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OMICRON Academy

Power System Protection Testing with the CMC Test


System

Revision Table

Date (yyyy-mm-dd) Version Changes Name


2010-11-24 1.00 First version in new format AnnBie
2011-02-15 1.01 Annual update of the document BjoCia

Actual Version 1.01

© OMICRON Academy 2011


Content
1 The OMICRON Network .........................................................................................................................6
1.1 Line Protection ................................................................................................................................6
1.2 Transformer Protection ...................................................................................................................7
2 Start Page ...............................................................................................................................................8
2.1 Test Modules ..................................................................................................................................9
2.2 Control Center ............................................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Test Tools .................................................................................................................................... 11
2.3.1 EnerLyzer ......................................................................................................................... 12
2.3.2 AuxDC .............................................................................................................................. 13
2.4 Setup............................................................................................................................................ 14
2.4.1 Test Set Association (NET-x option) ................................................................................ 14
2.4.2 System Settings ................................................................................................................ 16
2.4.3 License Manager .............................................................................................................. 18
2.4.4 Language Selection .......................................................................................................... 19
2.5 Support ........................................................................................................................................ 20
2.6 Homepage with Customer Area .................................................................................................. 21
2.7 User Forum in the Customer Area ............................................................................................... 22
3 Quick CMC........................................................................................................................................... 23
3.1 Preface......................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2 Test Module ................................................................................................................................. 24
3.3 Test Object .................................................................................................................................. 25
3.3.1 RIO Function Device (Protection Device) ........................................................................ 26
3.3.2 RIO Function Distance (Distance Protection Parameters) ............................................... 28
3.4 Hardware Configuration ............................................................................................................... 29
3.4.1 Output Configuration Details ............................................................................................ 30
3.4.2 VT Connections and CT Connections .............................................................................. 31
3.4.3 Analog Outputs ................................................................................................................. 32
3.4.4 Binary / Analog Inputs ...................................................................................................... 33
3.4.5 Binary Outputs .................................................................................................................. 34
3.4.6 DC Analog Inputs ............................................................................................................. 35
3.5 Test View ..................................................................................................................................... 36
3.6 Impedance View and Vector View ............................................................................................... 38
3.7 Report View ................................................................................................................................. 39
3.8 Different Display Options ............................................................................................................. 40
3.9 Example 1: Wiring Test................................................................................................................ 40
3.10 Example 2: Power Test................................................................................................................ 41
3.11 QuickCMC Exercise..................................................................................................................... 42
3.11.1 Tasks ................................................................................................................................ 42
3.11.2 Hardware Configuration ................................................................................................... 42
3.11.3 Definite Time Emergency Overcurrent Protection Test .................................................... 43
4 OMICRON Control Center .................................................................................................................. 44
4.1 Preface......................................................................................................................................... 44
4.2 New Test Document .................................................................................................................... 45
4.2.1 Views and Toolbars .......................................................................................................... 46
4.2.2 Document Properties ........................................................................................................ 47
4.2.3 Field References .............................................................................................................. 48
4.2.4 Company Logo ................................................................................................................. 51
4.2.5 Page Footer ...................................................................................................................... 52
4.3 Test Objects in the OCC .............................................................................................................. 53
4.4 Global Hardware Configuration ................................................................................................... 54
4.5 Differences between Global and Local Hardware Configurations ............................................... 55
4.6 Binary / Analog Inputs.................................................................................................................. 55

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4.7 IRIG-B & GPS .............................................................................................................................. 56
4.8 Inserting a Test Module ............................................................................................................... 57
4.9 Local Hardware Configuration ..................................................................................................... 58
4.10 Renaming the Test Module ......................................................................................................... 59
4.11 Creating a New Group in the OCC .............................................................................................. 60
4.12 Pause Module .............................................................................................................................. 61
4.13 OMICRON Control Center Exercise ............................................................................................ 62
5 Ramping .............................................................................................................................................. 63
5.1 Preface......................................................................................................................................... 63
5.2 Adding a Ramping Test Module .................................................................................................. 64
5.3 Test Module ................................................................................................................................. 65
5.4 Local Hardware Configuration ..................................................................................................... 66
5.5 Test View ..................................................................................................................................... 68
5.6 Calculating the Ramp Parameters ............................................................................................... 69
5.7 Entering the Ramp Parameters ................................................................................................... 70
5.8 Detail View ................................................................................................................................... 71
5.9 Signal View .................................................................................................................................. 72
5.10 Impedance View .......................................................................................................................... 72
5.11 Vector View .................................................................................................................................. 72
5.12 Measurement View ...................................................................................................................... 73
5.13 Result ........................................................................................................................................... 74
5.14 Ramping Exercise ........................................................................................................................ 75
6 Pulse Ramping .................................................................................................................................... 76
6.1 Preface......................................................................................................................................... 76
6.2 Adding a Pulse Ramping Test Module ........................................................................................ 77
6.3 Test Module ................................................................................................................................. 78
6.4 Local Hardware Configuration ..................................................................................................... 79
6.5 Test Parameters .......................................................................................................................... 80
6.6 Measurement ............................................................................................................................... 82
6.7 Time Signal View ......................................................................................................................... 83
6.8 Pulse Ramping Exercise.............................................................................................................. 84
7 Overcurrent ......................................................................................................................................... 85
7.1 Preface......................................................................................................................................... 85
7.2 Test Module ................................................................................................................................. 86
7.3 RIO Function Overcurrent, Relay Parameters............................................................................. 87
7.4 RIO Function Overcurrent, Elements .......................................................................................... 88
7.4.1 Define Element Characteristic .......................................................................................... 90
7.4.2 Define Element Directional Behavior................................................................................ 92
7.4.3 View Resulting Characteristic ........................................................................................... 94
7.5 Hardware Configuration ............................................................................................................... 95
7.6 Test View, Trigger ........................................................................................................................ 96
7.7 Test View, Fault ........................................................................................................................... 97
7.8 Test View, Characteristic Test ..................................................................................................... 98
7.9 Test View, Pick-up / Drop-off Test ............................................................................................. 100
7.10 Out of Range ............................................................................................................................. 101
7.11 Report View ............................................................................................................................... 102
7.12 Overcurrent Exercise ................................................................................................................. 103
7.12.1 Exercise A: Definite Time Emergency Overcurrent Protection ...................................... 103
7.12.2 Exercise B: Inverse Time Directional Overcurrent Protection ........................................ 103
8 XRIO ................................................................................................................................................... 104
8.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 104
8.2 Required Parameters................................................................................................................. 105
8.3 Adding a Block ........................................................................................................................... 106
8.4 Adding Parameters .................................................................................................................... 107
8.5 Parameter Details I> .................................................................................................................. 108

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8.6 Other Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 109
8.7 Adding a Reference ................................................................................................................... 109
8.8 Parameter Overview .................................................................................................................. 111
8.9 LinkToXRIO ............................................................................................................................... 112
8.10 Linked Ramping Test Module .................................................................................................... 113
8.11 RIO in the Advanced View ......................................................................................................... 114
8.12 Formulas in RIO ......................................................................................................................... 115
8.13 XRIO Exercise ........................................................................................................................... 117
9 RIO Function Distance ..................................................................................................................... 118
9.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 118
9.2 System Settings ......................................................................................................................... 119
9.3 Zone Settings ............................................................................................................................. 120
9.4 Adding a New Zone ................................................................................................................... 121
9.5 Characteristic Editor .................................................................................................................. 122
9.6 Building a Zone .......................................................................................................................... 123
9.7 First Zone Ready ....................................................................................................................... 124
9.8 Copying the Zone ...................................................................................................................... 125
9.9 Zones Ready ............................................................................................................................. 126
9.10 RIO Function Distance Exercise ................................................................................................ 127
10 Advanced Distance .......................................................................................................................... 128
10.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 128
10.2 Test Module ............................................................................................................................... 129
10.3 Local Hardware Configuration ................................................................................................... 130
10.4 Trigger Tab ................................................................................................................................ 130
10.5 Settings Tab ............................................................................................................................... 131
10.6 Shot Test ................................................................................................................................... 133
10.7 Check Test ................................................................................................................................. 134
10.8 Search Test ............................................................................................................................... 135
10.9 Results of the Search Test ........................................................................................................ 136
10.10 Z/t Diagram ............................................................................................................................ 137
10.11 Advanced Distance Exercise ................................................................................................ 138
11 State Sequencer................................................................................................................................ 139
11.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 139
11.2 "Manual Close" Function (Switch On To Fault, SOTF) ............................................................. 140
11.3 Defining States .......................................................................................................................... 141
11.4 Test Module ............................................................................................................................... 142
11.5 Test Object and Local Hardware Configuration ........................................................................ 143
11.6 State 1: "CB Open 1" ................................................................................................................. 144
11.7 State 2: "CB Close 1" ................................................................................................................. 145
11.8 State 3: "Fault 1" ........................................................................................................................ 146
11.9 Overview of Trigger Conditions ................................................................................................. 147
11.10 Overview of States ................................................................................................................ 148
11.11 Time Signal View................................................................................................................... 149
11.12 Measurement View................................................................................................................ 150
11.13 State Sequencer Exercise ..................................................................................................... 151
12 Autoreclosure ................................................................................................................................... 152
12.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 152
12.2 Test Module ............................................................................................................................... 153
12.3 Local Hardware Configuration ................................................................................................... 154
12.4 Test View ................................................................................................................................... 155
12.4.1 Shot and Times .............................................................................................................. 155
12.4.2 Unsuccessful Sequence ................................................................................................. 156
12.4.3 Successful Sequence ..................................................................................................... 157
12.4.4 Measurement Settings ................................................................................................... 158
12.5 Autoreclosure Exercise .............................................................................................................. 159

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13 Differential Test Object and Hardware Configuration................................................................... 160
13.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 160
13.2 Principle of Differential Protection ............................................................................................. 161
13.3 Operating Characteristic ............................................................................................................ 162
13.4 Test Object, Device ................................................................................................................... 163
13.5 Test Object, Differential ............................................................................................................. 164
13.5.1 Protected Object ............................................................................................................. 165
13.5.2 CT ................................................................................................................................... 166
13.5.3 Protection Device ........................................................................................................... 167
13.5.4 Zero Sequence Elimination IL - I0 .................................................................................. 170
13.5.5 YD Interposing Transformer ........................................................................................... 171
13.5.6 Characteristic Definition ................................................................................................. 172
13.5.7 Operating Characteristic for SIEMENS 7UT613 ............................................................ 173
13.5.8 Characteristic Input for SIEMENS 7UT613 .................................................................... 174
13.5.9 Operating Characteristic for AREVA P633 ..................................................................... 175
13.5.10 Characteristic Input for AREVA P633 ....................................................................... 176
13.5.11 Harmonic (2nd Harmonic) ......................................................................................... 177
13.5.12 Harmonic (5th Harmonic) .......................................................................................... 178
13.6 Global Hardware Configuration ................................................................................................. 179
13.6.1 Output Configuration ...................................................................................................... 180
13.6.2 Analog Outputs ............................................................................................................... 181
13.6.3 Binary / Analog Inputs .................................................................................................... 182
13.6.4 Binary Outputs ................................................................................................................ 182
13.7 Differential Test Object and Hardware Configuration Exercise ................................................. 183
14 Advanced Differential Configuration .............................................................................................. 184
14.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 184
14.2 Advanced Differential Configuration, Binary Out ....................................................................... 185
14.3 Advanced Differential Configuration, General ........................................................................... 186
14.4 Advanced Differential Configuration, Test Data ........................................................................ 187
14.5 Advanced Differential Configuration, Test ................................................................................. 188
14.6 Advanced Differential Configuration Exercise ........................................................................... 189
15 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic ........................................................................... 190
15.1 Preface....................................................................................................................................... 190
15.2 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, General .......................................................... 191
15.3 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Shot Test L-E ................................................ 192
15.4 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Shot Test L-L ................................................. 193
15.5 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Search Test ................................................... 194
15.6 Advanced Differential Operating Exercise ................................................................................. 195
16 Advanced Differential Trip Time and Harmonic Restraint............................................................ 196
16.1 Advanced Differential Trip Time ................................................................................................ 196
16.1.1 Advanced Differential Trip Time, Factors ....................................................................... 196
16.1.2 Advanced Differential Trip Time, General ...................................................................... 197
16.1.3 Advanced Differential Trip Time, Test ............................................................................ 198
16.2 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint................................................................................. 199
16.2.1 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, General ...................................................... 199
16.2.2 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, Shot Test .................................................... 200
16.2.3 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, Search Test ................................................ 201
16.3 Advanced Differential Trip Time and Harmonic Restraint Exercise .......................................... 202

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1 The OMICRON Network
Network Coupling Transformer 2
231 kV/115.5 kV/10.5 kV(±16%)
160 (42) MVA
Z = 14.2%
Yyn0d5

t/s
1,6
220 kV 1,2
S²sc=15 GVA 0,8
0,4
AWE
0,0
Z Z
t 150/25 AI/St t 150/25 AI/St 150/25 AI/St
32.5 km 20.1 km 10 km

110 kV 110 kV 110 kV


BB A BB B BB C

1.1 Line Protection


The section of the OMICRON network considered here is the 110 kV voltage level. A Z/t diagram extending
across 3 stations has been created for line protection. The diagram is based on the line lengths and
parameters specified above.

In this example, SIEMENS 7SA631 and Areva P435 protection devices are used to protect these lines in the
OMICRON network. These protection relays are equipped with the following protection functions for training
purposes:

> Definite time emergency overcurrent protection


> Overcurrent starting
> Distance protection
> Autoreclosure (3-pole)
> "Switch on to fault" (manual close, SOTF)

These protection functions are to be tested within the context of the training with the test modules from the
OMICRON Test Universe.

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1.2 Transformer Protection
The 110 kV voltage level is supplied with power via a line transformer from the 220 kV voltage level. This
transformer is a three-winding transformer. The tertiary winding is not used in our example.

To protect the transformer, either a SIEMENS 7UT613 or an Areva P633 is used in the following example.
Both transformer differential protection devices have been configured as "three-winding transformers". As
already mentioned, the tertiary winding will not be discussed further in this context. These protection devices
are equipped with the following protection functions for training purposes:

> Transformer differential protection


> Inrush detection
> Detection of 5th harmonic

These protection functions are to be tested within the context of the training with the test modules from the
OMICRON Test Universe.

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2 Start Page

The start page of the Test Universe software (TU) is the central starting point for working with the CMC test
system. It is from here that you can access all of the elements within the software.
> Test Modules: These are programs which can be used to test individual protection or measurement
functions.
> Control Center: Complex test sequences comprising a series of test modules can be created here.
> Test Tools: Less comprehensive programs which make life easier for testers.
> Setup: You will find an option for connecting to a CMC test device with NET-x option, license
management, and various basic settings here.
> Support: You will find numerous options to assist you in the event of problems here.
> Custom: Links to user-specific programs can be embedded here.

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2.1 Test Modules

General test modules:


These test modules are not assigned to a specific protection function.
They can be used to control the analog signal generators from the CMC
test device directly. As such, in principle, they provide a means of testing
any protection function.

Dedicated test modules:


These test modules are dedicated to specific protection functions. The
currents and voltages output are automatically calculated and output by
the test module in question. This makes testing these functions much
easier. The characteristics tested are mapped on graphs and the process
of evaluating the test results is automated.

Simulation modules:
The NetSim and Ground Fault test modules support the output of
transient signals, e.g., to test the anti-hunt device or a transient ground-
fault relay with consideration of the physical characteristics of the
network.

Measurement test modules:


You can use these test modules to test meters, transducers, and power
quality measuring devices.

This test module provides a means of integrating IEC 61850 signals into a
test.

This test module simulates the auxiliary contacts of a circuit-breaker.

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2.2 Control Center

In the Control Center, multiple test modules can be combined in a single test sequence. This makes it
possible to create a continuous test sequence taking in all of the test modules needed to test a protection
relay. On completion of the test the Control Center generates a common log for all of the test modules
contained in the sequence.

Click Open Protection Testing Library for direct access to the installed PTL packages. These packages
contain a predefined test sequence which can be used to test a specific type of protection relay. These test
sequences can be downloaded free of charge from the Customer Area of the OMICRON homepage. They
provide templates for possible test sequences. They can be modified and expanded by users at any time.

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2.3 Test Tools

TransPlay: This tool is used to play signal files (Wave or Comtrade format). These files can be read out
from a relay following an incident, for example, or simulated and saved in a test module.

EnerLyzer: The EnerLyzer test tool provides a means of using the binary signals from the CMC test device
to measure analog signals (current, voltage).

TransView: You can use this tool to display and analyze signal files (incident traces in Comtrade format, for
example) in the form of graphs.

Harmonics: You can use this program to generate electrical signals with more than one frequency (e.g., for
inrush).

Binary I/O Monitor: A clear overview of the states of all binary inputs and outputs from the connected test
devices is displayed here.

O/C Characteristics Grabber: In the absence of a formula for the characteristic for definite time overcurrent
protection, you can use the Characteristics Grabber to take the time and current pairs from a bias curve
which is available in digital form.

Scheme Testing Tools: Here you will find a number of useful tools for testing communication schemes.

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2.3.1 EnerLyzer
This test tool enables the CMC test device to be used as a measuring device. Four different modes are
available:
1. Multimeter
1 2 3 4
2. Transient Recording
3. Harmonic Analysis
4. Trend Recording

Note: If a separate license has not been purchased for the EnerLyzer test tool, only the Multimeter
function will be available.
1 2

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2.3.2 AuxDC

This program is used to define the voltage at the AUX DC output. This connection is the means via which
the auxiliary voltage to supply power to the relay to be tested is provided, for example.

Notice:
If a default starting value is set, this voltage will be applied immediately when the CMC test device is
switched on, regardless of whether or not a PC is connected. There is a risk of a relay inadvertently
being damaged beyond repair by a voltage that is too high.

Caution! The voltage output can be life-threatening!

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2.4 Setup

2.4.1 Test Set Association (NET-x option)

If you are using a CMC test device with NET-x option, you need to assign the device to the corresponding
PC. To do this, select the required CMC test device from the list and click the Associate button. After this
you need to press the "Associate" button on the back of the CMC test device when the on-screen prompt
appears.

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The test device is then displayed in the list with its status set to Test set is ready to use.

If you find that you are unable to associate the device to a PC, you might be able to rectify the problem by
modifying the IP configuration. You can specify whether the CMC test device should obtain its IP address
automatically or you can set an IP address manually. Should the problems persist, please contact Support
(see Start Page Support).

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2.4.2 System Settings

This is where you make the settings that are valid throughout Test Universe.

On the Default Values tab you define the parameters which are set by default for every test object. Please
note that only the values from the Default Values tab can subsequently be modified in the corresponding
test object. If a test file is opened and different values have been defined for its test object, these are not
modified. To make testing easier, the values you define here should be applicable for the majority of tests.

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On the News Window Settings tab you can specify whether news should be displayed. This will then be
displayed in a separate window if there is an Internet connection. On the start page, in addition to the
version number, you will also see a message indicating if a new software version is available.

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2.4.3 License Manager

This is where existing license


files are opened (e.g., from
CD) in order to add licenses to
the Master License File.

All licenses for the relevant PC


are stored in the
Master License File (see the
folder specified).

These test modules have been


purchased for the selected
CMC test device.

The licenses associated with


the currently selected file
support the use of these CMC
test devices.

In order to be able to use a CMC test device with the Test Universe software, you need a corresponding
license. Information about which CMC test device may be used in conjunction with which test modules is
stored in a license file (omicron.lic). The CMC test devices are uniquely identified by their code
(e.g., KA503C). This is located on the inside of the handle. The license file for the corresponding device can
be found on the Test Universe CD supplied with the CMC test device. It contains the individual licenses for
the test modules purchased and is transferred automatically during installation. To add a license post-
installation, click the Merge into Master License File button.

It is possible to distribute all licenses to all PCs within an organization, so that every PC can work with every
CMC test device.

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2.4.4 Language Selection

This is where you can change the user language for Test Universe. If a series of small squares is displayed
for a language, this means that the corresponding character set is not installed on the PC you are using.

Note: Manual text entries (e.g., text entered in the Comment field) cannot be translated when a
different language is selected.

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2.5 Support

If you have questions or problems there are various ways of getting help:

> Tutorials: Videos demonstrate how to get started with the CMC test device and some of the test
modules. (To activate this menu item you need to install the tutorials from the Test Universe DVD.)

> Manuals: You will find all manuals (both for the software and for the hardware) in PDF format here.

> Help: The comprehensive help provides assistance in the event of problems. However, it is quicker to
call up the help directly from the window about which you have questions.

> Tips & Tricks: You can access tips to help you complete testing quicker and more efficiently here.

> Contacts: Click here to find everything you need to know about getting in touch with OMICRON. The
telephone numbers for Technical Support are a very useful feature.

> OMICRON Assist: Once this program has been executed, a variety of information about the operating
system, the PC, and the installed software is collated and sent to Technical Support via e-mail. This
makes it easier to provide assistance in the event of software problems.

> Diagnosis and Calibration: Click here to find tools for solving technical problems or calibrating the
CMC test device.

> What's New?: The major new features of the current software version are listed in a PDF file.

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2.6 Homepage with Customer Area

You will find the Customer Area on the OMICRON homepage (www.omicron.at) under Support. In order to
access this area you have to register with the ID of your CMC test device. You then receive your login data
via e-mail. You will find the latest updates and various download options in the Customer Area. These
include:
> New software versions of the Test Universe software
> The Protection Testing Library (PTL), a collection of predefined test templates for testing various relays
> Various Application Notes and documentation from seminars and conferences

You will also find the User Forum here.

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2.7 User Forum in the Customer Area

You can share experiences with other users of OMICRON test devices on the User Forum. Members of our
Technical Support team also monitor events on the forum and answer questions posted there.

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3 Quick CMC

3.1 Preface
The QuickCMC is the first test module we are going to look at in more detail. Some elements of the TU
software which are also used in other test modules will be described in detail.

This test module has been designed for straightforward, quick and easy testing. It allows you to access all
the current and voltage generators of the CMC test device directly and also enables the state of the binary
input signals to be read out. However, in its basic function, the test module does not contain any information
about the protection function tested. This means that you have to calculate all the signals to be output
yourself. You then have to evaluate the response of the tested protection relay manually. Therefore,
although it is possible in principle to test virtually every protection function, this can be done more easily and
more quickly by using the test module designed specifically for that purpose in each case.

As such, the QuickCMC test module is best suited to straightforward wiring and commissioning tests. It can
also be used as a diagnostic tool for troubleshooting.

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3.2 Test Module

Although the QuickCMC is the most basic of the test modules, it supports numerous setting options. All
views and their functions are described below.

However, before you can start to output currents and voltages, a number of basic settings have to be made.

In accordance with OMICRON's Ohm's law, we start with the test object. Click the button to open the
test object.

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3.3 Test Object

Standard view

Advanced view

In the test object, you have to define various data relating to the protection device to be tested. These
parameters are used to set specific current, voltage, or frequency values automatically, for example, or to
add an entry to the test report indicating which protection relay has been tested. The RIO (Relay Interface by
OMICRON) functions are available to you for this purpose. You can find these functions under the block of
the same name. You need to make corresponding settings here as appropriate for the protection function to
be tested in this instance. However, the Device function is always available. It is described in more detail
below.

The test object can be displayed in two different modes. You can choose between these in the View menu.
> The standard view is the simpler of the two. It is used below.
> The advanced view is designed for advanced users. The XRIO technology can be used to perform
complex calculations automatically.

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3.3.1 RIO Function Device (Protection Device)


 The default values from the system settings are displayed here.
You can enter various items of information to uniquely identify the protection relay on the left-hand side of
the screen. A variety of network and device data, such as nominal frequency, voltage, and current, can be
entered on the right-hand side.
If the relay has additional ground current or ground voltage inputs, you have to enter these scaled values
with the corresponding factors.
Maximum values for current and voltage appear under Limits. These values cannot be exceeded during
testing. This protects the protection relay against inadvertent damage beyond repair caused by electrical test
values that are too high.

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Debounce/Deglitch Filters

Debounce of input signals:


You can configure the debounce filter for input signals with bounce characteristic. If a filter is configured,
the first change in the input signal causes the signal level to be "held fast" for the duration of the debounce
time. The debounce function is connected to the deglitch function in series.

Deglitch of input signals:


In order to suppress short false pulses a deglitching algorithm can be configured. The deglitch process
results in an additional dead time and introduces a signal delay. In order to be detected as a valid signal
level, the level of an input signal must have a constant value at least during the deglitch time. The figure
below illustrates the deglitch function.

Note: The debounce and deglitch functions are only available in conjunction with the
CMC 256/CMC 256plus/CMC 356 and CMB IO-7 test devices.

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3.3.2 RIO Function Distance (Distance Protection Parameters)

This RIO function supports numerous setting options for defining the characteristics of a distance protection
relay. However, only the system parameters are required at this time. Enter the line length in ohms and
the line angle. You can also specify whether the PT connections are line or busbar connections. You also
need to define the direction of the CT starpoints.

This completes the entries for the test object. The File menu contains the Export and Import commands.
You can use these to save the test object and then reopen it later in a different test module. This means
that it is not necessary to enter all of the data again. (The Import relay settings command has a different
function and is not used for this purpose!)

You can now confirm all settings with OK. The software takes you back to the test module.

Next we are going to open the hardware configuration by clicking the button.

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3.4 Hardware Configuration

In the hardware configuration you define how the connected test devices are to be used.

The first tab of the Hardware Configuration dialog box contains fields in which you can specify which CMC
test device and, if applicable, which additional amplifiers are to be used. You can then click Details... to
enter more detailed information.

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3.4.1 Output Configuration Details

In this window you can specify which voltage and current generators are to be used with which
interconnection option. You can deactivate individual generators or even connect multiple generators in
parallel or in series in order to generate higher output currents, voltages, or powers.

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3.4.2 VT Connections and CT Connections

You can define the data for transformers connected between the CMC test device and protection devices
here. These transformers provide a means of generating higher output voltages or currents. The maximum
power that can be achieved by the CMC test device remains the same. For example, 4 x 900 V can be
generated with a 3V/V transformer, in order to test protection devices in wind power stations, for instance.

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3.4.3 Analog Outputs

Further settings affecting the analog generators are made on the Analog Outputs tab:

> Test Module Output Signal: Select which function is assigned to the analog generator for the test
module. The first three voltages are assigned to the phases. Each of the currents is matched 1:1 to the
phase currents.

> Display Name: You can enter a name of your choice here. This name designates the corresponding
signal in the test module.

> Connection Terminal: You can specify here which connection terminal in the cabinet or on the
protection device the corresponding analog output has to be connected to.

Note: Changing the assignment of the test module output signals also changes the physical
properties of the analog output signals (e.g., clockwise/counter-clockwise phase sequence,
etc.).

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3.4.4 Binary / Analog Inputs

On this tab you define which binary input signals are connected. You also have to specify whether the
signals are potential-free or not. In the latter case you have to specify both the nominal range (e.g., 110 V)
and the threshold (e.g., 77 V). A voltage above this threshold is evaluated as a logic 1, a voltage below it
as zero.

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3.4.5 Binary Outputs

If you want to use the binary outputs in this test module, as is the case with the binary inputs, you have the
option to define the signals used (e.g., CB position).

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3.4.6 DC Analog Inputs

You can configure the DC analog inputs here. They are used to test the transducers.

This completes all the settings in the hardware configuration. You can export these settings on the
General tab so that they can be re-imported later for other test modules. This means that you only have to
enter the relevant data once.

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3.5 Test View

1 3 2

5 6 9 7

4
8

1. You can enter the actual current and voltage values to be output by the CMC test device in this window.
Various input options are available under Set Mode. These include symmetrical components, line-line
values, and specific types. This option is known as the Fault Calculator. It makes generating the
necessary signals easier.

Note: If the installation of busbar CT ground connections was


specified in the RIO function Distance, this is displayed in
QuickCMC as follows:

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2. The signals output are shown in the vector diagram in the Test View. They are shown in the same format
as that in which they were entered. In other words, if symmetrical components are generated, for
example, these are displayed here - not the individual phase currents or voltages output.
3. You can specify which state the set binary outputs should adopt here. A check mark means that the relay
contact is closed at the start of testing.
4. You can see the current state of the binary inputs here. The red dot indicates whether a signal is pending
at the relevant binary input. If a change of state occurs during a test, the corresponding time is entered
here. This means that the pick-up and trip times can be measured here, for example. If a trigger is set by
a check mark, signal output will terminate after this.

5. Press F5 to start/stop signal output. This can be changed during output.


6. Press F8 to output a zero-current prefault state with nominal voltages prior to the output of the set values.
Press F8 again to terminate the prefault; the defined values are output.
7. Click this button to freeze the values of the signals currently being output. As long as this button is
activated you can change the values to 1 without the changes being applied and output immediately.
Once the changes have been made they can be output by pressing F9 again.
8. The settings in this section can be used to ramp the signals output (in other words, to change them in
steps). This means that it is possible, for example, to increase the current in small steps until the pick-up
signal or a trip is triggered. You can see the corresponding time in 4.
9. Once the test has been completed successfully, the results can be evaluated manually by pressing F10.

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3.6 Impedance View and Vector View

If an impedance option (e.g., Z-I const.) has been selected under Set Mode, the defined output values can
be displayed in the Impedance View. Conversely, you can define the output values by clicking the
impedance plane. In addition, the distance zones are also displayed here if they have been specified in the
RIO function Distance.

The signals can be displayed in any format (line-neutral, line-line, symmetrical components, fault values,
etc.) in the phasor diagram in the Vector View. You can select the required format by right-clicking on the
diagram.

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3.7 Report View

Once the test is complete the report can be displayed in the Report View. You can define which details it
should include in the Parameters menu under Report. A predefined short form and long form are
available, which can be adapted accordingly in line with individual requirements.

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3.8 Different Display Options

Toggles the time unit between seconds (s) and cycles (cy)

Toggles the display between secondary and primary values

Toggles the display between absolute and relative values

3.9 Example 1: Wiring Test

A simple example of an application involving the QuickCMC test module is a wiring test. You should carry
out a test of this type at the start of every test in order to ensure that all analog connections have been made
correctly. During the test, currents and voltages are output with various amplitudes. The measured
secondary values or primary values can then be read off at the relay. If they match, the wiring is correct.
Using the different display options is very useful for this test.

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3.10 Example 2: Power Test

This test checks for discrepancies affecting the directions of energy flow and amplitudes displayed. It can be
used to test the transmission of these signals via the control and instrumentation technology, for example.
This test is easy to run with the Set Mode Powers.

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3.11 QuickCMC Exercise
Essential information about exercises:

1. You must comply with OMICRON's Ohm's law!


2. The set values for the relays are listed in the appendix to the training documentation.
3. Always apply what you have learned in the previous chapter. Please use this chapter and the
corresponding notes.
4. To avoid damaging the relay, set a maximum current of 4 A in the test object. This value can be
increased to 8 A to test the second overcurrent step.
5. You must always save all test modules to a folder created on your desktop.

3.11.1 Tasks
> Wire the CMC test device to the OMICRON SIM box and run a wiring test.
> Work with the various input modes (direct, fault values, symmetrical components, etc.) and the Vector
View.
> Check the pick-up value and trip time of the definite time emergency overcurrent protection.
> After the test, export the test object and the hardware configuration.

3.11.2 Hardware Configuration


In the hardware configuration, define all the signals you need during training. Use the screenshots below
as a guide:

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3.11.3 Definite Time Emergency Overcurrent Protection Test
Check the pick-up value of the definite time emergency overcurrent protection with the QuickCMC test
module.

Note: You need to activate the definite time emergency overcurrent protection function for the
distance protection relay used in this training.

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4 OMICRON Control Center

4.1 Preface
The OMICRON Control Center (OCC) is used to combine multiple test modules in a single file. As a result, a
single OCC file can be used to test a relay completely, rather than relying on multiple individual test
modules. A template is created and worked through step by step. A common report is generated. You can
modify the appearance and content of this report in line with your requirements. You can even add images
or tables.

Additional pause modules provide the tester with important information about carrying out the test.

This chapter describes how to create and adapt a test template like the one referred to above. It also
explains how to add existing and new test modules.

Start by clicking New Test Document under Control Center on the start page. This opens a blank OCC file.

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4.2 New Test Document

The OCC is divided into two sections:


> A list of the elements contained in the open OCC file appears on the left-hand side. These are the test
object, the hardware configuration, and the test modules. You can even combine multiple instances of
these objects into groups here. When opened the file contains one test object and one hardware
configuration.
> The report pane, which displays the common report generated from all test modules, is located on the
right-hand side. Additional texts, images, or tables can be added or formatted here in the same way as
in MS Word.

When a new document is created, the Modules toolbar is also opened, which you can use to add new test
modules.

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4.2.1 Views and Toolbars

The OCC contains numerous toolbars; these can be accessed via the View menu. The header and footer
view can also be opened here.

We will now explain how to add a title, user-specific information, and a logo on the first page. "Fields" are
used to ensure that the text is updated automatically downstream.

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4.2.2 Document Properties

You need to start by specifying a number of document properties, so that you can implement references to
fields later.

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4.2.3 Field References

Next you need to add some delimiters. To do this, click the test object in the report to select it. Use the
arrow key to move the cursor to the left and press Enter. This adds a new line above the test object.

You can now add the first field right at the top. Proceed as shown in the screenshot. In the Insert field
dialog box you can select which items you wish to appear in the report (e.g., the title) from a list.

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Use the Format Toolbar to make the title stand out.

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Two more fields are now added to specify the test person and the date tested. The area highlighted on the
screenshot shows which fields have been selected (e.g., {Title}, {Test Person}, etc.). This view can be
activated under Field Names in the menu of the same name.

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4.2.4 Company Logo

The company logo is the next thing to be added. The easiest way to do this is to open the image file in an
image processing program and copy the image to the clipboard from there. The image can then be inserted
in the report using the shortcut key <Ctrl> + <V>.

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4.2.5 Page Footer

The file name, the page number, and the page count now just need to be added to the page footer.

The blank test template is now ready and can be saved. If you use this template for every test from now on,
all test reports will look the same. This is of course only a suggestion of how a template might look.

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4.3 Test Objects in the OCC

As explained above, the template already contains one test object. This is valid for all test modules inserted
for the test object. It means that you only have to enter the settings for the test object once for all test
modules. Double-click the icon or the text in the report to open the test object. Import and export functions
like those in QuickCMC are also available here.

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4.4 Global Hardware Configuration

The hardware configuration is very similar to the test object. It too applies for all subsequent test
modules. However, a distinction has to be made between the global hardware configuration in the OCC
and the local one in the test module. There is a difference between the two, which is explained in more detail
below. However, first, we are going to import the hardware configuration saved previously. We do this so
that you will not need to make any further settings, although we will revisit the configuration of the analog
outputs.

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4.5 Differences between Global and Local Hardware Configurations

At first glance, there do not seem to be any differences between the two, but if you look more closely you
can see that the Test Module Output Signal column is missing. This is because the global hardware
configuration is not linked to a specific test module for which the precise application of the signals could be
defined. The column is also missing from all other tabs. It only reappears in the local hardware
configuration of a test module. However, none of the settings made in the global hardware configuration
can be changed there.

Note: Once a test module has been added we will look at this difference again in more detail.

4.6 Binary / Analog Inputs

All binary input signals which are required in the subsequent test sequence have to be declared in the global
hardware configuration.

All binary outputs, as well as DC analog inputs, can be deactivated, since they are not used for tests in
this training.

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4.7 IRIG-B & GPS

You can make settings relating to the connected time synchronization devices on this tab. Both GPS and
IRIG-B receivers are compatible. These additional settings enable multiple CMC test devices to be
synchronized. This is helpful above all in the case of the "end to end test", but it is not discussed any further
below.

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4.8 Inserting a Test Module

You can now insert the QuickCMC test module you saved previously for the wiring test. The module
automatically adopts the test object and the global hardware configuration already available in the OCC
file. However, you MUST make sure that you insert the test module under the global hardware
configuration and not inadvertently between the test module and global hardware configuration.

Note: You only need to take a look at the test object of the test module inserted to check whether
this does actually contain the right data.

All that remains is to make some changes to the local hardware configuration.

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4.9 Local Hardware Configuration

In contrast to the global hardware configuration, the local hardware configuration for the test module
does contain the Test Module Output Signal or Input Signal column. As this column is specific to each test
module, you might need to make some local adjustments here. None of the other settings can be modified.

Once you have inserted a test module you need to check all tabs of the hardware configuration one more
time.

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4.10 Renaming the Test Module

Close the test module to save all changes and go back to the OCC. You can rename the test module here
by double-clicking with the left mouse button or pressing <F2>.

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4.11 Creating a New Group in the OCC

As all tests associated with definite time emergency overcurrent protection subsequently have to be located
in the same subfolder, you need to create another group and rename it "Emergency Overcurrent".

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4.12 Pause Module

A pause module now needs to be added to the group created in the previous step. This test module can be
used to issue the user of the test template with an instruction to activate definite time emergency overcurrent
protection by tripping the voltage transformer circuit-breakers.

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4.13 OMICRON Control Center Exercise
> Create a blank test template complete with title and company logo.
> Import the test object you used previously and the hardware configuration.
> Insert the QuickCMC test module saved previously for the wiring test. Rename the module
accordingly.
> Check the test object and the local hardware configuration.
> Create a group for definite time emergency overcurrent protection tests and a pause module
which will prompt the user to deactivate the voltage transformer circuit-breakers.

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5 Ramping

5.1 Preface
You can use the Ramping test module to alter the currents or voltages to be output by the CMC test device
in stages (ramping). This is the same as the Step / Ramp function in the QuickCMC test module, although
the signals are not changed manually in this case. Instead, you can define the shape of the ramp in detail in
advance. The analog signals output are then ramped during testing in accordance with the settings made in
advance. In contrast to QuickCMC, where you had to evaluate test results manually, this process is
automated in the case of the Ramping test module. You just need to define the corresponding
measurements and tolerances.

Typical applications for the Ramping test module are testing the pick-up values of various protection
functions (e.g., I>, V<, etc.). The example below illustrates testing the pick-up value of the overcurrent
protection (definite time emergency overcurrent protection). The current is increased in steps until the pick-
up signal is triggered. It is then reduced so that the drop-off value can be measured. The reset ratio can
subsequently be calculated from these two parameters.

Pickup Drop-off
I/A

t/s

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5.2 Adding a Ramping Test Module

Start by adding a Ramping test module to the "Emergency Overcurrent" group.

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5.3 Test Module

The screenshot shows the standard view in the Ramping test module, with various different window views.
However, before you start to make settings in the test module, you need to double-check the test object
and the hardware configuration.

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5.4 Local Hardware Configuration

You have to configure the test module output signals in the local hardware configuration. As the definite
time emergency overcurrent protection function is to be tested here, the voltage outputs are not needed. You
can, therefore, set them to Not used on the Analog Outputs tab. However, as they are needed for other
tests (e.g., testing distance protection), they must be retained in the global hardware configuration.

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As only the pick-up signal is needed to test the pick-up value of the definite time emergency overcurrent
protection, you can deactivate all other signals (in other words, configure them as Not used).

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5.5 Test View

7
8

3 4 5 6

1. Here you can define the type of signal to be ramped. The available options are the same as those in the
QuickCMC test module. This means that in addition to currents and voltages, symmetrical components,
fault values, impedances, etc., can also be ramped directly.
2. What exactly the ramp is to change is set under Signal and Quantity. Two different signals can be
ramped at the same time. The possible settings are determined by the set mode. Examples include:

Set mode Signal 1 Quantity 1 Signal 2 Quantity 2


Direct I L1, I L2, I L3 Magnitude none none
Symmetrical components V1 Magnitude none none
Z-I const. ZFault Magnitude ZFault Phase

3. The start and end values of the signal to be ramped are entered here.
4. This is the step size, i.e., the magnitude, by which the signal is to change with each step.
5. You can set the output duration of a step here. It always has to be longer than the operating time of the
protection relay. This ensures that the protection relay will respond before the end of the step which
triggered it.
6. The settings result in a change rate, step count, and time duration for the entire ramp.
7. Every ramp can be assigned a stop condition. As soon as this event occurs, the next ramp starts or the
test finishes. This means that the set end value is not actually reached. This stop condition is configured
in the Detail View.
8. You can add or remove ramps here.

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5.6 Calculating the Ramp Parameters

I/A
1.2 I>

I> + Tol

I>

I> - Tol

0.8 I>

Tol t/s
Delta I =
4

The first step (I>) of the definite time emergency overcurrent protection has been set to 1.8 A for this
example. The tolerance of the relay is 3%. In relation to I> this corresponds to 54 mA. The tolerances of a
relay can be found in the technical data of the relevant relay manual.

When setting the ramp parameters you will encounter the problem of how to size the individual steps. One
possible solution is to have approximately 4 steps between the limit of the tolerance range and the setpoint.
This produces a step size of approximately 14 mA.

As a guide for the start and end values, use 0.8 and 1.2 times the nominal value. This corresponds to
absolute values of 1.44 A and 2.16 A.

The duration of every one of the ramp steps must be longer than the operating time of the relay. For our
example, therefore, 100 ms is sufficient.

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5.7 Entering the Ramp Parameters

You can now enter the required ramp parameters accordingly. Select a three-pole fault (I L1;L2;L3) as the
signal for our example.

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5.8 Detail View

The Detail View has three tabs:


> Analog Out: You can define all parameters of the signals output which are not automatically ramped. If
you wish to ramp the magnitude, for example, you can make the phase and frequency settings here. As
the magnitude has already been set when the ramp was defined, this field cannot be changed in the
Detail View.
> Binary Out: If needed you can define binary signals which are put out during the test.
> Trigger: You can define a stop condition for a ramp here. If you choose not to set a stop condition, the
ramp will continue until it reaches its end value. In the example for the definite time emergency
overcurrent protection test, the Binary trigger option is selected. In the lower part of the view you can
now select the trigger signal. In this case the triggers are the pick-up signal for the up ramp and the
dropping off of the pick-up signal for the down ramp. You can also use logic AND and OR operations to
link multiple signals.

Note: The settings in the Detail View have to be made individually for each ramp. The toolbar
indicates which ramp is currently being processed. It is also from the toolbar that the ramps are
selected.

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5.9 Signal View

The characteristic for the ramped variables and the binary triggers is displayed in the Signal View.

5.10 Impedance View


When an impedance is ramped, it is displayed in the Impedance View along with the defined distance
protection zones. However, this view is not relevant for the example we are considering here.

5.11 Vector View


The signals are displayed in a vector diagram in this window. This view too is not relevant for the example
we are considering here.

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5.12 Measurement View

In the Measurement View you can make settings for ramp measurements as well as for calculations with
the subsequent measurement results. Automatic assessment of the measurement results also takes place
here. We will now describe in detail how this works, based on the example of definite time emergency
overcurrent protection.

Two measurements are to be taken. The first measurement is to determine the pick-up value, the second the
drop-off value. In "Ramp 1" the pick-up value is determined by the amplitude of the current output at the time
at which the pick-up signal is triggered. You can make the corresponding settings in the Ramp, Condition,
and Signal columns. Enter the set value 1.8 A in the Nom. field. You also need to define a permissible
deviation within which the measured signal has to be located. During the course of the test the actual value
is entered automatically, the deviation is determined, and the test is assessed.

The same principle is applied to measure the drop-off value, although in the case of "Ramp 2" a
measurement is taken when the pick-up drops off. The setpoint is 95% of the set value. Please refer to the
relevant relay manual for this reset ratio also.

As well as taking these measurements, the actual reset ratio also needs to be calculated. You can select
various algorithms in order to do this. In this example you need X/Y. The results of the measurements taken
previously ("Drop-off" and "Pick-up") are to be used as X and Y. A setpoint of 0.95 is entered and the
permissible deviation is set to 0.05.

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5.13 Result
Start

Clear results

Click the Start button to start the test. The ramps then run until the set stop conditions and the
measurements and calculations are taken and made automatically. The test is then assessed. A green cross
indicates "test successful", a red cross means "test failed".

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5.14 Ramping Exercise
> Add a Ramping test module to the OCC file.
> Check the pick-up value for the definite time emergency overcurrent protection function for line-
line faults as discussed in the last chapter.

Note: When carrying out the test, make sure that the distance protection function is
deactivated and the definite time emergency overcurrent protection is activated.

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6 Pulse Ramping

6.1 Preface
In the previous chapter we showed you how you can use the Ramping test module to test the pick-up value
I> of the definite time emergency overcurrent protection. The current is increased in stages until the pick-up
signal is triggered. However, this procedure only works for the smallest pick-up step (I>, V<, etc.): The
Ramping test module cannot be used to test a higher step (e.g., I>>, I>>>, etc.). This can be illustrated using
the example of multi-step definite time overcurrent protection. The I>> step cannot be tested with a ramp, as
the I> step causes pick-up and can even result in tripping before the pick-up value I>> is reached.

The Pulse Ramping test module offers an alternative solution. Instead of the pick-up signal, the trip signal is
used to assess the test. The trip times of the higher steps are always shorter than that of the first step. It is
possible, therefore, to test the faster trip via one of the higher steps (e.g., I>>) by injecting the current just for
a short time. If the CMC test device does not register a trip signal during this time, the current is reduced
until the pick-up is able to drop off. This avoids tripping in the first step. The sequence is repeated after a
short pause, but the current output this time is greater by ΔI. This continues until the I>> step picks up.

It is thus possible to test all higher steps. In fact, the application range extends beyond overcurrent
protection.

The same set modes can be used in the Pulse Ramping test module as in the Ramping and QuickCMC test
modules. This results in numerous possible applications for testing the higher steps of all manner of different
protection functions.

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6.2 Adding a Pulse Ramping Test Module

Start by adding a Pulse Ramping test module to the existing OCC file.

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6.3 Test Module

The test module is displayed in the Test View. However, before you do anything else, you need to modify a
value in the test object. As the second step of the definite time emergency overcurrent protection is set to
6 A, you have to increase the maximum value of the current in the RIO function Device to 8 A.

You also need to make some settings in the local hardware configuration.

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6.4 Local Hardware Configuration

As we are once again testing definite time emergency overcurrent protection, you can deactivate the voltage
generators (Not used).

Only the trip signal is used on the Binary / Analog Inputs tab. None of the other signals are needed.

We will now explain the possible settings for the module based on an example. The second step of a definite
time emergency overcurrent protection function with the following parameters is to be tested:

Settings Value
I> 1.8 A
t I> 0.5 s
I>> 6A
t I>> 0.1 s

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6.5 Test Parameters

4 6

1. The set mode functions in the same way as the Ramping test module. The available setting options are
also the same. This means that you can change currents and voltages directly or symmetrical
components, fault values, impedances, etc., automatically, in steps.
2. Here you can define which values are to be varied. The possible settings are determined by the set
mode. Examples include:

Set mode Outputs Size


Direct I L1, I L2, I L3 Magnitude
Symmetrical
V1 Magnitude
components
Z-I const. ZFault Phase

In the example we are considering here, the magnitude of a three-phase fault current is to be ramped.

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3. Two states are defined:
The first is the reset state, during which the pick-up of the first step is to drop off.
The second is the fault state, which is varied in steps and should ultimately lead to tripping.
During the reset state 500 mA is output in this case. You must make sure that the value is less than the
drop-off value of the first overcurrent step.
In the case of the fault state the values preset when the ramp was defined cannot be changed. You can
alter all other electrical parameters in the usual way.
4. A prefault time during which the reset state is output can be defined.
5. This is where you define the values at which the pulse ramp should start and end. You can also set the
step size here. The values to be entered can be calculated using the same principle as for the Ramping
test module. The start value is to be 80% and the end value 120% of the set value. The step size is
selected so that there are approximately eight steps within the tolerance range. The current tolerance of
the protection relay is 3%. This results in a step size of 45 mA.
6. Here you can set the length of each step and each reset state. Select a value for the fault time which is
greater than the trip time of the step to be tested (t I>>) but less than t I>. In our example, therefore, the
value has to be between 500 ms and 100 ms. The value exactly in the middle of the two (300 ms) is
selected.

You do not need to make any settings on the other two tabs, Binary Outputs and General. This test module
also features an option to synchronize the start of the test with a GPS or IRIG-B pulse.

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6.6 Measurement

As in the other modules, you can take a measurement here and run automatic assessment. In our example
the amplitudes of the generated signal are measured at the point in time at which the defined trigger
condition is met. The setpoint is the set value of the I>> step (6 A). The absolute tolerances can be
calculated using the values specified in the relay manual (3% of 6 A = 180 mA).

Check the box marked to enter the relative tolerances directly.

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6.7 Time Signal View

The pulse ramp defined can be viewed in the Time Signal View once the test is complete.

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6.8 Pulse Ramping Exercise
> Add a Pulse Ramping test module to the OCC file.
> Check the pick-up value for the second step of the definite time emergency overcurrent
protection function for line-line faults as described in the last chapter.

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7 Overcurrent

7.1 Preface
You can use the Overcurrent test module to test the trip times and the pick-up of an overcurrent protection
function. In this test module the tripping characteristic and the trip times measured are shown in the form of a
graph. This makes testing very straightforward and convenient. However, it is important to remember that
the characteristic has to be defined in advance. This is explained below.

This module can be used to test much more than just undirectional inverse time/definite time overcurrent
protection functions. It also supports testing of protection relays with directional overcurrent protection,
unbalanced load protection, thermal overload protection, and zero sequence current protection functions.

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7.2 Test Module

Once the test module has been added to the OCC file, it is opened automatically. The first thing you see
here is the predefined overcurrent definite time characteristic.

However, this definite time characteristic does not accord to our examples, which are to be tested during this
training course. This has to be set in the test object first. A new RIO function called Overcurrent is
available for this purpose.

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7.3 RIO Function Overcurrent, Relay Parameters

1. Here you can set whether a non-directional or a directional overcurrent protection is to be tested. If
you select the latter option, you have to define the position of the CT starpoint connection
(To protected object or From protected object). Examples are shown below.
To protected object From protected object

Protected Protected
Object Object
Busbar Relay e.g. Line Busbar Relay e.g. Line

Protected Protected
Object Object
Busbar Relay e.g. Line Busbar Relay e.g. Line

As VT connections also have to be included for directional protection, the corresponding selection box
is checked. You need to define whether the PT connections are busbar or line connections here. In the
former case a voltage is output in the postfault state after the relay has tripped; in the second, a voltage
is not output.
2. As the test module is to carry out an automatic assessment, you need to specify the tolerances for the
currents and the trip times here. These can be found in the technical data section of the relevant relay
manual.

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7.4 RIO Function Overcurrent, Elements

Use this tab to define the overcurrent elements (stages) of the relay:

1. The first step is to select the type of element. This refers to the type of overcurrent protection, the tested
relay uses. You can choose between Phase, Residual, Positive sequence, Negative sequence and
Zero sequence.
2. This list show all defined elements of the selected type. There are command buttons available to Add,
Copy To..., Remove, Move Up or Move down the elements. Each element has different properties that
are shown in the list:
- Active: Use this checkbox to activate or deactivate elements.
- Element Name: A meaningful name helps to distinguish between the stages.
- Tripping Characteristic: Here you will find the name of the used characteristic type.
- I Pick-up: This is the pick-up current as multiples of the nominal current.
- Absolute: Here you find the pick-up value in amperes.

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- Time: If the element is a definite time stage, this value represents the trip time in seconds, if it is an
inverse characteristic it is the time index of the stage.
- Reset Ratio: This is the ration between the drop-off and the pick-up value of the stage.
- Direction: Select whether the element is Forward directed, Reverse directed or Non Directional.
Not all values can be changed within the list; some have to be accessed from the tabs below.
3. With these three tabs you can define more details properties of the elements. As the settings in these
tabs are very complex, the will be described in the following sections

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7.4.1 Define Element Characteristic

3 5

1
4

2
1. With the Characteristic definition you set the characteristic type, the I pick-up value and the Trip time.
Right to the characteristics name there is a browse button ... that opens the Manage Characteristics
dialog.
2. Within this dialog you can select either a Standard characteristic or a Predefined one from the list on the
left. All characteristic parameters are then shown in this dialog. To enter a custom characteristic select
one of the predefined ones and click OK. Then you can change the parameters in the Define Elements
Characteristic tab (1).
3. Also you have the possibility to restrict the range of the characteristic. Therefore you can enter minimum
and maximum values for current and time. This is used for characteristics with a minimum tripping time.

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4. If a relay with Reset characteristic is to be tested, this option has to be activated. You can either select
Definite time or Inverse time and enter the corresponding data.
5. The resulting characteristic is shown at the right.
Note: This diagram shows only the characteristic for the selected element.

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7.4.2 Define Element Directional Behavior

The directional behavior for each element can be set in this tab.

1. This is only possible, if the Direction of the element is set to Forward or Reverse. This setting is only an
orientation for the user. The trip sector will be shifted by 180° if this setting is changed from Forward to
Reverse or from Reverse to Forward.
2. The trip sector can be defined either by using a Start and an End angle or by using the
Maximum torque angle and the Sector opening.
3. Also a Blinder can be defined. It can be set by using a complex current (active and reactive components)
and an angle. The blinder characteristic line will go through the complex current and will have the defined
angle.

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Different relays use different polarization methods, which means that they use different reference voltages to
determine the fault direction. This is why the directional behavior of the test object has to be adapted to
them. Some of these methods are explained below.

Fault Voltage Polarized Quadrature Voltage Polarized

VC VC
Directional Line Directional Line

Vref = VA VA

Relay Characteristic Angle


= Maximum Torque Angle
Maximum Torque Angle
VB VB
MTA - Forward
MTA - Forward Vref = VB-C
Relay Characteristic Angle

Zero Sequence Voltage Polarized

VC
Directional Line

Vref = 3V0 Vref = VA

Maximum Torque Angle


VB
MTA - Forward
Relay Characteristic Angle

Fault Voltage Polarized: Here the voltage of the faulty phase is used as reference voltage. In this case the
relay characteristic angle (RCA), which is a relay setting, is identically with the test object setting
Maximum torque angle (MTA).

Quadrature Voltage polarized: During a fault close to the relay the voltage in the faulty phase can drop to
almost zero. In such cases the angle of this phase voltage cannot be measured. That is why many relay
manufacturers use the phase to phase voltage of the non faulty phases as the polarizing voltage. In such
cases the Maximum torque angle can be calculated with the following equation: MTA = RCA - 90°

Zero Sequence Voltage Polarized: This method is typical for earth fault overcurrent protection. It uses the
zero sequence voltage as reference. The Maximum torque angle can be calculated with the following
equation: MTA = RCA – 180°

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7.4.3 View Resulting Characteristic

After defining the characteristic, you can use the tab View Resulting Characteristic to have a look at the
results. The characteristic of the chosen element type will be displayed.

If you have defined all the characteristics, which are used in the relay, you can close the test object by
clicking OK.

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7.5 Hardware Configuration

If you test a non directional overcurrent function you can deactivate the voltage outputs in the local
Hardware Configuration. Configure the binary inputs as shown.

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7.6 Test View, Trigger
You also have to make a number of settings in the test module itself:

You can define whether the binary outputs should be closed or open for testing. As no binary outputs have
been defined for our example, this tab is empty.

The reference for time measurement has to be


defined here. The measured time will be the
difference between the Fault inception and the
trigger or between the Starting signal and the trigger.

In the lower part of the screen you have to specify


which signals are to be used to measure the trip time.

Note: This trigger only defines the trip. For the


Pick-Up / Drop-off Test the trigger will be set
automatically by defining the Start contact in the
Hardware Configuration.

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7.7 Test View, Fault

1 4

2 5

3 6

1. The Load current, which will be injected during the prefault, can be defined here.
2. Here you can set the Prefault time and the Postfault time.
Also you can specify how long the test module waits for a trip in two different ways. The first of these is
Absolute max. time and the second is Relative max. time. The relative time is calculated for the
relevant test point from the trip time setpoint. If, for example, you want to test the trip time of a high-
current stage with a setpoint of 100 ms, a relative max. time of 100% means that the testing of the test
point will be aborted at the latest after 200 ms. To avoid damaging the relay, whichever time is faster is
active.
3. The voltages during the fault can be defined as well. Even if non directional relays are tested, a voltage
output can be enabled.
4. For realistic fault simulation a Decaying DC can be set.
5. The CB characteristic is linked to the RIO function CB Configuration in the test object.
6. For testing thermal overload functions the reset of the thermal image can be defined as well. This can be
done either manual or automatic.

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7.8 Test View, Characteristic Test

Now all the essential settings have been made, you need to define the test points for the characteristic test.
You can add a new test point, or you can edit an existing one. The highlighted test point can be edited either
in the table on the left (A) or directly in the table of the test points (B). The resulting test points will be shown
in the expected trip time and directional characteristics (C).

Note: If two or more overcurrent protection functions are activated, they may interfere (e.g. a phase
overcurrent and a residual overcurrent protection). But if all of these functions are entered in the
test object, they will be taken into account automatically. The resulting characteristic will
individually be calculated and shown for each test point depending on its fault type and fault
angle, ensuring a proper assessment according to the expected overall relay behavior.

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Each test point needs several settings which have to be defined:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1. For the fault type you can choose between three, two or one phase faults as well as phase to ground
faults and zero and negative sequence faults.
2. It is possible to enter your test currents relative to the pick-up currents which you have defined in the test
object. The element, on which the test point will be referenced, can be set here.
3. Here you can enter the relative test current.
Note: If a test point is entered relatively, the absolute test current will be changed automatically,
whenever its pick-up value is changed.
4. The magnitude can be entered as an absolute value as well.
5. For directional overcurrent protection, the test angle has to be set additionally.

The data for the test assessment is shown as well:

6. Here you can see the nominal tripping time of the test point.
7. Also the tolerances are shown for each test point.
8. The measured tripping time will be displayed here after the test.

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7.9 Test View, Pick-up / Drop-off Test

1 2

3 4 5

Also there is the possibility to perform a pick-up / drop-off test. This is done automatically by ramping the
current. The begin, the end as well as the step size of the ramp are calculated by the test module.

1. For a pick-up test normally a relay with start contact is needed. But it is also possible to test an
electro mechanical (EM) relay without start contact. Digital relays without start contact can only be
tested, if they emulate the behavior of a disc-type EM relay.
2. If you do not want the pick-up test to be assessed automatically you have to clear this check box.
Note: The drop-off value as well as the reset ratio will not be assessed automatically
3. The fault type can be defined similar to the characteristic test.
4. If you test a directional overcurrent relay, the test angle can be set as well.
5. The resolution defines the step length of the ramp. This value has to be set longer than the pick-up time
of the relay.

After the test the pick-up value will be displayed and assessed. The drop-off value and the drop-off ratio will
be displayed as well.

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7.10 Out of Range

If the test point is indicated blue, the Absolute max. time is shorter than the upper tolerance tmax. In this
case the test cannot be assessed properly. In this case you have to increase the Absolute max. time.

If the test point is indicated pink, the test current is too high. This means that the test current of this test point
is higher than the maximum test current I max which is defined in the test object.

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7.11 Report View

The report view is also available in the Overcurrent test module. It can be opened via clicking Report on the
View menu.

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7.12 Overcurrent Exercise
> Add an Overcurrent test module to the OCC file.
> Check the trip times of the overcurrent protection specified by the trainer.
> Check the directional behavior of the overcurrent protection if possible.

7.12.1 Exercise A: Definite Time Emergency Overcurrent Protection

Settings Value
Characteristic type I> Definite
I> 1.8 A
t I> 0.5 s
I>> 6A
t I>> 0.1 s
Directional behavior Non directional

7.12.2 Exercise B: Inverse Time Directional Overcurrent Protection

Settings Value
Characteristic type I> IEC Very Inverse
I> 1.5 A
Time multiplier 1.2
I>> 3A
t I>> 0.1 s
Directional behavior I> forward directional
Relay characteristic angle 45°

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8 XRIO

8.1 Preface
XRIO is our name for a powerful option for automating and simplifying test sequences. Picture the following
scenario:

Numerous relays of the same type with similar settings (functional scope, pick-up characteristics, etc.) are in
use in a single transformer substation. To test one of these relays you have created a test template
containing the pick-up value and trip time tests for various fault loops. Following successful testing you now
want to use the same template to test the next relay. However, to do this, you have to recalculate and enter
a number of set values for the test modules due to the discrepancies between parameter settings. This can
involve up to 12 different settings for one ramp module alone. If this routine task could be carried out
automatically, you would be able to save a huge amount of time when adapting the test template.

In this chapter we will show you how to implement this type of automated testing.

XRIO = eXtended Relay Interface by OMICRON

Up to now you have been using RIO functions.

RIO = Relay Interface by OMICRON

RIO made it possible to map the behavior of a protection device regardless of manufacturer. However, it did
have certain limits, which were imposed by the content of the specific RIO functions used. XRIO does away
with these limits. Users can now create parameters at will in an XML file and use formulas to interlink them.

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8.2 Required Parameters
The definite time emergency overcurrent protection function to be tested has the following set values for the
purpose of our example:

Settings Value
I> 1.8 A
t I> 0.5 s
I>> 6A
t I>> 0.1 s

You have to create these values as XRIO parameters in the test object. You also need a further two
parameters to configure the ramp for the pick-up test; these can be calculated from the parameters specified
above.

Tol/A = 3% ∙ I> = 54 mA
Delta I = Tol/A / 4 = 14 mA

These too have to be created and corresponding formulas assigned to them.

I/A
1.2 I>

I> + Tol

I>

I> - Tol

0.8 I>

Tol t/s
Delta I =
4

This is all done in an advanced view (View menu) of the test object. However, you have to create a new
subblock there first and add all the parameters to it.

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8.3 Adding a Block

A block of this type has various attributes. The most important of these are:
> ID: The ID identifies the block. This ID must contain only uppercase letters; not all of these letters can be
special characters.
> Name: The name can be selected at will.
> Description: You can enter additional notes here to specify the purposes for which the block is to be
used.

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8.4 Adding Parameters

You now need to create the first parameter in this block. To do this, you have to select the data type first. In
our example, only the Real data type is used.

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8.5 Parameter Details I>

The first parameter is the pick-up value I>. Make the settings as shown:
> Foreign ID: If the parameter is a set value of a relay, you can enter the ID used to refer to it in the relay
here.
> Value: Enter the value of the parameter here.
> Formula: If a formula is to be used to calculate the value, it can be entered here.
> The Min. Value and the Max. Value restrict the range of values. An error message will appear if illogical
values are entered.
> You can specify a Multiplier and a Unit (e.g., MW or mA).

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8.6 Other Parameters

Proceed in the same way to define the remaining relay set values.

Complete the process by adding the two parameters Tol[A] and Delta I. You will need to use additional
formulas for this purpose.

8.7 Adding a Reference

Add a reference in the Formula field. This enables you to use the value of a different parameter. Once you
have added a reference you will need to specify the corresponding parameters.

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The ID of the parameter added via the reference is displayed in red. This parameter now has to be multiplied
by the relative tolerance of the relay (3%). Three percent has to be entered as a decimal number using
American notation (i.e., with a decimal point).

Once the unit of measurement mA has been specified under Display Properties, a value is displayed
(54 mA).

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In our example Delta I is the last parameter to be defined. As the step size of the ramp has to be equivalent
to approximately one-quarter of the tolerance, this algorithm needs to be entered under Formula.

8.8 Parameter Overview

All parameters are listed. However, these parameters have as yet had no effect at all on the test modules.

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8.9 LinkToXRIO

The screenshot shows the pick-up test in the Ramping test module. The inclusion of a link via
LinkToXRIO is also visible. In the window which is displayed you can now select the I> parameter. As the
ramp is to start at 80% of the nominal value, the Factor needs to be set to 0.8. When you click OK the field
turns purple to indicate that it has been linked. All settings are then linked in the same way, including the
parameters from the Measurement View.

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8.10 Linked Ramping Test Module

Nothing about the functionality of the test module has changed. However, if we now change the pick-up
value of the I> step in the test object, the test module is adapted automatically.

You have to proceed differently in order for the trip time test to adapt automatically.

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8.11 RIO in the Advanced View

In the advanced view, the RIO functions are displayed as individual blocks with subblocks and parameters.
The different overcurrent stages are displayed as Timed Overcurrent Elements. The Pick-up Current and
the Time Multiplier/Trip Time are part of these elements.

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8.12 Formulas in RIO

As was the case with parameters created by the user, a reference can also be added here in the Formula
field. In our example the pick-up current is linked to I> (I_G). This means that this value is applied
automatically. The same is true of the trip time.

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The second overcurrent stage is also linked. Of course these settings can be applied to phase overcurrent
stages as well as to residual overcurrent stages.

As the Overcurrent test module uses these values and the test points have to be positioned relative to the
overcurrent stages, no further modifications need to be made there.

The LinkToXRIO function is supported in almost all test modules. It can be used to create complete test
templates where only the set values have to be entered. All test modules then adapt to these values
automatically.

This principle also provides the basis for the PTL (Protection Testing Library). You can find out more about
this in the Customer Area of the OMICRON homepage (www.omicron.at).

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8.13 XRIO Exercise
> Automate the test template for testing the definite time emergency overcurrent protection with
XRIO.
> Link the set values in the Ramping test module.
> Save the test template with a new name.
> Change the set values in the test object and check that the test modules adapt to the changes
automatically.

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9 RIO Function Distance

9.1 Preface
In order to test distance protection you first have to create the associated characteristic in the test object in
the RIO function Distance. You should map the individual zones on the graph in accordance with their
parameter settings in the protection device. This chapter explains how to make the necessary settings.

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9.2 System Settings

1. The line impedance is entered here, with magnitude


and angle as secondary values. If only the primary
values are specified, you can use
Impedances in primary values to modify the entry.

If the PT connection is a busbar connection, voltages


are applied in the postfault state.
2
The direction of the CT starpoint is defined as either
Dir. line or Dir. busbar.

2. The tolerances of the relay (relative and absolute)


are entered here. In the case of absolute time
tolerance the operating time of the protection relay to
be tested also has to be taken into account. The
relative impedance tolerance is converted into an
3 absolute value at the point where the zone intersects
with the line angle.

3. The Grounding Factor indicates the ratio of the


ground impedance to the line impedance. Various
input modes are available for it. Separate arc
resistance is required if the relay deals with the arc
resistance separately from the line impedance
component.

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9.3 Zone Settings

A list of the protection's various distance zones appears on this tab. As no zones have been defined as yet,
the list is empty at this point. Click New to add the first zone.

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9.4 Adding a New Zone

3
1 2 3 4

1. Zone numbers are assigned automatically.


2. You can enter a name of your choice for the zone here.
3. Four different types of zone are available:
> Tripping
> Starting: This is a zone which causes starting only. It is also possible to define a range on the
impedance plane in which starting will be followed by tripping with maximum operating time.
> Extended: This is a tripping zone which is only activated occasionally, e.g., by means of "manual
close" detection, autoreclosure, etc.
> Non tripping: There can be no tripping in this zone, even if it is overlapped by a tripping zone. This
zone is used to model load blinding, for example.
4. Select the appropriate fault loop for each zone. In our example All has been selected.

Click the Edit... button to open an editor in which you can enter the geometry of the zone (e.g., polygon).

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9.5 Characteristic Editor

A zone comprises a number of elements, which define its limit. These elements can be lines and circles:
> Line cartesian: A point on the line with real and imaginary components as well as an angle specifying
the direction are required here.
> Line polar: The point is entered here with polar coordinates. An angle defining the direction is required
here again also.
> Arc cartesian: In order to define the arc, its center point is required in cartesian coordinates, along with
its radius, a start angle and an end angle, and a direction.
> Arc polar: The center point is specified here with polar coordinates. As was the case with the cartesian
arc, the radius, start angle, end angle, and direction also have to be specified.

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9.6 Building a Zone

The fundamental geometry of the zones is actually dependent upon the type of relay. Directional lines, load
blinding, etc., have to be taken into account in this context, for example. In order to map the zones correctly,
therefore, you need a precise knowledge of both the relay settings and the parameter settings.

To avoid input errors, you should define the elements of a zone in a continuous sequence. We advise you,
therefore, to number elements consecutively before starting to build zones.

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9.7 First Zone Ready

This screenshot shows the first zone with the corresponding tolerances.

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9.8 Copying the Zone

As all zones (with the exception


of starting) are structured in a
similar way, you can copy the
first zone for subsequent zone
definitions.

You can then add this zone by


clicking Append Copied Zones.
Please note that selecting the
Paste option would replace the
selected zone!

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9.9 Zones Ready

The screenshot shows the tripping zones (1) and the extended zone (2). The starting zones (directional and
non-directional) are also visible. The VI starting used in this example cannot, however, be mapped on the
impedance plane.

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9.10 RIO Function Distance Exercise
> Open the test object for the OCC file you created previously.
> Use the relay set values and the last chapter to build the distance protection zones.
> Save the test template.

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10 Advanced Distance

10.1 Preface
You can use the Advanced Distance test module to test the bias curve (zone reach and trip times) for
distance protection.

You need to start by creating a new group called "Distance protection" in the OCC file and adding an
Advanced Distance test module to it.

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10.2 Test Module

The above screenshot shows the two most important views of the test module, the Test View and the
Vector View. The Test View contains the impedance plane, in which the previously defined zones are
displayed, for example.

However, before starting the actual test, the test object and the hardware configuration have to be set
correctly. As the definition of the test object was described in the chapter before, you only have to make a
number of settings in the local hardware configuration.

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10.3 Local Hardware Configuration

The screenshot shows the configuration of the binary inputs.

10.4 Trigger Tab


After checking the test object and the hardware configuration, the test module can be set.

The first tab to explain will be the trigger tab.

On this tab you can configure the trigger signal for the subsequent tests.

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10.5 Settings Tab

You can choose which simulation model is to be used for the test model. The following test models are
available for selection:

> Constant test current: To test distance protection relays with I> pick-up
> Constant test voltage: To test the underexcitation protection function
> Constant source imp.: To test distance protection relays with more realistic fault conditions

In our example we are using the test model, constant test current with a test current of 2 A (2·In).

Under Fault Inception you can specify the phase angle at which the fault is to be triggered. If DC-offset has
been activated, a transient event is simulated with a decaying DC element.

The Ignore nominal characteristics, Search interval, and Search Resolution settings are relevant for the
search test. These parameters will be described in more detail later in this chapter.

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You can define the duration of a prefault or postfault state under Times. In addition, Max fault specifies the
maximum time during which fault quantities are output. If the CMC test device does not register a valid
trigger signal, the test module will automatically switch to the next test point once this time has elapsed.

You can select the time to be assessed after the test under Time reference. This is either the time between
fault inception and tripping, or the time between starting and tripping.

Set Extended zones active to define whether these zones are activated or deactivated during the test.
Deactivated extended zones will then not be displayed on the impedance plane.

The Switch off at zero-crossing function should always be activated. As a result, the CMC test device will
only disconnect the test currents following tripping in the corresponding natural zero-crossing.

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10.6 Shot Test

You can define a test point either in polar coordinates (|Z|, Phi) or in cartesian coordinates (R, X).
Alternatively, you can use the cursor to place a test point anywhere on the impedance plane. Click Add to
add the shot to the list. This procedure applies for each of the selected fault types.

In our example the reaches and trip times of the zones are to be tested. This is done by setting the points
relative to the zones on the line angle. The shots are at 94% and 106% of the relevant zone (outside the
tolerance range).

If you select the Follow line angle change option, the test points will be adapted automatically if the line
angle changes in the test object.

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10.7 Check Test

The check test is a more convenient option for testing zone reaches. You can define a check line along the
required test section. The test points are automatically placed at the intersections between this line and the
zone limits (1% outside the tolerance range). The check line is specified by means of an origin, an angle,
and a length. Alternatively, you can draw in this line by pressing and holding down the left mouse button on
the impedance plane. You then have to click Add to add the line to the list.

Click Sequence... for a quick way to generate a large number of check lines with the same origin and
different angles.

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10.8 Search Test

As in the check test, you can define a search line in a search test. However, in contrast to check lines, no
fixed test points are defined at the intersections between the search line and the zone boundaries. The
boundary between the zones is determined automatically here, with a search algorithm being used for this
purpose. The accuracy required for this can be specified on the Settings tab under Search Resolution. If
Ignore nominal characteristics is selected here, the search algorithm is modified to the effect that the
search for the zone boundaries starts at the origin of the lines. The search is carried out with the predefined
search interval. However, the results of the search are not assessed.

Click Quick... to define three search lines at once (0°, 90°, and line angle).

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10.9 Results of the Search Test

This graph shows the result of a search test. The zone limits detected have been drawn in as lines vertical
to the search line.

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10.10 Z/t Diagram

The tests carried out on the impedance plane can also be represented in a Z/t diagram.

However, please note that only one line can be displayed after a check or a search test.

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10.11 Advanced Distance Exercise
> Create a new group in the OCC document called "Distance protection".
> Add an Advanced Distance test module and check the trip times for L1-E faults.
> Copy the module and change the fault type to L1-L2-L3.
> Repeat the last two steps to test the reaches of the zones.

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11 State Sequencer

11.1 Preface
You can use the State Sequencer test module to define all manner of different tests (states). In this context
each state corresponds to specific currents, voltages, and binary signals, which can be freely defined by the
user.

To switch from one state to the next, you can define various transition conditions. These can be binary
trigger signals, for example, manual interventions by the user (the pressing of a button in response to a
prompt), or simply the expiry of a set time.

This makes it possible to set up complex test sequences.

The multiple configuration options supported by the State Sequencer test module will be described in this
chapter based on an example test of the "manual close" function of a distance protection relay.

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11.2 "Manual Close" Function (Switch On To Fault, SOTF)
Z2
t2
Z1 Z1E / Overreach
t1

A B

Although this function is known by many different names ("manual close" detection, "switch on to fault", etc.),
its technical function is always the same.

A grading factor of 85% ... 90% is usually used for the first zone in the case of distance protection. This
means that the busbar in station B is already in zone Z2. Therefore, in the event of a fault at the end of the
line, no tripping would be possible in quick time t1.

Should it happen that the line between A and B was out of service and grounded, the following problem may
occur when the power supply is connected: High fault currents occur exactly at the moment of starting which
are not detected in station B. This is often attributable to a forgotten ground electrode in station B. However,
because the fault is outside Z1 it can only be disconnected at t2 subject to a time delay.

The "manual close" function can solve this problem: The "CB close" command activates extended zone Z1E
or Overreach (represented by the dashed line) for a time which can be set as a parameter in the protection
relay. This provides a means of disconnecting a fault of this type in quick time. In our example, the reach of
the extended zone has been set to 125% of the line length and the time during which the zone is active is
1 s. Once this time has elapsed the zone is deactivated again and distance protection is resumed with its
graded zones.

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11.3 Defining States
A test is now to be set up to test the logic described above. The energizing of the line is simulated for this
purpose. After 800 ms, a fault is simulated at 100% of the line length. This fault has to be cleared by Z1E in
quick time. The energizing of the line is then simulated for a second time. This time, however, the fault only
occurs after 1.2 s. In this case the extended zone must already have been deactivated; in other words, the
fault is not disconnected until zone time t2.

The seven states required for the test are shown in the diagram below. The transition conditions appear in
green.

1 CB Open 1 V = 0; I = 0
Manual Close = 1
2 CB Close 1 V = Vn; I = 0
t = 0.8 s
3 Fault 1 ZF = 100% · ZAB
Trip = 1
4 CB Open 2 = 1
Manual Close = 1
5 CB Close 2 = 2
t = 1.2 s
6 Fault 2 = 3
Trip = 1
7 CB Open 3 = 1
t=1s

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11.4 Test Module

Once a State Sequencer test module has been added to the OCC file, it opens with various views. However,
before we describe these in detail, we are going to look at OMICRON's Ohm's law.

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11.5 Test Object and Local Hardware Configuration

The test object already contains


all relevant information about the
distance protection relay to be
tested. The line length and the
line angle in particular are
needed subsequently.

The binary inputs have to be


defined in the local hardware
configuration. The starting
command for the circuit-breaker
(Close Cmd or CB close) also
has to be configured for this test.

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11.6 State 1: "CB Open 1"

All defined states are listed in the Table View. User-defined names can also be assigned here. The currents
and voltages output during the test are also visible. You can use the buttons highlighted on the screenshot to
switch between the individual states. You can also add new states or delete existing states at any time.

The Detail View is where you configure the signals (analog and binary) of the state selected in each case.
The available set modes are the same as those in the QuickCMC test module.

In the first state, the open line is simulated. The currents and voltages output are, therefore, zero. The
"Manual close" command provides the trigger. An overview of all trigger conditions appears below.

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11.7 State 2: "CB Close 1"

In the second state, the line is closed for 800 ms at no-load. In other words, a nominal voltage is output but
the currents remain at zero.

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11.8 State 3: "Fault 1"

In this state, a fault is simulated at 100% of the line length. To do this, change the Set Mode to Z%-I const.
and configure a three-pole fault at 100% line length and line angle. The trigger condition in this case is the
open command.

You can define the four remaining states by copying the existing ones and modifying them accordingly.
However, you do need to increase the time delay for fault inception (state "CB Close 1") from 800 ms to
1.2 s.

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11.9 Overview of Trigger Conditions

The trigger conditions for each of the states are shown here.

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11.10 Overview of States

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11.11 Time Signal View

The entire test sequence is shown in the Time Signal View. Once the test is complete, the binary signals
recorded are also displayed here.

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11.12 Measurement View

You can use two different types of test assessment in the Measurement View:
> Time Assessment: You can define the start and stop events here, along with a nominal time. The time
Tact is calculated from the previously defined time measurement. Nom/act assessment then takes place
automatically.
> Level Assessment: Here you can define the binary signals which have to be present or must not be
present during the states. The tolerances define the time range during which the signals are permitted to
deviate from the defined conditions. Level Assessment is not required in the example used here.

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11.13 State Sequencer Exercise
> Add a State Sequencer test module to the "Distance protection" group in the OCC file.
> Test the protection's "manual close" detection.

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12 Autoreclosure

12.1 Preface
Most of the faults in overhead systems are arc faults caused by temporary conditions. If these faults are
promptly interrupted or cleared then, they disappear automatically when the line is disconnected. Therefore,
the use of automatic reclosing is usually advisable. Auto-reclosing can minimize the disconnect time
resulting from electrical faults. When a fault is detected on an open line, the line is disconnected. The line is
automatically reconnected once a dead or delay time, which can be defined in the protection system, has
elapsed. If the fault persists, the line is disconnected again. Dependent upon the setting of the protection
system, the line will remain disconnected for good or a renewed attempt will be made to reclose the line.

The Autoreclosure test module provides a means of testing a sequence of this type. It supports two test
modes, each of which has up to 15 reclosure cycles (AR cycles):
> Unsuccessful Sequence
> Successful Sequence
The following quantities can be assessed automatically for each AR cycle:
> Trip time
> Trip mode (single pole/three pole)
> Dead time
> Duration of CB close command
> Final tripping

The operative time, the dead time, and the reset time are shown in the diagram below. However, the actual
times are defined by the manufacturer of the protection device.

Fault
Start
Trip
CB-close

Action time Reclaim time

Dead time

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12.2 Test Module

Once the test module has been added to the appropriate group, it is opened automatically.

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12.3 Local Hardware Configuration

You have to start by defining the binary inputs in the local hardware configuration. The protection relay's
Trip command and CB CLOSE command in particular are required for this test.

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12.4 Test View
12.4.1 Shot and Times

The fault outputs are defined here as


appropriate for the auto-reclosing mode
(1-/3-pole, etc.).

You can define maximum times for


tripping and reclosing here. In the
absence of tripping or a CB close
command between these times, the test
is aborted automatically.

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12.4.2 Unsuccessful Sequence

Here you can select whether


the response of the protection is
to be tested in the event of
unsuccessful auto-reclose.

You can define the necessary


measurements in this table. In
our example these are the trip
times and the dead time.

You can also test whether the


relay reacts correctly to binary
signals like CB ready and
Sync release or not. To
activate the check boxes, these
signals have to be defined as
binary outputs in the local
Hardware Configuration.
Afterwards you can select them.
If you do so, the selected
signals will be switched off
before the final cycle. In this
case the relay must not issue
the CB close command for the
final cycle.

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12.4.3 Successful Sequence

Here you can select whether a


successful auto-reclose sequence
is to be tested.

The measurements taken are


similar to those for unsuccessful
auto-reclose sequences. Changes
have to be made on the
Unsuccessful Sequence tab.

Note: If both the unsuccessful sequence and the successful sequence tests are enabled, the
successful sequence test is carried out first.

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12.4.4 Measurement Settings

On this tab you define the trigger conditions for the various measurements. With regard to the dead time,
please note that this will start with a rising or falling edge of the trip signals, dependent upon the relay
manufacturer.

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12.5 Autoreclosure Exercise
> Add an Autoreclosure test module to the "Distance protection" group in the OCC file.
> Test a successful and an unsuccessful AR cycle, measuring the trip and dead times.

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13 Differential Test Object and Hardware Configuration

13.1 Preface
The group of Advanced Differential test modules for testing the differential function consists of the test
modules shown below.

So that you can benefit from the advantages of a common test object and a common hardware
configuration, we recommend that you use these test modules in a single OCC file.

This chapter describes how to define the test object and the hardware configuration for a differential test.

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13.2 Principle of Differential Protection

Precisely defined
protection zone with
D absolute selectivity

D Three-phase differential
protection
D
D
≥1 Trip
(OR)

The principle of differential protection is based on current comparison. It can be used to protect
transformers, generators, motors, lines, or busbars.

The differential protection zone is located precisely between the current transformers. This ensures absolute
selectivity. Tripping only occurs in response to internal faults. Protection remains stable in the face of
external faults.

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13.3 Operating Characteristic

Idiff = Ip - Is
ID>> Characteristic
Sum

Tripping
Blocking
Saturation

Tap changer /
Leakage

ID>
Magnetization

Ibias = Ip + Is

The operating characteristic represents the ratio between stabilizing current (I bias) and differential current
(Idiff), which causes tripping.

The characteristic has to be configured so that it is always greater than the total faults occurring (e.g.,
magnetization, scatter, etc.).

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13.4 Test Object, Device

OMICRON's Ohm's law stipulates that all data has to be entered in the test object as a first step. The fields
for the RIO function Device are completed in the usual way. However, the fields for the voltage and current
transformers are only needed to test additional protection functions (such as definite time emergency
overcurrent protection, for example) The Advanced Differential test modules use the RIO function
Differential in addition to the RIO function Device.

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13.5 Test Object, Differential

In the Function menu you can add the RIO function Differential by selecting Add.... Two options are
available but we are not going to consider the single-phase test module in our example, therefore, you
should click the Edit... button to call up the test object definition.

Note: The Edit (single phase)... button is used for single phase electro mechanical differential relays
only. It is used for the Differential test module. However the following chapters refer to three
phase differential relays.

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13.5.1 Protected Object

42 MVA
10.5 kV
160 MVA not connected
231 kV

118 MVA
115.5 kV

On this tab you need to make a number of data entries associated with the protected object. In our
example, this is a YYnD5 transformer. The corresponding data can be seen on the screenshot. The
following entry fields are listed:
> Protected Object: The protected object can be a transformer, a generator, a motor, or a busbar. This
selection determines the functionality of the subsequent entry fields.
> Number of Windings: If a transformer has been selected as the protected object, you can specify here
whether it has two or three windings.
> Winding/Leg Name: You can enter a name of your choice for each winding here.
> Voltage: The transformer nominal voltage of the corresponding winding.
> Power: The transformer nominal power of the corresponding winding. Make sure that the units are
correct for the rating of the transformer. If mega voltamps than use a capital M.
> Vector Group: Enter the vector group for the individual windings here using the letters Y (star), D
(delta), and Z (zigzag). You also need to specify the phase offset identifier for the secondary winding
and, if there is one, the tertiary winding.
> Starpoint Grounding: Specify which starpoints are grounded here. This is of course only possible if the
corresponding winding is star-connected.
> Current: The current of the relevant protected object is entered here. This value is calculated
automatically.

Note: If you wish to test a YY transformer, it is always assumed that the transformer has a
compensation winding.

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13.5.2 CT
2400/1
400/1

600/1

The data for the current transformer is entered on this tab.

> CT Nominal Values:


- Primary Current: Primary-side nominal current of the current transformer at the relevant winding of
the protected object.
- Secondary Current: Secondary-side nominal current of the current transformer at the relevant
winding of the protected object.
- Starpoint Grounding: The position of the CT grounding is specified here.
> Use Ground Current Measurement inputs (CT): If the protection relay's ground current inputs are
being used, you need to select this here. However, you will only be able to make this selection if a
starpoint is grounded.
> Ground CT Nominal Values: The corresponding nominal values of the ground CTs used have to be
specified here. However, settings can only be made on the windings of the protected object on which
starpoint grounding is in place.

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13.5.3 Protection Device

Please refer to the relevant relay manual for information about which Ibias calculation the protection relay
uses. A description of each type appears in the Help, as shown below.

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The No combined characteristic function is required for protection relays with single-phase trip commands
where the healthy phases do not trip. If the relay combines the trip commands of all three phases in one
signal, then single phase faults may lead to two phase faults in the non faulty phases. This is due to the
calculated zero sequence elimination. As most digital relays use the combination of all phase trip commands
as well as the zero sequence elimination, this check box has to remain cleared in most cases.

Fault currents cease to be output for the relevant test point at the latest when the Test Max time elapses.
The Delay Time is the time between two test points.

The values of Idiff> and Idiff>> respectively are defined for the Diff Current Settings.

The Reference Winding is used to convert all measured quantities to a single winding.

The Reference Current is the current referenced by the differential current settings and, subsequently, by
the characteristic also. This is either the CT nominal current or the protected object's nominal current.

You have to take the Diff Time Settings from the current protection relay parameter settings and enter them
here.

If Zero Sequence Elimination has been activated in the protection relay to be tested, you have to make the
corresponding settings in the test object.

In our example, the tertiary winding is not connected, so the equivalent circuit diagram looks like this:

42 MVA
10.5 kV
160 MVA 2400/1
400/1 231 kV
not connected

600/1
118 MVA
115.5 kV

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Note: When there are different nominal powers for each winding, the nominal currents are not same.
That means when one winding leads the nominal current, the other winding cannot lead
nominal current.

For nominal current on the primary side the currents will be:
42 MVA
10.5 kV
160 MVA 2400/1
400/1 231 kV
not connected
400 A
800 A

600/1
118 MVA
115.5 kV

1.00 A 1.33 A
D

For nominal current on the secondary side the currents will be:
42 MVA
10.5 kV
160 MVA 2400/1
400/1 231 kV
not connected
295 A
590 A

600/1
118 MVA
115.5 kV

0.74 A 0.98 A
D

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13.5.4 Zero Sequence Elimination IL - I0
IP IS

 2  3 
  1  
IP   1 I0   IL1  IL2  IL3  IS   0 
3
 1  0 

 2 0   2  3   1  2


           
IP  IP  IP0   1  0    1 IS  IS  IS0   0    1   1
 1 0   1  0   1  1

2 2  4   2   2 0 


           
IBias  IP  IS   1   1   2  IDiff  IP  IS   1   1  0 
 1  1  2   1  1 0 

To stop false tripping of the differential relay in response to a single-pole external fault, you need to use what
is known as computational zero sequence elimination.

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13.5.5 YD Interposing Transformer

YD Interposing Transformer

This diagram shows how a YD interposing transformer works. Interposing transformers compensate the
effects of the zero sequence as well as the effects of vector groups. This makes the use of single phase
differential relays possible.

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13.5.6 Characteristic Definition

On this tab you define the operating characteristic for the protection device. The characteristic can comprise
one or a number of linear elements.

The values for Idiff> and Idiff>> are taken from the previous tab automatically.

Every line is defined by a start point and an end point. These two elements have to be entered as a pair of
values comprising Ibias and Idiff. If the Auto-init Start point function is used, when a new line is created,
the end point of the previous line is automatically used as the start point. The slope of each line is
calculated and displayed.

The start and end points have to be calculated based on the relay parameters.

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13.5.7 Operating Characteristic for SIEMENS 7UT613

IDiff
Line equations:
I : IDiff  0.25  IBias
I-Diff>> II : IDiff  0.5   IBias  2.5 
P3 (?/6)
P2:
I  II

5
0.25  IBias  0.5   IBias  2.5 

0.
=
m
0.25  IBias  0.5  IBias  1.25

II:
1.25  0.25  IBias
IBias  5
Use Ibias = 5 in I:
IDiff  0.25  IBias
5
= 0.2  0.25  5  1.25
I: m P2 (?/?)
I-Diff>
P3:
P1 (0/0) 2.5 IBias
Use IDiff = 6 in II
6  0.5  IBias  1.25
P2 (5/1.25) 7.25  0.5  IBias

P3 (14.5/6)
IBias  14.5

The graph shows the operating characteristic of the SIEMENS 7UT613. The characteristic is defined by two
line segments and the predefined set values "Idiff>" and "Idiff>>". The line segments are defined by
parameters which can be set in the protection relay. In our example, these are:
> Segment I:
- Root: Ibias = 0 · In | Idiff = 0 · In
- Swell: m = 0.25
> Segment II:
- Root: Ibias = 0 · In | Idiff = 2.5 · In
- Swell: m = 0.5

You have to use the line equations to calculate the remaining points defining the characteristic. The figure
shows the calculations you need to do this.

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13.5.8 Characteristic Input for SIEMENS 7UT613

The resulting operating characteristic is shown here.

Note: When defining the operating characteristic you do not have to define any line segments for the
set values "Idiff>" and "Idiff>>". These parameters are taken into account automatically when
the operating characteristic is tested.

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13.5.9 Operating Characteristic for AREVA P633
Line equations:
IDiff I : IDiff  2  IBias
Idiff>> II : IDiff  0.3  IBias  a
P3 (?/6) III : IDiff  0.7  IBias  b
P1:
0.25  2  IBias  IBias  0.125
2

P2:
0.7
I: m =

= Use P1 in II:
m

0.25  0.3  0.125  a


III:

a  0.25  0.3  0.125  0.2125


Use Ibias = 4 in II:
IDiff  0.3  4  0.2125  1.41

= 0.3 P2 (4/?) P3:


m Use P2 in III:
II:
P1 (?/0.25)
1.41  0.7  4  b
Idiff>
b  1.41  0.7  4  1.39
4 IBias Use IDiff = 6 in III:
P1 (0.125/0.25)
6  0.7  IBias  1.39
P2 (4/1.41) 7.39  0.7  IBias
P3 (10.56/6)
IBias  10.56

The graph shows the operating characteristic of the AREVA P633. The characteristic is defined by three line
segments and the predefined set values "Idiff>" and "Idiff>>". The line segments are defined by parameters
which can be set in the protection relay. In our example, these are:
> Segment I:
- Root: Ibias = 0 · In | Idiff = 0 · In
- Swell: m = 2
> Segment II:
- Start point: Intersection of segment I and "Idiff>"
- Swell: m = 0.3
- End point: Intersection with Ibias = 4 · In
 Segment III:
- Start point: Intersection of segment II and Ibias = 4 · In
- Swell: m = 0.7

You have to use the line equations to calculate the remaining points defining the characteristic. The figure
shows the calculations you need to do this.

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13.5.10 Characteristic Input for AREVA P633

The resulting operating characteristic is shown here.

Note: When defining the operating characteristic you do not have to define any line segments for the
set values "Idiff>" and "Idiff>>". These parameters are taken into account automatically when
the operating characteristic is tested.

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13.5.11 Harmonic (2nd Harmonic)

On this tab you define the characteristic for harmonic restraint. You have to start by specifying which
harmonic component this setting is to apply for. The characteristic is defined in the same way as the
operating characteristic for the differential function.

The 2nd harmonic is characteristic of the switch-on operation of a transformer (inrush).

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13.5.12 Harmonic (5th Harmonic)

Stabilizing of the 5th harmonic prevents false tripping of the transformer differential protection in the event of
over-excitation.

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13.6 Global Hardware Configuration

Once you have defined the test object, you have to make the settings for the hardware configuration in
accordance with OMICRON's Ohm's law.

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13.6.1 Output Configuration

Six currents but no voltages are required for the example selected here, with one three-phase system for the
primary side and another for the secondary side.

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13.6.2 Analog Outputs

Current system A is configured for the primary side and current system B for the secondary side.

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13.6.3 Binary / Analog Inputs

In practice the OPEN command has to be entered and tested for all windings here. However, for reasons of
transparency, only the Trip command is used in our example.

13.6.4 Binary Outputs

Binary outputs are not required for the subsequent tests.

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13.7 Differential Test Object and Hardware Configuration Exercise
> Open a new test template.
> Complete the fields for the RIO function Device.
> Add an RIO function Differential to the test object.
> Enter all required values in this function. Use the relay's setting sheet for this purpose.
> Make the settings for the hardware configuration.
> Save the test template.

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14 Advanced Differential Configuration

14.1 Preface
The configuration test is used to check the stability of the connected differential system. A fault outside the
protection zone is always simulated and the diff and bias currents are checked. The differential function must
not cause tripping during the test.

You need to add a Diff Configuration test module to the OCC file to test the differential function.

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14.2 Advanced Differential Configuration, Binary Out

This screenshot shows the Test View. The protected object's single-phase equivalent circuit diagram is on
the right-hand side. In our example, an external fault has been set on the primary side, which draws power
from the secondary side.

The Binary Out tab can be seen on the left-hand side. However, as no binary outputs were defined in the
global hardware configuration, this list is blank. If binary outputs had been defined, they could be activated
and deactivated here.

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14.3 Advanced Differential Configuration, General

3
1

1. The test time has to be set to leave the tester with enough time to check all relevant measured values in
the protection relay to be tested. In our example, set the time to 60 s. If no manual assessments are
made by the tester during this time, the test is terminated automatically and assessed as Failed.
2. In the event of an OPEN command while the test is running, the test will automatically be assessed as
Failed.
3. You can set the fault location and the infeed location here.

Note: In our example, the fault has to be set on the secondary side.

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14.4 Advanced Differential Configuration, Test Data

In our example, three times the reference current is defined as the fault current in phase L1.

The corresponding currents on both sides of the transformer are calculated automatically by the test module
and show on the right of the screen.

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14.5 Advanced Differential Configuration, Test

Once the test has started, you have to read out the latest current values on the protection relay and enter
them on the Test tab. If these values are correct, you must assess the test manually with Passed.

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14.6 Advanced Differential Configuration Exercise
> Add a Diff Configuration test module to the test template for differential testing.
> Simulate a line-neutral fault to test the stability of the differential function.
> Copy the test module and repeat the test for 3-phase faults.
> Save your test document.

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15 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic

15.1 Preface
You can use this test module to test the operating characteristic of a differential relay. Idiff/Ibias pairs of
values are used to test whether the protection relay is tripping in accordance with the characteristic. The
tolerances entered are used for automatic assessment. Two test modes are available: Shot and Search.

A Diff Operating Characteristic test module is added to the template.

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15.2 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, General

If you need to, you can define a prefault on this tab. It is also where you specify the necessary trigger
conditions. Under Test Method you can select whether the nominal characteristic should be ignored during
a search test. This function is similar to the corresponding option in the Advanced Distance test module.

The operating characteristic is shown on the right-hand side.

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15.3 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Shot Test L-E

With the shot test you can define the individual test points either directly by clicking with the mouse in the
operating characteristic diagram or by entering the coordinates in the Idiff and Ibias fields.

A characteristic can be tested by placing one test shot above and one below the start and the end of each
segment of the characteristic. Also the tolerance overlapping of the different segments of the characteristic
has to be considered.

You also have to specify the fault loop to be tested under Fault type.

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15.4 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Shot Test L-L

When the fault loop is changed from L-E to L-L or L1-L2-L3, the shape of the operating characteristic
changes dependent upon the type of protection relay.

Because of this, the test points have to be redefined.

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15.5 Advanced Differential Operating Characteristic, Search Test

With the search test you can add search lines which are defined by their bias current. During the test a
search algorithm will be used on every search line to determine the exact position of the characteristic. The
resolution of this test can be defined in this tab as well.

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15.6 Advanced Differential Operating Exercise
> Add a Diff Operating Characteristic test module to the test template for differential testing.
> Perform shot and search tests for single- and three-phase faults.
> Save your test document.

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16 Advanced Differential Trip Time and Harmonic Restraint

16.1 Advanced Differential Trip Time


16.1.1 Advanced Differential Trip Time, Factors

On the Factors tab you can make settings for the current and time tolerances which are different from those
in the test object. In our example, however, the settings in the test object are sufficient.

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16.1.2 Advanced Differential Trip Time, General

You can define a prefault on this tab. It is also where you can specify the trigger conditions.

A t/Idiff diagram will later appear on the Test tab. This diagram is defined by the test line on the Ibias/Idiff
plane. We advise you not to change the default setting for the slope of the test lines.

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16.1.3 Advanced Differential Trip Time, Test

To test the trip times, place one test point above the Idiff> pick-up and one above the Idiff>> pick-up.

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16.2 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint
You can use this test module to test the harmonic restraint of a differential relay.

16.2.1 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, General

The General tab features an option to activate a postfault without harmonics. It is also where you specify
the trigger conditions.

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16.2.2 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, Shot Test

With the shot test you can set your test points either by clicking the test plane at the right hand or by
entering the differential and the harmonic current manually.

In our example, you need to select fault type L1L2L3.

You also have to specify the ordinal number of the harmonic to be tested. In our example, the 2nd harmonic
is to be tested.

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16.2.3 Advanced Differential Harmonic Restraint, Search Test

With the search test you can set search lines which are defined by their differential current. During the test
a search algorithm will be used on every search line to determine the exact position of the characteristic.
The search resolution can be defined in this tab as well.

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16.3 Advanced Differential Trip Time and Harmonic Restraint Exercise
> Add a Diff Trip Time test module to the test template for differential testing.
> Test the trip time for three-phase faults.
> Add a Diff Harmonic Restraint test module to the template.
> Test the relay's harmonic restraint for the 2nd harmonic with a single-phase and a three-phase
test.
> Repeat these steps for the 5th harmonic.
> Save your test document.

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