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SPLIT CYCLE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

WITH INTEGRAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY


SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted by

NAYEEM CP
(University Reg No:15152637)

to the Cochin University of Science and Technology


in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award
of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering

Under the guidance of

Mr. REJITH G KRISHNAN


Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, MUNNAR
P.B.NO:45, County Hills, Munnar – 685612,
November 2017
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, MUNNAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report of the Seminar entitled “" SPLIT CYCLE INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INTEGRAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY ", submitted
by NAYEEM CP (University Reg No: 15152637), to the Cochin University of Science and
Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Mechanical Engineering is a bonafide record of work carried out by him under
our guidance and supervision..

Mr. REJITH G KRISHNAN Mr. RAMESHCHAND K Mr. ANIL KUMAR K R


Coordinator Head of the Department
Seminar Guide
Assistant Professor,
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Department of Mechanical
College of Engineering Munnar Engineering
Engineering
College of Engineering Munnar College of Engineering Munnar
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my Seminar guide Mr. REJITH G KRISHNAN


Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Munnar,
for the expert guidance and timely advice rendered during this seminar.

I express my thanks to seminar Co-ordinator, Mr. RAMESH CHAND K A, Assistant professor,


Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Munnar, for all necessary help
extended to us in the fulfilment of this seminar.

I am sincerely grateful to Mr. ANILKUMAR K R, Head of the Department, Department of


Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Munnar, for his suggestions and support for
the seminar.

I express my heartfelt thanks and sense of gratitude to Dr. RAMESH P, Principal of College of
Engineering Munnar, providing me with the best facilities and atmosphere for the completion of
the seminar.

I would like to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to all the Faculty members, Students and
Friends for their suggestions and support during the course of my seminar.

NAYEEM CP
Reg no.15152637
ABSTRACT

To achieve a step improvement in engineefficiency, a novel split cycle engine concept is


proposed. The engine has separate compression and combustion cylinders and waste heat is
recovered between the two. Exhaust heat recovery between the compression and combustion
chamber enables highly efficient recovery of waste heat within the cycle. Based on cycle analysis
and a one-dimensional engine model, the fundamentals and the performance of the split
thermodynamic cycle is estimated. Compared to conventional engines, the compression work
can be significantly reduced through the injection of a controlled quantity of water in the
compression cylinder, lowering the gas temperature during compression. Thermal energy can
then be effectively recovered from the engine exhaust in a recuperator between the cooled
compressor cylinder discharge air and the exhaust gas. The resulting hot high pressure air is then
injected into a combustor cylinder and mixed with fuel, where near isobaric combustion leads to
a low combustion temperature and reduced heat transferred from the cylinder wall. Detailed
cycle simulation indicates a 32% efficiency improvement can be expected compared to the
conventional diesel engines.
CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. HISTORY 3
3. THE BASICS 4
3.1 Intake and compression 4
3.2 Power and exhaust 5
4. ENGINE STRUCTURE AND OPERATING MECHANISM 6

4.1 Firing after top dead centre is counter-intuitive to 7


engine design

5. ENGINE SYSTEM DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION 9


5.1 Effect of increased compression ratio 9
5.2 Effect of increased expansion ratio 10
5.3 Separate cooling control system 11
5.4 Systematic efficiency improvement of the split cycle engine 12
6. SPLIT CYCLE ENGINE HEAT RECOVERY MODELLING SETUP 14
7. HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM EVALUATION 17
8. CONCLUSIONS 19
9. REFERENCE 20
LIST OF FIGURES

1. Fig.3.1: Intake stroke 4


2. Fig.3.2: Compression stroke 5
3. Fig.3.3: Power stroke 5
4. Fig.4.1: Schematic of the ‘isoengine’ type Split cycle engine. 6
5. Fig.4.2: Advancement of flame front 8
6. Fig.5.1: Effect of compression ratio 9
7. Fig.5.2: Effect of expansion ratio 10
8. Fig.5.3: Effect of cooling temperature on engine performance 12
9. Fig.5.4: The Sankey diagram of the split cycle engine energy flow 13
10. Fig.6.1: Layout of split cycle engine model 14
11. Fig.6.2: A comparison between the split cycle engine and conventional diesel engine 15
12. Fig.7.1: Temperature distributions within the recuperator 17

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table 1 Recuperator specifications 13


2. Table 2. Split cycle engine specification 16
Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
Integral Waste Heat Recovery

1. INTRODUCTION

The scientific and public awareness of environmental and energy issues from road
transport has promoted research of advanced technologies particularly in highly efficient
internal combustion engines . Low carbon engine developments, often with waste heat recovery
are important pathways to reducing overall societal CO2 emissions . Inspection of the internal
combustion engine heat balance indicates that the consumed fuel energy is distributed into
roughly three equal portions; energy converted to useful work, energy transferred to coolant and
energy lost through the exhaust gases. Two complementary approaches can be taken to improve
the overall efficiency of the engine; improvement of the fuel conversion efficiency and the
recovery of waste thermal energy. Improvements to the base combustion system include VVA
(variable valve actuation) and use of advanced fuel injection systems with intelligent control .
These approaches effectively increase the work recovery from the combustion products and
reduce the exhaust temperature and associated losses. Losses to the environment through the
engine coolant system can be reduced by adopting novel low temperature combustion strategies.
The second above mentioned approach uses an additional cycle to recover the thermal losses
from the ICE (internal combustion engine) through (for example) a supplementary organic
Rankine cycle to scavenge heat from the exhaust gases of the engine .
With all these improvements combined, the practical engine efficiency could approach
the theoretical efficiency limit of the engine operating cycles. The thermodynamic cycle itself
now becomes the bottleneck to further efficiency improvements. To achieve a step improvement
in IC engine efficiency, a fundamental change to the thermodynamic cycle is required.
The concept of splitting the ICE cycle into separate cylinders is not new, and it was first
described by Ricardo in 1908 and developed further by Scudari leading to a laboratory
demonstration engine running on gasoline . An advanced cycle was proposed by Coney for
stationary applications that was predicted to achieve 60% break thermal efficiency. The
proposed cycle utilized isothermal compression through water spray cooling during the
compression stroke and high pressure heat recovery through intra cylinder recuperation. Both
concepts were taken to laboratory demonstration, but were not commercialized. In 2010, a new
split cycle engine that uses liquid nitrogen to cool the compressor, exploiting both the latent and

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
Integral Waste Heat Recovery

sensible heat of the cryogenic fluid was developed which overcomes the difficulties of carrying
a water handling system on a road vehicle.
Recently, a systematic analysis of split cycle engine is conducted by Dong et al. The
results indicated that the efficiency improvement of a split cycle engine is attributed to a
combination of isothermal compression and waste heat recuperation. Isothermal compression
not only reduces the compression work, but also increases the temperature difference between
the exhaust gas and compressed air. Then a significant percentage of the waste heat in the
exhaust can be directly recuperated through the high pressure recuperation process and
reutilized in the combustion cylinder. However, some key affecting mechanisms of the split
engine thermal efficiency are not revealed yet. Consequently, the principles of split cycle engine
system design and optimization is still need to be investigated. Concerning the structure of the
split cycle engine, there are less design constraints on a split cycle engine compared to a
conventional engine. On a conventional engine, the compression and expansion ratios are
interlinked through the structure design of the engine. Also, the wall temperatures are almost
the same in the compression and expansion strokes. These constraints can be eased on a split
cycle engine. For example, a higher expansion ratio can be achieved on a split engine
independent of the compression stroke increasing the potential expansion work through a Miller
type cycle . The decoupling of the compression and combustion stroke chamber temperatures
means a hot combustion chamber, favourable for low heat loss, can be achieved without
compromising the volumetric efficiency during the air induction.
In this paper, a thermodynamic analysis of the split cycle is conducted firstly to
understand the potential of the cycle. Then the process of isothermal compression, isobaric
combustion and heat recuperation processes are analysed to explore and optimise the split cycle
engine system design. Based on the previous split cycle engine numerical and experimental data
an one dimensional engine model was constructed. And then the key operating parameters of
the engine, including compression and expansion ratios and cooling temperature, are
investigated. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential of a split cycle engine for
road transport and stationary applications.

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
Integral Waste Heat Recovery

2.HISTORY

The Backus Water Motor Company of Newark, New Jersey was producing an early
example of a split cycle engine as far back as 1891. The engine, of "a modified A form, with the
crank-shaft at the top", was water-cooled and consisted of one working cylinder and one
compressing cylinder of equal size and utilized a hot-tube ignitor system. It was produced in
sizes ranging from 1/2 to 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) and the company had plans to offer a scaled-
up version capable of 25 horsepower (19 kW) or more..
The Twingle engine is a two stroke engine that also uses a displacer piston to provide
the air for use in the power cylinder. This was patented in 1912. The Scuderi Engine is a design
of a split-cycle, internal combustion engine invented by the late Carmelo J. Scuderi. The Scuderi
Group, an engineering and licensing company based in West Springfield, Massachusetts and
founded by Carmelo Scuderi’s children, said that the prototype was completed and will be
unveiled to the public on April 20, 2009
The TourEngineTM is a novel opposed-cylinder split-cycle internal combustion engine,
invented, patented and under development by Tour Engine Inc. The unique and patented
opposed-cylinder configuration of the TourEngineTM allows minimal dead space and superior
thermal management. The first prototype was completed on June, 2008.

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
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3. THE BASICS

The basic concept of the Split cycle Engine is to divide the four strokes of a standard
engine over a paired combination of one compression cylinder and one power (or expansion)
cylinder. These two cylinders perform their respective functions once per crankshaft revolution.
A common misconception is that twice as many cylinders are required. This is simply not
accurate. Because this engine fires every revolution instead of every other revolution, the
number of power strokes produced is equal to the power strokes produced by two of the
conventional piston/cylinder designs. A four cylinder engine would still have four cylinders.
There would simply be two sets of paired cylinders instead of four individual cylinders.

3.1 INTAKE AND COMPRESSION

In the configuration shown, an intake charge (Fig.3.1) is drawn into the compression
cylinder through typical poppet-style valves.

Fig.3.1 Intake Stroke

The compression cylinder then pressurizes (Fig. 3.2) the charge and drives the charge
through the crossover passage, which acts as the intake port for the power cylinder. In this
illustration, a check is used to prevent reverse flow from the crossover passage to the
compression cylinder, and likewise a poppet-style valve (crossover valve) prevents reverse flow
from the power cylinder to the crossover passage. The check valve and crossover valve are

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
Integral Waste Heat Recovery

timed to maintain pressure in the crossover passage at or above firing conditions during an entire
four stroke cycle.

Fig.3.2. Compression Stroke

3.2 POWER AND EXHAUST

Combustion occurs (Fig. 3.3) soon after the intake charge enters the power cylinder from
the crossover passage. This means that the start of combustion occurs after the power cylinder
passes through its top dead center position (ATC).

Fig.3.3 Power Stroke

The resulting combustion drives the power cylinder down. Exhaust gases are than
pumped out of the power cylinder through a poppet valve to start the cycle over again.

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
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4. ENGINE STRUCTURE AND OPERATING MECHANISM

The schematic of the split cycle engine and the overall working process are shown in Fig.4.1
The labels of each working stage and the symbols which representing the state of the working
fluids are demonstrated as well. It can be seen that ambient air is precompressed in the
turbocharger, and then transferred to the reciprocating isothermal compression cylinder. There
are several solutions to achieve the quasi-isothermal compression on practical engines.
However, to avoid extra system complexity and redundant components, the air temperature is
reduced using a water spray directly into the chamber in this research. By injecting a controllable
quantity of water during the compression stroke, the air temperature is controlled resulting in a
quasi-isothermal compression. At the end of the compression stage, the high pressure two-phase
water/air mixture is discharged to a phase separator and the water is removed from the charge
and sent back to a water tank. The compressed air is then transferred to a recuperator
downstream of the separator. Within the recuperator, the high pressure air is heated by the
exhaust gases, recovering thermal energy from the exhaust.

Fig.4.1. Schematic of the ‘isoengine’ type Split cycle engine.

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Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
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When the piston of the combustion cylinder reaches TDC (top dead centre), the intake
valve of this cylinder opens for a very short time and the preheated compressed air is fed to the
combustion cylinder. As the fuel is injected after IVC (intake valve closing), combustion occurs
during the expansion stroke of the cylinder. As a result, the combustion peak pressure is not
increased significantly and a quasi-isobaric combustion process can be realised. At the end of
the expansion stage, the cylinder pressure is very close to the pressure in the exhaust pipe, so
the exhaust stroke can be assumed as nearly isobaric. Based on the above processes, a complete
split cycle is achieved.

4.1 FIRING AFTER TOP DEAD CENTER IS COUNTER-INTUITIVE TO ENGINE


DESIGN

Even though firing after top dead center (ATC) is an important feature of the Scuderi
Engine, it is in fact counter-intuitive to most engine designs. This is because a standard engine
must fire just before top dead center (BTC) in order to achieve acceptable efficiency levels.

If a standard engine fires ATC, it cannot build up pressure fast enough with the piston
continuously racing away from the combusting fuel/air mixture, and consequently it loses
efficiency.

In the Scuderi Engine, however, pressure builds more quickly than in a conventional
engine - even though the piston is traveling away from the flame - because the burn rate is so
fast. The resulting efficiency levels are therefore higher than that of a standard engine Studies
showed engine efficiency increases from 33% to almost 40% while toxic emissions are reduced
by as much as 80%.

The impact of this technology is simply staggering:

• This technology not only saves energy but also increases the power of an engine while
significantly reducing its cost.
• Vehicles will be able to exceed all current mileage and emission standards without
compromising size or performance.

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• Consumers would save crores of rupees in fuel costs. Reduction in emissions would be
in the hundreds of millions of tons per year.

Fig.4.2. Advancement of flame front

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5. ENGINE SYSTEM DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION

5.1 EFFECT OF INCREASED COMPRESSION RATIO

Unlike an Otto cycle engine, the thermodynamic analysis of the split cycle indicates that
the engine thermal efficiency is not always increased when the compression ratio increases. On
conventional engines, the compression is nearly adiabatic, and hence both temperature and
pressure at TDC will be increased for a higher CR's. This can result in pre-ignition of fuel (for
a spark ignited engine) and high firing pressures. However, the compression process in split
cycle engine can be considered as quasi-isothermal and a higher compression ratio will not lead
to a higher temperature of the compressed air. So the compression ratio can be adjusted in a
wider range to improve the thermal efficiency. Keeping the expansion ratio as 23 and the fuel
injection rate as 45 mg/cycle, the effect of compression ratio on the cycle performance was
analysed.

Fig. 5.1. Effect of compression ratio on (a) pressure-volume varying history and (b) in-
cylinder temperature.

Fig. 5.1a shows the Log PV diagrams of the engine under different CR conditions. It
can be seen that the peak pressure in the expansion chamber increased when a higher CR was
applied, so the output network increased. However, a higher CR value led to a higher exhaust
temperature. Fig. 5.1b shows the temperature variation in the expansion chamber under these

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CR conditions. It can be seen that the expansion temperature T4 in the chamber does decreased
significantly when a higher CR value was applied. Consequently, the engine thermal efficiency
will decrease through increasing the compression ratio.
Although the lower CR values led to higher thermal efficiency, the CR value must be
sufficient to auto-ignite the fuel, in particularly under low load conditions where the intake air
of the combustion chamber cannot be fully heated through the recuperation process. Hence, a
VCR (variable compression ratio) system should be beneficial for improving the split cycle
engine efficiency. The fuel formulation may also be a challenge for achieving the split cycle
since the auto-ignition of the fuel may be difficult to achieve under lower CR conditions.

5.2 EFFECT OF INCREASED EXPANSION RATIO

The exhaust stroke is considered as isobaric in the ideal split cycle engine. In fact,
limited by the stroke length, the exhaust pressure is higher than the ambient pressure on practical
engines. This leads to energy losses in during the exhaust stroke. To resolve this problem,
technologies such as VVA (variable valve actuation) is applied on conventional engines, and
then a high expansion stroke can be achieved without affecting the compression ratio. For the
split cycle engine, the compression and expansion strokes are conducted in different chambers,
and the ER and CR values can be adjusted independently. Thus, the effect of the expansion ratio
on the efficiency is discussed in this section.

Fig. 5.2. Effect of expansion ratio on (a) temperature-entropy variations and (b)
engine thermal efficiency.

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Keeping the CR value as 23, and increasing the fuel injection rate to 53 mg/cycle to
demonstrate the variation of temperature T4, the operating process in the expansion chamber
under different ER conditions are illustrated using the TS diagram in Fig. 5.2a. Within
increasing the expansion ratio, the exhaust stroke was closer to an isobaric process, which
resulted in a reduction in the exhaust heat losses. In parallel, a higher ER value led to a lower
exhaust temperature. Due to the recuperation process, both the peak temperature and the wall
heat transfer in the expansion chamber were reduced as well.
Fig. 5.2b shows a comparison of the engine efficiencies under different ER conditions.
When the ER value increased from 23 to 26, 2.8% total efficiency improvement was achieved.
Consequently, it can be deduced that a further efficiency improvement can be expected when a
higher expansion ratio is applied to the split engine. However, the efficiency was reduced when
the ER value increased to 27. Under such a condition, the pressure in the cylinder was much
lower, which led to extra work losses.

5.3 SEPARATE COOLING CONTROL SYSTEM

Heat transfer loss reduction is a key issue for improving the engine efficiency. By
adjusting the coolant temperature, the cylinder wall and piston temperature can be raised
resulting in a heat transfer loss reduction. However, the engine thermal load is also a concern at
high coolant temperatures. In a conventional engine, the intake air is heated by the hot surface
of the cylinder and the piston, and hence the air intake efficiency is reduced under high coolant
temperature conditions. This issue does not affect the split cycle engine due to its separate
chamber design. Thus, the wall temperature of the expansion chamber can be adjusted by
increasing the coolant temperature.

Maintaining the compression/expansion ratio at 23 and the fuel injection rate as


25mg/cycle, the TS diagram of the operating process in the expansion chamber is shown in
Fig.5.3a. A reduction of the heat transfer in the expansion stroke can be seen when the cylinder
wall temperature increased. When the fuel injection rate was increased to 55 mg/cycle, the
combustion temperature also increased. As seen in Fig. 5.3b, the heat loss from both the

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combustion and expansion strokes could be reduced by increasing the cylinder wall temperature
from 470 K to 670 K. Such a result indicates that the engine efficiency can be improved through
controlling the cooling system of compression chamber and expansion chamber separately.
However, increases in combustion chamber temperature must not be at the cost of durability,
particularly of the piston e liner lubrication system.

Fig. 5.3. Effect of coolant temperature on engine performance under condition of (a) Finj ¼
25 mg/cycle and (b) Finj ¼ 55 mg/cycle.

5.4 SYSTEMATIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF THE SPLIT CYCLE


ENGINE

Based on the above modifications, a significant efficiency improvement of the whole


split cycle engine system can be achieved. A combined adjustment of the engine structural
parameters, including the compression/expansion ratio and the cylinder wall temperature, is
conducted in this section. Setting the compression and expansion ratios to 24 and 26
individually, and increasing the wall temperature of the expansion chamber to 650 K, an
improvement of the engine thermal efficiency is achieved. Based on the table, an engine energy

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flow Sankey diagram can be worked out, as shown in Fig. 5.4. Through the diagram, the two
key features of the split engine-the quasi-isothermal compression and the exhaust heat
recuperation are clearly demonstrated. Also, the reason why the split cycle can be more efficient
than the conventional Diesel cycle is illustrated. It can be seen that the amount of energy rejected
to the environment is reduced, and the systematic engine thermal efficiency is improved. A
comparison between the conventional diesel engine, the split cycle engine with conventional
structure. Comparing to the split cycle engine with conventional structure, the percentage of
regenerated energy was increased from 6% to 8%, and the heat transfer loss was reduced from
25% to 22% in the optimized split cycle engine. As a result, the engine efficiency was increased
form 48% to 53% when the structure parameters were optimized. Compared with the baseline
convention diesel engine at an efficiency of 39.7%, a total of 33% efficiency improvement can
be expected on split cycle engines.

Table 1
Recuperator specifications.

Fig. 5.4. The Sankey diagram of the split cycle engine energy flow.

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6. SPLIT CYCLE ENGINE HEAT RECOVERY MODELLING SETUP

A numerical model of the system was realised using the LMS Imagine.Lab AMEsim , a
software for the simulation and analysis of one-dimensional systems. The IFP engine system
module is in particular devoted to the development of internal combustion engine models,
allowing the simulation of the considered engine system in both stationary and transient
conditions . Fig. 6.1 shows the layout of the proposed split cycle engine model. The
specifications of the split cycle engine modelled are shown in Table 2. To simulate the effect of
the water injection, the spray heat transfer model in the IFP engine package was applied. The
model was validated using experimental data measured on a prototype compressor. Within a
wide range of water injection rate range (0–80 g/s), the mean square error of predicted cylinder
pressure is less than 7%. Within a wide range of water injection rate range 0– 80 g/s, the mean
square error of predicted cylinder pressure is less than 7%. A multi-zone chemical reaction
based combustion model was selected to simulate the heat release process in the combustion
cylinder. The model was compared with experimental results from a conventional single
cylinder diesel engine. The model matched the measured cylinder pressure within 2%.

Fig. 6.1. Layout of the split cycle engine model.

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Concerning the separator, there is no available model template available in the AMEsim
environment. However, considering that the efficiencies of commercial water separators are
very close to100%, we assumed that the water was completely removed from the air–water
mixtures without changing the status of the flow transfer from the compression chamber to the
recuperator. The numerical method used in the present work used a ‘dummy combustor’
chamber directly connected to the compressor. The fluid conditions are determined at the outlet
of the compressor and then transferred to a dry air flow at the inlet to the recuperator. By this
method, the water can be effectively removed from the compressor air but the flow conditions
are correctly preserved at the inlet to the recuperator. The flow rate of the pure air is calculated
by a water percentage sensor which is coded with C in the AMEset environment. By this
method, the function of the separator is simulated in the split cycle engine model. To predict the
recuperator behaviour, a heat exchanger model is applied. Then the heat transfer between the
intake air and exhaust gas can be evaluated. Finally, the combustion behaviour is predicted by
the combustion chamber which is based on the IFP engine package in AMEsim. The heat release
process and the heat transfer behaviours in the combustion chamber are validated and calibrated
by the experimental data collected on a conventional diesel single cylinder engine.

Fig. 6.2. A comparison between the Split cycle engine and the conventional diesel engine.

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Table 2 : Split cycle engine specifications.

Fig. 6.2 shows a comparison between the split cycle engine and a conventional diesel
engine (bore 128 mm, stroke 148 mm, compression ratio 17). As shown in Fig. 6.2(a), the
pressure in the combustion chamber of the split cycle engine increased dramatically when the
intake valve opened, but the rate of pressure rise at the start of combustion is much lower
compared to a conventional diesel engine, leading to a quasi-isobaric combustion process. The
fuel injection timing on the split cycle is retarded to avoid the start of combustion coinciding
with an open intake valve, leading to backflow into the intake manifold. Subsequently the
combustion phase is delayed to the expansion stroke as shown in Fig. 6.2(b). Due to the retarded
combustion, the peak heat transfer rate is much lower than in a conventional diesel engine,
whereas the rate falls more slowly during the expansion stage due to late combustion, as can be
seen in Fig. 6.2(c). The T–S diagrams of both engines can be seen in Fig. 6.2(d). Due to the
quasi-isothermal compression and recuperation process, the work, represented by the area bound
by the TS diagram is higher for the same heat addition from combustion resulting in a 13% total
efficiency improvement. Details of cycle will be discussed in the following sections.

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7. HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM EVALUATION

We assumed a constant recuperation effectiveness r in the theoretical model. A one-


dimensional recuperation system model was developed via AMEsim, and validated by the
recuperator data modelled by Oliverira.

Fig. 7.1. Temperature distributions within the recuperator under the condition of (a)
CR = 20 and (b) CR = 25.

According to the definition of the recuperator effectiveness r, the r is mainly affected by


the fresh air inlet temperature T20 (which is the inlet air temperature of the recuperator, slave
side), and exhaust outlet temperature T4. As discussed in Section 2, T20 is the temperature at
the end of quasi-isothermal compression process, and the T4 is the temperature at the end of the
expansion process (which is the inlet exhaust temperature of the recuperator master side). Given
a fixed temperature T20 , the compression ratio is the key factors which affect the effectiveness.
Fig. 7.1(a) and (b) shows the one dimensional temperature distribution within the recuperator
for compression ratios (CR) 20 and 25 respectively. From the inlet to the outlet of the
recuperator, 10 nodes are applied with a fixed interval of 60 mm (1/10 of the total length), and
then the one dimension temperature distribution is calculated. The air– fuel ratio was fixed at

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18 and a 10 g/s water injection is applied. As the water injection rate is the same, the air inlet
temperatures T20 is nearly the same under these two cases. In Fig. 7.1(a), it can be seen that the
temperature difference between T4 and T2, is 69 K when the CR is 20. But this difference
increases to 198 K when the CR increases to 25 as seen in Fig. 7.1(b). Due to the effect of the
heat transferred form the combustion cylinder, the recuperator temperature is pinched at 0.6–
0.7 normalised distance from the cold end. The above results indicate that the recuperator
effectiveness decreases when the CR is increased.
To investigate this issue, the recuperator wall temperature was analysed. As seen in both
cases (Fig. 7.1), the wall temperature is very close to the expansion temperature T4. So it can
be deduced that a higher expansion temperature leads to a higher wall transfer heat losses.
Accordingly, the rate of temperature rise at the outlet side of the recuperator is lower when the
expansion temperature is higher. As a result, it can be deduced that the recuperator effectiveness
decreases under the higher compression ratio condition.

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8. CONCLUSIONS

The fundamentals and performance of the split thermodynamic cycle are analysed in this
paper. The initial study of engine system design and optimization is presented to explore the
potential of the split cycle engine. The major findings of the study are as follows:
1. Unlike a conventional ICE, the efficiency of split cycle engine is determined by 4 key
factors; the compression ratio, the expansion ratio, the recuperation effectiveness and
the amount of heat release from the fuel.
2. Through the modelling analysis, the compression ratio of the split cycle engine is
configure 24 to guarantee both the stable fuel auto-ignition and the higher
thermodynamic efficiency. The expansion ratio is increased to 26 since a 2.8% total
efficiency improvement still can achieved from over expansion.
3. Without affecting the volumetric efficiency of the compression cylinder, the wall
temperature of the expansion cylinder can be raised to improve the engine efficiency.
Especially, at higher load condition of fuel injection amount Finj ¼ 55 mg, the heat
transfer losses in both combustion and expansion stroke are reduced if the wall
temperature increases from 470 K to 670 K.
4. By applying a conventional engine structure, a 21% efficiency improvement can be
achieved by the split cycle engine. Through the engine system optimization, the practical
engine operation cycle can reach values close to the theoretical cycle, and a further 11%
total efficiency improvement can be expected, raising the overall efficiency of the cycle
to 53%.

Department of mechanical engineering 19 College of engineering Munnar


Seminar report split Cycle Internal Combustion Engine With
Integral Waste Heat Recovery

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Department of mechanical engineering 20 College of engineering Munnar