization. responsibility
The study of of the scientific
capacity committeeand
optimization of the 2nd International
costing models isConference
an importanton Materials
research Manufacturing
topic and
that deserves
of the scientific committee
Design Engineering. of the 2nd International Conference on Materials
contributions from both the practical and theoretical perspectives. This paper presents and discusses a mathematical
Manufacturing and Design Engineering.
model forLaval
Keywords: capacity
Micro on different
Abrasive costing models (ABC and TDABC). A generic model has been
Jet Machining
developed and Nozzle,
Keywords: Laval it was used to analyze
Micro-abrasive, idleAbrasive
Micro capacity
Jet and to design strategies towards the maximization of organization’s
value. The trade-off capacity maximization vs operational efficiency is highlighted and it is shown that capacity
1. Introduction
optimization might hide operational inefficiency.
© Introduction
The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under says
Recent study responsibility of theto
it is difficult scientific committee of the Manufacturing
do the micromachining Engineering
of materials like ceramicsSociety International
and glasses Conference
as these materials
areRecent study
extremely saysbrittle
hard, it is difficult to do resistant.
& corrosion the micromachining of materials
For machining of these like ceramics
materials, and glasses
chemical as thesemachining
and thermal materials
are extremely
methods (suchhard, brittle
as laser and&electron
corrosion resistant.
beam For machining
machining, chemical of these materials,
etching, chemical
electrolytic and and
machining thermal
are less
Keywords: Cost Models; ABC; TDABC; Capacity Management; Idle Capacity; Operational Efficiency
methods (such as laser and electron beam machining, chemical etching, electrolytic machining and EDM) are less

1. Introduction
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-9423400516; fax+91-233-2300831
*The address:
of idle Tel.: +91-9423400516;
capacity is a fundamental fax+91-233-2300831
information for companies and their management of extreme importance
E-mail address:
in modern production systems. In general, it is defined as unused capacity or production potential and can be measured
2351-9789© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
in several ways:
Peer-review under
2351-9789© 2017
tons of production,
of thebyscientific
Authors. Published
hours of
Elsevier B.V.
of the etc.Conference
2nd International The management of Manufacturing
on Materials the idle capacity
* Paulo Afonso. Tel.:
Design Engineering.
Peer-review +351 253 510 761; fax: +351 253 604 741
under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and
Design address:

2351-9789 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

2351-9789 © under
The Authors. of the scientificbycommittee
Published Elsevier of the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference 2017.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and
Design Engineering.
182 V.V. Vanmore et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186
2 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000

recommended because of excessive heat affected zone. Also mechanical machining methods (such as grinding,
ultrasonic machining and polishing) are less popular because of less accuracy & productivity. Recent development
of micro Abrasive jet machining (MAJM) become an attractive and promising technology for processing hard and
brittle materials such as ceramics and semiconductors. This technology posses distinct advantages like less damage
during micro machining & negligible heat affected zone. Because of these reasons it finds its application in
fabricating electronic devices and micro-fluidic channels.
Recent studies on MAJM have focused on the following topics: technological trend and application with case
studies [1–5]. characteristics of machining MAJM [6–9], Identification of abrasive jet machining mechanism
[10,11], Numerous empirical studies on particle velocity arrived later on investigating the influence of nozzle length
[12], particle loading ratio and roughness [13], radial position of the particles and distance from the nozzle exit
[14,15]. The fluid flow conditions in the micro abrasive jet machining nozzle have been recognized early as one of
the most indispensable components to control erosion [16]. The micro abrasive jet machining process has been
analytically demonstrated regarding disintegration and miniaturized scale stream machining profile [17, 18].
Generally in micro abrasive jet machining nozzles are used with cylindrical cross section and the flow of jet is
converging. It also achieves speed of sound, because of the presence of particle velocity, boundary layer and the
pressure of particle at centre line of the nozzle is higher. As an outcome, the machining result is hard to control for
greater cylindrical cross sectional nozzle. The efficiency is decreases with the flux effect [19]. The flexible magnetic
abrasive jet machining is novel hybrid method for researching the machining attributes of the self-made magnetic
abrasive in abrasive jet machining [20]. Using the Bernoulli’s equation of compressible of flow jet air velocity of
abrasive Particles in an abrasive air jet machining was calculated with considering nozzle length, air density, particle
mean diameter and air flow velocity at exit of nozzle. It is determined theoretically and mathematically [21]. The
main objective of this study is to develop Laval nozzle for MAJM to machine difficult to machine materials such as
stainless steel ANSI 316 plate for improve machining productivity of micromachining. Study of micro drilling
efficiency measured with the function of Laval nozzle using of mesh sizes 50 µm silicon carbide (SiC) particles.
Also study of flow characteristics of jet examined precisely by experimentally.

2. Development of Laval Nozzle

Need of high velocity nozzle in micro abrasive jet machining is essential for difficult to machine materials. So

Fig.1. Distribution of flow over the jet

attempt is made to developed Laval type nozzle based on principle of The Coanda effect as say that tendency of a
liquid stream to stay attached to a curved portion for concentricity of fluid jet with high velocity.
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing00 (2017) 000–000 3
V.V. Vanmore et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186 183

Fig.2. Cut section of Nozzle Fig.3. Photo of Nozzle assembly

Nozzle has been developed which exhibits flow in converging way. Fig.1 shows distribution of flow over the jet.
Where P1 is gauge pressure of air-abrasive mixture particles and P2 gauge pressure shows the guiding pressure over
the nozzle stream. When the Guiding pressure P2 flowing along the inner surface of nozzle, at the exit of nozzle
pressure gradient is developed. This cause guiding flow of air moving along the slots, centre jet gets concentrated
with some extent. Fig.2 shows cut section of nozzle where abrasive air mixture passing centrally and guiding air
passing through side connector. Inside the assemblies a disc with 6 nos. of holes are provided for passing air to
guide the jet .The Nozzle Casing which carries controlled dry air along the surface of inner nozzle. Air is passing
through clearance of 3 mm. The length of casing is 100 mm; also smooth taper is provided at the end portion up to
length 20 mm, which is used to increase velocity of air. Inner diameter of casing is 6mm and outer diameter is 16
mm. Material of nozzle casing is mild steel.

3. Experimentation

Experiments are carry out for micro hole on stainless steel ANSI 316 plate and also flow visualization of jet can be
predicted in micro abrasive jet machining processes as show in Fig.4 the compressed air of set pressure is passed
through air conditioning unit i.e. Filter-Regulator unit which removes the moister and sends dry air to the abrasive
feeder through solenoid valve which is used to have an immediate on-off control of the process. This dry
compressed air imparts momentum to abrasive particles stored in the abrasive feeder. The air-abrasive mixture
comes out of the cylinder with sufficient kinetic energy. High energy air-abrasive mixture is passed through the
nozzle which produces a high velocity jet of the air-abrasive mixture. The high velocity jet of air-abrasive mixture
impact on a work surface and remove the material through erosion phenomena. Silicon Carbide (SiC) of mesh sizes
50 micron is used. The Laval nozzle is made of tungsten Carbide and has a diameter of 500 micron.
The machining time is kept constant as one minute. There is various important process parameters of micro-AJM
out of which air pressure (P1) and guiding air pressure (P2), stand-off distance are chosen for the study. In the
present work, stainless steel ANSI 316 plate of dimension (70 mm×50mm×0.6mm) is taken as work piece sample
for machining holes was used as the work material. After the test, the samples were cleaned with pressurized air.
4 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000
184 V.V. Vanmore et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186

Fig. 4.. MAJM Experimental setup

With Dino-Lite
Lite Premier Digital Microscope (AM3713TB) is used for measuring the Micro holes and flow patterns
of jet. At high pressure jet flow is not visible in this camera so effect of guiding pressure P2 on P1 can be measured.
For this experiment Air-abrasive
abrasive mixture pressure (bar) P1 is kept constant as 3 bar and experimental condition is
shown in Table 1.

4. Experimental results and Discussion

The result reveals that by means of micro abrasive jet machining with developed Laval Nozzle micro features such
as micro drill is feasible in wide range as shown in Fig. 55.. The stainless steel ANSI 316 plate of (70 X 50 X 0.6)
sample piece is used for drilling micro hole diameter 0.545mm. It is obtained with Air pressure (P1) 7 bar, Guiding
sure (P2) 1.5 bar and nozzle tip distance is 1.5mm. Also periphery of the hole quite accurate, the circumferential
diameter shows the less distortion because of guiding pressure P2.

Fig. 5.. Micro Hole Machining on ANSI 316 Plates

visualization. Generally when jet exits from the nozzle, the flow
Table 1 shows Experimental Result and flow visualization
should always divergent but with the help of Laval nozzle the flow will get convergent with some distance (approx.
1mm to 3mm) and again divergent. So here convergent flow is achieved up to nozzle tip distance. In micro AJM for
convergent flow is very useful process parameter for higher velocity and geometric accuracy. So the Laval nozzle is
very useful for micro abrasive jet machining.
V.V. Vanmore et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186 185
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing00 (2017) 000–000 5

Table 1 Effect of guiding pressure P2 on P1 can be measured.

Exp. Parameters Values Micro Abrasive jet flow pattern

1 Air-abrasive mixture pressure (bar) P1 3

Guiding pressure(bar) P2 1

Bottom 0.508

Centre 0.426

Exit 0.622

Nozzle Tip distance 2.506

2 Air-abrasive mixture pressure (bar) P1 3

Guiding pressure(bar) P2 1.5

Bottom 0.557

Centre 0.491

Exit 0.540

Nozzle Tip distance 2.276

3 Air-abrasive mixture pressure (bar) P1 3

Guiding pressure(bar) P2 2

Bottom 0.524

Centre 0.491

Exit 0.655

Nozzle Tip distance 2.375

5. Conclusions

The developed MAJM experimental set up investigate that the Laval nozzle reduce dimensional variation of
machined hole and increase concentration of flow with guiding pressure. Some of the remarks on the present work:
186 V.V. Vanmore et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 181–186
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 The concentric jet 0.491mm is achieved with air- abrasive mixture (P1) is 3 bar and Guiding pressure (P2)
is 1.5 bar.
 Less distortion of circumferential diameter of micro hole because of guiding pressure P2.
 Laval nozzle gives less machining time as compared to conventional nozzle.
 Supersonic airflow velocity in the nozzle.
 Long lifetime of the nozzle.
 Jet is concentric with adjustable guiding pressure.


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