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Lecture 2: Rigid Motion

Coordinate Frames

Position and orientation

Homogeneous transformation matrix

Orientation representation

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Industrial Robot Configurations Cartesian: PPP Articulated: RRR Cylindrical: RPP SCARA: RRP

(Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm)

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n: normal vector; s: sliding vector;

a: approach vector, normal to the

tool mounting plate

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Manipulators Robot Specifications

Number of Axes

Major axes, (1-3) => Position the wrist

Minor axes, (4-6) => Orient the tool

Redundant, (7-n) => reaching around obstacles, avoiding undesirable configuration

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Workspace

Accuracy and Repeatability

Range, maximum speed and acceleration

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Example: Robot Specifications Ingram School of Engineering

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Example: Robot Specifications  Ingram School of Engineering

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Position and Orientation of Rigid Body

A rigid body is completely described by its position and orientation relative to a reference frame. Ingram School of Engineering

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Position

A point P in space can be represented by its three coordinates relative to a reference frame as:

P a i b j c k

x

y

z

x

z P
c
z
b
y
a
y
x
 Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 7 Rotation A R B  1 0 0   X, α     0 cos α  sin α   R Y β B , A           0 sin β cos 0 β -sin α 0 1 0 cos sin α β 0 β cos        A R B  cos γ -sin γ 0   Z γ    sin cos 0  ,    0 γ 0 γ 1    . Ingram SchoolIngramof EngineeringSchool of Engineering MFGE4399CMFGE5326 8

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Coordinate Frames

To describe the position and orientation of a body in space, we always attach a coordinate system(frame) rigidly to the object. Tool Frame
Base Frame
World Frame

Workobject Frame

 Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 9 Homogeneous Transformation Matrices  4 by 4 matrices:  n o a p  F       n n x y z 0 o o x y z 0 a a x y z 0 – Can be pre- or post-multiplied p p 1 x y z      – Easy to find inverse of the matrix – Represents both orientation and position information, including directional vectors Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 10

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Homogeneous Transformation R
A
P
A
T
A
B
BORG
.
B
  
0
1
  Ingram School of Engineering
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Compositions of Rotations-Current Frame Ingram School of Engineering

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Compositions of Rotations-fixed Frame Ingram School of Engineering

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Compositions of Rotations-Example1

Current Frame

R represents rotation about the current y-axis by f followed by q about the current z-axis

R R R

  sin

f

y ,

z ,

q

cos

0

f

f Post-multiply

0

1

0

sin

0

cos

f

f

  cos  

   

q

q

sin

0

sin

q

cos

q

0

0

0

1

cos

  sin

f

sin

f

cos

q

cos

q

q

cos

cos

f

sin

sin

q

f

sin

q

q Ingram School of Engineering
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sin

0

cos

f

f

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Compositions of Rotations-Example2

Fixed Frame:

A rotation matrix R is a composition of f about y 0 (R y,f ) and then q about z 0 (R z,q )

R  R R
z
,
q
y
,
 cos
q
 sin
q
sin
q
cos
q
0 0
 

Pre-multiply

0

0

1







 

cos

0

sin

0

1

0

sin

0

cos

 

 

cos

sin

q

q

cos

cos

sin

  sin q cos q sin  cos q sin q sin  0 cos  Ingram School of Engineering

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Compositions of Rotations-Summary

Consecutive rotations w/ respect to the current reference frame:

Post-multiplying by successive rotation matrices

w/ respect to a fixed reference frame (o 0 )

Pre-multiplying by successive rotation matrices

We can also have hybrid compositions of rotations with respect to the current and a fixed frame using these same rules

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Inverse of Transformation Matrices

The inverse of a transformation (or a frame) matrix is the following:

T

n

n

n

x

y

z

0

o

o

o

x

y

z

0

a

a

a

x

y

z

0

p

p

p

1

x

y

z

and

T

1

n

o

a

x

x

x

0

n

o

a

y

y

y

0

n

o

a

z

z

z

0

p n  

p o

p a   

1

Transpose the rotation portion of the matrix.

Take the negative of the dot-product of the P and n, P and o, and P and a vectors.

The scale factors remain the same.

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Example

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Suppose the transformation matrix at the current robot location between the Base frame and tool frame is:

B

T

T

 0.354

0.933

0.067

0

0.067

0.933

0.354

0

0.354

0.354

0.866

0

10

 

1

10

10

If the object location in the Base frame is:

P 50 20 10 1

B

T

What is the object location in the tool frame? Object

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Solution

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Euler’s Theorem-Orientation

Euler’s Theorem: Any two independent orthonormal coordinate frames can be related by a sequence of rotations (not more than three) about coordinate axes, where no two successive rotations may be about the same axis.

A sequence of rotations around principle axes is called an Euler Angle Sequence

Assuming we limit ourselves to 3 rotations without successive rotations about the same axis, we could use any of the following 12 sequences:

XYZ XZY XYX XZX YXZ YZX YZY ZXY ZYX ZXZ ZYZ YXY

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Orientation Representation

There are three parameters that need to be specified to create arbitrary rigid body rotations

We will describe three such parameterizations:

1.Euler angles (ZXZ, ZYZ)

2.Roll, Pitch, Yaw angles

 Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 21 Orientation Representation Euler Angles Representation Many different types  Description of Euler angle representations Euler Angle I Euler Angle II Roll-Pitch-Yaw Sequence about OZ axis about OU axis about OW axis f about OZ axis about OV axis f about OX axis about OY axis  of q q q Rotations  about OW axis  about OZ axis f Note: OXYZ->OUVW Current frame OXYZ->OXYZ Fixed frame Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 22

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Euler Angle I, Animated

w'"= w" w'=
z
f
v'"
v "
v'
y
u'"
q
u'
=u"
x
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Euler Angle I

Rotation by f about the z-axis, followed by q about the current x-axis, then about the current z-axis

R ZYZ

R R R

z

,

x,

q

z

,

c

 

s

0

s

c

0

0 

0 

1



 

1

0

0

0

c

q

s

q

0

s

q

c

q







 

c

s

0

s

c 0

0

0

1

  Ingram School of Engineering

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Euler Angle II, Animated

w"'= w'=
z
w"
f
v"'
q v'
=v"
y
u"'
u"
u'
x
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Euler Angle II

Rotation by f about the z-axis, followed by q about the current y-axis, then about the current z-axis Ingram School of Engineering

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Roll, Pitch, Yaw Angles

Three consecutive rotations about the fixed principal axes:

Yaw (x 0 ) , pitch (y 0 ) q, roll (z 0 ) f Ingram School of Engineering

Quaternions

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Quaternions are an interesting mathematical concept with a deep relationship with the foundations of algebra and number theory

Invented by W.R.Hamilton in 1843

In practice, they are most useful to us as a means of representing orientations

A quaternion has 4 components

q q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

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Quaternions (Imaginary Space)

Quaternions are actually an extension to complex numbers

Of the 4 components, one is a ‘real’ scalar number, and the other 3 form a vector in imaginary ijk space!

q

q q iq jq kq

0

1

2

3

 i 2  j 2  i  jk  j  ki  k  ij 

k

2

kj

ik

ji

ijk



1 2222 0 1 2 3

qqqq   1

 Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 29 Quaternions (Scalar/Vector)  Sometimes, they are written as the combination of a scalar value s and a vector value v q  s  , v  where s  v  q q q  0 1 2 q 3  s  q 0 v   q 1 q 2 q 3  Ingram School of Engineering MFGE5326 30

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Quaternions as Rotations

A quaternion can represent a rotation by an angle θ around a unit axis a:

q

or

q  cos

cos

q

2

q

2

a

x

sin

q

2

a

y

sin

, a q
sin
2
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q

2

a

z

sin

q

2

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Quaternion to Matrix

To convert a quaternion to a rotation matrix:

R

2

q

2

0

2

2

q q

1

q q

1

2

3

2

q

2

1

1

2

2

q q

0

q q

0

3

2

2

q q

1

2

2

q

2

0

2

q q

2

3

2

q q

0

3

2

q

2

2

2

1

q q

0

1

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2

2

q q

1

q q

2

3

3

2

q

2

0

2

q q  

 

0

2

2

2

q

q q

0

2

3

1

1

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Matrix Conversion Formulas

Relations between q i and R=[r ij ]

q

q

q

q

2

0

2

1

2

2

2

3

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

 

1

r

11

r

11

r

11

r

11

 

1

 

1

 

1

r

22

r

22

r

22

r

22

r

33

r

33

r

33

r

33

q

q

q

q

q

q

0

0

q

q

1

2

0

q

3

q
1

2

q
1

3

q
2

3

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1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

r

32

r

13

r

21

r

12

r

13

r

23

r

23

r

31

r

12

r

21

r

31

r

32

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x
y
x
z
z

Rot(z,90 ° )

What is quaternion?

What is the rotation matrix?

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Example Solution
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Reminder

The lecture note for Lecture 3 is on TRACS.

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