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List the sugar and the base found in molecules of ATP

Sugar: Ribose
Base: Adenine

ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi + energy

This type of reaction is called a Catabolic Reaction(Hydrolysis)
-hydro: water, lysis: breakdown

Energy is stored in the phosphate groups

ADP is adenine diphosphate. It is made when adenine and two phosphates join together
in a dehydration reaction.

Reforming ATP Equation:


Human cells go through aerobic cellular respiration to generate more ATP. This occurs in
the mitochondria.

General chemical equation for the ATP generating process:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Sugar +Oxygen=Carbon dioxide + Water+Energy

C6H12O6 comes from food and oxygen comes from breathing. The carbon dioxide is
exhaled out of the body at the end of cellular respiration.
Muscle cells require the most ATP in the body. This is because they are the type of cells
that contract. Contracting requires a lot of energy.

Water Molecule:

How has a process in nature been used as a medical intervention?

Through using chemicals that light up, researchers have been able to directly measure energy
levels inside living heart cells.

What does the level of ATP tell scientists about the functioning of the heart?
The level of ATP in the heart tells scientists if the heart is stressed or not. For example, during
exercise or in “flight or flight mode” the heart is stressed and requires a lot of energy. However
when the heart is resting, the heart does not need a lot of ATP and has minimum ATP levels.

What are potential applications of this research? How can this type of test help patients?
Potential applications for this research can be used to study and detect the ATP production in
various parts of the body and help resolve heart disease where mitochondria cannot make
enough ATP.

Conclusion Questions
Based on what you learned in PBS, what are three foods that would be considered good
energy sources? Explain your choices.
Beef-has a lot of saturated fats
Bacon-has a lot of saturated fats
Fish-has a lot of saturated fats
And practically all meats.
Saturated fats are concentrated in hydrogen bonds. These individual covalent bonds release a
lot of energy when broken.
Name three specific body processes that require energy in the form of ATP.
Muscle contractions, Nerve impulses, and active transport in the cell membrane
You hear someone mention the molecule “AMP”. Based on what you learned about the
structure of ATP and the way in which energy is released, what do you think AMP stands
for and how do you think it would be created?
The ‘M’ stands for the number of phosphates associated with the compound. It stands for
Adenosine Monophosphate. It often exists in a cyclic form with the phosphate bonded to the
nucleoside at two points.
Explain how the recycling of ATP helped save Mauro Prosperi. Why is the ability to
recycle this molecule an advantage?
He had no new sources to obtain ATP from, so his body has to recycle in order to have energy.
His body’s daily processes requires high amounts of energy and without ATP, Mauro Prosperi,
would have died.
Based on what you have read in this activity, explain the role food, water and oxygen
play in the creation of ATP or the release of energy from this molecule
Food provides the macromolecules that contain energy (glucose, proteins, and lipids). Water
provides the ability of performing hydrolysis and breaking different chemical bonds. Oxygen
allows cellular respiration to occur. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor that maintains the flow
of electrons in a gradient that is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative
phosphorylation is a cellular respiration mechanism that produces the most ATP.