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1803 Vocabulary Terms

These terms are in no particular order; however all must be defined as a part of the set-exercises assessment task.

Term Definition
1 2D Shape shape with only two dimensions
2 3D Shape shape with only three dimensions
5E Model The 5 E's is an instructional model based on the
constructivist approach to learning.
the 5 E's describes a phase of learning, and each phase
begins with the letter "E": Engage, Explore, Explain,
3 Elaborate, and Evaluate.
accommodation developed by Jean Piaget to describe the process in
which we modify existing cognitive schemas to include
4 new information.
assimilation cognitive process that manages how we take in new
information and incorporate that new information into
our existing knowledge. This concept was developed by
5 Jean Piaget
cardinality the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of
6 elements of the set"
centration refers to the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a
7 situation, problem or object.
Classification (Science process skill) Classification means putting objects into groups (classes)
8 based on some property they have.
Cognitive constructivism Overview Piaget's theory of cognitive development -
Information that can be immediately understood, and
use cannot be Learners must their own knowledge. -
Knowledge is built through experience.
9 Overview Piaget's theory of cognitive development
communicating (Science process skill) The transfer of information(data) from one person to
10 another.
concept are the building blocks of knowledge; they allow people
11 to organize and categorize information
conceptual subitizing is the ability to look at a picture or group of objects and
know their number, almost immediately, without an
12 account.
conclusion (Scientific method) summarize how your results support or contradict your
13 original hypothesis
Concrete operational stage is the third Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
This period spans the time of middle childhood and is
14 characterized by the development of logical thought
concrete pictorial abstract learning progression using actual objects for children to add, subtract,
multiply or divide. They then progress to using pictorial
representations of the object, and ultimately, abstract
15 symbols.
conservation the concept that a given number or quantity remains
the same. even though it may be arranged in different
16 ways
Constructivist method Students need to build their own understanding of each
mathematical concept, so that the primary role of
teaching is not to lecture, explain or attempt to
"transfer" mathematical knowledge, but to create
conditions for students who will promote their
17 mentality. Construction works.

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1803 Vocabulary Terms

controlling variables (More complex science process skill) control variable is what is kept the same throughout the
experiment, and it is not of primary concern in the
18 experimental outcome
19 data is a group of information collected
disequilibrium In math, disequilibrium occurs in scenarios that may be
called "the lies my teacher told me ..." Speaking of the
language of mathematics, simple terms and "or" can
create their own share of imbalance when students try
20 to coordinate math with their English
equilibrium State in which two opposing influences are balanced.
21
22 estimation To find something close to the correct answer
Formal Operations Stage is the fourth and final phase of the theory of cognitive
evolution of the Piaget Commissions. Emerging abstract
thought and virtual thinking represent this stage of
23 evolution.
hypothesis (Scientific method) A set of techniques to investigate phenomena, acquiring
new knowledge, or correct and integrate previous
24 knowledge.
hypothesizing (More complex science process skill) if, then" statements about the relationship between two
25 variables
inferring (science process skill) making conclusions, generalizations
26
informal experience Is a central portal for the project, research and
evaluation resources designed to support and connect
the informal education community in science,
technology, engineering and mathematics to museums,
media, public programs, and a growing variety of
27 learning environments.
inquiry-based learning (IBL) is something that students do, not something that is
28 done to them
29 learning cycle is a concept of how people learn from experience
logical grouping In this way, we define the range of logic, while
maintaining a sharp distinction between logic and other
sciences. All reasoning, scientific or non-scientific, must
be logical, but only a framework, and nothing more. This
30 is meant by saying that logic is an official science.
31 measuring A number that shows the size or amount of something.
measuring (science process skill) Observing - using your senses to gather information
about an object or event. It is description of what was
actually perceived .Measuring - using standard measures
or estimations to describe specific dimensions of an
object or event. This information is considered
32 quantitative data.
more knowledgeable other it refers to someone who has a better understanding or
a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a
33 task, process, or concept.
naturalistic experience The learning method refers to an individual learning
approach based on three things: strengths, weaknesses,
34 and preferences.
observing (science process skill) The ability to make good observations is also necessary
35 to develop other science process skills: communication,

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1803 Vocabulary Terms

one to one correspondence understanding that one group has the same number of
36 things as another group
perceptual subitizing recognizing a number without using
other mathematical processes.
37
38 predicting (science process skill) guessing, deciding in advance what we think will happen
pre-operational stage The second of four stages in the theory of cognitive
evolution of Piaget committees. It follows the sensory
39 phase and occurs almost between the ages of 2 and 7.
Principles of School Mathematics The Principles and Standards of School Mathematics is a
document produced in 1989 by the National Council of
Mathematics Teachers (NCTM) to develop a national
vision for the teaching of pre-college mathematics in the
40 United States and Canada.
process skill include observing qualities, measuring quantities,
sorting/classifying, inferring, predicting, experimenting,
41 and communicating.
rational counting Is any number that can be expressed as a divisor or p / q
part of two valid numbers, p is the numerator, and a
42 non-zero denominator q.
reversibility A characteristic of some mathematical or physical
processes and systems whose well-defined time
43 dynamics have been determined.
rote counting Is one of the most basic skills in mathematics, because it
requires the ability to rely on verbal memory. Teaching
how to calculate memorization can be a tax, as teachers
44 may run out of attractive ideas to teach skill.
scaffolding Scaffolding refers to a variety of instructional techniques
used to gradually move students towards a stronger
understanding and, ultimately, greater autonomy in the
45 learning process.
science process skill include observing qualities, measuring quantities,
sorting/classifying, inferring, predicting, experimenting,
46 and communicating.
scientific method a method of research in which a problem is identified,
relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated
from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically
47 tested.
Sensory motor stage s the first of the four stages Piaget uses to define
48 cognitive development
seriation Seriation is a fundamental ability, without which
49 children cannot progress in math and science
social constructivism The social theory of knowledge is built that develops
human development and social status through
50 interaction with others.
51 Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically
spatial awareness refers to a person's recognition of how he or she, or an
object, interacts with a space. It's being able to fit items
52 into an environment.
Standards for School Mathematics The role of national standards in state policy.
They emphasize content more than curricula; that is,
documents do not specify the order, structure and
organization of mathematics and school science
53 programs.
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1803 Vocabulary Terms

structured experience that five different meanings for the integration of


science and mathematics, specific content, processes,
methodology, structural mathematics, and science
curricula have not had a significant impact on the
54 discipline of the current student experiences.
student- directed inquiry Inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) refers to
a student-centered paradigm of teaching mathematics
and science, in which students are invited to work in
ways similar to how mathematicians and scientists
55 work.
teachable moment The moment of education is an unexpected opportunity
that arises in the classroom where the teacher enjoys
the perfect opportunity to provide an insight into his
students. The moment of education can not be planned.
Instead, it is a passing opportunity that the teacher must
56 sense and control.
teacher- directed inquiry The DIAL (SPS 2) curriculum was developed to help high
school students acquire the critical thinking skills
57 required to solve problems in the biology lab.
testable question is one that can be answered by designing and
58 conducting an experiment
volume is the measure of the amount of space inside of a solid
figure
59
zone of proximal development That now has the axiomatic qualities in the educational
circles. They therefore refer to "the distance between
the actual growth level determined by independent
problem solving and the level of potential development.
60

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