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Proceedings of the 2014 22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering

ICONE22
July 7-11, 2014, Prague, Czech Republic

ICONE22-30844

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF TWO-PHASE BOILING FLOW


AND CRITICAL HEAT FLUX

Adrian Tentner, Elia Merzari, Prasad Vegendla


Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, Illinois, USA

ABSTRACT the CFD code STAR-CD [4]. An effort is underway to port the
This paper presents recent advances in the modeling of EBF to the high-fidelity CFD code NEK-5000 [5] which is
two-phase boiling flow and critical heat flux that have been being extended to provide general two-phase flow modeling
implemented in the Extended Boiling Framework (EBF) [1, 2, capabilities. A first generation of models describing the inter-
3]. The EBF code was developed as a customized module built phase mass, momentum, and energy transfer phenomena
on the foundation of the commercial Computational Fluid specific for various flow regime topologies have been
Dynamics (CFD) code STAR-CD, which provides general two- previously implemented in the CFD code STAR-CD [5]. The
phase flow modeling capabilities, for the detailed analysis of EBF boiling models, which describe the inter-phase mass,
the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena that occur in momentum, and energy transfer phenomena specific for various
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies. These local flow topologies, allow the simulation of a wide spectrum
phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow of flow regimes expected in a BWR fuel assembly [1, 2, 3]. An
regimes that directly influence the coolant interaction with the overview of these models is included below in Section 1.
fuel pins and, ultimately, the reactor performance. An effort to This paper reviews the current status of key two-phase
expand the EBF two-phase models and to explore their flow phenomenological models and focuses on the extension
applicability to other CFD codes is currently underway. and validation of models that describe the cladding-to-coolant
The paper presents results of recent CFD analyses of heat transfer and the onset of CHF. The EBF module uses a
Critical Heat Flux (CHF) experiments that have measured the local inter-phase surface topology map in conjunction with
axial distribution of wall temperature in two-phase upward flow models for the inter-phase mass, momentum, and energy
in a vertical channel with a heated wall. The experiments were exchanges for the bubbly, droplet, and transition flow
designed to produce the onset of CHF in the upper half of the topologies. It also calculates the conjugate heat transfer using a
heated channel. The simulated axial distribution of wall wall heat transfer model that describes the heat exchange
temperature is compared with experimental data, illustrating the between the heated wall and the two-phase or single-phase
ability of the extended EBF model to capture the onset of CHF coolant. It is shown that the wall heat transfer model used in
for a wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions relevant for conjunction with various local flow topologies allows the
BWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of results and prediction of the onset of CHF for a wide range of thermal-
plans for future work. hydraulic conditions relevant for BWRs without the use of
empirical correlations traditionally used in sub-channel codes.
INTRODUCTION
The Extended Boiling Framework (EBF) was NOMENCLATURE
developed for the fine-mesh, 3-dimensional simulation of the
two-phase flow phenomena that occur in a Boiling Water Latin
Reactor (BWR) fuel assembly. These phenomena include e internal energy, enthalpy, J/kg
coolant phase changes and multiple flow topologies that gravitational acceleration, 9.806 m/s2
directly influence the reactor performance. The EBF was G flow rate, kg/(m2s)
developed as a specialized module built on the foundation of h heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K)

1 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


k turbulence kinetic energy, m2/s2 determines the local flow configuration as a function of flow
m mass transfer rate, kg/m3 conditions and prescribes which models and properties are
sum of the inter-phase forces, N/m3 relevant for each computational cell. The sub-cooled bubbly
pressure, Pa flow topology, with vapor bubbles flowing in a continuous
q heat flux, W/m2 liquid has an established base of CFD modeling experience.
Q inter-phase heat transfer, W/m3 The Extended Boiling Framework uses an inter-phase surface
topology map that includes, in addition to the bubbly topology,
t time, s a droplet or mist topology and a transition topology. The
T temperature, K droplet topology consists of liquid droplets flowing in a
Tsat saturation temperature, K continuous vapor stream. An additional wall-cell topology is
velocity vector, m/s used for cells adjacent to walls, as described below.
w axial velocity scalar m/s The direct simulation of the transition from bubbly flow,
through slug and churn flow, to annular flow was not pursued
Greek for practical reasons. To resolve large bubbles of size
volume fraction comparable to channel diameter would consume large computer
 void fraction difference resources on the necessarily fine grids and short timescales, and
 characteristic mesh size above all on the extraction of suitable time-averaged results
from the simulation of a chaotic process. Instead, for transition-
dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy, m2/s3
topology cells we use a topology-based combination of the
 thermal conductivity, W/(mK) terms appropriate for the basic topologies, bubbly and mist.
 area fraction This can be interpreted as having a transition topology cell
density, kg/m3 where a fraction of the cell volume presents the bubbly
, t
laminar and turbulence shear stresses, N/m2 topology while the remaining volume presents the mist
topology. An alternative interpretation is that the map is
Subscripts prescribing the probability of being in one topology or the other
bn bubble nucleation while solving equations for the time-averaged flow.
drop liquid droplets
x phase interface II. Transport Equations
k phase subscript
l liquid The STAR-CD Eulerian two-phase solver tracks the mass,
g gas momentum, and energy of the liquid and vapor phases in each
q quenching computational cell. Full details of the Eulerian two-phase flow
sat saturation state models in STAR-CD can be found in [4, 6]. The main equations
w wall solved are the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for
each phase.

1. TWO-PHASE FLOW MODEL OVERVIEW The conservation of mass equation for phase k is:

k 
k   . k  k k   m ki  m
(1)
I. Approach t ik
The conservation of momentum equation for phase k is:
The CFD-LWR code, also referred to as the Extended

    .    .   t  (2)
Boiling Framework (EBF) was initially developed as a t k k k kkkk k k k

customized module built on the foundation of the commercial  k    k  k 


CFD-code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow of energy equation for phase k is:

The conservation
modeling capabilities. It is now being expanded with the goal   e   .  e   .  T   Q (3)
of implementing it in the open-source CFD code NEK-5000.
t kkk kkkk k k k
The NEK-5000 code is a high-fidelity single-phase fluid flow
An extended k -  model containing extra source terms that
code which is currently being expanded to model two-phase
boiling flows. During the NEK-5000 transition from single- arise from the inter-phase forces present in the momentum
phase to two-phase modeling capabilities the extension and equations is used to model turbulence in the flow [6].
validation of the EBF is being pursued in the framework of the
original STAR-CD implementation. The model development III. Inter-phase Surface Topology Map and Local Flow
strategy adopted for the simulation of boiling flow phenomena Configuration
in a BWR fuel bundle was described in [1]. A central concept Inter-phase interactions in multiphase fluids depend on
is that of a local inter-phase surface topology map which both the area and the topology of the phase interface. Sub-

2 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


channel thermal-hydraulic codes rely on flow regime maps to fraction. This 1-dimensional topology map is illustrated in Fig.
evaluate the interface topology using cross-section-averaged 2 together with the associated flow topologies.
flow parameters. CFD codes, which divide the flow space into
much finer computational cells cannot rely on the traditional
sub-channel flow regimes, but must evaluate instead the local
inter-phase surface topology. The ensemble of many
computational cells with relatively simple inter-phase surface
topologies can provide complex global topologies that include
all the traditional sub-channel flow regimes.
Most of the advanced CFD codes currently allow the
simulation of dispersed flows only (bubbly or mist flows)
where the flow topology is originally defined and remains the
same in both space and time. This approach is applicable only
to flows without topology changes and without sharp interfaces.
Flow topology changes are typical for boiling flows in BWR
fuel assemblies as illustrated schematically in Figure 1a.
Moreover, local sharp interfaces often exist in boiling flows, Figure 2 Inter-phase Surface Topology Map used for the
e.g., between Taylor bubbles and the near-wall film in slug Extended Boiling Framework
flow, or between the gas core and the liquid film in annular-
mist flow in heated pipes or rod bundles. The changing IV The wall-cell sharp-interface topology
topology conditions typical for boiling flows in BWR fuel
assemblies, including sharp-interface topologies such as the The topology map discussed above does not address
annular-mist flow regime, cannot be modeled accurately with directly the presence of cells that contain a sharp single-
topology-independent correlations used for inter-phase connected interface, such as wall cells that contain a thin liquid
interactions in such flows. Meanwhile, it is essential to film. Wall cells that satisfy specific conditions imposed on both
adequately describe these regimes in BWR channel the local void fraction and void fraction gradient are treated in
simulations, since they govern near-wall film formation and the EBF boiling model as a special liquid film topology
evolution, which, in turn, determines important fuel assembly illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b.
characteristics such as CHF and wall dryout. The wall cells can contain both a liquid film and liquid
droplets. As the liquid volume fraction decreases the liquid
film, which initially covers the entire wall surface (Figure 3a) is
assumed to become unstable and to cover the wall surface only
partially (Figure 3b).

Figure 3a Full liquid film topology


Figure 1 Schematic view of upward flow in vertical channel
with heated walls

The EBF boiling model uses a locally calculated topology


variable to allow the following topologies: a) a bubbly flow
topology with spherical vapor bubbles in a continuous liquid, b)
a droplet or mist topology with spherical liquid droplets
flowing in a continuous vapor field, and c) a transition topology
which combines the features of the two previous topologies in
various proportions. The local topology is determined in this
model using a local topology map based on the local void Figure 3b Partial liquid film topology

3 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


Because only one liquid velocity and one liquid focused on separate boiling effects [1, 2, 8]. The integral model
temperature are defined for each cell, the droplet and film validation was focused on the analysis of the OECD-NEA/US-
velocities and temperatures are the same. However, the NRC Benchmark based on NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh
partition of the liquid between the liquid film and droplets has Bundle Tests (BFBT) [9]. The initial validation of the cladding-
important implications for the heat transfer between the heated to-coolant heat transfer model discussed in Section 2 below was
wall and the two-phase coolant. The explicit modelling of the presented in [10].
film entrainment and the partition of liquid between the film
and droplets in the wall cells have been the focus of recent 2. CLADDING-TO-COOLANT HEAT TRANSFER
work aimed at improving the prediction of CHF. These models MODEL
are described in Section 2.
The calculation of wall heat flux is based on partitioning of
heat flux between the following four heat transfer components:
V. Inter-phase mass, momentum, and energy transfer models a) qg, the convective heat flux from wall to the gas or vapor
phase, over the wall area not covered by the liquid film; a) ql,
The inter-phase surface topology map is used to evaluate the convective heat flux from wall to the liquid phase, over the
the interfacial area and inter-phase interactions. Three basic area covered by the liquid film but excluding the bubble
local flow configurations with specific interface topology are nucleation area; c) qi, the evaporation heat flux from wall to the
identified (bubbly flow, mist flow and sharp interface) and the boiling interface, over the bubble nucleation area; and d) qq, the
interfacial area and inter-phase mass, momentum, and energy quenching heat flux from the wall to the liquid over the
transfer models are defined for these configurations. nucleation area. These heat flux components are specified per
In the domain identified in Fig. 2 as transitional topology it unit wall area and they decrease or become zero as the
is assumed that a combination of basic flow configurations is corresponding wall-contact area decreases. The wall heat flux is
present, and the quantities required for closure are found by given by:
determining the appropriate combination of mass, momentum,
and energy exchange terms for the local flow topology. The q w = qg + q l + q i + qq (4)
most general transitional topology is illustrated in Fig. 4, and
various other transitional topologies are obtained by retaining The heat flux components are calculated using the
only a sub-set of the master-cell features. appropriate heat transfer coefficients and heat transfer area
based on the local wall-cell topology:

qg = hg 8dry (Tw — Tg) (5)


qS = hS (1 — 8dry) (1— 8bn) (Tw — TS) (6)
qi = hI (1 — 8dry) 8bn (Tw — Tcat) (7)
qq = hq(1 — 8dry) 8bn(Tw — TS) (8)

Where 8dry is the ratio of the wall-area covered by vapor to the


total wall area, and 8bn is the ratio of the area covered by
bubble nucleation sites to the area covered by liquid.
Figure 4 Master-cell topology
The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients and area
As demonstrated in [7], the use of the local inter-phase ratios 8dry and 8bn used in equations (5) through (8) was
surface topology map allows the modeling of complex sub- presented in [1] and [10]. The heat transfer model enhancement
channel-scale topologies that emerge from combinations of presented in this paper has focused on improving the evaluation
many computational cells with one of the local topologies the wall area ratio 8dry which determines the heat flux
shown in Figures 2 and 3. E.g., the typical sub-channel annular transferred to the liquid film and the bubble nucleation sites,
flow regime could be resolved into a distinct core flow region and thus plays a central role in the simulation of CHF
in which the gas phase is continuous and the local mist conditions. The previous model for the evaluation of 8dry in
topology is used, separated by transition topology cells from a wall-cells with a thin liquid film used in [10] was:
liquid film on the wall where the local bubbly topology and the
   
 max 0, min1,   
wall-cell topology are used.
 
DRY
 g 1
(9)
   DRY   DRY  

VI, Two-Phase Flow Model validation DRY


 
  2 1

Rigorous validation efforts during the EBF model development


phase have analyzed numerous two-phase flow experiments

4 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


Where the recommended breakpoints were αDRF 1 = 0.9 and described in this section lead to a significantly improved
αDRF
2 = 0.95. This model assumes that the wall area covered by prediction of CHF conditions over a wide range of flow
the liquid film decreases rapidly as the vapor volume fraction parameters relevant for BWRs, as described below in Section 4.
increases between αDRF and αDRF. It does not account Future work will explore the replacement of the droplet
1 2
explicitly for the presence of both liquid droplets and film in entrainment correlation (13) with mechanistic models of the
the wall-cells. Although the model using equation (9) was able droplet entrainment and deposition processes.
to predict the occurrence of CHF reasonably well in two
experiments analyzed in [10], subsequent analyses of CHF 3. CRITICAL HEAT FLUX EXPERIMENTS ANALYZED
experiments with higher flow rates and lower power-to-flow
ratios showed the model using equation (9) cannot predict To validate the wall heat transfer models included in the
accurately the CHF location over a wider range of flow EBF we analyzed several static dryout experiments conducted
conditions. To improve the EBF capability to predict the by Becker, et al., [11]. These experiments were designed to
occurrence of dryout conditions, the wall-to fluid heat transfer study CHF and post-dryout heat transfer in vertical circular
model was modified to account for the simultaneous presence pipes. The loop consisted of a 7 m long test section, a
of liquid droplets and a liquid film in the wall-cells, based on condenser, feed water and main recirculation pumps, flow
the wall-cell topologies shown in Figures 3a and 3b. The liquid measuring devices and a preheater. Subcooled water was fed at
in a wall-cell divided between the film and droplets: the bottom of the test section. The wall was heated uniformly
and all typical BWR flow regimes were produced in the upward
αS = αfiSm + αdrop (10) water/steam flow. In the experiments the outer wall temperature
was measured, and the inner wall temperature was calculated
The model used to evaluate 8dry is modified to account for the assuming an adiabatic boundary condition. The experimental
presence of liquid droplets in the vapor field: data are presented as axial distributions of the inner wall

    
temperature.
   DRY  A schematic of the experimental test section is presented in
    g drop 1  (11) Figure 5. Six experiments in a vertical channel 0.01 m in
max 0, min1,  
DRY
   2DRY   DRY  
diameter and 7 m in length with a uniformly heated wall were
  1 used as verification test-cases. Pressure was approximately
7 MPa and the inlet subcooling was approximately 5 - 10 K in
When using equation (11) the fraction of wall-area covered by all the experiments analyzed. The experiments differed in inlet
the film is determined by the liquid associated with the film, mass flux G and wall heat flux qw as shown in Table 1, which
excluding the liquid droplets. To use this new modelling also includes the ratio qw/G for each experiment.
capability we need to describe the partition of the liquid in the
wall-cells between the liquid film and liquid droplets. The
model implemented partitions the liquid using the entrainment
velocity wE defined as the difference between the vapor
velocity in the bulk flow and the vapor velocity in the wall-cell:

wE = wBULK
g
— wMÆLL
g
(12)

The bulk-flow vapor velocity is obtained from the cell next to


the wall-cell in the radial direction. The liquid volume fraction
assigned to the liquid droplets is Ecalculated as follows:
  w  w 1  
E
 drop   l  max0, min1, 
w E  w E  (13)

  2 1  

Where the recommended breakpoints are wE1 = 2.5 m/s and


w2E = 5.5 m/s. Equation (13) reflects the assumption that an
increasing fraction of the liquid film is entrained by the vapor
stream in the form of liquid droplets as the entrainment velocity
wE increases. It is noted that the liquid film and the liquid
droplets in a wall-cell retain the same velocity and temperature
as the two-fluid model implemented in the STAR-CD code
allows only one liquid and one vapor component in each cell.
However, the changes in the wall-to-coolant heat transfer model Figure 5 Schematic of the experimental test section

5 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


There are no wavy film regions in the simulation of
experiments D through F (see Figs.6) which were performed at
higher heat flux. The actual topology of the liquid film cannot
be determined from the pipe wall temperatures measured in the
Table 1 Parameters of the CHF experiments analyzed Becker experiments. These experiments did not allow visual
observation of the flow conditions.
Experiment G [kg/(sm2] qw [W/m2] qw/G
A 497.0 35.0e4 704 For the experiments D through F, which were conducted with a
B 1009.6 40.1e4 397 significantly higher heat flux the location of the sharp rise in
the wall temperature agrees well with the location of the
C 1008.9 49.9e4 495
location of the measured wall temperature rise, as shown in
D 1495.0 79.7e4 533 Figures 7d through 7f. The dryout location in these experiments
E 1994.9 79.6e4 399 moves further away from the pipe inlet as the ratio q w/G -
F 2482.9 80.0e4 322 shown in Table 1 - decreases. The wall temperature rise and
general shape of the wall temperature curve in the post-dryout
region agree remarkably well with the corresponding measured
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION results for these experiments. For experiment D the location of
the sharp increase in the wall temperature shown in Figure 7d
The calculated void fraction distributions are shown for the coincides with the disappearance of the liquid film/droplet
six experiments analyzed in Figures 6a through 6f. The region near the wall as observed in Figure 6d. This indicates
characteristic sub-channel flow regimes in a pipe with heated that the volume fraction of the liquid droplets in the wall cells
walls are simulated. Since the inlet temperature was only at the dryout location is small or zero. For experiments E and F
slightly below saturation the bubbly flow regime was limited to the liquid film/droplet region near the wall continues well
the near-inlet region of the pipe, but the slug, annular-mist and beyond the dryout location. In these cases the film has
mist flow regimes are clearly observed. The corresponding disappeared due to entrainment and evaporation, but the higher
calculated wall temperature is shown in Figures 7a through 7f. liquid fraction region persists due to the presence of the
We discuss first the experiments A through C, which had lower entrained droplets. The extended cladding-to-coolant heat
heat flux values than the experiments D through F. transfer model described in Section 2 plays a key role in the
For the experiments A and C the location of the calculated correct prediction of the wall dryout conditions and wall
sharp rise in the wall temperature agrees reasonably well with temperature changes in these cases.
the location of the measured wall temperature rise as shown in In the experiments E and F the calculated wall temperature
Figures 7a and 7c. In both cases the calculated sharp rise in the peaks near the dryout location and decreases afterwards, in
wall temperature coincides with the disappearance of the good agreement with the experimental temperature (Figures 7e
calculated liquid film (Figures 6a and 6c), indicating that there and 7f). Acording to Hoyer [13], the wall temperature decrease
are few droplets at the dryout location and the liquid droplet in the post-dryout region is caused by evaporation of water
entrainment does not play a significant role in these cases. The droplets in superheated steam above the dryout elevation. This
slope of the calculated wall temperature in the post-dryout evaporation produces steam and therefore the vapor velocity
region is similar to the corresponding measured temperature increases rapidly. This in turn increases the wall-steam heat
slope, but the calculated temperatures are lower than the transfer coefficient and decreases wall temperature. This is
measured values by approximately 50 - 70 K. The dryout consistent with the presence of droplets generated by film
location in experiments A and C moves further away from the entrainment in the wall-cells at and above the dryout location,
pipe inlet as the ratio qw/G - shown in Table 1 - decreases. For as shown in Figures 6e and 6f. For experiment D, where the
experiment B, which has a lower qw/G ratio than experiment C calculated amount of droplets in the wall-cells at the dryout
(heat flux lower than C but a similar flow rate) the calculated location is low, the post-dryout wall temperature decrease is
wall temperature does not exhibit a sharp rise, in agreement much smaller (Figure 7d). A slight increase in the calculated
with the measured temperatures indicating that film dryout did wall temperature is observed near the end of the pipe,
not occur in this case. indicating that the amount of liquid droplets at the dryout
In the simulation of the experiments A through C wavy location may be slightly under-predicted in this case. However,
film regions can be observed in Figures 6a through 6c. These the overall agreement between the calculated and measured
waves are unlikely to be a numerical effect, since: a) the peak- wall temperatures in the six experiments analyzed is considered
to-peak distance is about 7-10 times the longitudinal cell size, satisfactory. Planned analyses of additional CHF experiments
b) the waves do not disappear with mesh refinement, and c) the will provide additional about the EBF performance in
waves do not change noticeably with the number of iterations. predicting the CHF conditions under a wide range of conditions
These wavy film regions could be the effect of physical liquid of interest for LWR analyses.
film instability (“vapor chimney” mentioned by Sugawara [12])
and appear to be associated with the lower heat flux conditions.

6 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


Figure 6a Experiment A - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7a Experiment A - Twall versus z

Figure 6b Experiment B - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7b Experiment B - Twall versus z

Figure 6c Experiment C - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7c Experiment C - Twall versus z

7 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


Figure 6d Experiment D - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7d Experiment D - Twall versus z

Figure 6e Experiment E - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7e Experiment E - Twall versus z

Figure 6f Experiment F - Vapor volume fraction Figure 7f Experiment F - Twall versus z

8 Copyright © 2014 by ASME


5. CONCLUSIONS 5. P. F. Fischer, J. Lottes, W.D. Pointer, A. Siegel.
“Petascale algorithms for reactor hydrodynamics”, J. Phys.
We presented recent advances in the modeling of cladding- Conf. Series (2008)
to-coolant heat transfer and critical heat flux that have been 6. S.Lo, “Modeling multiphase flow with an Eulerian
implemented in the Extended Boiling Framework. The approach”, von Karman Institute Lecture Series, Industrial
validation and extension of the EBF CHF models is performed Two-Phase Flow CFD, May 23-27, von Karman Institute,
in the context of the CFD code STAR-CD. The cladding-to- Belgium (2005)
coolant heat transfer model is used in conjunction with the local 7. A. Tentner, S. Lo, A. Splawski, A. Ioilev, V. Melnikov,
wall-cell topology, which has been extended to allow the M. Samigulin, V. Ustinenko,. "Computational Fluid Dynamics
simultaneous presence of a liquid film and liquid droplets. The Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Inter-Phase Surface
extended cladding-to-coolant heat transfer model accounts for Topologies in a BWR Fuel Assembly," Proceedings of
the entrainment of liquid droplets and corresponding reduction ICONE16, the 16th International Conference on Nuclear
of the liquid film. Engineering, Orlando, FL, USA, May 11-15, 2008.
Six experiments involving upward boiling water flow and 8. V. Ustinenko, M. Samigulin, A. Ioilev, S. Lo, A. Tentner,
dryout in a heated circular channel were analysed. Comparisons A. Lychagin, A. Razin, V. Girin, Y. Vaniukov, “Validation Of
of the calculated wall temperatures with the corresponding CFD-BWR, A New Two-Phase Computational Fluid Dynamics
measured values show that the EBF including the extended Model For Boiling Water Reactor Analysis,” Proceedings of
cladding-to-coolant heat transfer model provides a reasonably CFD4NRS: OECD/NEA International & International Atomic
accurate prediction of the onset of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) for Energy Agency (IAEA) Workshop on Benchmarking of CFD
a wide range of flow rates and wall heat fluxes relevant for Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety, Garching,
BWRs, without the use of the traditional CHF correlations used Munich, Germany, September 5-7, 2006.
in sub-channel codes. Future work will focus on the analysis of 9. A. Tentner, W. D. Pointer, S. Lo, A. Splawski, "Integral
additional CHF experiments relevant for LWR conditions and Validation of a CFD Model for the Simulation of Two-Phase
further extension of the EBF CHF models. Flow Phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor: Analyses of the
BFBT Full Bundle Tests", Nuclear Engineering and Design,
June 2009
10. A. Ioilev, M. Samigulin, V. Ustinenko, P. Kucherova,
A. Tentner, S. Lo, A. Splawski “Advances in the modeling of
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS cladding heat transfer and critical heat flux in boiling water
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of reactor fuel assemblies”, Proc. 12th International Topical
Drs. S. Lo and A. Splawski from CD-adapco and Drs. A. Ioilev, Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-
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EBF was provided by the U.S. DOE GIPP Program. experimental investigation of post dryout heat transfer.
Department of Nuclear Reactor Engineering, Royal Institute of
Technology, KTH-NEL-33, Sweden, 1983.
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