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Lecture 2: Rigid Motion

Coordinate Frames

Position and orientation

Homogeneous transformation matrix

Orientation representation

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Industrial Robot Configurations

of Engineering MFGE5326 1 Industrial Robot Configurations Cartesian: PPP Articulated: RRR Cylindrical: RPP SCARA: RRP

Cartesian: PPP

MFGE5326 1 Industrial Robot Configurations Cartesian: PPP Articulated: RRR Cylindrical: RPP SCARA: RRP (Selective

Articulated: RRR

Robot Configurations Cartesian: PPP Articulated: RRR Cylindrical: RPP SCARA: RRP (Selective Compliance Assembly

Cylindrical: RPP

Cartesian: PPP Articulated: RRR Cylindrical: RPP SCARA: RRP (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) Ingram

SCARA: RRP

(Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm)

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Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) Ingram School of Engineering Spherical: RRP Hand coordinate: n: normal vector; s

Spherical: RRP

Robot Arm) Ingram School of Engineering Spherical: RRP Hand coordinate: n: normal vector; s : sliding

Hand coordinate:

n: normal vector; s: sliding vector;

a: approach vector, normal to the

tool mounting plate

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Manipulators

1/25/2017 Manipulators Robot Specifications  Number of Axes  Major axes, (1-3) => Position the wrist

Robot Specifications

Number of Axes

Major axes, (1-3) => Position the wrist

Minor axes, (4-6) => Orient the tool

Redundant, (7-n) => reaching around obstacles, avoiding undesirable configuration

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Workspace

Payload (load capacity)

Accuracy and Repeatability

Range, maximum speed and acceleration

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Example: Robot Specifications

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Example: Robot Specifications

1/25/2017 Example: Robot Specifications Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 5 Position and Orientation of Rigid Body
1/25/2017 Example: Robot Specifications Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 5 Position and Orientation of Rigid Body

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Position and Orientation of Rigid Body

A rigid body is completely described by its position and orientation relative to a reference frame.

described by its position and orientation relative to a reference frame. Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326

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Position

A point P in space can be represented by its three coordinates relative to a reference frame as:

P a i b j c k

x

y

z

x

z

P c z b y a y x
P
c
z
b
y
a
y
x
 

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Rotation

A

R

B

 

1

0

0

X,

α

0

cos

α

sin

α

R Y β B , A 

R Y β

B

,

A

0

sin

β

cos

0

β

-sin

α

0

1

0

cos

sin

α

β

0

β

cos

 

 

A

R

B

 

cos

γ

-sin

γ

0

Z γ

sin

cos

0

,

0

γ

0

γ

1

 

.

 

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Coordinate Frames

To describe the position and orientation of a body in space, we always attach a coordinate system(frame) rigidly to the object.

Tool Frame Base Frame World Frame
Tool Frame
Base Frame
World Frame

Workobject Frame

 

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Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

4 by 4 matrices:

n

o

a

p

F

n

n

x

y

z

0

o

o

x

y

z

0

a

a

x

y

z

0

Can be pre- or post-multiplied

p

p

1

x

y

z

Easy to find inverse of the matrix

 

Represents both orientation and position information, including directional vectors

 

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Homogeneous Transformation

 R A P A  T A B BORG . B   
R
A
P
A
T
A
B
BORG
.
B
  
0
1
 
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Compositions of Rotations-Current Frame

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Compositions of Rotations-fixed Frame

1/25/2017 Compositions of Rotations-fixed Frame Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 13 Compositions of

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Compositions of Rotations-Example1

Current Frame

R represents rotation about the current y-axis by f followed by q about the current z-axis

R R R

  sin

f

y ,

z ,

q

cos

0

f

f

     sin    f y , z , q cos

Post-multiply

0

1

0

sin

0

cos

f

f

  cos  

   

q

q

sin

0

sin

q

cos

q

0

0

0

1

cos

  sin

f

sin

f

cos

q

cos

q

q

cos

cos

f

sin

sin

q

f

sin

q

q

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sin

0

cos

f

f

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Compositions of Rotations-Example2

Fixed Frame:

A rotation matrix R is a composition of f about y 0 (R y,f ) and then q about z 0 (R z,q )

R

 R R z , q y ,   cos q  sin q
 R R
z
,
q
y
,
 cos
q
 sin
q
sin
q
cos
q
0 0
 

Pre-multiply

0

0

1







 

cos

0

sin

0

1

0

sin

0

cos

 

 

cos

sin

q

q

cos

cos

sin

sin

q

cos

q

sin

cos

q

sin

q

sin

 

0

cos

sin    0 cos       Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326

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Compositions of Rotations-Summary

Consecutive rotations w/ respect to the current reference frame:

Post-multiplying by successive rotation matrices

w/ respect to a fixed reference frame (o 0 )

Pre-multiplying by successive rotation matrices

We can also have hybrid compositions of rotations with respect to the current and a fixed frame using these same rules

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Inverse of Transformation Matrices

The inverse of a transformation (or a frame) matrix is the following:

T

n

n

n

x

y

z

0

o

o

o

x

y

z

0

a

a

a

x

y

z

0

p

p

p

1

x

y

z

and

T

1

n

o

a

x

x

x

0

n

o

a

y

y

y

0

n

o

a

z

z

z

0

p n  

p o

p a   

1

Transpose the rotation portion of the matrix.

Take the negative of the dot-product of the P and n, P and o, and P and a vectors.

The scale factors remain the same.

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Example

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Suppose the transformation matrix at the current robot location between the Base frame and tool frame is:

B

T

T

 0.354

0.933

0.067

0

0.067

0.933

0.354

0

0.354

0.354

0.866

0

10

 

1

10

10

If the object location in the Base frame is:

P 50 20 10 1

B

T

What is the object location in the tool frame?

Object
Object

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Solution

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Euler’s Theorem-Orientation

Euler’s Theorem: Any two independent orthonormal coordinate frames can be related by a sequence of rotations (not more than three) about coordinate axes, where no two successive rotations may be about the same axis.

A sequence of rotations around principle axes is called an Euler Angle Sequence

Assuming we limit ourselves to 3 rotations without successive rotations about the same axis, we could use any of the following 12 sequences:

XYZ XZY XYX XZX YXZ YZX YZY ZXY ZYX ZXZ ZYZ YXY

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Orientation Representation

There are three parameters that need to be specified to create arbitrary rigid body rotations

We will describe three such parameterizations:

1.Euler angles (ZXZ, ZYZ)

2.Roll, Pitch, Yaw angles

 

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Orientation Representation

 
 
  Euler Angles Representation Many different types  Description of Euler angle representations  

Euler Angles Representation Many different types Description of Euler angle representations

Euler Angles Representation Many different types  Description of Euler angle representations
 
 

Euler Angle I

Euler Angle II

Roll-Pitch-Yaw

 

Sequence

about OZ axis about OU axis about OW axis

f

about OZ axis about OV axis

f

about OX axis about OY axis

of

q

q

q

Rotations

about OW axis

about OZ axis

f

Note:  

Note:

 
 

OXYZ->OUVW  Current frame  

Current frame

 

OXYZ->OXYZFixed frame

Fixed frame

 

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Euler Angle I, Animated

w'"= w"

w'= z f v'" v " v' y u'" q u' =u" x Ingram School
w'=
z
f
v'"
v "
v'
y
u'"
q
u'
=u"
x
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Euler Angle I

Rotation by f about the z-axis, followed by q about the current x-axis, then about the current z-axis

R ZYZ

R R R

z

,

x,

q

z

,

c

 

s

0

s

c

0

0 

0 

1



 

1

0

0

0

c

q

s

q

0

s

q

c

q







 

c

s

0

s

c

0

0

0

0

1

 

c  s  0  s  c  0 0  0 1 

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Euler Angle II, Animated

w"'=

w'= z w" f v"'  q v' =v" y u"' u" u' x Ingram
w'=
z
w"
f
v"'
q v'
=v"
y
u"'
u"
u'
x
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Euler Angle II

Rotation by f about the z-axis, followed by q about the current y-axis, then about the current z-axis

followed by q about the current y-axis, then  about the current z-axis Ingram School of

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Roll, Pitch, Yaw Angles

Three consecutive rotations about the fixed principal axes:

Yaw (x 0 ) , pitch (y 0 ) q, roll (z 0 ) f

(x 0 )  , pitch (y 0 ) q , roll (z 0 ) f

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Quaternions

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Quaternions are an interesting mathematical concept with a deep relationship with the foundations of algebra and number theory

Invented by W.R.Hamilton in 1843

In practice, they are most useful to us as a means of representing orientations

A quaternion has 4 components

q q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

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Quaternions (Imaginary Space)

Quaternions are actually an extension to complex numbers

Of the 4 components, one is a ‘real’ scalar number, and the other 3 form a vector in imaginary ijk space!

q

q q iq jq kq

0

1

2

3

i

2

j

2

i

jk



j

ki



k

ij



k

2

kj

ik

ji

ijk



1

2222

2222

0

1

2

3

qqqq   1

 

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Quaternions (Scalar/Vector)

Sometimes, they are written as the combination of a scalar value s and a vector value v

 

q

s , v , v , v

  q  s , v
  q  s , v

where

s

v

q q q

0

1

2

q

3

s q

0

v

q

1

q

2

q

3

 

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Quaternions as Rotations

A quaternion can represent a rotation by an angle θ around a unit axis a:

q

or

q

θ around a unit axis a : q     or q  cos

θ around a unit axis a : q     or q  cos

cos

cos

q

2

q

2

a

x

sin

q

2

a

y

sin

, a

q sin 2 Ingram School of Engineering
q
sin
2
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q

2

a

z

sin

q

2

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Quaternion to Matrix

To convert a quaternion to a rotation matrix:

R

2

q

2

0

2

2

q q

1

q q

1

2

3

2

q

2

1

1

2

2

q q

0

q q

0

3

2

2

q q

1

2

2

q

2

0

2

q q

2

3

2

q q

0

3

2

q

2

2

2

1

q q

0

1

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2

2

q q

1

q q

2

3

3

2

q

2

0

2

q q  

 

0

2

2

2

q

q q

0

2

3

1

1

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Matrix Conversion Formulas

Relations between q i and R=[r ij ]

q

q

q

q

2

0

2

1

2

2

2

3

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

 

1

r

11

r

11

r

11

r

11

 

1

 

1

 

1

r

22

r

22

r

22

r

22

r

33

r

33

r

33

r

33

q

q

q

q

q

q

0

0

q

q

1

2

0

q

3

q
1

2

q
1

3

q
2

3

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1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

r

32

r

13

r

21

r

12

r

13

r

23

r

23

r

31

r

12

r

21

r

31

r

32

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Example: quaternion representing a rotation
Example: quaternion representing a rotation
y x y x z z
y
x
y
x
z
z

Rot(z,90 ° )

What is quaternion?

What is the rotation matrix?

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Example
Example
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Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 35 Example Solution Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 36
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Example Solution
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Reminder

The lecture note for Lecture 3 is on TRACS.

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