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PROJECT REPORT ON GSM Based Data Acquisition system Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirements



GSM Based Data Acquisition system

Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Tech (Electronics & Telecommunication)

Under the Guidance of Mr. Amar Khalore

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication

Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering NMIMS University, Mumbai Year: 2009-10

Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Shirpur Campus CERTIFICATE This is to certify

Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Shirpur Campus


This is to certify that Sameer Premakar with “St.Code:-725; Nirav Madhu with “St. Code .:-740;Rahul Shrivastava with “St. Code .:-730has undertaken the seminar titled


The student has successfully completed the seminar report for the partial fulfillment of the B.Tech (Electronics & telecommunication) as per the norms prescribed by NMIMS University during the seventh trimester of academic year 2009-10. The report has been assessed and found to be satisfactory.

We wish them a great success.

Mr. Amar Khalore (Seminar Guide)

Mr. Shailendra.B (HOD, EXTC Dept.)

Prof. R.R.Sedamkar (Associate Dean)


I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to “ Mr. Amar KhaloreDept. of Electronics & telecommunication, Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Shirpur Campus, for his generous guidance, help and useful suggestions.

I express my sincere gratitude to HOD Electronics & telecommunication, Dept., for

his stimulating guidance, continuous encouragement and supervision throughout the course of present work.

I am extremely thankful to Prof. RR Sedamkar, Associate Dean, Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Shirpur Campus, for providing me infrastructural facilities to work in, without which this work would not have been possible.




Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a process control system that enables a site operator to monitor and control processes that are distributed among various remote sites. A properly designed SCADA system saves time and money by eliminating the need for service personnel to visit each site for inspection, data collection/logging or make adjustments. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems are computers, controllers, instruments; actuators, networks,and interfaces that manage the control of automated industrial processes and allow analysis of these systems through data collection .They are used in all types of industries, from electrical distribution systems, to food processing, to facility security alarms.[7] Supervisory control and data acquisition is used to describe a system where both data acquisition and supervisory control are performed. Mobile Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (referred to as Mobile SCADA) is the use of SCADA with the mobile phone network being used as the underlying communication medium. GSM is a wireless communication technology; most popular today for transmitting data anywhere in the world through SMS with the help of mobile phones.General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is chosen as the specific mobile communication protocol to use as it provides an always on-line Inter connection without any time based charges. SMS is a globally accepted wireless service that enables the transmission of alphanumeric messages between mobile subscribers and external systems such as electronic mail, paging, and voice-mail systems. It is a store and forward way of transmitting messages to and from mobiles. SMS benefits includes the delivery of notifications and alerts, guaranteed message delivery, reliable and lowcost communication mechanism for concise information, ability to screen messages and return calls in a selective way and increased subscriber productivity




2.1 Development of GSM Technology

The idea of the first cellular network was brainstormed in 1947. It was intended to be used for military purposes as a way of supplying troops with more advanced forms of communications. From 1947 till about 1979 several different forms of broadcasting technology emerged. The United States began to develop the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) network, while European countries were developing their own forms of communication. Europeans quickly realized the disadvantages of each European country operating on their mobile network. Rectifying the situation the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) assembled a research group with intentions of researching the mobile phone system in Europe. This group was called Group Spécial Mobile (GSM).

For the next ten years the GSM group outlined standards, researched technology and designed a way to implement a pan-European mobile phone network. The acronym GSM had been changed from Group Spécial Mobile to Global Systems Mobile Telecommunications.

By April of 1991 commercial service of the GSM network had begun. Just a year and half later in 1993 there were already 36 GSM networks in over 22 countries. Most of the world external to the United States uses GSM technology. However, operate on different frequencies. There are five major GSM frequencies that have become standard worldwide. They include GSM-900, GSM-1800, GSM-850, GSM-1900 and GSM-400.

Today GSM is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call quality, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. The map on the nest page shows the wide usage of the GSM technology all over the world.

Fig. 2.1 The Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card, is a key

Fig. 2.1

The Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card, is a key feature of GSM. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. This allows the user to retain his information after switching handsets.

the user to retain his information after switching handsets. Fig. 2.2 GSM also pioneered a low-cost

Fig. 2.2

GSM also pioneered a low-cost alternative to voice calls, the Short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well.

2.2 Short Message Service (SMS)

Short Message Service (SMS) is a communications protocol allowing the interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone devices.

The first SMS message was sent over the Vodafone GSM network in the United Kingdom on 3 December 1992, from Neil Papworth of Airwide Solutions (using a personal computer) to Richard Jarvis of Vodafone (using an Orbitel 901 handset). The text of the message

was "Merry Christmas".The first SMS typed on a GSM phone is claimed to have been sent by Riku Pihkonen, an engineering student at Nokia, in 1993.

The maximum single text message size is either 160 7-bit characters, 140 8-bit characters, or 70 16-bit characters.Larger content (Concatenated SMS, multipart or segmented SMS or "long sms") can be sent using multiple messages.

2.3 Hardware

2.3.1 Microcontroller Selection Criteria

1. The first and the foremost criterion for selecting a microcontroller is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently and cost effectively. In analyzing the need of a microcontroller based project we must see whether an 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit microcontroller can best handle the computing need of the task most efficiently. Among other consideration in this category are speed, power consumption, amount of on chip RAM and ROM, the number of sufficient I/O ports and cost per unit.

2. Second how easy is it to develop product around it. Key considerations are the availability of an assembler, debugger, emulator and technical support.

3. Its ready availability in needed quantity, both now and in future.

Taking all these considerations we have chosen “ATMEL 89C4051” microcontroller. Brief History of 8051

In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an 8 bit microcontroller called 8051, this had 128 bytes of RAM, 4 bytes of on chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and 4 ports each 8 bits wide all on a single chip. At this time it was referred to as “system on chip”. The 8051 is an 8 bit processor meaning that the CPU can work only on 8 bit at a time. Data larger than 8 bit has to be broken up into 8 bit pieces to be processed by the CPU.

The 8051 became widely popular after Intel allowed other manufacturers to make and market any flavor of 8051 with the condition that they remain code compatible with 8051. This

has lead to many versions of 8051 with a different speed and amount of on chip ROM marketed by different companies. ATMEL 89S52

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K Flash bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-AT89S52 grammer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost- effective solution to many embedded control applications.

2.4 Software

As our project required involved the application of software, on consulting with our project guide we came to the conclusion that we shall use Embedded C for programming utilizing the Keil software

Use of embedded processors cars, mobile phones, medical equipment, aerospace systems etc is widespread. The applications of embedded C are exploited through the Keil software. Keil was founded in 1986 to market add on products for development tools provided by many of the silicon vendors. It soon became evident that there was a void in the market placethat must be filled with quality software development tools. It was then that Keil introduced the first C compiler designed from the ground-up specifically for 8051 microcontroller.

The literature about Keil was collected from the net as well as some e-books via the internet. is the link of the site from which the basics of the software was taken.


3.1: DEVELOPMENT STAGES The complete development of this system can be divided into the following stages:

Problem definition stage

Designing block diagram

Implementing circuits and components

Developing algorithm for software

Writing actual code for Microcontroller

Compiling the code

Burning the hex file into microcontroller with programmer

Testing and Running

Problem definition stage This is the very first stage to develop any project. It actually defines the aim and the concept of the project. The aim of GSM BASED DATA ACUISITION SYSTEMis to design a remote warning system which is compatible with the existing system and using GSM technology instead of laying cables as in the case of wired communication, all this with least complexity and cost.

Designing block diagram At this stage we have categorized the whole system into different individual modules. These modules (block diagrams) will be helpful in understanding the concept and working of the integrated system. It also simplifies the entire debugging and testing process.

Block diagram

 Block diagram  Implementing circuits and components This is the actual implementation of circuit of

Implementing circuits and components This is the actual implementation of circuit of each block. At this stage we have actually designed each block separately and finally integrated them into the complete working system. This includes ensuring the functionality of each component and removing and replacing the faulty and unwanted parts.

Developing algorithm for software To get the logical flow of the software, the development of algorithm has a prominent role. So we have analyzed the complete system and organized the algorithm in such a manner that one can understand the complete working of the software.

writing actual code for Microcontroller After the development of the algorithm and flowchart we have translated them in C language for Atmel 89S52 Microcontroller so that it can understand the instructions and run as per our requirement. The instructions are in ANSII C Language.

Compiling the code The code is implemented on the computer for which we have used BASCOM pre-installed on PC. The BASCOM8051 is a Computer Aided Program to simulate the working of Microcontroller in real time without burning the software into actual IC. We simulated and compiled our program for error checking. After removing of several compiling errors the program was converted into machine language i.e. Intel hex format.

Burning the hex file into microcontroller with Programmer In this stage the compiled hex format file was downloaded or burned into Atmel AT89C52 flash Microcontroller. This was done with the help of FP-8903 Programmer for Atmel microcontrollers designed by Oriole Electronics Pvt. Ltd.

Testing and Running This time we tested our project for actual working, after loading the software into the microcontroller. Any errors found were removed successfully. This is the last and final stage of development of our project.


4.1: Fabrication of PCB


P.C.B. is printed circuit board which is of insulating base with layer of thin copper- foil.

The circuit diagram is then drawn on the P. C. B. with permanent marker and then it is dipped in the solution of ferric chloride so that unwanted copper is removed from the P.C.B., thus leaving components interconnection on the board.

The specification of the base material is not important to know in most of the application, but it is important to know something about copper foil which is drawn through a thin slip.

The resistance of copper foil will have an effect on the circuit operation.

Base material is made of lamination layer of suitable insulating material such as treated paper, fabric; or glass fibers and binding them with resin. Most commonly used base materials are formed paper bonded with epoxy resin.

It is possible to obtain a range of thickness between 0.5 mm to 3 mm.

Thickness is the important factor in determining mechanical strength particularly when the commonly used base material is “Formeafrom paper assembly.

Physical properties should be self supporting these are surface resistivity, heat dissipation, dielectric, constant, dielectric strength.

Another important factor is the ability to withstand high temperature.

4.2: POWER SUPPLY Power supply is the first and the most important part of our project. For our project we require +5V regulated power supply with maximum current rating 500Ma. Following basic building blocks are required to generate regulated power supply.

Step-down Rectifier Filter 3Terminal Regulated O/P Voltage Mains 230 V A.C. transformer Ckt. Voltage req.
Regulated O/P Voltage
Mains 230 V


Step down Transformer:-

Step down transformer is the first part of regulated power supply. To step down the mains 230V

A.C. we require step down transformer. Following are the main characteristic of electronic


1) Power transformers are usually designed to operate from source of low impedance at

a single freq.


3) Transformer ratings are expressed in voltamp. The volt-amp of each secondary

It is required to construct with sufficient insulation of necessary dielectric strength.

winding or windings are added for the total secondary VA. To this are added the load


Temperature rise of a transformer is decided on two well-known factors i.e. losses on

transformer and heat dissipating or cooling facility provided unit.

The following information must be available to the designer before he commences for the design

of transformer.



Power Output.


Operating Voltage.


Frequency Range.


Efficiency and Regulation.

Rectifier Unit:-

Rectifier unit is a circuit which converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. Generally semi-conducting

diode is used as rectifying element due to its property of conducting current in one direction

only. Generally there are two types of rectifier.


Half wave rectifier

2) Full wave rectifier.

In half wave rectifier only half cycle of mains A.C. is rectified so its efficiency is very poor. So we use full wave bridge type rectifier, in which four diodes are used. In each half cycle, two diodes conduct at a time and we get maximum efficiency at o/p. Following are the main advantages and disadvantages of a full-wave bridge type rectifier




The need of center tapped transformer is eliminated.


The o/p is twice that of center tap circuit for the same secondary voltage.


The PIV rating of diode is half of the center tap circuit.



2) As during each half cycle of A.C. input, two diodes are conducting therefore voltage drop in internal resistance of rectifying unit will be twice as compared to center tap circuit.

It requires four diodes.

Filter Circuit :-

Generally a rectifier is required to produce pure D.C. supply for using at various places in the electronic circuit. However, the o/p of rectifier has pulsating character i.e. if such a D.C. is applied to electronic circuit it will produce a hum i.e. it will contain A.C. and D.C. components. The A.C. components are undesirable and must be kept away from the load. To do so a filter circuit is used which removes (or filters out) the A.C. components reaching the load. Obviously a filter circuit is installed between rectifier and voltage regulator. In our project we use capacitor filter because of its low cost, small size and little weight and good characteristic. Capacitors are connected in parallel to the rectifier o/p because it passes A.C. but does not pass D.C. at all.

Three terminal voltage regulator:-

A voltage regulator is a ckt. that supplies constant voltage regardless of change in load current. IC voltage regulators are versatile and relatively cheaper. The 7800 series consists of three terminal positive voltage regulator. These ICs are designed as fixed voltage regulator and with adequate heat sink, can deliver o/p current in excess of 1A. These devices do not require external component. This IC also has internal thermal overload protection and internal short circuit and current limiting protection. For our project we use 7805 voltage regulator IC.

For our project we use 7805 voltage regulator IC. Fig 4.2-Circuit diagram of power supply 4.4

Fig 4.2-Circuit diagram of power supply

4.4 LCD DISPLAY Liquid crystal Display (LCD) displays temperature of the measured element, which is calculated by the microcontroller. CMOS technology makes the device ideal for application in hand held, portable and other battery instruction with low power consumption. GENERAL SPECIFICATION:

Drive method: 1/16 duty cycle

Display size: 16 character * 2 lines

Character structure: 5*8 dots.

Display data RAM: 80 characters (80*8 bits)

Character generate ROM: 192 characters

Character generate RAM: 8 characters (64*8 bits)

Both display data and character generator RAMs can be read from MPU.

Internal automatic reset circuit at power ON.

Built in oscillator circuit.

Net Media 2x16 Serial LCD Display Module

Net Media 2x16 Serial LCD Display Module JP1/JP14 Pins 1 – 8 Description JP1/JP14 Pins 9

JP1/JP14 Pins 1 8


JP1/JP14 Pins 9 -16





D2 (Not Used)


VCC (+5)


D3 (Not Used)






Data/Command (R/S)




Read/Write (W)




Enable (E1)




D0 (Not Used)




D1 (Not Used)




Table 4.4- LCD Control Codes



Keyboard Code

ASCII or Decimal value


Display custom character

Ctrl-@ -Through- Ctrl-

0 - 7






Horizontal Tab



New Line



Vertical Tab



Form Feed (Clear Screen)



Carriage Return



Reset Controller



Set Geometry



Set Tab Size



Set Cursor Position



*Not Used



Set Contrast



Set Backlight



Command Escape



4.5 GSM Modem GSM/GPRS Modem This GSM modem is a highly flexible plug and play quad band GSM modem for direct and easy integration to RS232. Supports features like Voice, Data/Fax, SMS,GPRS and integrated TCP/IP stack. Features

Quad Band GSM/GPRS 850/900/1800/1900 Mhz

GPRS multi-slot class 10/8

GPRS Mobile station class B

Compliant to GSM Phase 2/2+

Class 4 (2W@850/900Mhz)

Class 1(1W@1800/1900Mhz)

Control via AT commands(GSM 07.07, 07.05 and enhanced AT commands)

Operation Temperature(-20 deg C to +55 deg C)

Power Supply

· Use AC DC Power Adaptor with following ratings

· DC Voltage : 12V

· DC Current : 1A

· Polarity : Centre +ve & Outside ve

· Current Consumption in normal operation 250mA, can rise up to 1Amp while transmission.


· RS-232 through D-TYPE 9 pin connector, Serial port baud rate adjustable 1200 to115200 bps (9600 default)

· Stereo connector for MIC & SPK

· Power supply through DC socket

· SMA antenna connector

· Push switch type SIM holder

· LED status of GSM / GPRS module Getting Started

· Insert SIM card: Press the yellow pin to remove the tray from the SIM cardholder. After properly fixing the SIM card in the tray, insert the tray in the slot provided.

· Connect Antenna: Screw the RF antenna on the RF cable output provided.

· If voice call is needed, connect the mic and speaker to stereo sockets.




5.1 Introduction to C Language

The origin of C Language:

The C language was invented by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Telephone Laboratories (now an AT&Tdivision) in the early 1970‟s. Ritchie wanted a high-level language suitable for writing operating system, which manages input and output devices of computer allocates the storage, and schedules the running of the other programs. Operating systems had usually been written in machine instructions of a particular computer, using as assembler language.

The features of C:

C is a high level procedural language. In part, it resembles other procedural languages, such

as PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, ALGOL, PL/1, and ADA. When using a procedural language, a programmer writes explicit directions for a computer about the steps it is to perform. The programmer must understand the meaning of the data, the steps being performed, and the results. A high-level language frees the programmer from having to work with machine instructions and from having to determine the location of data in main storage. These details are provided by compiler, which translates a program from source-code, in a high level language to machine instructions.

Limited data-types

Originally C provided only characters and Integers. added, as well as floating point data.

High efficiency:


“long” and “short” integers were

C compilers are generally able to translate source code into efficient machine instructions. C

language data and control mechanisms are well matched to most small computers and


Structured Programming:

In the 1960s and early 1970s, theorists interested in algorithms developed techniques called

structured programming. Because structured programs are easy to understand and test, they are usually more reliable than unstructured programs. The C language is designed to support structured programming techniques.

Advantages of C:

Because the C language is relatively simple and orderly, C compilers can be made to run on small computers. The language is also designed so that compilers can translate it into efficient machine instructions. The C language provides more flexibility in detailed data manipulation than other high-level languages. These characteristics have made C attractive for micro-computers and for applications such as interfaces, communications, control systems, automatic test equipment, operating systems, database managers, computer aided designs, spread-sheets, and text processors.

Comparing C to PASCAL, experienced programmers would value the flexibility of C‟s data manipulation, the compactness of its statements, the generality of it‟s data structures, and the portability of it‟s source code.

Limitations of C:

The flexibility of C can be a problem for inexperienced programmers. Programmers occasionally overuse compact forms of statements and create programs that are hard to understand, and test. To be used effectively.

Implementations of C:

C compilers are now available for most popular microcomputers, minicomputers and small

mainframe computers. These compilers implement the language in remarkably consistent way. In contrast to the situation with PASCAL most writers of C compiles have refrained from adding features or changing the interpretation of statements. Because of this, programs written in C are usually easier to transport from one type of computer to another.

Systems that support C:

Nearly all elements of the C language described are implemented by the systems that claim to support the “full” C language with two exceptions. The first is support for floating point numbers. The other exception is so called “standard” library services. These provide frequently used

procedures, such as reading data from a file, allocating portions of main storage to a program, or printing messages on terminal.


µVision Keil is a windows based front end for all Keil based compilers and assemblers. It includes an editor, project manager and make facility. µVisin includes everything needed to create, edit, compile, assemble, link, load and debug microcontroller based projects. Compiler assembler and linker options are set are set by pointing and clicking on the prompted options. The Program manager conveniently accesses your files helping you organize and maintain your embedded software projects. µVision has the ability to call 3 rd party executable and keil simulator dScope easing the transition from application to application. Codes can be written in Embedded C or Assembly language programming. µVision runs under Windows 3.11, 95, XP and NT. The compiler assembler and linker are also DOS executable.

Features of Keil

Integrated Project Manager and Make facility.

Colour syntax highlight for better code readability.

Interactive error correction.

Compiler, Assembler, Linker options are selected with mouse clicks


AT commands are instructions used to control a modem. AT is the abbreviation of ATtention. Every command line starts with "AT" or "at". That's why modem commands are called AT commands. Many of the commands that are used to control wired dial-up ATO (Return to online data state), are also supported by GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones. Besides this common AT command set, GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones support an AT command set that is specific to the GSM technology, which includes SMS-related commands like AT+CMGS (Send SMS message), AT+CMSS (Send SMS message from storage), AT+CMGL (List SMS messages) and AT+CMGR (Read SMS messages).

Note that the starting "AT" is the prefix that informs the modem about the start of a command line. It is not part of the AT command name. For example, D is the actual AT command name in ATD and +CMGS is the actual AT command name in AT+CMGS. However, some books and web sites use them interchangeably as the name of an AT command. Here are some of the tasks that can be done using AT commands with a GSM/GPRS modem or mobile phone:

· Get basic information about the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For

example, name of manufacturer (AT+CGMI), model number (AT+CGMM), IMEI number

(International Mobile Equipment Identity) (AT+CGSN) and software version (AT+CGMR).

· Get basic information about the subscriber. For example, MSISDN (AT+CNUM) and IMSI

number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) (AT+CIMI).

· Get the current status of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, mobile phone activity status (AT+CPAS), mobile network registration status (AT+CREG), radio signal strength (AT+CSQ), battery charge (AT+CBST), radio link protocol parameters (AT+CRLP), SMS center address (AT+CSCA) and storage of SMS messages (AT+CPMS).

· Save and restore configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem.

Examples for send and receive SMS For sending SMS in text Mode:

AT+CMGF=1 press enter AT+CMGS=”mobile number” press enter Once The AT commands is given‟ >‟ prompt will be displayed on the screen.Type the message to sent via SMS. After this, press ctrl+Z to send the SMS. If the SMS sending is successful, “ok” will be displayed along with the message number.

For reading SMS in the text mode:

AT+CMGF=1 Press enter AT+CMGR= no. Number (no.) is the message index number stored in the sim card. For new SMS, URC will be received on the screen as +CMTI: SM „no‟. Use this number in the AT+CMGR number to read the message.


Steps to make a program:

• Write the program in BASIC

• Compile it to fast machine binary code

• Test the result with the integrated simulator (with additional hardware you can simulate the

hardware too) • Program the chip with one of the integrated programmers.(hardware must be purchased separately) The program can be written in a comfortable MDI color coded editor. Besides the normal editing features, the editor supports Undo, Redo, Bookmarks and block indention. The simulator let you test your program before writing it to the uP. You can watch variables, step through the program one line at the time or run to a specific line, or you can alter variables. To watch a variables value you can also point the mouse cursor over it.





Initialize all Ports and Variables


Initialize all Useful SFR‟s


Initialize respective Delays


Read the switches postion


Generate message on lcd


Call the Convert Subroutine


Display on LCD


Send a message to the user



Our objective is to work on the “Remote site Safety & security Application by using Controller” to achieve to produce an input data file for each of the Data Logger, build a Controller Area network ,Collect & manage datain the Control Area Network(CAN) and Send SMS to a monitoring centered . Our project would eliminates the need of a constant manned monitoring of the system for the parameters being measured. This will increases the efficiency of the work. Looking ahead into the future, the scope of the project can be widened by monitoring more parameters All these can be monitored using separate dedicated sensors and fluctuation in anyone of these parameters will alert the user and immediate action will be taken.


Chapter 7


Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillespe, The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, I/O Programming, Printice Hall

Kenneth J. Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller: Architecture, Programming, and Applications, 8051 Architecture, Penram International Publications, 1997

Rangan C S, Sharma G R, Mani V S V, Instrumentation Devices and Systems, Instrumentation Amplifiers and Signal Conditioning, Tata-McGraw-Hill Ltd