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poor is not a religion but punishment Hence hinduism is to be rejected


Ambedkar's conccpt of dalit revolutiofl:

lndian society is on the verqe of collapse. lt wili be dangerous to postpone its

regeneration. Caste Hindus are uniit for this talh. ln Incjti qenLtine proletr at class
does nol exist ln lndian context daiits are new prolelarials. in ,ndian ccntext Calits
are new proletariats The most oppresscd section, of lndian socrety Dal ts are
valiguard of revolution l'he revolutionary potcntial of dalits is much more than their
western proletariat class lndian dalits are victims of capitalism, feudalism,
i0lperialism and casteism. Indian society dces not give any opportunity to upgrade
hence lhere is no option except revolutjon. True democracy in lndia \,!ill emerge
when untouchables will come out of these deep stumber and skuggle for dignity.

Technique of revolution:

He talks about revolution through constitLltional means. He Favcured separate

electorates for untouchables Those who are socially segregated shoLtld also be
poiiticaliy segregated.

Critical eva!uation:

Ambedkar accepted Buddhism this shows lris ooliticai pirssivlsm plcifisrn.

Poorra pact was lris political defeat despite being leader of untouchables he could
not adopt philosophy of class struggle. According to mainsbeam theories of
revolLition, revolutions are violent. However we can not overlook Ambedkar,s
contribution to dalits. Even candhi suggested paciflc, peaceful .evolutiol].

Ambedkar's idea of democracy:

Political progress is impossible wilhcut reformed sociely_ Fight for democra.y

at social level is more important than politicai level. l-le says society can be n]cre
oppressive than siate. lt means socia, reforms rnust precede the political reforms_
Society has more means afld scope of exploitation people shoil,d have right firsi
beforc power to protect lhem. lt will be blundet to reverse this order. As an ideal
democracy is inconsistent with caste system. Democaacy is based on the idea of
fraternitv. People separated on the basi:r oF caste can not lorm natioir. Formation to

exlst it is not sufficient to have
similar customs and habbits but
there has to be a
deep sense of spiritual sharing.
Caste system prevents this.
Arnbedkar was supporter
or parriamentary democracy but
in rndian context he
supports Presidential form
of qovemment. ln Britain parliamentary
Systen v,/orks on
politicat majority. In lndia
Arnercan systenl lvcrks on separatiorn:ilJJ":11T":::,:::";ff?*":fffl,,;
mtrlofltv Ambedkar gives suggestions
for successful dentocracy.
r) No lyranny of ntajority over
il) Separate electorates in segmented
.,, l. ,ualtly berore law
iv) Existence of effectjve opposition

v) Veto power with the public

vj) Insistence on moral order

Advantages of parliamentary
pariiamentary system
ends hereditary rute
r-.presentative have to seek
confldence of people at regular
lav/s are made by the pecple

Anrbedkar believed lhat

self government is not enough.
lt should come with good

lnclicatoi-s of good government I

r) impartiatityofjustice

ii) cleanadministration

iii) government above sectional

v) govcrnment aiming to improve
socio_economic standarCs of life
of people.
Aftrbcdkar,s vies on state

His theory is known as

functionalist theory of state. State is
rt provides internar important becaus_-
secua(y as weri a9 secuaty against
exiernar in\.7asions He does
n')i ial.'ali.e st,.rie
like Hegel yel he wanis lhat ciiizens
shorll.l perlornl the ! drtty arfu

perform staie like liberal state is a means. He was against civil disobedience it may
lead to anarchy. He suggests constitutional measures for redressal of grievances.
lle preiars states over society because laws of society can be more tyrannical than

Arnbcdkar's idea oI socialism

socialism emerges out of his concetn for upliftment ot dalits. pottttcal
.lemocracy withoul economic delrocracy carrjes no meaning Funajarnental rights
have no meaning for Unemployed._ A hungry man can be forced to relinquislt his
nghls for securing subsistence. Untouchables are not only Iower in social hieraachy
but also in economic hierarchy. He supports democratic socialism. His progranJme

r) agricultu.e and industry decrease state control

ii) land reforms

ii.) induslrialtzalio andmodprnitdtton

i' Ln.ld.mnrnq ireqLlaltlies

Ambedkar on Women

lleettached for downgrading lhe status of women. Wotren were nol gtvcs
cqual rights wiih respect to education and propedy. Women in rndran society can not
bc treated free in aoy respect. According to Manu women are slrpposed to live
decreased controlled vigilance of men. tsuddhism provided equatjty to women.
free.Jom to women. He prepared Hindu Code Bill for tmproving the st;rllr. of women
in India- It was resisted by caste hindus tt was one of the reasons that Ambedkar
resigned from government_

Ambeclkar as a Constitution maker

Ambedkar is known as modern Manu. He is known as chief architect of lndian

Constihrtion- He vras chairman of Drafting Commiflee. However, Ambedkaas
position as a constiiution maker is debatabte. Ambedka. himself adrnitted that he has
done what he was asked to do. lle will be the lirst person to bum the constitution of

fir l1
Constitution of lndia reflects the c
ideology of Nehru, Patel, RajetuJra prasad
and l\lualan Azad. Ambedkar,s position
\,,!as secondarv. His C
lob was a technical job,
for example
i) Ambedkar lavoured presidential
form of qovernment c
rr) Ambedkar wanted separate electorates
for c
untouchables brii ,Iclian
constitr(ion adopts system of reservat
on c
'iil He considers lndiaq villages as dane
Panchayati Raj was introduced in
of ignorance yet article relatcd to !
Indian Constitution. q
iv) lle pleaded for socialist economy but it
could not embodied. lir

llowever this does not mean

that Ambedkar has no influence on tndian
Constitution. His legacy is ancludes j6 and
article 14, 15, 17
i) detail provisions for protectitrg
rights of ..._.. .. . and religious minorities. !
ii) the nature of lndian Federation
Federal in form and unitary in spirit
iii) constitutional provision for depressed
Assessment Ambedkar as a Ieader

l,e was acknowledged as leader of untouchables but he could

not altaln
statu.e of Nehru, patel and Azad. himself adhered that he is leader of
community. He could not tran;form
caste status into untouchables into
class status
Still considering the time to which
he be,ongs his contributions for
cause ot
untouchables can't litie.
Vision of New World Order
Economic ij
Expansion of UN reforms . developmenl dtJ ta
- UN SC reforms. _ :
panchasheel principles
_ IMF refonns
multi polar world
- lM-O negotiations
South Co-operation
revamping of internatioIai

financia! ar{J I t.-.atlir rl

Climate change environmental terror funding, money laundering

- trade and investment

- Opposition to unilateralism

8!lulgelrcg of Asie and representation of

,l ..loTl., I l ui th,td , , .41l1es

.keeping, peaceful resolution of disputes


rrorld free of poverty, hunger, malnutrition, infections disease,

.... goal

B and Post -
B is continuity. They share fundamental assumptions and concepts.
They believe in scientiflc technique. They beiieve in inter disciplinary approach
Robert Dabl calls them empiricist and traos empiricist to show the continuily.

\ I -::.-'r

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