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A Seminar report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree










This is Certified that the “ FLOATING SOLAR POWER PLANT “ which is a study topic
done by C.NANDA KISHORE REDDY(14691A0247)in partial fulfillment for the award of
the degree of Bachelor of Technology in the Department of Electrical & Electronics
Engineering, during the year 2017-2018. The Seminar has been approved as it satisfies the
academic requirements.



Chapter 1 Introduction 6
Chapter 2 Concept Of Floating System 9
Chapter 3 Components/Materials Used For Floating Solar 10
3.1 Floating System 10
3.2 Mooring Sysyem 10
3.3 Solar PV Module 11
3.4 Cables And Connectors 11
Chapter 4 Working Of Floating Solar Plant 12
4.1 Strings 13
4.2 Array Junction Box 13
4.3 Inverter 14
4.4 Transformer 15

Chapter 5 Adv/Dis Of Floating Power Plant 16
Chapter 6 Floating Solar Systems Vs Solar Systems 17
Installed On Lands
Chapter 7 Challenges/Issues 18
Chapter 8 Conclusion 21


The high energy demand and the constant depletion of the fossil fuels lead us to shift our
focus to renewable energy sources which are not only the future unlimited source of energy,
it is also eco-friendly and viable for the environment. Hydro and Wind though are renewable
sources but are area specific. Solar energy on the other hand can be installed in any place.
The major issue with the solar energy is the requirement of land which is scarcely available
in the world and even costly to get. But floating solar plants can be installed in any water
bodies which will not only reduce the cost of the land but will increase the amount of
generation with the cooling effect of water. conserving the valuable land & water, installing
Solar PV system on water bodies like oceans, lakes, lagoons, reservoir, irrigation ponds,
waste water treatment plants, wineries, fish farms, dams and canals can be an attractive
option. Floating type solar photovoltaic panels have numerous advantages compared to
overland installed solar panels, including fewer obstacles to block sunlight , convenient,
energy efficiency, higher power generation efficiency owing to its lower temperature
underneath the panels . Additionally, the aquatic environment profits by the solar installation
because the shading of the plant prevents excessive water evaporation, limits algae growth
and potentially improving water quality.

List of figures

Fig. No Name Page No.

1. Outline diagram of floating solar

Power plant
2. Floating system
3. Mooring system
4. Block diagram of floating solar
power plant
5. Array junction box
6. Hydrelio floating solar component
7. Hydrelio

In recent years, renewable energy sources are growing rapidly all over the world. Solar
energy is considered to be one of the most promising energy alternatives due to its ubiquity
and sustainability. The solar energy is freely and enormously available throughout the world
. The most common application for the use of solar energy is all through the photovoltaic
(PV) systems.Photovoltaic (PV) modules are one of the most effective, sustainable, and eco-
friendly products in the field of renewable energy. A solar cell or PV cell converts solar
energy into electrical energy by the photo voltaic effect. When the sunlight is incident upon
a material surface, the electrons present in the valence band absorb energy and, being
excited, jump to the conduction band and become free. These highly excited, non-thermal
electrons diffuse, and some reach a junction where they are accelerated into a different
material by a built-in potential (Galvani potential).This generates an electromotive force,
and thus the light energy is converted into electric energy.An Array of solar panels are used
to generate electricity. The output of solar panel is of DC(Direct current) nature. The output
of each solar panel is combined through the combiner who has two input ports and two
output ports and has connected with the lightening arresters and store in the storage device.
Output of the combiner is attached to inverter which converts DC into 3-phase AC. The 3
phase AC power is then given to meet the load demand or fed to grid. Floating solar referred
to as a floating solar array or floating solar farm, refers to an array of photovoltaic panels on
a structure that floats on a body of water, typically a reservoir or lake. The installation of
solar PV has the burden of intense land requirement which will always be a premium
commodity. There is large water bodies available in various parts of the country which can
reduce the saving cost of land and operating cost for power generation expenses.So the solar
PV systems can become avery logical alternative for harnessing solar energy by utilizing
obtainable water bodies and help to increase the economic ability of solar projects. Energy
from photovoltaic's though a renewable source, maintains a low efficiency of less than 15%
in its long life use . Floating solar generate more electricity than ground-mount and rooftop
(solar) systems because of the cooling effect of water. It also reduces reservoir evaporation
and algae growth by shading the water.


It is a new idea to install solar photovoltaic system over water bodies by using floating
technology. The power generation results from the combination of PV plant technology
and floating technology . This technology replaces the installation of photovoltaic power
plants over valuable land. The floating PV plant consists of a Pontoon or separate floats,
mooring system, solar panels and cables . According to a research, having this effective
cover up from the pontoon and the PV panels on the reservoirs resulted in reduction of
water evaporation from the reservoir.

The most important parameter considered for the performance valuation of the FPV is the
PV effective conversion efficiency in operative conditions, which affects the electricity
generation and thus the most valuable product of the component.

Fig 1:outline diagram of floating solar power plant

The Floating PV market is a new growing market. There are many places around the world
that do not have available land for PV installations, mainly islands such as Japan, Singapore,
Korea, Philippines and many others.In general the cost of water surface is much lower than
the cost of land.Today there is already a demand for Floating PV in Japan, USA, Korea,
Australia, Brasil, India and others. This demand is expected to increase and will spread all
over the world”.


3.1.FLOATING SYSTEM:It consisting of either a Pontoon or separate Floats.

Floats: Multiple plastic hollow floats with effective buoyancy to self weight ratio are
combined over and over again, forming agiant pontoon. The floats are typically made of
HDPE (high density poly-ethylene), known for its tensile strength, maintenance free, UV
and corrosion resistance. Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) can also be used for
construction of floating platform. HDPE is commonly used for the fabrication of fuel
tanks,milk bottles, water pipes, and can be recycled as well.

Fig 2:Floating system

Pontoon: A pontoon is flotation device with buoyancy enough to float by itself as well as
with a heavy load. The platform is design to hold suitable number of modules in series
parallel combination according to the requirement and space availability.
3.2.Mooring system: A mooring system usually refers to any permanent structure to
which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, wharfs, jetties, piers, anchor
buoys, and mooring buoys. In the case of a floating solar system, the mooring system
keeps the panels in the same position and prevents them from turning or floating away.
The installation of a mooring system can be a challenge and expensive in deep water. Not
all companies are using a mooring system. For instance Israeli company Solaris
Synergy does not use a mooring system, and uses their patented grid-based system which
secures the floating solar modules as well.

Fig 3: Mooring system
3.3. Solar PV module: Till now standard crystalline solar PV modules have been used
for the floating solar systems. However as more projects are installed on salty water
surfaces, specifically fabricated modules will be required to resist the long term salt mist
exposure. Nearly any metal will corrode over time and therefore alternatives to standard
aluminium frames and mounts, such as polymer made frame is needed.
3.4.Cables and connectors: Electricity is drawn from the solar array and transported
to the land. Therefore, the power can be fed to the grid or stored in batteries. The projects
commissioned so far, did not have cables pulled under water, but kept wiring above water.
Even though no electrical components are under water, properly rated cables and waterproof
IP67 junction boxes are important with floating solar projects. Other electrical
components such as inverters and batteries remain ‘nice and dry’on the land. High
temperature resistance, water proof and robust cables are to be used to provide a long


Floating solar panels are attached to interconnected, plastic rafts that allow them to stay on top
of the water. There are often floating walkways so workers can reach the solar panels.To
operate in and around water, the materials used need to be made for marine environments.
While inverters are typically located on shore, the wires used must be submersible or buoyed
by flotation devices.Floating solar arrays need to include a number of features that protect
them from the elements. The arrays also need to be strong enough to stay together. The last
thing the owner needs is for a panel to go adrift. If there is a risk of the water freezing, there
has to be some give in the anchoring system that allows them to rest on top of ice. Some arrays
are also designed to be able to withstand small waves and fairly strong winds.While solar
panels aren’t quite ready to be installed on the open ocean yet due to the damage sea salt and
tall waves can cause to them, technological advancements may allow that in the future. Until
then, lakes provide the perfect placement for these systems.
Each solar panel consist of 60pv cells.. Each string consists of 24 modules in that way 24
strings are connected to one array junction box(AJB) .The positive and negative of 24 strings
are going to port of one AJB seperately. From AJB these combined cables of 24 positive
comes out as one cable of 240sqmm and negative are going out as one cable of 240sqmm
.The dc power from AJB’s are transferred through two cables to inverter. From inverter the
ac power is transfered through the output cables of 500sqmm to transformer.From
transformer it is transfered to substation.

Fig 4:Block diagram of floating solar power plant

A string is multiple solar modules connected together and the number of modules in that
string is its size. Systems with strings that are too small will sacrifice efficiency. Over sizing
strings can damage inverters, void equipment warranties, and violate the electrical code.
4.2.AJB (Array Junction Box):

• It also called as STRING COMBINER BOX

• Array Box is a junction box which allows several photovoltaic strings (from 8 to 32)
to be connected in parallel.
• Array Junction Boxes (AJB), also referred to as PV combiner boxes, basically collect
DC power from PV strings with blocking diodes on each string for protecting panels
from reverse current flow. The collected power is then transferred to power inverter.

Fig 5: Array junction box
The combiner boxes consist of the following key features:
Fuse Protection for Strings: DC fuses rated from 2A to 25A from leading
manufacturers are used in the combiner box to provide overcurrent protection. Fuses can be
provided with or without indication.
Surge Protection Device: Surge Protection devices or SPD’s in the combiner/junction box
protects electrical and electronic equipments from the power surges and voltage
spikes. Surge protection devices divert the excess voltage and current from transient or
surge into grounding wires. SPD’s used by Nordic Asia in the combiner boxes meet Type 2
regulations, and are typically rated between 600 to 1000V.
DC Disconnect/Isolation: An accessible disconnect/isolator switch is recommended for
placement before the inverter to disconnect the DC side of the system when maintenance is
being performed on the inverter.
String Monitoring (Optional): Our String Monitoring Combiner Box uses non contact
Hall sensors for the measurement of string currents. The string currents measured are
accessible over MODBUS through a RS-485 communication port by central
monitoring/SCADA software.


It converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a
utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid
or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. The inverters regulate solar voltage and
electricity in such a way that the maximum possible power is delivered despite constantly
variable irradiation and temperature levels.

Electrical power transformer is a static device which transforms electrical energy from one
circuit to another without any direct electrical connection and with the help of mutual
induction between two windings. It transforms power from one circuit to another without
changing its frequency but may be in different voltage level.
Working principle of transformer depends upon Faraday'slaw of electromagnetic
induction. Actually, mutual induction between two or more winding is responsible for
transformation action in an electrical transformer.
Whenever we apply alternating current to an electric coil, there will be an alternating flux
surrounding that coil. Now if we bring another coil near the first one, there will be an
alternating flux linkage with that second coil. As the flux is alternating, there will be
obviously a rate of change in flux linkage with respect to time in the second coil. Naturally
emf will be induced in it as per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.


 Cost effective

 Return on investment is boosted by low lease price and installation costs

 Streamlined manufacturing process to ensure low production costs

 Competitive system prices

 Higher electricity production due to cooling effect of the water

 All the materials can be recycled

 Reduction of water evaporation to conserve irrigation or drinking water

 Slower algae growth thanks to the shielding from the sun the panels provide

 Low environmental impact overall

 No excavation work and no impact on water quality

 Reduced erosion of reservoir embankments due to reduced number of waves

 Easy to adapt to any electrical configuration

 Scalable from low to high power generation

 No tools or heavy equipment required


 Increased Transmission costs as underwater cable has to be built to transmit the power to

 More Maintenance costs than usual

 Specialized installation will lead to higher system costs

 The system is prone to more threats like High tides, storms, sea waves, cyclones

 Increased corrosion of the metallic structure and components which can reduce

the life of the system.

Floating solar systems vs. solar systems installed on land – which system
produces more power?
• Floating type solar photovoltaic panels have numerous advantages compare to
conventional solar panels, including convenient, and energy efficiency. Floating
type solar photovoltaic panels have higher power generation efficiency owing to its
lower temperature underneath the panels compare to overland installed solar panels
Shading effect, reduction in algae growth, natural reflectivity of the water surface,
reduced sunlight penetration; Lower water temperatures have positive impact on
the performance of Floating Solar PV
• Reduce water evaporation, conserve water by lowering the temperature of water
and reducing the size of water area exposed to air, floating solar panels can reduce
water evaporation by up to 33% on natural lakes and ponds, and by about 50% on
man-made facilities Save precious land for agricultural, mining, tourism and other
land-incentive activities and turn unexploited and non-revenue generating water
surface into commercial solar power plants.
• Floating solar system offers a holistic approach for inland freshwater bodies,
Remote Island, Hydroelectric dams,industrial ponds, quarry and mine lakes,
irrigation reservoirs and water treatment sites to become solar-friendly real
estate.Floating solar is cost competitive with roof and ground-based single-axis
tracking solar systems and uses the same commercially available solar panels.
• Water for cleaning the panels (& hence increasing efficiency) is readily available.
The benefit that water gets from the installation of solar panel above the water
surface is also contributing to the widespread acceptance of the floating solar
panels .The installation is relatively easy to implement, since the floatation
structure can be assembled without heavy equipment.
• Considerably reduced installation time and associated costs dueto very limited site
preparation needs

The biggest challenge in the Installation of the floating solar project is the system design
which has to be suitably designed to stay afloat and be able to withstand the force.
How about waves and heavy winds?
Floating solar systems will certainly move by waves and heavy winds. The floating PV
system needs to be able to withstand these forces of nature.
As we know in rainy season more water come into the reservoir with more kinetic energy.
So, due this more waves created in the reservoir and system get displaced & some time it
get damaged. Mostly system is installed in the man-made pond. So there is no such
causing. But if the system installed in river, so we have to protect and eliminate this effect.
So, to eliminate this and to save our system mooring system must be strong enough to with
stand and more weights are connected to system.Floating solar technology called
Hydrelio is able to withstand winds up to 190km/h (118mp/h)

Fig 6:Hydrelio floating solar component

Shading on panels due to water? Solar shading is the dirty phrase of the solar industry.
Due to waves created in the water, sometimes water come on the surface of the panels. so,
due to this the PV cells acts as a load and the efficiency reduces, also the power out
decreases. Because without getting the heat, electrons hole pairs cannot formed in the
Solar cells and the energy cannot be generated. So, to eliminate this effect panels tilted by
some angle so, water can easily removed. As compare to land mounted system the energy
generation decreases only 2-3% of total energy that of in land mounted it decrease 50% of

Fig 7:Hydrelio

How to transfer energy from panel to battery?

Cables used for this system should me robust and mechanically strong. High temperature
resistance and excellent weatherproofing characteristics provide a long service life to the
cables used. The connectors with high current capacity and easy mode of assembly are to
be used for the connections of the power plant cables. With this cables power can be
transfer to the battery, which is installed in battery room

Use of solar energy is efficient in nature as it is renewable energy source. By using such
type of energies to generate and environment can be protected from global warming. With
such technology precious land is saved. Comparing the land mounted system floating plant
has more advantages. Efficiency also more which is main consideration of any generating
station. Maintenance also less in floating system. As the solar panels are mounted on the
water bodies the water surface are shaded so, water evaporation also reduced to the 70%.
Panels are naturally cooled as the air just above the water bodies has high content of
moisture and hence it automatically solves the issue of heating losses that occur during its
operation. Reduce evaporation by up to 70%. Cement structures like boilers and chimneys
that are used in power plants like thermal have no scope in such a plant. Also electro-
mechanical machines like generators are not required which reduce the amount of steel
structures in the plant. Therefore, such plants are comparatively more eco-friendly.It can
also improve water quality. As water bodies are exposed to the sun, photosynthesis
promotes growth of organic matter, including algae. By shading the water, algae growth is
reduced, minimizing the associated treatment and labor costs.Moreover the concept of
more generation due to cooling of the panel surface can be experimented in due course as
the investment is nearly 1.2 times the conventional land.


Although, a floating solar power plant is good news and opens new avenues for the solar
power sector, it is not as if we can cover the ocean with solar panels. Hence, for a vast
country like India, solar power plants need to be developed on land, water bodies and on
rooftops. With more solar power plants, there will be less dependence on coal and electricity
production will not harm the environment. Every household state will have power in the
future despite unavailability of coal. Electricity will be cheaper which will eventually
support a very robust economy.The picture is also not all rosy and is rife with a lot of
challenges. They include system problems arising due to high moisture content, corrosion
as a result of adverse environmental conditions as well as stability in times of inclement
weather. Besides, there are also challenges in safely transporting the power from the floating
objects.The ecology of the water body is not likely to be affected much and it will also
reduce evaporation, thus helping preserve water levels during extreme summer. Solar panels
installed on land face reduction of yield as the ground heats up. When such
panels are installed on a floating platform, the heating problem is solved to a great extent.
Plenty of solar power projects were commissioned by the previous Government in last
couple of years. However, only a few are operational. The new Government has prioritised
the solar power sector in its Budget, but the implementation should be done on war footing.
Solar energy will only then prove to be the goose that lays the golden eggs

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Conversion”, The American Institute of Physics, AIP, (1960).
[3] E. Radziemska, “The effect of temperature on the power drop in crystalline silicon
solar cells”, Renewable Energy, vol. 28, no. 1,
[4] C. Hark sun, “A Study on Development of Syntactic Foam(I)”, The Korean Society of
Ocean Engineers, (1992).